The Human Promise Manifesto - Social Contract
. A public
A mission statement
for ourselves and each other. Seeing
eye to eye.
A list of some of the things that we feel are important
that would help us to
with each other and to
ourselves a little better.
A general guide
for what we
believe to be
. A starting point, but not a barrier
to learning or improving.
A simple reminder of just some of the things that we
value as individuals, and as a community of people. It's
nice to have something in common, it's nice to know that
when we work together
, it benefits everyone. But
is a learned skill, so we need to find more
ways and easier ways of teaching this skill to everyone.
This would make
easier, and cooperation easier, which would eventually make all our lives a lot easier.
I promise to never stop learning and to fully understand that my
education is a life long journey.
I promise to always share my knowledge with honesty and
integrity for it is an honor to bestow knowledge.
I promise to always teach others with gratitude and patience
because everyone learns at different speeds.
I promise to always be open to new knowledge, to seek new ideas
and to always ask questions.
I promise to always apply logic in my thinking and to apply
logic in my actions and in my goals.
I promise to always have a deep awareness and sympathy for other
peoples suffering and hardships.
I promise to always have a deep awareness and sympathy for other
living species no matter how insignificant.
I promise to lead unselfishly, to lead by example and to lead
democratically for the benefit of all.
I promise to always have short and long-term goals and to share
the goals of others if possible.
I promise to never be afraid to ask for help and to always be
grateful for helping hands. Love is sharing.
I promise to never expect or to assume because no one is perfect
and that everyone makes mistakes.
I promise not to jump to conclusions without sufficient
knowledge and information. Life has no guarantees.
I promise to learn from my mistakes and not to let my mistakes,
or the mistakes of others, affect my good nature.
I promise to communicate my concerns and then listen with
compassion so that we may learn from each other.
I promise to always look for ways for improving myself as well
as look for ways for improving my world.
I promise to always seek better alternatives and to make better
choices even when some choices are difficult.
I promise to seek discipline and balance in my life when working,
playing, learning, being creative and dreaming.
I promise to know the importance of time management, not just
what time means to myself but too others as well.
I promise not to forget the importance of enjoying laughter and
the importance of having music in my life.
I promise to know the difference between what I need and what I
want, especially when knowing the true cost.
I promise to define what I truly need and then seek positive
ways to acquire these needs without harming others.
I promise not to forget that money is just a tool and that
wealth should never be used as a weapon of control.
I promise not to forget that giving time or service in exchange
for goods is always better than using money.
I promise not to let material things control my actions or allow
material objects to confuse my judgment.
I promise not to do things just for fame and to gauge the value
of my actions by more important means.
I promise to do things that are good and I promise to do things
that are right and not just what is right for myself.
I promise to learn from God’s earth by becoming self-sustainable
and by recycling and reusing resources.
I promise not to pollute Gods earth or waste the planets
resources or disrespect the balance of nature.
I promise to be tolerant of others religious beliefs and to
never underestimate the power of faith and prayer.
I promise not to put restrictions on others or to judge others
based solely on my beliefs or the beliefs of others.
I promise to be thankful for the things that I have and to show
appreciation by offering blessings and praise.
I promise to understand that most laws help us to be aware of what is
wrong, what is unsafe and what is improper.
I promise to never confuse justice with revenge. Don’t waste
time plotting and hating. Seek justice and learn.
I promise to never have regrets about what might have been
because it will never tell the whole story.
I promise to be positive and to be hopeful and to always know
the difference between trust and gullible.
I promise to understand the needs of the human body by eating
healthy, sleeping enough and exercising regularly.
I promise to be honest and to be open because the only way we
can learn and teach is from knowing the truth.
By signing this Human Promise Manifesto I agree and fully
understand the importance of these promises.
I am also aware that this Manifesto does not list all the values
and principles that humans have in common.
So I will make one more promise and help add to this Manifesto
by writing about the wisdom and knowledge
that I have gained from my life experiences so that I too may share
and contribute to the human cycle of life.
Manifestos - Declarations - Charters
is a published verbal
declaration of the
, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group,
political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously
published opinion or public consensus
promotes a new idea
prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should
be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an
individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are
generally referred to as creeds
is the title of three manifestos
laying out a Humanist worldview
. They are the original Humanist Manifesto
(1933, often referred to as Humanist Manifesto I), the Humanist Manifesto
II (1973), and Humanism and Its Aspirations (2003, a.k.a. Humanist
Manifesto III). The Manifesto originally arose from religious Humanism,
though secular Humanists also signed. The central theme of all three
manifestos is the elaboration of a philosophy and
not necessarily include belief in any personal deity or "higher power",
although the three differ considerably in their tone, form, and ambition.
Each has been signed at its launch by various prominent members of
academia and others who are in general agreement with its principles. In
addition, there is a similar document entitled A
published in 1980 by the Council for Secular Humanism.
World Constitution and Parliament Association
The U.S. Constitution
- Human Rights
is a statement that is emphatic
and explicit spoken or written. A formal public statement. A formal
expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote. Declaration in law is an
unsworn statement that can be admitted in evidence in a legal transaction.
A statement of taxable goods or of dutiable properties.
is a formal announcement of the
provisions of some statute
is the grant of authority or rights
stating that the granter
recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights
specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority or
that the recipient admits a limited or inferior status within the
relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically
granted, and that
sense is retained in modern usage of the term.
