Human Reproduction - Child Birth
- Child Development
is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy,
, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics
is combined with gynaecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and
gynaecology (OB/GYN). Gynaecology
is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive
, uterus, and ovaries) and the
conceiving and bearing offspring.
is the act of becoming pregnant by the fertilization of
an ovum by a spermatozoon. The creation of something in the mind or an
abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances. The
event that occurred at the
is any form of sexual
reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual
intercourse between a man and a woman. During
interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in
fertilization of the woman's ovum
by the man's
is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring"
– are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature
of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of
reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction:
is a system of sex organs within an organism which
work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living
substances such as fluids, hormones
, and pheromones are also important
accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the
sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These
differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two
individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness
of the offspring. Drug Dangers
is a form of reproduction where two
morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called
gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum
(or egg) and a
smaller sperm. Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes
of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division,
which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis. The two gametes
fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a
single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In
a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA
) joins up so
that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this
is followed by exchange of genetic information. Two rounds of cell
division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of
chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of
chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur. For
instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes
23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the
child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined
into 23 pairs. Cell division initiates the development of a new individual
organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the
vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction.
is a state of complete physical, mental
and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity,
reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive
processes, functions and system at all stages of life. Reproductive health
implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer
sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to
decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies
that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe,
effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access
to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and
implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of
women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples
with the best chance of having a healthy infant. Individuals do face
inequalities in reproductive health services. Inequalities vary based on
socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and
resources available in their environment. It is possible for example, that
low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services
and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive
community case management and child survival in periurban Mali
Imagine a world in which pregnant women and little kids get regular home
visits from a health worker, and free health care. The leading causes of
maternal, newborn and child death are curable.
is the act of producing an offspring. In kinship
terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child
relationship. It is also known as biogenesis, reproduction, or procreation
in the biological sciences.
is the practice of controlling the number of
children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly
by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization. Because
"family" is included in the concept's name, consideration of a couple's
desire to bear children, in the context of a family unit, is often
considered primarily. Contemporary notions of family planning, however,
tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at the center of the
discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy
have gained traction in many parts of the world. Family planning may
involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have,
including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she
wishes to have them. These matters are obviously influenced by external
factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial
position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children
and raise them, besides many other considerations. If sexually active,
family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques
to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used
include sexuality education, prevention and management of
sexually transmitted infections
pre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to
and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and
practices in addition to contraception. Additionally, there are many who
might wish to use contraception but are not, necessarily, planning a
family (e.g., unmarried adolescents, young married couples delaying
childbearing while building a career); family planning has become a
catch-all phrase for much of the work undertaken in this realm. It is most
usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of
children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known
as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well
as abortion. Family planning services are defined as "educational,
comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals,
including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their
children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".
Global birth season study links environment with disease risk
utero environmental exposures may explain why birth month correlates with
some diseases. Studies have shown that babies born in winter tend to have
a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes at some point, while fall
babies have a greater lifetime risk of depression. Data scientists have
found that a woman's exposure to certain seasonal or environmental factors
during pregnancy may affect her offspring's lifetime disease risk.Child
are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting anatomic
and physiologic problems with the zygote, embryo, or fetus as early as
possible, either before gestation even starts (as in preimplantation
genetic diagnosis) or as early in gestation as practicable. They use
medical tests to detect problems such as neural tube defects, chromosome
abnormalities, and gene mutations that would lead to genetic disorders and
birth defects, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay–Sachs disease,
sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, and
fragile X syndrome. The screening focuses on finding problems among a
large population with affordable and noninvasive methods, whereas the
diagnosis focuses on pursuing additional detailed information once a
particular problem has been found, and can sometimes be more invasive.
Screening can also be used for prenatal sex discernment. Common testing
procedures include amniocentesis, ultrasonography including nuchal
translucency ultrasound, serum biomarker testing, or genetic screening. In
some cases, the tests are administered to determine if the fetus will be
aborted, though physicians and patients also find it useful to diagnose
high-risk pregnancies early so that delivery can be scheduled in a
tertiary care hospital where the baby can receive appropriate care.
is the time during which one or more offspring
develops inside a woman. Birth
major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals,
including humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the
other is connected to one or both fallopian tubes, (uterine tubes)
depending on the species. It is within the uterus that the fetus develops
during gestation, usually developing completely in placental mammals such
as humans and partially in marsupials such as kangaroos and opossums.
is a radiologic procedure to investigate the
shape of the uterine cavity and the shape and patency of the fallopian
. It injects a radio-opaque material into the cervical canal and
with image intensification. A normal result shows the
filling of the uterine cavity and the bilateral filling of the fallopian
tube with the injection material. To demonstrate tubal rupture, spillage
of the material into the
needs to be observed
Prenatal Stress Changes Brain Connectivity In-Utero
, meaning "in the
womb". Child Development
is an early
stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism. In
general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a
zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg
cell by the male sperm cell. The zygote possesses half the
of each of
its two parents. In plants, animals, and some protists, the zygote will
begin to divide by mitosis to produce a multicellular organism. The result
of this process is an embryo. In humans, a pregnancy is generally
considered to be in the embryonic stage of development between the fifth
and the eleventh weeks after fertilization, and is expressed as a fetus
from the twelfth week.Ovum
mature female reproductive
cell which can divide
to give rise to an embryo usually only after
fertilization by a male cell.Female
are also called eggs or ova. They are created during the
cellular reproduction process known as
. The resulting
gamete cell is a haploid cell. When the two haploid cells, the egg and
sperm, fuse together during fertilization, the result is a diploid cell
called a zygote
is a haploid cell
fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in
organisms that sexually reproduce. In species that produce two
morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual
produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the
larger type of gamete—called an ovum (or egg)—and a male produces the
smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm. In short a gamete is an egg
(female gamete) or a sperm (male gamete). This is an example of anisogamy
or heterogamy, the condition in which females and males produce gametes of
different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has
approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell). In
contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same
size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type. The name
gamete was introduced by the Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel. Gametes
carry half the genetic information of an individual, one ploidy of each
type, and are created through meiosis. Oogenesis is the process of female
gamete formation in animals. This process involves
meiotic recombination) occurring in the diploid primary oocyte to produce
the haploid ovum (gamete). Spermatogenesis is the process of male gamete
formation in animals. This process also involves meiosis (including
meiotic recombination) occurring in the diploid primary spermatocyte to
produce the haploid spermatozoon (gamete).
is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell
competent to further development when fertilized. It is developed from the
primary oocyte by maturation. Oogenesis is initiated in the embryonic
is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
In mammals, the term refers chiefly to early stages of prenatal
development, whereas the terms fetus and fetal development describe later
. Embryogenesis starts with the fertilization of the egg cell (ovum)
by a sperm cell
Once fertilized, the ovum is referred to as a zygote, a single diploid
cell. The zygote undergoes mitotic divisions with no significant growth (a
process known as cleavage) and
leading to development of a multicellular embryo. Although embryogenesis
occurs in both animal and plant development, this article addresses the
common features among different
, with some emphasis on the
embryonic development of vertebrates and mammals.
is the process by which the embryo forms and develops. In
mammals, the term refers chiefly to early stages of prenatal development,
whereas the terms fetus and fetal development describe later stages.
is the process in which a human embryo and later
fetus (or foetus) develops during pregnancy, from fertilization until
birth. Often, the terms fetal development, or embryology are used in a
How Tissues and Organs are Sculpted during Embryogenesis
coordinate by exchanging
, but they also hold to and push on each other to
build the body structures we need to live, such as the eyes, lungs and
heart. And, as it turns out,
sculpting the embryo
is not far from glass molding or
. A fluid-to-solid
jamming transition underlies vertebrate body axis elongation.
from fluid to solid states in a controlled manner to build the vertebrate
embryo, in a way similar to how we mold glass into vases or 3D print our
favorite items. Or, if you like, we 3D print ourselves, from the inside.
or ovum, is
(gamete) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of
active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the
motile sperm cells. When egg and sperm
fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote)
is formed, which rapidly grows into a new
have two homologous copies of each chromosome, usually
one from the mother and one from the father. All or nearly all mammals are
is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to
allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas
exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal
infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy. The placenta
provides oxygen and nutrients to growing fetuses and removes waste
products from the fetus's blood. The placenta attaches to the wall of the
uterus, and the fetus's umbilical cord develops from the placenta. These
organs connect the mother and the fetus.
Placenta defects a factor in prenatal deaths
. Almost 70 percent of 103
genes linked to prenatal death affect the placenta.
a type of preventive healthcare with the goal of providing regular
check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential
health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting
healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child, also known as
antenatal care. During check-ups, pregnant women receive medical
information over maternal physiological changes in pregnancy, biological
changes, and prenatal nutrition including prenatal vitamins.
Recommendations on management and healthy lifestyle changes are also made
during regular check-ups. The availability of routine prenatal care,
including prenatal screening and diagnosis, has played a part in reducing
the frequency of maternal death, miscarriages, birth defects, low birth
weight, neonatal infections and other preventable health problems.
is the care you receive from
healthcare professionals during your pregnancy. This care can be provided
by a team that can include a doctor, a midwife, and usually with a doctor
who specializes in pregnancy and birth (an obstetrician).
Antenatal Education Programs for Childbirth or Parenthood
Rethinking Childbirth Education could save $97 Million P.A.
Exercises for Pregnant Women
Complications of Pregnancy
are health problems that are caused by
pregnancy. In the immediate postpartum period, 87% to 94% of women
report at least one health problem. Long term health problems (persisting
after 6 months postpartum) are reported by 31% of women. Severe
complications of pregnancy are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US and in
1.5% of mothers in Canada. The relationship between age and complications
of pregnancy are now being researched with greater impetus.
Symptoms and Discomforts of Pregnancy
are those presentations and
conditions that result from pregnancy but do not significantly interfere
with activities of daily living or pose any significant threat to the
health of the mother or baby, in contrast to pregnancy complications.
is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.
Despite the name, nausea or vomiting can occur at any time during the day.
Typically these symptoms occur between the 4th and 16th week of pregnancy.
About 10% of women still have symptoms after the 20th week of pregnancy. A
severe form of the condition is known as hyperemesis gravidarum and
results in weight loss.
is a pregnancy complication that is
characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly
dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting several times a
day and feeling faint
Hypremesis geavidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness.
Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last
the entire pregnancy duration.
. Your body and mind go through many changes
during and after pregnancy. If you feel empty, emotionless, or sad all or
most of the time for longer than 2 weeks during or after pregnancy, reach
out for help. If you feel like you don’t love or care for your baby, you
might have postpartum depression. Treatment for depression, such as
therapy or medicine, works and will help you and your baby be as healthy
as possible in the future.
is a rare illness, compared to the rates of
postpartum depression or anxiety. It occurs in approximately 1 to 2 out of
every 1,000 deliveries, or approximately .1 -.2% of births. The onset is
usually sudden, most often within the first 2 weeks postpartum. Symptoms
of postpartum psychosis can include: Delusions or strange beliefs.
Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t there). Feeling very
irritated. Hyperactivity. Decreased need for or inability to sleep.
Paranoia and suspiciousness. Rapid mood swings. Difficulty communicating
Reproductive Health and Rights in U.S. Under Assault
What to Expect
Universal Access to Family Planning Information,
Education, and Services
- Many Babies are Born
around 8:00 A.M.
The Urge to Have a Baby
are the needs of living organisms required to
perpetuate their existence to survive. What's the difference between
Biological Imperative and the urge to have a baby?
We have all been given these sexual urges and animal instincts
because that is something that animals need to do
in order for the species to survive by reproduction. Other
animal species on our planet also share these same types of
instincts, so it's not unusual. If these instincts were not
given to us we would not reproduce as much and we would most
likely go extinct. But luckily humans also have another very
influential drive called pleasure, which also helps to encourage
reproduction. But even if we control our instincts, Humans can
also be more aware of their surroundings so they don't even need
instincts or pleasure in order to reproduce because they feel it
is simply a need. So now that some humans are becoming more
educated and more aware of of their choices and options, some
people are now making better choices and also have a much better
understanding of self-control. So does this mean that our
species will go extinct because people are now making better
choices and better decisions? No. Because fully educated people
will be totally aware that their species needs to reproduce in
order to survive, so people will always be having babies, maybe
just not as much, or at the least, not more then the planet can sustain.
Too many women believe that if they have a
child their world will be better
. It's not the child that
will make a mothers life better, it's the mother who has to make her own
life better. Don't put the responsibility on the child to make your life
better, it's not fair, and it's also not a very good plan. It's the
Mothers who are responsible for making their own lives better, not their
children. Learn how to make life better, then share that knowledge with
your children. Then you will all share a good life together.
More than 200 million women worldwide want
but don't have access to them, according to an editorial
published in the British medical journal, Lancet. That results
in 76 million unintended pregnancies every year.
Abortions Kill 70,000 Annually
(women who need help getting pregnant) Populations
How Many People Can Live on Earth Sustainably
An 18th-century Russian woman holds the world record for having
birthed the most children: 69
, which she had over the course of
27 pregnancies that included sixteen pairs of twins, seven sets
of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets.
But she's outdone by the male record-holder for most kids, a
Moroccan emperor who, according to the Guinness Book of World
Records, sired "at least 342 daughters and 525 sons, and by
1721, he was reputed to have 700 male descendants."
Reproductive Assistance - Help Getting Pregnant
is a branch of medicine that deals
with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems; goals
include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing people
to have children at a time of their choosing. It is founded on knowledge
of reproductive anatomy, physiology, and endocrinology, and incorporates
relevant aspects of molecular biology, biochemistry and pathology.
is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility
rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or
population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the
potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilization
and carrying a pregnancy to term). A lack of fertility is infertility
while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility. Human fertility
depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, consanguinity, culture,
instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
is the technology used to
achieve pregnancy in procedures such as
, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. It is
used primarily for infertility treatments, and
is also known as fertility treatment. It mainly belongs to the field of
reproductive endocrinology and infertility
, and may also include
intracytoplasmic sperm injection
(ICSI) and cryopreservation. Some
forms of ART are also used with regard to fertile couples for genetic
reasons (preimplantation genetic diagnosis). ART is also used for couples
who are discordant for certain communicable diseases; for example, HIV to
reduce the risk of infection when a pregnancy is desired.
is a form of third party reproduction. It is
defined as the giving—generally without compensation—of embryos remaining
after one couple's in vitro fertilisation to either another person or
couple for implantation or to research. Where it is given for the purpose
of implantation, the donation is followed by the placement of those
embryos into the recipient woman's uterus to facilitate pregnancy and
childbirth in the recipient. The resulting child is considered the child
of the woman who carries it and gives birth, and not the child of the
donor. This is the same principle as is followed in egg donation or sperm
donation. Most often, the embryos are donated after the woman for whom
they were originally created has successfully carried one or more
pregnancies to term.
is the deliberate introduction of
sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a
pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual
intercourse. It is a fertility treatment for humans, and is common
practice in animal breeding, including dairy cattle (see Frozen bovine
semen) and pigs.
In Vitro Fertilization
is an assisted reproductive technology (ART)
commonly referred to as IVF
. IVF is the
process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample,
and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The
embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.
Most differences in DNA binding compounds found at birth in children
conceived by IVF not seen in early childhood
. Results bolster previous
studies finding no growth, development differences with IVF. Compared to
newborns conceived traditionally, newborns conceived through in vitro
fertilization (IVF) are more likely to have certain chemical modifications
to their DNA, according to a new study. The changes involve DNA
methylation -- the binding of compounds known as methyl groups to DNA --
which can alter gene activity. Only one of the modifications was seen by
the time the children were 9 years old. According to a national report in
2018, almost 75,000 IVF-conceived infants (2.0% of all infants) were born
in the United States. Of these, approximately 76% were conceived with
ICSI. Another study found that 3 to 7% of births resulted from ovulation
induction and intrauterine insemination.
Third Party Reproduction
is any human reproduction in which DNA or gestation is provided
by a third party or donor other than the one or two parents who will raise
the resulting child. This goes beyond the traditional father–mother model,
and the third party's involvement is limited to the reproductive process
and does not extend into the raising of the child. Third-party
reproduction is used by couples unable to reproduce where they would
otherwise be unable to do so, by same-sex couples, and by men and women
without a partner. Where donor gametes are provided by a donor, the donor
will be a biological parent of the resulting child, but in third party
reproduction, he or she will not be the caring parent. One can distinguish
several categories, some of which may be combined:
. A donor provides sperm in order to father a child for
a third-party female.
. A donor provides ova to a woman or couple in order for the
egg to be fertilized and implanted in the recipient woman.
. A third party's mitochondrial DNA is transferred to
the future mother's ovum. This is used to prevent mitochondrial disease.
with embryos which were originally created for a
genetic mother's assisted pregnancy. Once the genetic mother has completed
her own treatment, she may donate unused embryos for use by a third party.
or where embryos are specifically created for donation using donor eggs
and donor sperm.
. Embryos created during a donor's assisted pregnancy
are adopted to be implanted in a third party recipient.
. An embryo is gestated in a third party's uterus
(traditional surrogacy) or a woman is inseminated in order to gestate a
child for a third party (straight surrogacy). Pregnancy is typically
initiated by artificial insemination in the case of sperm donation and by
embryo transfer after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the case of egg
donation, embryo donation, and surrogacy. Thus a child can have a genetic
and social (non-genetic, non-biological) father, and a genetic,
gestational, and social (non-biological) mother, and any combinations
thereof. Theoretically a child thus could have 5 parents. A donor
treatment is where gametes, i.e. sperm, ova or embryos are provided, or
'donated' by a third party for the purpose of third-party reproduction.
Nonuplets: Woman From Mali Gives Birth To 9 Babies
. Newborns weighed
between 500 grams and 1 kilogram (about 1.1 to 2.2 pounds). Five girls and
four boys. Babies were born at 30 weeks. Cissé, 25, gave birth by cesarean
section – and doctors were surprised to find two more babies than expected
when ultrasound sessions failed to spot two of her babies. The babies were
born in Morocco, where Cissé was taken for specialist care in late March.
The clinic has deployed a team of around 30 staff members to aid in the
mother's delivery and care for her nine children. 1981 is when the first
baby in the U.S. was conceived with an assist from reproductive technology
or from fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization.
Pregnancy Problems and Risks
can be regarded as a form of an ectopic pregnancy
where the embryo or fetus is growing and developing outside the womb in
the abdomen, but not in the Fallopian tube, ovary or broad ligament.
The 46 Year
Pregnancy - My Shocking Story
or stone baby
, is a rare
phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an
abdominal pregnancy, is too large to be reabsorbed by the body, and
calcifies on the outside as part of a maternal foreign body reaction,
shielding the mother's body from the dead tissue of the fetus and preventing infection.
is pregnancy in females under the
age of 20. A female can become pregnant from sexual intercourse after
she has begun to ovulate, which can be before her first menstrual period
(menarche) but usually occurs after the onset of her periods. In
well-nourished females, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12
State Health Facts
Teen Birth Facts
is the practice of relinquishing
interests and claims over one's offspring in an extralegal way with the
intent of never again resuming or reasserting guardianship over them.
Causes include many social and cultural factors as well as mental illness.
An abandoned child is called a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an
orphan). Baby dumping refers to parents abandoning or discarding a child
younger than 12 months in a public or private place with the intent of
ending their guardianship over them. It is also known as rehoming in cases
of failed adoptions.
is the intentional killing of infants. Parental
infanticide researchers have found that mothers are far more likely than
fathers to be the perpetrator for neonaticide and slightly more likely to
commit infanticide in general. In many past societies, certain forms of
infanticide were considered permissible. In India female infanticide is
more common than the killing of male offspring, due to sex-selective
infanticide. In China for example, the sex gap between males and females
aged 0–19 years old was estimated to be 25 million in 2010 by the United
Nations Population Fund. In English law infanticide is established as a
distinct offence by the Infanticide Acts. Defined as the killing of a
child under 12 months of age by their mother, the effect of the Acts are
to establish a partial defence to charges of murder.
is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to
carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the
newborn child's parent(s) after birth. Intended parents may seek a
surrogacy arrangement when pregnancy is medically impossible, pregnancy
risks present an unacceptable danger to the mother's health, or a man or
male couple wish to have a child. Monetary compensation may or may not be
involved in these arrangements. If the surrogate receives money for the
surrogacy the arrangement is considered commercial surrogacy; if she
receives no compensation beyond reimbursement of medical and other
reasonable expenses it is referred to as altruistic. The legality and
costs of surrogacy vary widely between jurisdictions, sometimes resulting
in interstate or international surrogacy arrangements. There are laws in
some countries which restrict and regulate surrogacy and the consequences
of surrogacy. Some couples or individuals wanting a child in this manner
but who live in a jurisdiction which does not permit surrogacy may travel
to another jurisdiction which permits it. (See surrogacy laws by country
and fertility tourism).Population Growth
Though the teen birth rate has decreased, in 2010, teens in the
US between the ages of 15 and 19, had a birth rate of 37.9 per
1,000 women. Russia was 30.2 per 1,000, Britain has 25 per 1,000
and Switzerland has 4.3 births per 1,000 teen women.
Birth Rates for Teens
The United States Department of
Agriculture today that if you had a child in 2012, it'll cost
you $241,080 to raise him or her for next 17 years, and If you
adjust it for
that number soars to $301,970. (why is this an ignorant
Everyone should understand the
requirements that a person needs in order to
Adopt a Child
or to be a
These requirements will give you a little insight on what it
takes to be a parent and to start a family. It doesn't cover
everything but it makes you aware of how much you should know.