The Legend of the Charter Oak
- In 1662, the
, owned and governed by England, was granted a Royal
Charter by King Charles II. The “Connecticut
” permitted the colony to
make some of its own rules
and to elect certain officials. Charles’s
death in 1685 brought his brother, James II, to the throne. James
disapproved of the Royal Charters and demanded their return. The charters
interfered with James’s plan to establish the Dominion of New England—a
combination of the New England colonies and the colony of New York under
the leadership of one royal official. In 1687, Sir Edmond Andros, the
Royal Governor of the Dominion, met with leaders of the Connecticut colony
in Hartford. Debates continued for hours as the colonists steadfastly
refused to give up the Charter. According to legend, all of the candles in
the meeting house suddenly blew out and, during the confusion, the Charter
disappeared. It was hidden in the trunk of a large
where it was protected from the King and from Andros. Despite
Connecticut’s resistance, it became part of the Dominion of New England
for the next two years. In 1689 James II was overthrown and Andros lost
power in the colonies. The Connecticut Charter emerged from hiding and was
used to govern Connecticut until 1818. On August 21, 1856, the
, estimated at nearly 1,000 years old, fell down during a
violent storm. Original artifacts made from its wood, along with numerous
images, are on display at the Connecticut Historical Society and continue
to tell the legend today.
United Nations Charter
is a constituent treaty, and all members are
bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states that
obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other
. Most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter.
The first part contains a general call for the maintenance of peace and
international security and respect for human rights. The second part of
the preamble is a declaration in a contractual style that the governments
of the peoples of the United Nations have agreed to the Charter and it is
the first international document regarding
is a celebratory song or a musical composition that eulogizes,
extols or exalts the planet Earth
and its inhabitants, including the
. There are a number of songs about the planet which could be
regarded as anthems, reflecting rising planetary consciousness among
people across the world. One is "World Anthem" by the Mindshare Institute
and Foundation. Other songs on the same theme include "Earth Anthem" by
(later covered by Dan Fogelberg,) "Mother Earth (Natural
Anthem)" by Neil Young
, "Earth Song" by Michael Jackson
, "Earth Hour
Anthem" by Andrew Huang and "Earth Anthem" by Abhay Kumar
. The "Earth Day
Anthem" lyrics by William Wallace (and sometimes the original lyrics by
Barbara George) are widely sung to the tune of "Ode to Joy" by Ludwig van
to celebrate Earth Day.
is a world view encouraging everyone on Earth to act
as a harmonious crew
working toward the greater good.
March for Science
is an international series of rallies and marches
, which is an annual event celebrated around the world on
April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First
celebrated in 1970, it now includes events coordinated globally by the
Earth Day Network in more than 193 countries.
. Some individuals and organizations have promoted designs for
a flag representing
the planet Earth, though none have been officially
recognized as such by any governmental body. Widely recognized flags
associated with Earth include the flag of the United Nations and the Earth Day flag.
Treaties - Peace Agreements
is an official
that states use to legally bind themselves to
treaty is the official
which expresses that agreement in words; and it is also the
objective outcome of a ceremonial occasion which acknowledges the parties
and their defined relationships. It is an agreement under
entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and
international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an
, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or
exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of
these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered
treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to
: both are means of
willing parties assuming obligations
among themselves, and a party to
either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under
List of Treaties
(wiki) - Peace Treaties
a treaty in which the contracting state parties have
conceal the treaty's existence or substance from other states and the
public. Such a commitment to keep the agreement
may be contained in the
instrument itself or in a separate agreement. According to one compilation
of secret treaties published in 2004, there have been 593 secret treaties
negotiated by 110 countries and independent political entities since the
year 1521. Secret treaties were highly important in the balance-of-power
diplomacy of 18th and 19th Europe, but are rare today.
Open Skies Treaty
permits each state-party to conduct short-notice,
unarmed, reconnaissance flights over the others' entire territories to
collect data on military forces and activities. Observation aircraft used
to fly the missions must be equipped with sensors that enable the
observing party to identify significant military equipment, such as
artillery, fighter aircraft, and armored combat vehicles. Though
satellites can provide the same, and even more detailed, information, not
all of the 34 treaty states-parties1 have such capabilities. The treaty is
also aimed at building confidence and familiarity among states-parties
through their participation in the overflights.
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
is a landmark
international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of
technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy
and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and
complete disarmament. The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in
a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon
States. Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in
1970. On 11 May 1995, the Treaty was extended indefinitely. A total of 191
States have joined the Treaty, including the five nuclear-weapon States.
More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and
disarmament agreement, a testament to the Treaty’s significance.
Arms Trade Treaty
is a multilateral treaty that regulates the
international trade in conventional weapons. It entered into force on 24
December 2014. 109 states have ratified the treaty, and a further 32
states have signed but not ratified it. The ATT is an attempt to regulate
the international trade of conventional weapons for the purpose of
contributing to international and regional peace; reducing human
suffering; and promoting co-operation, transparency, and responsible
action by and among states. The treaty was negotiated in New York City at
a global conference under the auspices of the United Nations (UN) from
2–27 July 2012. As it was not possible to reach an agreement on a final
text at that time, a new meeting for the conference was scheduled for
18–28 March 2013. On 2 April 2013, the UN General Assembly adopted the
ATT. International weapons commerce has been estimated to reach US$70
billion a year.
Arms Trade Racket
is an intergovernmental organization to promote
international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of
Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World
War II in order to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN
had 51 member states; there are now 193. The headquarters of the United
Nations is in Manhattan, New York City, and experiences
extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi,
and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary
contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining
international peace and security, promoting human rights
, fostering social
and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing
humanitarian aid in cases of famine,
, and armed conflict.
is relating to or
conducted between two or more
is an organization composed primarily
of sovereign states
, or of other intergovernmental organizations. IGOs are
established by a treaty that acts as a charter creating the group.
Intergovernmental organizations differ in function, membership, and
membership criteria. They have various goals and scopes, often outlined in
the treaty or charter. Some IGOs developed to fulfill a need for a neutral
forum for debate or negotiation to resolve disputes. These are some of the
strengths and weaknesses of IGOs. Strengths
They hold state authority. Their institutions are permanent. They provide
a forum for discussion. They are issue-specific. They provide information.
They allow multilateral co-operation. Weaknesses
Membership is limited. IGOs’ legal basis prohibit membership of private
citizens, making them undemocratic. In addition, not all IGOs allow
universal state membership. IGOs often overlap, resulting in an overly
complex network. States have to give up part of their sovereignty, which
weakens the states’ ability to assert authority. Inequality among state
members creates biases and can lead powerful states to misuse these
organizations. They can be deemed unfair as countries with a higher
percentage voting power have the right to veto any decision that is not in
their favor, leaving the smaller countries powerless.
are a subgroup of organizations founded
by citizens, which include clubs and associations which provide services
to its members and others. Many NGOs
active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Russia had about 277,000
NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had about two million NGOs in
2009 (approximately one per 600 Indians), many more than the number of the
country's primary schools and health centers. NGOs are known in some
countries as nonprofit organizations, and political parties and trade
unions are sometimes considered NGOs. However, NGOs can also be lobby
groups for corporations.
Sustainable Development Goals
Five Pillars Development
United Nations Charter
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
is a historic document that was
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its 183rd session on 10
December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris,
France. Of the then 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor,
none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. The Declaration
consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although
not legally binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent
international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights
instruments, national constitutions, and other laws. The Declaration was
the first step in the process of formulating the International Bill of
Human Rights, which was completed in 1966, and came into force in 1976,
after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them. Some legal
scholars have argued that because countries have constantly invoked the
Declaration for more than 50 years, it has become binding as a part of
customary international law. However, in the United States, the Supreme
Court in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain (2004), concluded that the Declaration
"does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international
law." Courts of other countries have also concluded that the Declaration
is not in and of itself part of domestic law.
Public Interest Law
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
are socio-economic human rights,
such as the right to education, right to housing, right to adequate
standard of living, right to health, victims' rights and the right to
science and culture. Economic, social and cultural rights are recognized
and protected in international and regional human rights instruments.
Member states have a legal obligation to respect, protect and fulfill
economic, social and cultural rights and are expected to take "progressive
action" towards their fulfillment.
United Nations Millennium Declaration - 55/2.
Signed by 189 countries, including 147 heads of State and
The General Assembly Resolution adopted by the General Assembly
[without reference to a Main Committee (A/55/L.2)]
Adopts the following Declaration:
I. Values and principles
1. We, heads of State and Government, have gathered at United
Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at
the dawn of a new millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the
Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a
more peaceful, prosperous and just world.
2. We recognize that, in addition to our separate
responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a
collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human
dignity, equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we
have a duty therefore to all the world’s people, especially the
most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world,
to whom the future belongs.
3. We reaffirm our commitment to the purposes and principles of
the Charter of the United Nations, which have proved timeless
and universal. Indeed, their relevance and capacity to inspire
have increased, as nations and peoples have become increasingly
interconnected and interdependent.
4. We are determined to establish a just and lasting peace all
over the world in accordance with the purposes and principles of
the Charter. We rededicate ourselves to support all efforts to
uphold the sovereign equality of all States, respect for their
territorial integrity and political independence, resolution of
disputes by peaceful means and in conformity with the principles
of justice and international law, the right to
self-determination of peoples which remain under colonial
domination and foreign occupation, non-interference in the
internal affairs of States, respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms, respect for the equal rights of all
without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion and
international cooperation in solving international problems of
an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character.
5. We believe that the central challenge we face today is to
ensure that globalization becomes a positive force for all the
world’s people. For while globalization offers great
opportunities, at present its benefits are very unevenly shared,
while its costs are unevenly distributed. We recognize that
developing countries and countries with economies in transition
face special difficulties in responding to this central
challenge. Thus, only through broad and sustained efforts to
create a shared future, based upon our common humanity in all
its diversity, can globalization be made fully inclusive and
equitable. These efforts must include policies and measures, at
the global level, which correspond to the needs of developing
countries and economies in transition and are formulated and
implemented with their effective participation.
6. We consider certain fundamental values to be essential to
international relations in the twenty-first century. These
• Freedom. Men and women have the right to live their lives and
raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the
fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and
participatory governance based on the will of the people best
assures these rights.
•. Equality. No individual and no nation must be denied the
opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and
opportunities of women and men must be assured.
• Solidarity. Global challenges must be managed in a way that
distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with
basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer
or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most.