Even if you were a women wanting to donate
, you would still need to have certain requirements
in order to be a donor. The same goes for a man, if a man wants
donate his sperm
he would have to have
before he is even excepted. So it makes
you wonder, what requirements do you need to start life, and
what requirements do you need to be responsible for a child's
care? Should you get a
single greatest killer of pregnant women is
offers protection against mosquitos,
flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Examples include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus and
various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus. To be
effective the mesh of a mosquito net must be fine enough to exclude such
insects without reducing visibility or air flow to unacceptable levels. It
is possible to increase the effectiveness of a mosquito net greatly by
treating it with an appropriate insecticide or mosquito repellant.
Research has shown mosquito nets to be an extremely effective method of
malaria prevention, averting approximately 451 million cases of malaria
over the period 2000–2015.
Private Sleeping Area
Freedom of Choice Act
was a bill in the 110th United States
Congress which "declares that it is the policy of the United States that
every woman has the fundamental right to choose to bear a child; terminate
a pregnancy prior to fetal viability; or terminate a pregnancy after
viability when necessary to protect her life or her health." It prohibits
a federal, state, or local governmental entity from denying or interfering
with a woman's right to exercise such choices; or discriminating against
the exercise of those rights in the regulation or provision of benefits,
facilities, services, or information. Provides that such prohibition shall
apply retroactively. It also authorizes an individual aggrieved by a
violation of this Act to obtain appropriate relief, including relief
against a governmental entity, in a civil action." Earlier versions of the
bill were introduced in 1989 and 1993.
Parental DNA Testing
(heredity) Marriage License
Family and Medical Leave Act
is a United States labor law
requiring covered employers to provide employees with job-protected and
unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons. These include
pregnancy, adoption, foster care placement of a child, personal or family
illness, or family military leave. The FMLA is administered by the Wage
and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.
Why are Blood
mandatory before you get married?
Of the 27 industrialized countries studied by the
Economic Cooperation and Development
, the U.S. had 25.8
percent of children being raised by a
, compared with an average of 14.9 percent
across the other countries.
101 East :
China: Unnatural Selection
is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each
other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Conversely, illegitimacy (or bastardy) has been the status of a child born
outside marriage, such a child being known as a bastard, or love child,
when such a distinction has been made from other children.
is a parent that parents alone without the
other parent's support, meaning this particular parent is the only parent
to the child, responsible for all financial, material, and emotional
needs. It means there is an absence of the other parent as opposed to a
co-parent, meaning that the parent is not the only parent regardless of
whether or not they are a couple. Of course, this definition is loosely
true. There is no true definition of what "single parent" means and is
more based on opinions. Sometimes, one finds themselves in a single-parent
family structure that has arisen due to death of the partner, intentional
artificial insemination, or unplanned pregnancy.
Mommy Pregnancy Exercises
Pregnancy Exercise Guidelines
Exercise During Pregnancy
is a gap of roughly 2.7 cm or greater between the two sides of the
rectus abdominis muscle
The following exercises are
often recommended to help build abdominal strength, which may or may not
help reduce the size of diastasis recti.Core
– In a seated position, place both hands on abdominal
muscles. Take small controlled breaths. Slowly contract the abdominal
muscles, pulling them straight back towards the spine. Hold the
contraction for 30 seconds, while maintaining the controlled breathing.
Complete 10 repetitions.Seated squeeze
- Again in a seated position, place one hand above the belly button, and
the other below the belly button. With controlled breaths, with a mid-way
starting point, pull the abdominals back toward the spine, hold for 2
seconds and return to the mid-way point. Complete 100 repetitions.
– In a lying down position, knees
bent at 90° angle, feet flat, slowly lift the head, chin toward your
chest, (concentrate on isolation of the abdominals to prevent hip-flexors
from being engaged), slowly contract abdominals toward floor, hold for two
seconds, lower head to starting position for 2 seconds. Complete 10
repetitions. Upright push-up – A stand-up push-up against the wall, with
feet together arms-length away from wall, place hands flat against the
wall, contract abdominal muscles toward spine, lean body towards wall,
with elbows bent downward close to body, pull abdominal muscles in
further, with controlled breathing. Release muscles as you push back to
starting position. Complete 20 repetitions.
Squat against the wall
– Also known as a seated squat, stand with
back against the wall, feet out in front of body, slowly lower body to a
seated position so knees are bent at a 90° angle, contracting abs toward
spine as you raise body back to standing position. Optionally, this
exercise can also be done using an exercise ball placed against the wall
and the lower back. Complete 20 repetitions.
Squat with squeeze
– A variation to the "squat against the wall" is
to place a small resistance ball between the knees, and squeeze the ball
while lowering the body to the seated position. Complete 20 repetitions.
Avoid Crossover crunches or bicycle crunches because they splay your abs apart in so many ways.
It is also noted that incorrect exercises, including crunches, can
increase the distasis recti separation. All corrective exercises should be
in the form of pulling in of the abdominal muscles rather than a pushing
of them outwards. Consultation of a professional physiotherapist is
recommended for correct exercise routines. In addition to the above
exercises, the Touro College study concluded the "quadruped" position
yielded the most effective results. A quadruped position is defined as "a
human whose body weight is supported by both arms as well as both
legs". In this position, the subject would start with a flat back, then
slowly tilt the head down, and arch the back, contracting the abdominal
muscles towards the spine, holding this position for 5 seconds, then
releasing back to starting position. Complete two sets of 10 repetitions.
Toxins - Exposures
Poisons that Parents and Children should Avoid - Prenatal Exposures
is the impact
of different toxic substances from the environment on the development of
the fetus. This article deals with potential adverse effects
environmental toxicants on the prenatal development of both the embryo or
fetus, as well as pregnancy complications. The human embryo or fetus is
relatively susceptible to impact from adverse conditions within the
mother's environment. Substandard fetal conditions often cause various
degrees of developmental delays, both physical
, for the growing
baby. Although some variables do occur as a result of genetic conditions
pertaining to the father, a great many are directly brought about from
environmental toxins that the mother is exposed to. Various toxins pose a
significant hazard to fetuses during development. A 2011 study found that
virtually all US pregnant women carry multiple chemicals, including some
banned since the 1970s, in their bodies. Researchers detected
polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides
compounds, phenols, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, perchlorate PBDEs, compounds used as flame
retardants, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a pesticide banned
in the United States in 1972, in the bodies of 99 to 100 percent of the
pregnant women they tested. Bisphenol A (BPA) was identified in 96 percent
of the women surveyed. Several of the chemicals were at the same
concentrations that have been associated with negative effects in children
from other studies and it is thought that exposure to multiple chemicals
can have a greater impact than exposure to only one substance.
Toxic metals in baby food more widespread than thought, new study shows
Household chemical use linked to child language delays
. Young children
from low-income homes whose mothers reported frequent use of toxic
chemicals such as household cleaners were more likely to show delays in
by age 2, a new study
Environmental toxins impair immune system over multiple generations
New research shows that maternal exposure to a common and ubiquitous form
of industrial pollution can harm the immune system of offspring and that
this injury is passed along to subsequent generations, weakening the
body's defenses against infections such as the influenza virus.
Exposure to Specific Toxins and Nutrients During Late Pregnancy and Early
Life Correlated With Autism Risk
can't say a Product is Safe
. You can only say that the product is
safe as far as the manufacturer knows, which means that the safety of the
product is based on a few
particular testing methods
that give the perception that the product
is safe. But it can not guarantee that the product is safe for everyone
since everyone is a little different. So the product may cause bad
reactions in some people because of a particular scenario that came from
different reasons, reasons that were not tested for.
Heavy Metals in
Potentially harmful chemicals found in plastic toys
. New research
suggests that more than 100 chemicals found in plastic toy materials may
pose possible health risks to children. The study provides findings that
may lead to stricter international regulations. Out of 419 chemicals found
in hard, soft and foam plastic materials used in children toys, we
identified 126 substances that can potentially harm children's health
either via cancer or non-cancer effects, including 31 plasticizers, 18
flame retardants, and 8 fragrances. Being harmful in our study means that
for these chemicals, estimated exposure
exceed regulatory Reference Doses (RfD) or cancer risks exceed
regulatory risk thresholds. These substances should be prioritized for
phase-out in toy materials and replaced with safer and more sustainable
measures the influence of environmental exposures which encompasses the
totality of human environmental (i.e. non-genetic) exposures from
conception onwards, complementing the genome.. In molecular epidemiology
the body's response with its endogenous metabolic processes which alter
the processing of chemicals, which include, a general external environment
including the urban environment, education, climate factors, social
capital, stress, a specific external environment with specific
contaminants, radiation, infections, lifestyle factors (e.g. tobacco,
alcohol), diet, physical activity, etc.. An internal environment to
include internal biological factors such as metabolic factors, hormones,
gut microflora, inflammation, oxidative stress.
is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a biphasic response to
exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition. Within the
hormetic zone, there is generally a favorable biological response to low
exposures to toxins and other stressors. Hormesis comes from Greek
hórmesis "rapid motion, eagerness", itself from ancient Greek hormáein "to
set in motion, impel, urge on". Hormetics is the term proposed for the
study and science of hormesis. In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response
phenomenon characterized by a low dose stimulation, high dose inhibition,
resulting in either a J-shaped or an inverted U-shaped dose response. Such
environmental factors that would seem to produce positive responses have
also been termed "eustress". The hormesis model of dose response is
vigorously debated. The notion that hormesis is important for chemical
risk regulations is not widely accepted. The biochemical mechanisms by
which hormesis works remain under laboratory research and are not well
We are Bombarded by thousands of Diverse Species and Chemicals
the total set of environmental factors, both present and past, that affect
the state, and in particular the disease state, of an organism, which
includes all of the environmental conditions required for successful
biological life that affect human health. While there can be both positive
and negative effects of the envirome on the organism, negative effects are
often emphasized in discussing disease.
is a branch of
concerned with the discovery of the environmental
exposures that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses,
developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of
public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with
harmful exposures. Environmental epidemiology studies external factors
that affect the incidence, prevalence, and geographic range of health
conditions. These factors may be naturally occurring or may be introduced
into environments where people live, work, and play. Environmental
exposures are involuntary and thus generally exclude occupational
exposures (covered by occupational epidemiology) and voluntary exposures
such as active smoking, medications, and
is the branch of public health concerned with all
aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
is studying the interactions between
environment and human health, and the role of the environment in causing
or mediating disease.
is a subdiscipline of epidemiology that
focuses on investigations of workers and
. Occupational epidemiologic studies examine health
outcomes among workers, and their potential association with conditions in
the workplace including noise, chemicals, heat, or radiation, or work
organization such as schedules.
is the study of an organism's (usually human) contact
with chemical, physical, or biological agents occurring in their
environments, and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of
events either causing or preventing adverse health outcomes.
is concerned with the study of the adverse
effects of chemicals on living organisms. Toxicology is a branch of
Contaminant is t
make something dangerous or toxic by introducing impurities or foreign
To make something impure by exposure to or addition of a
is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant
or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace,
etc. Contaminants are biological, chemical, physical or radiological
substance. Contamination is the action or state of making or being made
impure by polluting
is a substance that is capable of causing the
of a living organism when
introduced or absorbed. Poisons
substances that cause disturbances in organisms, particularly corrosive
, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants.
Usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale,
when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity and increases the
dangers of chemicals.
(pesticides) - Cancer
- Clean Water Rights
Poisons in our Bodies
is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or
is any toxic substances made by humans or introduced
into the environment by human activity
. Toxicants are poisonous.
is the degree to which a substance can
an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole
organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on
a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ
such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be
metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex
groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is
more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage.
are locations where emissions from specific sources such
as water or Air
may expose local populations to elevated health risks, such
as cancer. These emissions contribute to cumulative health risks of
emissions from other sources nearby. Urban, highly populated areas around
pollutant emitters such as old factories and waste storage sites are
often toxic hotspots. Radiation
A host of common Chemicals Endanger Child Brain Development
Strategy for Comparing the Contributions of Environmental
Chemicals and Other Risk Factors to Neurodevelopment of Children
Prenatal Environmental Exposures
Prenatal Exposures: A continuum of vulnerability to
Call Action to Protect Children from Toxins
Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks
Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry
A New Study has Found a Connection between Common Household Chemicals and
. Known as
quaternary ammonium compounds
or "quats," the chemicals are often used
as disinfectants and preservatives in household and personal products such
as cleaners, laundry detergent, fabric softener, shampoo and conditioner,
and eye drops. The research demonstrated a link between quats and neural
tube birth defects in both mice and rats.
Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds
are compounds that are highly toxic
environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly
by-products of various
- or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part
of intentionally produced mixtures. They include: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
(PCDDs), or simply dioxins. PCDDs are derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin.
There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of
chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous
being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). Polychlorinated
dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. PCDFs are derivatives of dibenzofuran.
There are 135 isomers, ten have dioxin-like properties. Polychlorinated/polybrominated
biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are
"dioxin-like". Under certain conditions PCBs may form dibenzofurans/dioxins
through partial oxidation. Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper,
the basic chemical unit of the more complex dioxins. This simple compound
is not persistent and has no PCDD-like toxicity.
also known as C8
is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant. One
industrial application is as a surfactant in the emulsion polymerization
of fluoropolymers. It has been used in the manufacture of such prominent
consumer goods as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; Teflon and similar
products). PFOA has been manufactured since the 1940s in industrial
quantities. It is also formed by the degradation of precursors such as
some fluorotelomers. PFOA has been detected in the
blood of more than 98% of the general US population
in the low and
sub-parts per billion
(ppb) range, and levels are higher in chemical
plant employees and surrounding subpopulations. PFOA has been detected in
industrial waste, stain-resistant carpets, carpet-cleaning liquids, house
dust, microwave popcorn bags, water, food, some cookware -Teflon
products. As a result of a class-action lawsuit and community settlement
The studies concluded that there was probably an association between PFOA
exposure and six health outcomes: kidney cancer, testicular cancer,
ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, hypercholesterolemia (high
cholesterol), and pregnancy-induced hypertension.
. PFOA and PFOS are
extremely persistent in the environment and
Resistant to Typical
Environmental Degradation Processes
. [They] are widely distributed across
the higher trophic levels and are found in soil, air and groundwater at
sites across the United States. The toxicity, mobility and bioaccumulation
potential of PFOS and PFOA pose potential adverse effects for the
environment and human health.
was released by DuPont into the Cape Fear River which feeds the
Wilmington, NC water supply for decades resulting in controversy over its
potential health effects. On November 2, 2017, a federal lawsuit was filed
by the Brunswick County Government alleging that DuPont failed to disclose
research regarding potential risks from the chemical.
DuPont vs. the
World: Chemical Giant Covered Up Health Risks of Teflon Contamination
How DuPont Poisoned
the Ohio River Valley for Over 50 Years
Previously Blocked Federal Study Raises Alarm About Chemicals Like C8
The Devil We
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says it will
begin the process this year of setting limits on two man-made chemicals
that are linked to cancer and other illnesses, and are found widely in
drinking water and soil.
Toxic Fluorinated Chemicals in Tap Water and at Industrial or Military
is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and
global pollutant. PFOS was the key ingredient in Scotchgard, a fabric
protector made by 3M, and numerous stain repellents. It was added to Annex
B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in May
can be synthesized in industrial production or result from the
degradation of precursors. PFOS levels that have been detected in wildlife
are considered high enough to affect health parameters, and recently
higher serum levels of PFOS were found to be associated with increased
risk of chronic kidney disease in the general US population. "This
association was independent of confounders such as age, sex,
race/ethnicity, body mass index
, diabetes, hypertension, and serum
Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease
Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be
altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including
chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and
polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more
dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For
example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces
what appears to be lifelong
in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure
may predispose the organism to postnatal
remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant
cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally
irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant
(i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop
T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a
fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The
environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta
and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to
effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited
thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major
histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to
the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal
development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when
mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with
TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar
results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during
development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain
immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity.
Postpartum autoimmune thyroid syndrome: a model of aggravation of
dysfunction is rather a common problem during the postpartum
period being found in approximately 5% of mothers in the general
population. It occurs from subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis that is
aggravated after parturition and causes various types of thyroid
dysfunction. Immune activity is physiologically suppressed during
pregnancy so that the fetus is not rejected, and rebounds above the normal
level after parturition. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis also
spontaneously ameliorate during pregnancy, and are often aggravated after
parturition. The high-risk mothers for postpartum thyroid dysfunction are
well screened by antithyroid microsomal antibody (MCAb) and 60% to 70% of
MCAb-positive mothers develop postpartum thyroid dysfunction, which is
transient in most cases. New onset of Graves' disease may be screened by
thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) and 70% of TSAb-positive mothers
develop either transient or persistent postpartum Graves' disease that
usually occurs 3 to 6 months postpartum. Immune rebound after parturition
may cause not only autoimmune thyroid diseases but other autoimmune
diseases, which may be investigated with similar strategies to those in
postpartum autoimmune thyroid disease. Thus, we found that postpartum
onset of rheumatoid arthritis was found in 0.08% of women in the general
population and could be partially predicted by measuring rheumatoid
factors in early pregnancy. There are several case reports of other
autoimmune diseases that develop after delivery; postpartum renal failure
or postdelivery hemolytic-uremic syndrome, postpartum idiopathic
polymyositis, postpartum syndrome with antiphospholipid antibodies,
postpartum autoimmune myocarditis. Many other possible postpartum
autoimmune diseases are still unexplored. Puerperal diseases should be
carefully examined in relation to autoimmune abnormalities in the affected
organs. Clean Water Rights
Film Forming Foam or Firefighting Foam
is a foam used for fire suppression. AFFF role is to
cool the fire and to coat the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen,
resulting in suppression of the combustion. Studies have shown that PFOS
is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutant.Forever Chemicals
are a class of about 5,000 fluorinated compounds that don't naturally
break down and there is no known way to destroy them.
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl
substances or PFAS
are a group of man-made chemicals that includes PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and many other chemicals.
PFAS Water Contamination
Pollution Could Cause The Next Water Crisis
describes toxic chemicals produced by plants which function
as defensive agents against their predators. Most examples pertaining to
this definition of phytotoxin are members of various classes of secondary
metabolites, including alkaloids, terpenes, and especially phenolics,
though not all such compounds are toxic or serve defensive purposes.
Phytotoxins may also be toxic to humans. The term is also sometimes used
to describe substances (known as phytotoxic substances) that are
inhibitory to the growth of or poisonous to plants. Phytotoxic substances
may result from human activity, as with herbicides, or they may be
produced by plants, by microorganisms, or by naturally occurring chemical
reactions. A good soil will protect plants from toxic concentrations of
such substances by ventilating gases, decomposing or adsorbing organic
toxins, or suppressing toxin-producing organisms.
where the residents are allergic to multiple chemical sensitivities and
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Exposure to chemical Bisphenol A (BPA)
'hard to avoid' in
di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a
which disrupts the body’s hormone system
. It is found in a wide array of
industrial and consumer products, including cosmetics, plastic toys,
medical devices and PVC piping and tubing.
Study Finds Dangerous Chemicals in Consumer Products
is the release of a gas
that was dissolved, trapped, frozen
or absorbed in some material. Outgassing can include sublimation and
evaporation which are phase transitions of a substance into a gas, as well
as desorption, seepage from cracks or internal volumes and gaseous
products of slow chemical reactions. Boiling is generally thought of as a
separate phenomenon from outgassing because it consists of a phase
transition of a liquid into a vapor made of the same substance. (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in
reference to indoor air
chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes
large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or
solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as
volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint, has a
boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F). (also known as
is something that
readily at normal temperatures and pressures, which can
often or change rapidly, widely and unpredictably from its original state.
Volatility in chemistry
is quantified by the tendency of a substance to
NYC Toddlers Exposed to Potentially Harmful Flame-Retardants
Flame Retardant Chemicals may affect Social Behavior in young Children
Environmental Research and Children's Health
Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Tyrone Hayes Penelope Jagessar Chaffer: The Toxic Baby
is an herbicide of the triazine class.
is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead
in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may include
abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems,
inability to have children, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes
almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can
result in behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In
severe cases anemia, seizures, coma, or death may occur.
Things Matter: The Impact of Toxins on the Developing Brain
studies stable heritable traits (or "phenotypes
that cannot be explained by changes in
Toxic Chemicals in
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Persistent Organic Pollutant
are organic compounds that are
resistant to environmental degradation
through chemical, biological, and
photolytic processes. Because of their persistence, POPs bioaccumulate
with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.
The effect of POPs on human and environmental health was discussed, with
intention to eliminate or severely restrict their production, by the
international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
Pollutants in 2001.
Persistent Organic Pollutants Global Response
List of Extremely Hazardous Substances
Hazardous 100 List
Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)
is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a
colorless, flammable, toxic gas and pnictogen hydride. Pure phosphine is
odorless, but technical grade samples have a highly unpleasant odor like
garlic or rotting fish, due to the presence of substituted phosphine and
diphosphane (P2H4). With traces of P2H4 present, PH3 is spontaneously
flammable in air, burning with a luminous flame. Phosphines are also a
group of organophosphorus compounds with the formula R3P (R = organic
derivative). Organophosphines are important in catalysts where they
complex to various metal ions; complexes derived from a chiral phosphine
can catalyze reactions to give chiral, enantioenriched products.
is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the
chemical formula AlP used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant.