• Tolerance. Human beings must respect one other, in all their
diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within
and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed,
but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of
peace and dialogue among all civilizations should be actively
• Respect for nature. Prudence must be shown in the management
of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with
the precepts of sustainable development. Only in this way can
the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be preserved
and passed on to our descendants. The current unsustainable
patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the
interest of our future welfare and that of our descendants.
• Shared responsibility. Responsibility for managing worldwide
economic and social development, as well as threats to
international peace and security, must be shared among the
nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally. As
the most universal and most representative organization in the
world, the United Nations must play the central role.
7. In order to translate these shared values into actions, we
have identified key objectives to which we assign special
II. Peace, security and disarmament
8. We will spare no effort to free our peoples from the scourge
of war, whether within or between States, which has claimed more
than 5 million lives in the past decade. We will also seek to
eliminate the dangers posed by weapons of mass destruction.
9. We resolve therefore:
• To strengthen respect for the rule of law in international as
in national affairs and, in particular, to ensure compliance by
Member States with the decisions of the International Court of
Justice, in compliance with the Charter of the United Nations,
in cases to which they are parties.
• To make the United Nations more effective in maintaining peace
and security by giving it the resources and tools it needs for
conflict prevention, peaceful resolution of disputes,
peacekeeping, post-conflict peace-building and reconstruction.
In this context, we take note of the report of the Panel on
United Nations Peace Operations and request the General Assembly
to consider its recommendations expeditiously.
• To strengthen cooperation between the United Nations and
regional organizations, in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter VIII of the Charter.
• To ensure the implementation, by States Parties, of treaties
in areas such as arms control and disarmament and of
international humanitarian law and human rights law, and call
upon all States to consider signing and ratifying the Rome
Statute of the International Criminal Court.
• To take concerted action against international terrorism, and
to accede as soon as possible to all the relevant international
• To redouble our efforts to implement our commitment to counter
the world drug problem.
• To intensify our efforts to fight transnational crime in all
its dimensions, including trafficking as well as smuggling in
human beings and money laundering.
• To minimize the adverse effects of United Nations economic
sanctions on innocent populations, to subject such sanctions
regimes to regular reviews and to eliminate the adverse effects
of sanctions on third parties.
• To strive for the elimination of weapons of mass destruction,
particularly nuclear weapons, and to keep all options open for
achieving this aim, including the possibility of convening an
international conference to identify ways of eliminating nuclear
• To take concerted action to end illicit traffic in small arms
and light weapons, especially by making arms transfers more
transparent and supporting regional disarmament measures, taking
account of all the recommendations of the forthcoming United
Nations Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light
• To call on all States to consider acceding to the Convention
on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and
Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, as
well as the amended mines protocol to the Convention on
10. We urge Member States to observe the Olympic Truce,
individually and collectively, now and in the future, and to
support the International Olympic Committee in its efforts to
promote peace and human understanding through sport and the
III. Development and poverty eradication
11. We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and
children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme
poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently
subjected. We are committed to making the right to development a
reality for everyone and to freeing the entire human race from
12. We resolve therefore to create an environment – at the
national and global levels alike – which is conducive to
development and to the elimination of poverty.
13. Success in meeting these objectives depends, inter alia, on
good governance within each country. It also depends on good
governance at the international level and on transparency in the
financial, monetary and trading systems. We are committed to an
open, equitable, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory
multilateral trading and financial system.
14. We are concerned about the obstacles developing countries
face in mobilizing the resources needed to finance their
sustained development. We will therefore make every effort to
ensure the success of the High-level International and
Intergovernmental Event on Financing for Development, to be held
15. We also undertake to address the special needs of the least
developed countries. In this context, we welcome the Third
United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries to be
held in May 2001 and will endeavour to ensure its success. We
call on the industrialized countries:
• To adopt, preferably by the time of that Conference, a policy
of duty- and quota-free access for essentially all exports from
the least developed countries;
• To implement the enhanced programme of debt relief for the
heavily indebted poor countries without further delay and to
agree to cancel all official bilateral debts of those countries
in return for their making demonstrable commitments to poverty
• To grant more generous development assistance, especially to
countries that are genuinely making an effort to apply their
resources to poverty reduction.
16. We are also determined to deal comprehensively and
effectively with the debt problems of low- and middle-income
developing countries, through various national and international
measures designed to make their debt sustainable in the long
17. We also resolve to address the special needs of small island
developing States, by implementing the Barbados Programme of
Action and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of
the General Assembly rapidly and in full. We urge the
international community to ensure that, in the development of a
vulnerability index, the special needs of small island
developing States are taken into account.
18. We recognize the special needs and problems of the
landlocked developing countries, and urge both bilateral and
multilateral donors to increase financial and technical
assistance to this group of countries to meet their special
development needs and to help them overcome the impediments of
geography by improving their transit transport systems.
19. We resolve further:
• To halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’s
people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the
proportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by the same
date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach
or to afford safe drinking water.
• To ensure that, by the same date, children everywhere, boys
and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of
primary schooling and that girls and boys will have equal access
to all levels of education.
• By the same date, to have reduced maternal mortality by three
quarters, and under-five child mortality by two thirds, of their
• To have, by then, halted, and begun to reverse, the spread of
HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases that
• To provide special assistance to children orphaned by
• By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the
lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers as proposed in the
"Cities Without Slums" initiative.