This colorless solid is generally sold as a grey-green-yellow powder due
to the presence of impurities arising from hydrolysis and oxidation.
What is Natural
More than 80,000 Chemicals available in the U.S. have never been
fully tested for their toxic effects on our health and environment
Risk of autism with intellectual disability linked with maternal
immune dysfunction during pregnancy
(DiBP) are found in a wide range of
products including vinyl upholstery, shower curtains, plastic
food containers, raincoats, dryer sheets, lipstick, hairspray,
nail polish, certain soaps and chemical air fresheners. The
chemicals provide flexibility and durability to products. But
they can be absorbed into a person's body, and exposure in-utero
was linked in the study to lower IQs later in a child's life.
$72 million of damages to the family of a woman whose
death from ovarian cancer was linked to her use of the
company's talc-based Baby Powder and Shower to Shower
for several decades.
Chemicals and Pollutants Detected in Human Umbilical Cord Blood.
Body Burden Test Analysis and Bio-monitoring
Do Babies Need Detox? Alarming Levels of Chemicals Found in Infant Brains
Hazardous PFCs in Remote Locations around the Globe
This synthetic hormone has been linked to various forms of
cancer, as well as reproductive problems and heart disease.
How to Avoid It:
goods use BPA in their lining, but the chemical is also found in
up to 40% of store receipts, and some hard plastic containers.
Forgo taking sales receipts whenever possible and avoid plastics
that are marked with "PC" or recycling label #7. BPA
levels in humans dramatically underestimated
. Researchers have
developed a more accurate method of measuring bisphenol A (BPA) levels in
humans and found that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical is far
higher than previously assumed. The study provides the first evidence that
the measurements relied upon by regulatory agencies, including the US Food
and Drug Administration, are flawed, underestimating exposure levels by as
much as 44 times. Learn Chemistry
This carcinogen can build up in the body and the food chain, and
can adversely affect the immune and reproductive systems of
those who are exposed to it. How to Avoid It:
processes release dioxin, meaning that the American food supply
is already widely contaminated. But it helps to cut down on
exposure by eating fewer animal products, especially meat, fish,
milk, eggs and butter.
An herbicide frequently used on corn crops, Atrazine is also a
common drinking water contaminant that's been linked to breast
tumors and prostate cancer. How to Avoid It:
produce and purchase a drinking water filter that's certified to
remove Atrazine. You can find a list of EWG-approved filters on
Phthalates can encourage the death of testicular cells
and are linked to hormonal changes, birth defects related to the
male reproductive system and thyroid abnormalities.
How to Avoid It:
food containers, children's toys and plastic wrap that's made
from PVC. Phthalates are also found in some personal care items,
sometimes listed generically as "fragrance", so check your
labels. Sperm Count
- Hormone Levels in
Developing Babies in
This rocket fuel component can severely disrupt the proper
thyroid function. How to Avoid It:
already widely found in produce and milk, so avoiding it
altogether isn't necessarily possible. But using a reverse
osmosis water filter can help reduce your intake.
6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers.
PBDEs are flame retardants, and while some of them have been
phased out of industrial use, their long chemical lives mean
that people and wildlife across the world have already been
exposed to them. How to Avoid Them:
impossible to avoid PBDE's entirely, but it helps to use a
vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter, which can cut down on
toxic-laden house dust. Taking extra safety precautions when
removing carpet is also recommended, as old padding underneath
may contain PBDEs.
It's common to write off lead as something that's avoidable as
long as you're not eating paint chips, but exposure to it can
also come by way of breathing in the dust from old paint that's
crumbling off your walls. This hormone disruptor has been linked
to brain and kidney damage, nervous system problems and a host
of other physical and psychological impairments.
How to Avoid It:
home free from crumbling paint helps to avoid exposure, as does
using a filter that prevents lead contaminants from making it
into your drinking water
This poison can cause skin, bladder and lung cancer, but it can
also result in osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and
suppression of the immune system. How to Avoid It:
Use a water
. (Are you sensing a trend yet?).
This toxic metal gets into the air and oceans primarily through
the burning of coal. Mercury can damage pancreatic cells as well
as women's reproductive processes, and poses significant
problems for pregnant women in particular.
How to Avoid It:
Some people are
weary of eating seafood at all because of its association with
mercury, but the EWG recommends that if you still want to eat
sustainably-sourced varieties, your best bets are wild salmon
and farmed trout.
10. Perfluorinated Chemicals.
PFCs are so pervasive and resistant to biodegration, 99 percent
of Americans carry traces of them in their bodies. The chemicals
have been linked to health issues like kidney disease, thyroid
disease and low birth weight in infants. How to Avoid Them:
nonstick cookware, and forgo furniture, clothing and carpet that
comes with water-resistant coatings.
11. Organophosphate Pesticides.
These pesticides were originally developed by Nazi Germany
during World War II for use in chemical warfare. Using the same
chemistry, we now spray them on our crops. Organophosphates are
linked to impaired brain development, fertility and thyroid
function. How to Avoid Them:
produce whenever possible and use the EWG guide to find out
which nonorganic produce contains the least amount of pesticide
12. Glycol Ethers.
Glycol ethers are solvents found in paint, brake fluid and some
cleaning products, and exposure to them has been linked to blood
abnormalities, fertility impairments and increased asthma in
children. How to Avoid Them:
Keep away from
cleaning products that carry ingredients like 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE)
and methoxydiglycol (DEGME).
. The ability of small intestine cells to absorb
nutrients and act as a barrier to
"significantly decreased" after chronic
to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide
, a common food additive found in
everything from chewing gum to bread, according to research from
Binghamton University, State University of New York.
(PFOA) are used to make
moisture-wicking and water-repellent equipment including
jackets, pants, sleeping bags, boots, and tents.
Having too much caffeine during pregnancy may impair baby's liver
development and increase the risk of liver disease in adulthood
study findings indicate that consumption of caffeine equivalent to 2-3
cups of coffee may alter stress and growth hormone levels in a manner that
can impair growth and development, and increase the risk of liver disease
in adulthood. Junk Food
Drug Addicted Pregnant Mothers - Birth Defects
Children Exposed to Drugs in the Womb
Drugs during Pregnancy
(Acetaminophen) used for mild to moderate pain During
Pregnancy linked to
abnormal fetal neurodevelopment and Behavioral Problems in Childhood.
Research shows even small amounts of alcohol consumed during pregnancy can
, which increases the likelihood of diabetes,
in male rat offspring.
(bad habits) -
Medications and Pregnancy
Taking Medicine during Pregnancy
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
More than 21,000 infants born in the U.S. in 2012
experienced symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The care for
each baby costs roughly $50,000 to treat.
Interactive: Explore what’s driving surging overdose
Congenital Disorder (Birth Defects)
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Use of Medication in Pregnancy A 2011 study
using U.S. data from
1976-2008 reported that most women (about 90%) take at least one
medication during pregnancy and 70% take at least one prescription medication.
Medications during Pregnancy
- Pharmaceutical Dangers
Mother to Baby
evidence-based information to mothers, health care professionals, and the
general public about medications and other exposures during pregnancy and while breastfeeding.
Database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which
breastfeeding mothers may be exposed
women’s reproduction and HIV prevention, treatment, and management.
Birth - Having a Baby
is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth
offspring, also known as parturition.
BIRTH VLOG! *Raw &
Real* Labour & Delivery Of Our First Baby!
also known as labor and delivery, is the
ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus.
The first stage of labor is the longest and involves three phases: Early
Labor Phase –The time of the onset of labor until the cervix is dilated to
3 cm. Active Labor Phase – Continues from 3 cm. until the cervix is
dilated to 7 cm. Transition Phase – Continues from 7 cm. until the cervix
is fully dilated to 10 cm.
consists of the early signs before labor starts. It is the
body's preparation for real labor.
is a health science and health profession that
deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period
care of the newborn
), besides sexual and reproductive health of women
throughout their lives. In many countries, midwifery is a medical
profession (special for its independent and direct specialized education;
should not be confused with a medical specialty, which depends on a
previous general training). Midwifery is also known as obstetrics. A
professional in midwifery is known as a midwife.
also known as a
and post-birth supporter
, is a nonmedical person who
assists a person before, during, and/or after childbirth, as well as her
spouse and/or family, by providing physical assistance and emotional
support. The provision of continuous support during labour is associated
with improved maternal and fetal health and a variety of other benefits,
including lower risk of induction and interventions and less need for pain
relief. These benefits are particularly significant when continuous
support is provided by someone who is not there as family/friend or as
medical staff (i.e. a doula). Additionally, a doula is sometimes hired to
work with families beyond the postpartum stages, providing continued
physical and emotional support, for as long as needed (sometimes, this
support can be ongoing for several years).
How Racism Harms Pregnant Women — and what can help: Miriam Zoila Pérez
(video and interactive text)
Child Birth - Jennie Joseph
- Midwifery Team.
A Women Dies every 90 seconds from Complications of Pregnancy
300.000 Mothers die from complications from pregnancy and
childbirth every year
Safe Motherhood700 to 900
women will die in the U.S. from childbirth every year
, most are
preventable. and 50,000 will nearly die. Majority die after birth or after
being discharged from the hospital.
Near Miss’ Mothers:
The Risk of Childbirth in America | NPR
The United States is one of only eight countries in the world
decreases in child and adolescent mortality over a 27-year period haven't
also been matched by reductions in maternal mortality. Additional findings
include: More than half of the 6.64 million deaths in 2017 occurred in
infants younger than 1 year, and of those, 47% occurred in the first week
of life. There were a total of 50 countries where the probability of death
by self-harm and interpersonal violence increased between 1990 and 2017.
Every country in sub-Saharan Africa had either neonatal disorders,
malaria, or HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of
disability-adjusted life years
with either diarrhea or lower respiratory infections often ranked second.
In 2017, the top 10 causes of years lived
(YLDs) globally were iron-deficiency anemia, vitamin A
deficiency, headache, conduct disorder, neonatal disorders, anxiety
disorder, skin diseases, lower back pain, congenital disorders, and
depression. Rates of YLDs decreased only slightly between 1990 and 2017,
and increased with age.
The Business of Being Born
1:27 min. 2008 Abby Epstein)
Months That Made You
2011 BBC Horizon (youtube)
the World - Why Poverty?
A Simple Birth Kit for Mothers in the Developing World: Zubaida Bai
(video and interactive text)
Black life at the intersection of birth and death: Mwende "FreeQuency"
(video and interactive text)
Maternal Mortality has Doubled in the U.S.
empowers patients, strengthens patient-provider
relationships, and builds communities through these three main components.
Both provider and patient are involved in the health assessment. Patients
receive one-on-one time with their provider and learn to take some of
their own assessments. This engages them in their own self-care or care of
their child. Engaging activities and facilitated discussions help patients
to be more informed, confident and empowered to make healthier choices for
themselves, their children and their families. One person’s question is
another one’s question. Patients quickly find comfort in knowing they are
not alone. Participation in group care lessens the feelings of isolation
and stress while building friendships, community and support systems.
Parental Leave by Country
Maternity Leave in the U.S.
The US needs Paid Family Leave — for the sake of its future
(video and text)
BD Odon Device
Maternity Package 2017
Maternal and Child Survival Program
Seed Global Health Education
Global Health Service Partnership
In 2013, 6.3 million children under the age
of 5 died from preventable and treatable conditions
- Mortality Rates
New diagnostic tools for dehydration severity in children
from diarrhea, either viral or from cholera, kills 700,000 children a year
Maternal, Newborn; Child Health Data - Countdown to 2015
Countdown to 2015 tracks key global health data by country for
the 75 highest-burden countries, compiling and analyzing global
health statistics including coverage levels for interventions
proven to reduce maternal mortality, newborn mortality, and
child mortality. It fosters accountability, identifies knowledge
gaps, and proposes actions to reach Millennium Development Goals
4 and 5 and improve maternal health and child health. -
Infant mortality rate rises in Gaza for first time in fifty years
is typically defined as fetal death at or after
20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It results in a baby born without signs of
life. A stillbirth can result in the feeling of guilt in the mother. The
term is in contrast to miscarriage which is an early pregnancy loss and
live birth where the baby is born alive, even if it dies shortly after.
Pregnant Women can Lower the Risk of Stillbirth by Sleeping on their Side
and NOT on their Back
. SSleep Positions
More than half of infants in the United States are still
sleeping in unsafe conditions in cribs containing blankets,
pillows and other loose bedding that has been shown to
dramatically raise the risk of
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
, a new government study finds.
More educated moms were less likely to use hazardous bedding
materials, but use was still at 50 percent among those with a
Every year about 100,000 women around the world
die of blood loss soon after a baby is born
. It's the biggest cause
of maternal death worldwide.
is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml
or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth.
Signs and symptoms may initially include: an increased heart rate, feeling
faint upon standing, and an increased breath rate. As more blood is lost
the women may feel cold, their blood pressure may drop, and they may
become restless or unconscious. The condition can occur up to six weeks
is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive
blood loss from major trauma, surgery, tooth removal, nose bleeds, and
heavy menstruation. It is also used for hereditary angioedema. It is taken
either by mouth or injection into a vein. Side effects are rare. Some
include changes in color vision, blood clots and allergic reactions.
Greater caution is recommended in people with kidney disease
Tranexamic appears to be safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Tranexamic acid is in the antifibrinolytic family of medications.
50,000 mothers die each year in India as a result of birth
complications, versus 1,200 in the United States
. In India
nearly 300,000 babies die the day they are born — more than any
other country in the world, accounting for nearly a third of all
newborn deaths worldwide.
There's new evidence that delaying
clamping and sniping by a minute can benefit
babies, like having higher hemoglobin levels 24 to 48 hours
after birth, having higher birth weights, and it also sends more
iron from the placenta to your baby, which could avoid babies
being iron-deficient three to six months after birth.
is the practice of leaving the umbilical cord
uncut after childbirth so that the baby is left attached to the placenta
until the cord naturally separates at the umbilicus, usually a few days
also known as perineotomy, is a surgical incision of the
perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or
obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening
for the baby to pass through. Mothers
ill-informed about the dangers they face after giving birth
Postpartum nurses provide important physical and emotional care and
recovery for both the new mom and the newborn baby following a delivery.
Nurses' Knowledge and Teaching of Possible Postpartum Complications.
The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing.
An estimated 700 to 900 women die in the U.S.
every year from pregnancy
- and childbirth-related causes. Another
65,000 nearly die, according to the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. The rates are highest among black mothers and women in rural
areas. A recent CDC Foundation analysis of data from four states found
that close to 60 percent of maternal deaths were preventable.
Association of Women's
Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
Discharge Education on Maternal Morbidity and Mortality Provided by Nurses
to Women in the Postpartum Period
Improving Postpartum Discharge Education About Potential Complications
Over 50% of maternal deaths occur in the
compared to 16.8% on the day of delivery. 18% of
these maternal deaths occurred 1-6 days postpartum and 21% occurred 7-41
days postpartum. It is impossible to predict with any certainty which
women will have a postpartum complication. All women need education on
which signs and symptoms are emergencies and which require urgent care.
RN's who provide discharge education are in a key role to educate women
about the signs & symptoms of potential postpartum complications
Improving Postpartum Education About Warning Signs Of Maternal Morbidity
Learn These Post-Birth Warning Signs
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Probiotic Bacteria Could Protect Newborns From
- a major killer to be tackled in communities
A randomized synbiotic trial to prevent Sepsis among infants in rural
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the death of tissue in the intestine
It occurs most often in premature or sick babies.
Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics
Flattening The 'Mummy Tummy
' With 1
Exercise, 10 Minutes A Day.
The Dia Method: 10
Minutes Flat Video Preview
MuTu System - The
Postpartum Exercise + Recovery Program
Diastasis Recti: 5
Exercises To Close the Gap for Postpartum Moms
is an individual organism that has
not yet reached its adult
, sexual maturity or size. Juveniles can look very different from
the adult form, particularly in colour, and may not fill the same niche as
the adult form. In many organisms the juvenile has a different name from
the adult (see List of animal names).
or premature birth
, is the birth of
a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age
These babies are known as preemies
premies. Symptoms of preterm labor include uterine contractions which
occur more often than every ten minutes or the leaking of fluid from the
vagina. Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays
in development, hearing problems and sight problems. These risks are
greater the earlier a baby is born. The cause of preterm birth is often
not known. Risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, being
pregnant with more than one baby, being either obese or underweight, a
number of vaginal infections, tobacco smoking and psychological stress,
among others. It is recommended that labor not be medically induced before
39 weeks unless required for other medical reasons. The same
recommendation applies to cesarean section. Medical reasons for early
delivery include preeclampsia. In those at risk, the hormone progesterone,
if taken during pregnancy, may prevent preterm birth. Evidence does not
support the usefulness of bed rest. It is estimated that at least 75% of
preterm infants would survive with appropriate treatment, and the survival
rate is highest among the infants born the latest. In women who might
deliver between 24 and 37 weeks, corticosteroids improve outcomes. A
number of medications, including nifedipine, may delay delivery so that a
mother can be moved to where more medical care is available and the
corticosteroids have a greater chance to work. Once the baby is born, care
includes keeping the baby warm through skin to skin contact, supporting
breastfeeding, treating infections and supporting breathing. Preterm birth
is the most common cause of death among infants worldwide. About 15
million babies are preterm each year (5% to 18% of all deliveries).
Approximately 0.5% of births are extremely early periviable births, and
these account for most of the deaths. In many countries, rates of
premature births have increased between the 1990s and 2010s. Complications
from preterm births resulted in 0.81 million deaths in 2015 down from 1.57
million in 1990. The chance of survival at 22 weeks is about 6%, while at
23 weeks it is 26%, 24 weeks 55% and 25 weeks about 72%. The chances of
survival without any long-term difficulties are lower.
Infants Born Before 32 weeks Each Year Worldwide
The number of preterm births in the
United States rose in 2015
for the first time in eight years.
Preterm births cost us more than
billion a year or $51,600 per infant born preterm
. Preterm births linked to
in the United States totals over $4
billion a year. Exposures to high levels of air pollution increases toxic
chemicals in the blood and can weaken the immune system, causing stress to
the placenta and leading to preterm birth.
Premature Baby Development Concerns
Pelican Pulse Oximeter
. Save Babies Worldwide from
A unique womb-like environment
designed by pediatric researchers could
transform care for extremely premature babies, by mimicking the prenatal
fluid-filled environment to give the tiniest newborns a precious few weeks
to develop their lungs and other organs.
has been successfully used to incubate healthy baby
lambs for a period of one week. (ex-vivo uterine environment (EVE)
is a technique of newborn care where babies
are kept skin-to-skin
with a parent,
typically their mother. It is most commonly used for low birth-weight
preterm babies, who are more likely to suffer from hypothermia, while
admitted to a neonatal unit to keep the baby warm and support early
Kangaroo Mother Care
Even brief maternal deprivation early in life alters adult brain function
When a baby is taken from its mother for even a brief
period early in life, this traumatic event significantly alters the
future, adult function of the brain, according to a new animal model
Skin-to-Skin Contact affects Hormone Levels
and may promote parental
engagement for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU),
influences levels of hormones related to mother-infant attachment (oxytocin
and stress (cortisol
) -- and
may increase parents' level of
with their infants.
is relating to newborn children or other mammals.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
is an intensive care unit
specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants. Neonatal
refers to the first 28 days of life. Neonatal care, as known as
specialized nurseries or intensive care, has been around since the 1960s.
is a subspecialty of nursing care for newborn
infants up to 28 days after birth.
is the more formal or specialized synonym for the common term baby,
meaning the very young offspring of human beings. The term may also be
used to refer to juveniles of other organisms. A newborn is, in colloquial
use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical
contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to an
infant in the first 28 days after birth; the term applies to premature,
full term, and postmature infants. Before birth, the term fetus is used.
The term infant is typically applied to very young children under one year
of age; however, definitions may vary and may include children up to two
years of age. When a human child learns to walk, the term toddler may be
used instead. (infant meaning 'unable to speak' or 'speechless').
We have to keep softly talking to a baby when they are born
especially when they are born premature.
Listening to Language Boosts Infant Cognition
Mother's Milk May Help Prevent Blindness In Preemies
Retinopathy of Prematurity
is a disease of the
affecting prematurely born babies generally having
received intensive neonatal care, in which oxygen therapy is used on them
due to the premature development of their lungs. It is thought to be
caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels which may result in
scarring and retinal detachment. ROP can be mild and may resolve
spontaneously, but it may lead to blindness in serious cases. As such, all
preterm babies are at risk for ROP, and very low birth-weight is an
additional risk factor. Both oxygen toxicity and relative hypoxia can
contribute to the development of ROP.
cost-effective solutions for newborns in need
of intensive medical care.
Child Birth Connection
Penn Researchers Develop Placenta-on-a-chip
can fully model the
transport of nutrients across the placental barrier.
causes of preterm
birth and ways to prevent it.
is a type of
childbirth, which can affect both sexes. Symptoms may include extreme
sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability, and changes
in sleeping or eating patterns. Onset is typically between one week and
one month following childbirth. PPD can also negatively affect the
Women, Infants and Children’s ProgramChild
is the process of growing to maturity. In
biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult
Breast Feeding - Nursing
also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and
young children with milk from a woman's breast. Health professionals
recommend that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life
and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. During the first few
weeks of life babies may nurse roughly every two to three hours. The
duration of a feeding is usually ten to fifteen minutes on each breast.