20. We also resolve:
• To promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as
effective ways to combat poverty, hunger and disease and to
stimulate development that is truly sustainable.
• To develop and implement strategies that give young people
everywhere a real chance to find decent and productive work.
• To encourage the pharmaceutical industry to make essential
drugs more widely available and affordable by all who need them
in developing countries.
• To develop strong partnerships with the private sector and
with civil society organizations in pursuit of development and
• To ensure that the benefits of new technologies, especially
information and communication technologies, in conformity with
recommendations contained in the ECOSOC 2000 Ministerial
Declaration, are available to all.
IV. Protecting our common environment
21. We must spare no effort to free all of humanity, and above
all our children and grandchildren, from the threat of living on
a planet irredeemably spoilt by human activities, and whose
resources would no longer be sufficient for their needs.
22. We reaffirm our support for the principles of sustainable
development, including those set out in Agenda 21, agreed upon
at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
23. We resolve therefore to adopt in all our environmental
actions a new ethic of conservation and stewardship and, as
first steps, we resolve:
• To make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the
Kyoto Protocol, preferably by the tenth anniversary of the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in
2002, and to embark on the required reduction in emissions of
• To intensify our collective efforts for the management,
conservation and sustainable development of all types of
• To press for the full implementation of the Convention on
Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat
Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought
and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa.
• To stop the unsustainable exploitation of water resources by
developing water management strategies at the regional, national
and local levels, which promote both equitable access and
• To intensify cooperation to reduce the number and effects of
natural and man-made disasters.
• To ensure free access to information on the human genome
V. Human rights, democracy and good governance
24. We will spare no effort to promote democracy and strengthen
the rule of law, as well as respect for all internationally
recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the
right to development.
25. We resolve therefore:
• To respect fully and uphold the Universal Declaration of Human
• To strive for the full protection and promotion in all our
countries of civil, political, economic, social and cultural
rights for all.
• To strengthen the capacity of all our countries to implement
the principles and practices of democracy and respect for human
rights, including minority rights.
• To combat all forms of violence against women and to implement
the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
• To take measures to ensure respect for and protection of the
human rights of migrants, migrant workers and their families, to
eliminate the increasing acts of racism and xenophobia in many
societies and to promote greater harmony and tolerance in all
• To work collectively for more inclusive political processes,
allowing genuine participation by all citizens in all our
• To ensure the freedom of the media to perform their essential
role and the right of the public to have access to information.
VI. Protecting the vulnerable
26. We will spare no effort to ensure that children and all
civilian populations that suffer disproportionately the
consequences of natural disasters, genocide, armed conflicts and
other humanitarian emergencies are given every assistance and
protection so that they can resume normal life as soon as
We resolve therefore:
• To expand and strengthen the protection of civilians in
complex emergencies, in conformity with international
• To strengthen international cooperation, including burden
sharing in, and the coordination of humanitarian assistance to,
countries hosting refugees and to help all refugees and
displaced persons to return voluntarily to their homes, in
safety and dignity and to be smoothly reintegrated into their
• To encourage the ratification and full implementation of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols
on the involvement of children in armed conflict and on the sale
of children, child prostitution and child pornography.
VII. Meeting the special needs of Africa
27. We will support the consolidation of democracy in Africa and
assist Africans in their struggle for lasting peace, poverty
eradication and sustainable development, thereby bringing Africa
into the mainstream of the world economy.
28. We resolve therefore:
• To give full support to the political and institutional
structures of emerging democracies in Africa.
• To encourage and sustain regional and subregional mechanisms
for preventing conflict and promoting political stability, and
to ensure a reliable flow of resources for peacekeeping
operations on the continent.
• To take special measures to address the challenges of poverty
eradication and sustainable development in Africa, including
debt cancellation, improved market access, enhanced Official
Development Assistance and increased flows of Foreign Direct
Investment, as well as transfers of technology.
• To help Africa build up its capacity to tackle the spread of
the HIV/AIDS pandemic and other infectious diseases.
VIII. Strengthening the United Nations
29. We will spare no effort to make the United Nations a more
effective instrument for pursuing all of these priorities: the
fight for development for all the peoples of the world, the
fight against poverty, ignorance and disease; the fight against
injustice; the fight against violence, terror and crime; and the
fight against the degradation and destruction of our common
30. We resolve therefore:
• To reaffirm the central position of the General Assembly as
the chief deliberative, policy-making and representative organ
of the United Nations, and to enable it to play that role
• To intensify our efforts to achieve a comprehensive reform of
the Security Council in all its aspects.
• To strengthen further the Economic and Social Council,
building on its recent achievements, to help it fulfil the role
ascribed to it in the Charter.
• To strengthen the International Court of Justice, in order to
ensure justice and the rule of law in international affairs.
• To encourage regular consultations and coordination among the
principal organs of the United Nations in pursuit of their
• To ensure that the Organization is provided on a timely and
predictable basis with the resources it needs to carry out its
• To urge the Secretariat to make the best use of those
resources, in accordance with clear rules and procedures agreed
by the General Assembly, in the interests of all Member States,
by adopting the best management practices and technologies
available and by concentrating on those tasks that reflect the
agreed priorities of Member States.
• To promote adherence to the Convention on the Safety of United
Nations and Associated Personnel.