Older children feed less often. Mothers may pump milk so that it can be
used later when breastfeeding is not possible. Breastfeeding has a number
of benefits to both mother and baby, which infant formula lacks.
is a protein
that in humans is best known for its role in
enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk. It is influential
in over 300 separate processes in various vertebrates. Prolactin is
secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen
treatment, ovulation and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in pulses in
between these events. Prolactin plays an essential role in metabolism,
regulation of the immune system and pancreatic development.Malnutrition
The Milky Way
2014 Documentary about Breast feeding
(04/01/2014 | 1 hr. 33 min.)
What we don't know about mother's milk: Katie Hinde
Baby Friendly Hospital
Milk Sharing Bank
Component of human breast milk enhances cognitive development in babies
Investigators show that early exposure to a carbohydrate found in breast
milk, called 2'FL, positively influences neurodevelopment. Maternal
factors, such as breast milk, have been shown to affect a baby's
development, and previous animal studies have determined that a
carbohydrate, the oligosaccharide 2'FL found in maternal milk, positively
Breastfeeding for the first 3 months was linked with a lower risk of
respiratory allergies and asthma when children reached 6 years of age
Golchi holds 2 beverages of different temperatures at once
Breast Feeding Consultant or Lactation Consultant
Only 15% of Babies in the U.S
Why Most Women “Can’t” Breastfeed
What causes women to stop breastfeeding early?
Potential sociodemographic, physical, mental, and social factors
may cause breastfeeding mothers to stop breastfeeding before infants reach
6 months of age. Mothers who were young, had a low level of education, and
returned to work within 12 weeks after giving birth were more likely to
stop breastfeeding before 6 months. Those who gave birth by caesarean
section and who had an inadequate milk supply also tended to stop
Boosting the milk of premature babies with healthy bacteria may have
helped halve the number of serious gut problems and infections, according
to new research
New Born Nutrition
Natural Sugars in breastmilk linked to early childhood height and weight
found in breast-milk may influence a child's growth
from infancy through early childhood, according to a new study.
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children
Infants who were started on solid foods at or before three months of age
showed changes in the levels of gut bacteria and bacterial byproducts,
called short-chain fatty acids, measured in their stool samples, according
to a new study. Infants introduced early to solid foods show gut bacteria
changes that may portend future health risks. Gut microbiome shifts may
explain how early dietary factors bring later health risks.
Poor Nutrition Dangers
Stunting is the impaired growth and development that children experience
from poor nutrition
, repeated infection, and inadequate psychosocial
stimulation. Children are defined as stunted if their height-for-age is
more than two standard deviations below the WHO Child Growth Standards median.
Stunting in early life
-- particularly in the first 1000 days from
conception until the age of two - impaired growth has adverse functional
consequences on the child. Some of those consequences include poor
cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity
and, when accompanied by excessive weight gain later in childhood, an
increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases in adult life.
attachment, and feeding in early child development. A strong
maternal-infant (or caregiver-infant) bond provided through psychosocial
stimulation is essential for positive child development. The formation of
this bond at the beginning of life is an essential step that sets the
stage for cognitive, emotional, and social development later in life.
Feeding and other care practices provide opportunities for psychosocial
stimulation and help to establish a positive attachment between caregiver and child.
is a reduced growth rate in human development. It is a primary manifestation of
(or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as
diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due
to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished mother.
is a manufactured food designed and marketed
for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared
for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid
(with or without additional water). The U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) defines infant formula as "a food which purports to
be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants
by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete
or partial substitute for human milk".
W.H.O International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes
Dangers of Baby Formula
14 Risks of Formula
Benefits of Skin to Skin Contact between Mother and her Baby
is the continued activity of the
enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the
digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the
enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. In some human populations,
though, lactase persistence has recently evolved as an adaptation to the
consumption of nonhuman
milk and dairy products
beyond infancy. The majority of people around
the world remain lactase nonpersistent, and consequently are affected by
varying degrees of lactose intolerance as adults. However, not all
genetically lactase nonpersistent individuals are noticeably lactose
intolerant, and not all lactose-intolerant individuals have the lactase
is a protein that in humans is best known
for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to
produce milk; Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary
gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment,
ovulation, and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in a
pulsatile fashion in between these events. Prolactin
also plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation
of the immune system, and pancreatic development.
Breast-Feeding Could Save 800,000 Lives a year.
Researchers analyzed data
from 28 studies, and their
findings suggest that the lives of 823,000 children
worldwide under the age of five could be saved annually,
and about 20,000 breast cancer deaths could be
prevented, if universal breastfeeding occurred. Research
indicates that in high-income countries breastfeeding
reduces the risk of sudden infant deaths by more than
In low and middle-income countries breastfeeding can
reduce about half of all diarrhea illnesses and a third
of respiratory infections. The authors said it may also
increase intelligence, and might protect against obesity
and diabetes in later life.
For nursing women, breastfeeding provided protection
against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, the
authors wrote. It might also protect against ovarian
cancer and type 2 diabetes.
Saving Lives at Birth
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
NIFT Infant Feeding Cup
milk has varied flavors
whereas formula milk has a
What mothers eat, even before we're born, affect the way
we'll respond to those flavors when we later encounter
them because they seem familiar. Babies are most open to
trying new flavors between the ages of 4 and 7 months.
in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Mammals get their name from the Latin word mamma, "breast". The mammary
glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates (for
example, humans and chimpanzees), the udder in ruminants (for example,
cows, goats, and deer), and the dugs of other animals (for example, dogs
and cats). Lactorrhea, the occasional production of milk by the glands,
can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation, the production of
enough milk for nursing, occurs only in phenotypic females who have
gestated in recent months or years. It is directed by hormonal guidance
from sex steroids. In a few mammalian species, male lactation can occur.
is defined as episodes of
crying for more than three hours a day
, for more than three days a
week, for three weeks in an otherwise healthy child. Often crying occurs
in the evening. It typically does not result in long term problems. The
crying can cause frustration for the parents, depression following
delivery, excess visits to the doctor, and child abuse.
Infant Antibiotic use linked to Adult Diseases
Excessive pregnancy weight gain may be associated with obesity
in the offspring
is a medical procedure used in prenatal
diagnosis of chromosomal
and fetal infections, and also for sex determination, in
which a small amount of
, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the
amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and then the fetal DNA is
examined for genetic abnormalities. The most common reason to have an "amnio"
is to determine whether a baby has certain genetic disorders or a
chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome. Amniocentesis (or another
chorionic villus sampling
(CVS)) can diagnose these problems in the
womb. Amniocentesis is performed when a woman is between 14 and 16 weeks
gestation. Women who choose to have this test are primarily those at
increased risk for genetic and chromosomal problems, in part because the
test is invasive and carries a small risk of miscarriage. This process can
be used for prenatal sex discernment and hence this procedure has legal
restrictions in some countries.
Vitamin D levels during pregnancy linked with child IQ
. A study showed
that mothers' vitamin D levels during pregnancy were associated with their
children's IQ, suggesting that higher vitamin D levels in pregnancy may
lead to greater childhood IQ scores.
Neonatal Insulin Action Impairs Hypothalamic Neurocircuit
Formation in Response to Maternal High-Fat Feeding
Excess Folic Acid during pregnancy harms brain development of mice
Researchers found too much folic acid was just as detrimental as too
Changing Diapers - Shit Happens
type of underwear that allows the wearer to
defecate or urinate
use of a
, by absorbing
or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the
external environment. When diapers become soiled, they require changing,
generally by a second person such as a parent or caregiver. Failure to
change a diaper on a sufficiently regular basis can result in skin
problems around the area covered by the diaper. Diapers are made of cloth
or synthetic disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of
fabric such as cotton, hemp, bamboo, microfiber, or even plastic fibers
such as PLA or PU, and can be washed and reused multiple times. Disposable
diapers contain absorbent chemicals and are thrown away after use. Diapers
are primarily worn by infants, toddlers who are not yet potty trained, and
by children who experience bedwetting.
They are also used by adults with incontinence
, in certain
circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable or for psychological
reasons. These can include those of advanced age, patients bed-bound in a
hospital, individuals with certain types of physical or mental disability,
diaper fetishists, and people working in extreme conditions, such as
astronauts. It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits.
The Engineering of a Disposable Diaper
: To change your baby,
follow the steps below: Lay your baby on his back. Remove the soiled
diaper. Lift your baby up gently so you can scoot the diaper out from
under his bottom. Use wipes to clean your baby's diaper region. If the
area is red or inflamed, soothe it with diaper ointment. How to
Clean Baby during Diaper Change | Infant Care
is the process of training someone, particularly a
young child or infant, to use the toilet for urination and
. Little is known
about toilet training in pre-modern societies, but attitudes toward
training in recent history have fluctuated substantially, and may vary
across cultures and according to demographics. Many the contemporary
approaches to toilet training favor a behaviouralism- and cognitive
psychology-based approach. Specific recommendations on techniques vary
considerably, although a range of these are generally considered
effective, and specific research on their comparative effectiveness is
lacking. No single approach may be universally effective, either across
learners or for the same learner across time, and trainers may need to
adjust their techniques according to what is most effective in their
situation. Training may begin shortly after birth in some cultures.
However, in much of the developed world this occurs between the age of 18
months and two years, with the majority of children fully trained by age
four, although many children may still experience occasional accidents.
Certain behavioral or medical disorders may affect toilet training, and
extend the time and effort necessary for successful completion. In certain
circumstances, these will require professional intervention by a medical
professional. However, this is rare and even for those children who face
difficulties in training, the vast majority of children can be
successfully trained. Children may face certain risks associated with
training, such as slips or falling toilet seats, and toilet training may
act in some circumstances as a trigger for abuse. Certain technologies
have been developed for use in toilet training, some specialized and
others commonly used. Hygiene
How to Potty Train
Kids in Three Days | Parents
There is a time when an infant's attention
moves from oral stimulation to anal stimulation (usually the bowels but
occasionally the bladder), usually synchronous with learning to control
their excretory functions—in other words, any form of child training and
is not specifically linked to toilet training. Freud posited that children
who experience conflicts, in which libido energy is under-indulged during
this period of time, perhaps too-strongly chastised for toilet-training
accidents, may develop "anal retentive" fixations or personality traits.
These traits are associated with a child's efforts at excretory control:
orderliness, stubbornness, and compulsions for control. Conversely, those
who are overindulged during this period, may develop "anal-expulsive"
Sleep Training - Safe Sleeping Positions
sleep on their back
with no items like toys or
that could entangle or suffocate the baby.