• To ensure greater policy coherence and better cooperation
between the United Nations, its agencies, the Bretton Woods
Institutions and the World Trade Organization, as well as other
multilateral bodies, with a view to achieving a fully
coordinated approach to the problems of peace and development.
• To strengthen further cooperation between the United Nations
and national parliaments through their world organization, the
Inter-Parliamentary Union, in various fields, including peace
and security, economic and social development, international law
and human rights and democracy and gender issues.
• To give greater opportunities to the private sector,
non-governmental organizations and civil society, in general, to
contribute to the realization of the Organization’s goals and
31. We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis
the progress made in implementing the provisions of this
Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic
reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis
for further action.
32. We solemnly reaffirm, on this historic occasion, that the
United Nations is the indispensable common house of the entire
human family, through which we will seek to realize our
universal aspirations for
, cooperation and development. We
therefore pledge our unstinting support for these common
objectives and our determination to achieve them.
8th plenary meeting, 8 September, 2000
Big 5 Needs
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
is a document adopted by the
United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of
all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution
217 at its third session on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot in
Paris, France. Of the 58 members of the United Nations at the time, 48
voted in favour, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote.
Considered a foundational text in international human rights law, the
Declaration consists of 30 articles detailing an individual's "basic
rights and fundamental freedoms" and affirming their universal character
as inherent, inalienable, and applicable to all human beings. The UDHR
commits nations to recognize all humans as being "born free and equal in
dignity and rights" regardless of "nationality, place of residence,
gender, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any
other status". The Declaration is considered a "milestone document" for
its "universalist language", which makes no reference to a particular
culture, political system, or religion. It directly inspired the
development of human rights law, and was the first step in the formulation
of the International Bill of Human Rights, which was completed in 1966 and
came into force in 1976. Although not legally binding, the contents of the
UDHR have been elaborated or incorporated into subsequent international
treaties, regional human rights instruments, and national constitutions
and legal codes. All 193 member states of the United Nations have ratified
at least one of the nine treaties influenced by the Declaration, with the
vast majority ratifying four or more. Some legal scholars have argued that
because countries have consistently invoked the Declaration for more than
50 years, it has become binding as a part of customary international law.
However, courts in some nations have concluded that the Declaration is not
in and of itself part of domestic law. With 524 translations, the UDHR is
the most translated document in history.
CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
- 2012/C 326/02
TITLE I - DIGNITY
TITLE II - FREEDOMS
TITLE III - EQUALITY
TITLE IV - SOLIDARITY
TITLE V -
TITLE VI - JUSTICE
TITLE VII - GENERAL
PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF THE CHARTER.
CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
European Parliament, the Council and the Commission solemnly proclaim the
following text as the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer union among them,
are resolved to share a peaceful future based on common values.
Conscious of its spiritual and moral heritage, the Union is founded on the
indivisible, universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality and
solidarity; it is based on the principles of democracy and the rule of
law. It places the individual at the heart of its activities, by
establishing the citizenship of the Union and by creating an area of
freedom, security and justice.
The Union contributes to the preservation and to the development of
these common values while respecting the diversity of the cultures and
traditions of the peoples of Europe as well as the national identities of
the Member States and the organisation of their public authorities at
national, regional and local levels; it seeks to promote balanced and
sustainable development and ensures free movement of persons, services,
goods and capital, and the freedom of establishment.
To this end,
it is necessary to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights in the
light of changes in society, social progress and scientific and
technological developments by making those rights more visible in a
This Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and
tasks of the Union and for the principle of subsidiarity, the rights as
they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and
international obligations common to the Member States, the European
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms,
the Social Charters adopted by the Union and by the Council of Europe and
the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of the
European Court of Human Rights. In this context the Charter will be
interpreted by the courts of the Union and the Member States with due
regard to the explanations prepared under the authority of the Praesidium
of the Convention which drafted the Charter and updated under the
responsibility of the Praesidium of the European Convention.
Enjoyment of these rights entails responsibilities and duties with regard
to other persons, to the human community and to future generations.
The Union therefore recognizes the rights, freedoms and principles set
TITLE I - DIGNITY
Article 1 - Human
Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.
Article 2 - Right to life
1. Everyone has the
right to life.
2. No one shall be condemned to the death
penalty, or executed.
Right to the integrity of
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his or her
physical and mental integrity.
2. In the fields of medicine and
biology, the following must be respected in particular:
the free and informed consent of the person concerned, according to the
procedures laid down by law;
the prohibition of
eugenic practices, in particular those aiming at the selection of persons;
the prohibition on making the human body and its parts as
such a source of financial gain;
the prohibition of
the reproductive cloning of human beings.
Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading
treatment or punishment.
Prohibition of slavery
and forced labour
1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
3. Trafficking in human beings is prohibited.
TITLE II -
Article 6 - Right to liberty and security
has the right to liberty and security of person.
Respect for private and family life
Everyone has the right to
respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.
Protection of personal data
1. Everyone has
the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.
2. Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on
the basis of the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate
basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right of access to data which has
been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it rectified.
3. Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an
Right to marry and right to
found a family
The right to marry and the right to found a family
shall be guaranteed in accordance with the national laws governing the
exercise of these rights.
Freedom of thought,
conscience and religion
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of
thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change
religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others
and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship,
teaching, practice and observance.
2. The right to conscientious
objection is recognised, in accordance with the national laws governing
the exercise of this right.
Freedom of expression
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.
This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and
impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and
regardless of frontiers.
2. The freedom and pluralism of the media
shall be respected.
Freedom of assembly and of
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful
assembly and to freedom of association at all levels, in particular in
political, trade union and civic matters, which implies the right of
everyone to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his or her
2. Political parties at Union level contribute to
expressing the political will of the citizens of the Union.
Freedom of the arts and sciences
The arts and scientific
research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.
Right to education
1. Everyone has the right
to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
2. This right includes the possibility to receive free compulsory
3. The freedom to found educational establishments with
due respect for democratic principles and the right of parents to ensure
the education and teaching of their children in conformity with their
religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected,
in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of such
freedom and right.
Freedom to choose an
occupation and right to engage in work
1. Everyone has the right to
engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation.
2. Every citizen of the Union has the freedom to seek employment, to
work, to exercise the right of establishment and to provide services in
any Member State.
3. Nationals of third countries who are
authorised to work in the territories of the Member States are entitled to
working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union.
Freedom to conduct a business
The freedom to
conduct a business in accordance with Union law and national laws and
practices is recognised.
Right to property
1. Everyone has the right to own, use, dispose of and bequeath his or
her lawfully acquired possessions. No one may be deprived of his or her
possessions, except in the public interest and in the cases and under the
conditions provided for by law, subject to fair compensation being paid in
good time for their loss. The use of property may be regulated by law in
so far as is necessary for the general interest.
property shall be protected.
Right to asylum
The right to asylum shall be guaranteed with due respect for the rules
of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January
1967 relating to the status of refugees and in accordance with the Treaty
on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
(hereinafter referred to as ‘the Treaties’).
Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition
Collective expulsions are prohibited.
2. No one may be removed,
expelled or extradited to a State where there is a serious risk that he or
she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
TITLE III - EQUALITY
Article 20 - Equality before the law
Everyone is equal before the
discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or
social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political
or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth,
disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
Within the scope of application of the Treaties and without prejudice to
any of their specific provisions, any discrimination on grounds of
nationality shall be prohibited.
religious and linguistic diversity
The Union shall respect
cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.
Equality between women and men
Equality between women and men must
be ensured in all areas, including employment, work and pay.
principle of equality shall not prevent the maintenance or adoption of
measures providing for specific advantages in favour of the
The rights of the child
1. Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is
necessary for their well-being. They may express their views freely. Such
views shall be taken into consideration on matters which concern them in
accordance with their age and maturity.
2. In all actions relating
to children, whether taken by public authorities or private institutions,
the child's best interests must be a primary consideration.
Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal
relationship and direct contact with both his or her parents, unless that
is contrary to his or her interests.
of the elderly
The Union recognises and respects the rights of the
elderly to lead a life of dignity and independence and to participate in
social and cultural life.
Integration of persons
The Union recognises and respects the right of
persons with disabilities to benefit from measures designed to ensure
their independence, social and occupational integration and participation
in the life of the community.
TITLE IV - SOLIDARITY
Workers' right to information and consultation within
Workers or their representatives must, at the
appropriate levels, be guaranteed information and consultation in good
time in the cases and under the conditions provided for by Union law and
national laws and practices.
Right of collective
bargaining and action
Workers and employers, or their respective
organisations, have, in accordance with Union law and national laws and
practices, the right to negotiate and conclude collective agreements at
the appropriate levels and, in cases of conflicts of interest, to take
collective action to defend their interests, including strike action.
Right of access to placement services
Everyone has the right of access to a free placement service.
Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal
Every worker has the right to protection against unjustified dismissal, in
accordance with Union law and national laws and practices.
Fair and just working conditions
1. Every worker has the
right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and
2. Every worker has the right to limitation of maximum
working hours, to daily and weekly rest periods and to an annual period of
Prohibition of child labour and
protection of young people at work
The employment of children is
prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not be lower
than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as
may be more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations.
Young people admitted to work must have working conditions appropriate
to their age and be protected against economic exploitation and any work
likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social
development or to interfere with their education.
Family and professional life
1. The family shall enjoy legal,
economic and social protection.
2. To reconcile family and
professional life, everyone shall have the right to protection from
dismissal for a reason connected with maternity and the right to paid
maternity leave and to parental leave following the birth or adoption of a
Social security and social assistance
1. The Union recognises and respects the entitlement to social
security benefits and social services providing protection in cases such
as maternity, illness, industrial accidents, dependency or old age, and in
the case of loss of employment, in accordance with the rules laid down by
Union law and national laws and practices.
2. Everyone residing and
moving legally within the European Union is entitled to social security
benefits and social advantages in accordance with Union law and national
laws and practices.
3. In order to combat social exclusion and
poverty, the Union recognises and respects the right to social and housing
assistance so as to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack
sufficient resources, in accordance with the rules laid down by Union law
and national laws and practices.
Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the
right to benefit from medical treatment under the conditions established
by national laws and practices. A high level of human health protection
shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all the Union's
policies and activities.
Access to services of
general economic interest
The Union recognises and respects access
to services of general economic interest as provided for in national laws
and practices, in accordance with the Treaties, in order to promote the
social and territorial cohesion of the Union.
A high level of environmental protection
and the improvement of the quality of the environment must be integrated
into the policies of the Union and ensured in accordance with the
principle of sustainable development.