For safety reasons, the American Academy of
Pediatrics recommends babies should sleep without any loose blankets
, so at night
it's best to choose an outfit that keeps your baby comfortable without extra layers
. Avoid over-bundling your baby: most nights your infant can
wear a onesie and a cotton swaddle, or cotton pajamas with feet. In the
winter, heavier pajamas or an additional sleep sack (a sleeveless,
wearable blanket) will work. Older children tend to kick off their covers
, so you may want to dress your toddler or young child in an
outfit that works without blankets as well. Choose pajama fabrics that are
breathable and won't cause your child to sweat during the night. The same
general principle of cool air for better sleep applies to children, so try
to keep the room in the mid-60 degree range.
Sleep Training to help babies learn to fall asleep by themselves.
Babies who feel secure are better able to handle separations, especially
at night. Cuddling and Comforting
your baby during the day can help him or
her feel more secure. Other ways to help your baby learn to sleep include
the following: Allow time for naps each day as needed for the age of the
baby. Avoid stimulation and activity close to bedtime. Establish a bedtime
, such as bath, reading books, and rocking. Play
your baby is getting sleepy. Introduce a transitional object such as a
small blanket or soft toy that your baby can take to bed, but not before
your baby is old enough (able to roll and sit) to avoid the risk of
suffocation. Tuck your baby into bed when he and she is drowsy, but before
going to sleep. Comfort and reassure your baby when he or she is afraid.
For night awakenings, comfort and reassure your baby by patting and
soothing, but avoid taking your baby out of bed. If your baby cries, wait
a few minutes, then return and reassure with patting and soothing. Then,
say goodnight and leave (repeat as needed). Be consistent with the routine
and your responses. Interventions
How to train baby to sleep
? Teaching Your Baby to Put themselves to
Sleep. Wake your baby when you put her down to sleep. Begin to break the
association between nursing/eating/sucking and sleep. Help your little one
learn to fall asleep lying still (in your arms). Help your little one
learn to fall asleep in his bed. Touch instead of holding, in her bed.
Behavioral treatment of bedtime problems and night waking's in infants and
Improving infant sleep and maternal mental health: a cluster randomized
What are the sleep needs of an infant?Place your infant on his
or her back for sleep or naps
. This can decrease the risk for SIDS,
aspiration, and choking. Never place your baby on his or her side or
stomach for sleep or naps
. If your baby is awake, allow your child time on
his or her tummy as long as you are supervising, to decrease the chances
that your child will develop a flat head. Share your room instead of your
bed with your baby. Putting your baby in bed with you raises the risk for
strangulation, suffocation, entrapment, and SIDS. Bed sharing is not
recommended for twins or other higher multiples. Avoid overbundling,
overdressing, or covering an infant's face or head. This will prevent him
or her from getting overheated, reducing the risk for SIDS. Avoid using
loose bedding or soft objects—bumper pads, pillows, comforters,
blankets—in an infant's crib or bassinet to help prevent suffocation,
strangulation, entrapment, or SIDS.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
is the sudden unexplained death
of a child less than one year of age. Also known as cot death or crib death.
SIDS is also known as cot death or crib
death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of
age. Diagnosis requires that the death remains unexplained even after a
thorough autopsy and detailed death scene investigation.
SIDS usually occurs during sleep
death occurs between the hours of 00:00 and 09:00. There is usually no
evidence of struggle and no noise produced.
Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood
is the death of a
child over the age of 12 months which remains unexplained after a thorough
investigation and autopsy. There has not been enough research to identify
risk factors, common characteristics, or prevention strategies for SUDC.
The Sudden Unexplained
Death In Childhood (SUDC) Foundation
Suffocation Prevention and Sleep Safety
Protecting Kids From Suffocation
Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation
NeoNatalie is an inflatable simulator designed to teach
basic neonatal resuscitation skills
Parents shouldn't worry about their baby's inconsistent sleep patterns
New parents often expect their baby to start sleeping through the night
around the time they reach six months of age. But according to a new study
parents should view sleep consolidation as a process, instead of a
milestone to be achieved at a specific age. researchers asked mothers to
keep a sleep diary about their six-month-old infant for two weeks. On
average, mothers reported that their infant slept 6 hours consecutively
for about 5 nights out of a two-week period, and 8 consecutive hours for
about 3 nights out of the same period. Half of the infants, however, never
slept 8 hours consecutively. The researchers also found that some parental
practices were related to variability in sleep patterns. For example,
breastfeeding and co-sleeping were associated with more variability in
sleep patterns night to night. While this finding is consistent with many
studies, the researchers note that other factors could explain this
occurrence. For instance, mothers who are breastfeeding and co-sleeping
are more likely to observe their infant's night awakenings, even though
these awakenings are not necessarily problematic or disturbing.
Crying - Cry it Out
Long continued or
can produce so much cortisol that it can damage
a baby's brain which reduces their capacity to learn. Don't jump in
prematurely. Your baby might actually be asleep, or on the verge of
falling back to sleep on his or her own. By intervening too soon, you can
create infant sleep problems.
How often should a baby cry
average, newborns cry for about two hours each day. Although the crying is
spread out through the day, all that wailing adds up to more than you
probably expected. Between birth and about 6 weeks of age, the amount of
crying typically increases to almost three hours each day, no matter what
you do!Common Reasons Babies Cry
Sleepiness or fatigue, Wet or dirty diaper, Hunger, Overstimulation from
noise or activity, Colic, acid reflux, or food allergies, Pain or illness,
Gas, Hot or Cold, Stranger anxiety or fear.
Soothing a Crying Baby Tips
: Hold your baby
and gently move and rock back and forth or rock the baby in a Chair or
Glider. Try to feed the Baby. Give the baby a Massage. Gently tap the
babies back to release gas. Use a gentle touch and stroke the babies chest
from the center outward and make small circles on their stomach, around
their belly button. Encourage Sucking. Swaddle your Baby. Wear Baby in a
Front-Pack Carrier. . Soothe the baby with White Noise. Sing a Song.
Entertain. Wash Away the Tears. Keep Calm and Carry On.
. For many infants, rocking,
or using another kind of rhythmic movement, works as a natural sleep aid,
since it reminds them of being inside their mother's body. While some
babies have a strong preference for one particular type of movement, the
truth is, there are many ways to soothe an infant. But be aware if a
child's head banging and body rocking becomes more frequent. Though most
children will grow out of this behavior by school age, you should always
be aware of behaviors that can become problematic or turn into a rhythmic
is a type of chair with two curved bands or rockers
attached to the bottom of the legs, connecting the legs on each side to
each other. The rockers contact the floor at only two points, giving the
occupant the ability to rock back and forth by shifting their weight or
pushing lightly with their feet. Rocking chairs are most commonly made of
wood. Some rocking chairs can fold.
How To Calm A
Crying Baby - Dr. Robert Hamilton Demonstrates "The Hold" (Official)
Calm a Crying Baby
How To Calm a
is the term used to
describe infants who cry excessively for no apparent reason during the
first three months of life. Colic is one of the most distressing problems
of infancy. It is distressing for the infant, the parents, and for the
health care provider.
is defined as episodes of crying for more than three hours
a day, for more than three days a week, for three weeks in an otherwise
healthy child. Often crying occurs in the evening. It typically does not
result in long-term problems. The crying can result in frustration of the
parents, depression following delivery, excess visits to the doctor, and
A Baby Crying is almost like a fire alarm going off in your head
Letting your baby cry without ignoring your child’s basic means of
communication. Your baby cries for a reason. Maybe they’re tired, hungry
or cold. Maybe they’re frightened, poorly or anxious. Whatever the reason,
their cries are often their only means of communicating with you. When a
baby cries for a prolonged period of time, the body releases an increased
amount of cortisol, the stress hormone. This stress hormone increases
feelings of anxiety and can lower growth hormones which in turn can
inhibit the development of nerve tissue in the brain- resulting in
suppressed growth weakening of the immune system. Researchers have also
found that babies who are regularly left to cry for long periods are
likely to experience overactive adrenaline systems which can lead to
aggressive and impulsive behavior. A baby crying
might be a blessing
. Be grateful you can hear the cries because it
will be a lot more difficult to hear the cries when someone doesn't make a
sound, meaning, when people get older, they sometimes stop crying even
though they need help and even when they are in pain. So how will you know
when someone needs you? How will you know if someone isn't suffering in
silence? Sound Perception.
Having a baby changes the
structure of the brain so that regions that control empathy and anxiety
have increased activity and that, along with hormonal changes, can make
new moms react to a baby's cry with intense feelings of protectiveness and
worry. The first trick to calming your baby is to recognize that you
yourself are anything but calm. Take a moment to name how you are feeling
(frustrated, angry, sad, rejected, etc.). Try taking deep, even breaths.
People often breathe shallowly when stressed, so changing your breathing
actually helps you feel calmer. Deep, even breathing sends the message to
your nervous system that you are safe, which helps your body start to
regulate. Breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth. Try
counting to 10, or putting your hand on your stomach as you breathe to
make sure you’re taking deep breaths.
Babies first Words
refers to excessive
fear or worry about separation from home or an attachment figure.
Separation anxiety is a normal stage in an infant's development, as it
helps children understand relationships and master their environment.
Separation anxiety differs from normal clinginess. Children with the
disorder can't think about anything but the present fear of separation.
They may have nightmares or regular physical complaints. They may be
reluctant to go to school or other places.
Separation Anxiety Disorder
disorder in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety
regarding separation from home and/or from people to whom the individual
has a strong emotional attachment (e.g., a parent, caregiver, significant
other or siblings). It is most common in infants and small children,
typically between the ages of six to seven months to three years, although
it may pathologically manifest itself in older children, adolescents and
adults. Separation anxiety is a natural part of the developmental process.
Unlike SAD (indicated by excessive anxiety), normal separation anxiety
indicates healthy advancements in a child's cognitive maturation and
should not be considered a developing behavioral problem. According to the
American Psychiatric Association (APA), separation anxiety disorder is an
excessive display of fear and distress when faced with situations of
separation from the home and/or from a specific attachment figure. The
anxiety that is expressed is categorized as being atypical of the expected
developmental level and age. The severity of the symptoms ranges from
anticipatory uneasiness to full-blown anxiety about separation. SAD may
cause significant negative effects within areas of social and emotional
functioning, family life, and physical health of the disordered
individual. The duration of this problem must persist for at least four
weeks and must present itself before a child is eighteen years of age to
be diagnosed as SAD in children, but can now be diagnosed in adults with a
duration typically lasting six months in adults as specified by the DSM-5.
Non-medication based treatments are the first choice when treating
individuals diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Counseling tends
to be the best replacement for drug treatments. There are two different
non-medication approaches to treat separation anxiety. The first is a
psychoeducational intervention, often used in conjunction with other
therapeutic treatments. This specifically involves educating the
individual and their family so that they are knowledgeable about the
disorder, as well as parent counseling and guiding teachers on how to help
the child. The second is a psychotherapeutic intervention when prior
attempts are not effective. Psychotherapeutic interventions are more
structured and include behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, contingency,
psychodynamic psychotherapy, and family therapy.