Union policies shall ensure a high level of consumer
TITLE V - CITIZENS' RIGHTS
Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the European
1. Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and
to stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament in the
Member State in which he or she resides, under the same conditions as
nationals of that State.
2. Members of the European Parliament
shall be elected by direct universal suffrage in a free and secret ballot.
Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at
Every citizen of the Union has the right to
vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections in the Member
State in which he or she resides under the same conditions as nationals of
Right to good administration
1. Every person has the right to have his or her affairs handled
impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the institutions,
bodies, offices and agencies of the Union.
2. This right includes:
the right of every person to be heard, before any
individual measure which would affect him or her adversely is taken;
the right of every person to have access to his or her
file, while respecting the legitimate interests of confidentiality and of
professional and business secrecy;
the obligation of the
administration to give reasons for its decisions.
person has the right to have the Union make good any damage caused by its
institutions or by its servants in the performance of their duties, in
accordance with the general principles common to the laws of the Member
4. Every person may write to the institutions of the Union
in one of the languages of the Treaties and must have an answer in the
Right of access to documents
Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or
having its registered office in a Member State, has a right of access to
documents of the institutions, bodies, offices and agencies of the Union,
whatever their medium.
Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or
having its registered office in a Member State has the right to refer to
the European Ombudsman cases of maladministration in the activities of the
institutions, bodies, offices or agencies of the Union, with the exception
of the Court of Justice of the European Union acting in its judicial role.
Right to petition
Any citizen of the Union
and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office
in a Member State has the right to petition the European Parliament.
Freedom of movement and of residence
citizen of the Union has the right to move and reside freely within the
territory of the Member States.
2. Freedom of movement and
residence may be granted, in accordance with the Treaties, to nationals of
third countries legally resident in the territory of a Member State.
Diplomatic and consular protection
citizen of the Union shall, in the territory of a third country in which
the Member State of which he or she is a national is not represented, be
entitled to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any
Member State, on the same conditions as the nationals of that Member
TITLE VI - JUSTICE
Right to an
effective remedy and to a fair trial
Everyone whose rights and
freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to
an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions
laid down in this Article.
Everyone is entitled to a fair and
public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial
tribunal previously established by law. Everyone shall have the
possibility of being advised, defended and represented.
shall be made available to those who lack sufficient resources in so far
as such aid is necessary to ensure effective access to justice.
Presumption of innocence and right of defence
Everyone who has been charged shall be presumed innocent until proved
guilty according to law.
2. Respect for the rights of the defence
of anyone who has been charged shall be guaranteed.
Principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and
1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on
account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence
under national law or international law at the time when it was committed.
Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at
the time the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the
commission of a criminal offence, the law provides for a lighter penalty,
that penalty shall be applicable.
2. This Article shall not
prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission
which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the
general principles recognised by the community of nations.
severity of penalties must not be disproportionate to the criminal
Right not to be tried or punished twice
in criminal proceedings for the same criminal offence
No one shall
be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings for an
offence for which he or she has already been finally acquitted or
convicted within the Union in accordance with the law.
TITLE VII -
GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF THE
Field of application
provisions of this Charter are addressed to the institutions, bodies,
offices and agencies of the Union with due regard for the principle of
subsidiarity and to the Member States only when they are implementing
Union law. They shall therefore respect the rights, observe the principles
and promote the application thereof in accordance with their respective
powers and respecting the limits of the powers of the Union as conferred
on it in the Treaties.
2. The Charter does not extend the field of
application of Union law beyond the powers of the Union or establish any
new power or task for the Union, or modify powers and tasks as defined in
Scope and interpretation of rights
1. Any limitation on the exercise of the rights and
freedoms recognized by this Charter must be provided for by law and
respect the essence of those rights and freedoms. Subject to the principle
of proportionality, limitations may be made only if they are necessary and
genuinely meet objectives of general interest recognized by the Union or
the need to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
recognized by this Charter for which provision is made in the Treaties
shall be exercised under the conditions and within the limits defined by
3. In so far as this Charter contains rights which
correspond to rights guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the meaning and scope of those
rights shall be the same as those laid down by the said Convention. This
provision shall not prevent Union law providing more extensive protection.
4. In so far as this Charter recognizes fundamental rights as they
result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States,
those rights shall be interpreted in harmony with those traditions.
5. The provisions of this Charter which contain principles may be
implemented by legislative and executive acts taken by institutions,
bodies, offices and agencies of the Union, and by acts of Member States
when they are implementing Union law, in the exercise of their respective
powers. They shall be judicially cognisable only in the interpretation of
such acts and in the ruling on their legality.
6. Full account
shall be taken of national laws and practices as specified in this
7. The explanations drawn up as a way of providing
guidance in the interpretation of this Charter shall be given due regard
by the courts of the Union and of the Member States.
Level of protection
Nothing in this Charter shall be
interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and
fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective fields of
application, by Union law and international law and by international
agreements to which the Union or all the Member States are party,
including the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms, and by the Member States' constitutions.
Prohibition of abuse of rights
Nothing in this
Charter shall be interpreted as implying any right to engage in any
activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the
rights and freedoms recognized in this Charter or at their limitation to a
greater extent than is provided for herein.
The above text adapts
the wording of the Charter proclaimed on 7 December 2000, and will replace
it as from the date of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.