Human Brain - Neuroscience - Cognitive Science

The Human Brain is the most complex processer of information on the planet. Our ability to process information and store information is what makes us human. Information defines us, information controls us, and information teaches us. Language is the software of the mind and your body is the hardware. And just like a computer, the brain is a technology that can be misused or manipulated. So if you don't learn how to use it, you'll lose it.

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Human Brain X-Ray Image Brain Research - Plasticity - Brain MaintenanceBrain Injury - Neuroscience - Imaging - Brain and Computer Similarities - Wonderful Brain (pdf) - Artificial Brain

Learning about the inner workings of your brain can help you to understand your abilities as well as your vulnerabilities. The prefrontal cortex, which controls focus, planning, and efficient action, takes almost 20 years to mature. A baby’s brain cerebral cortex expands by 88 percent in the first year of life. Its cells are also reorganizing themselves and rapidly forming new connections to one another. The brain is complex, but it's not impossible to understand.

Mind - What's Going On Up There

Mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgment, and memory. The mind is the faculty of a human being's reasoning and thoughts. It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions.

Signals - Nervous System - Wires - Proteins

Mental is involving the mind or an intellectual process.

Behavior - Psychology - Intelligence - Soul - Cognitive Science - Abstract - Fantasy

Psyche is that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings. The seat of the faculty of reason. The immaterial part of a person. The actuating cause of an individual life. Mentally prepare.

Theory of Mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own. Mirrors.

Empathy - Identity - Body Image - Theory of Mind (youtube) - Consciousness (dualism)

Children do not understand concept of others having false beliefs until age 6 or 7. Understanding how others think, including the ability of other people to hold false beliefs, is important for social interaction. Called theory of mind, this ability has been thought to occur in children around age 4 years. New research suggests otherwise and shows that children do not understand others' false beliefs until age 6 or 7 years. Young children can pass theory-of-mind experiments using rudimentary concepts of seeing and knowing, without an understanding of mental representation. This work has implications for development and education.

Child Development - Language - Operating System

Mirror Neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. Mirror Stage.

Philosophy of Mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. Gestalt Psychology is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology. Philosophy of Mind.

Functionalism in philosophy of mind is a view in the theory of the mind. It states that mental states (beliefs, desires, being in pain, etc.) are constituted solely by their functional role – that is, they have causal relations to other mental states, numerous sensory inputs, and behavioral outputs. Functionalism developed largely as an alternative to the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. Functionalism is a theoretical level between the physical implementation and behavioral output. Therefore, it is different from its predecessors of Cartesian dualism (advocating independent mental and physical substances) and Skinnerian behaviorism and physicalism (declaring only physical substances) because it is only concerned with the effective functions of the brain, through its organization or its "software programs". Since mental states are identified by a functional role, they are said to be realized on multiple levels; in other words, they are able to be manifested in various systems, even perhaps computers, so long as the system performs the appropriate functions. While computers are physical devices with electronic substrate that perform computations on inputs to give outputs, so brains are physical devices with neural substrate that perform computations on inputs which produce behaviors.

Functional Psychology refers to a psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment. As such, it provides the general basis for developing psychological theories not readily testable by controlled experiments and for applied psychology.

Mind-Body Problem is the question of how the human mind and body can causally interact. This question arises when mind and body are considered as distinct, based on the premise that the mind and the body are fundamentally different in nature.

Noetics is a branch of metaphysics concerned with the study of mind as well as intellect. There is also a reference to the science of noetics, which covers the field of thinking and knowing, thought and knowledge, as well as mental operations, processes, states, and products through the data of the written word.

Farthest Most Outer Reaches of the Mind are the thoughts never explored and the questions never asked.

Furthest Thing from Someone's Mind is something that never occurred to someone or something that someone is definitely not thinking about.

Mind-Body Dualism is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable. (At times you could feel that the mind is separate, by focusing or meditating. But the body influences the mind and vice versa. Will Power is a skill).

Ghost in the Machine the notion that the mind is distinct from the body and refers to the idea as "the ghost in the machine".

The Concept of Mind argues that "mind" is "a philosophical illusion". By Design.

Black Box is a device that performs particular functions without the user having any knowledge of its internal workings or without the user understanding how the device processes information, or the reasoning behind its decisions. Its implementation is invisible or secret. A black box is a system or an object that can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs or by the transfer of certain characteristics. The word black is used in this sense to describe something that does not transmit any visible light, so it's impossible to understand, since you can't see anything. Many things can be referred to as a black box, like a transistor or an algorithm. But they may not be a black box to someone who designs and creates transistors or algorithms. The human brain is a black box to most people because we are just starting to learn more about how the brain works. The opposite of a black box is a white box, which is a system that is transparent and open, and the inner workings, components and logic are available for inspection. A black box is like a calculator, it gives you the answer but does not tell you how the answer was calculated. Like the decisions some judges make on the Supreme Court.

Black Box Testing - Analyze - Forensic Science - Knowledge Preservation - Reptilian Brain - Drones - Chatbots - Hidden Layers in Neural Networks - Fake News - Ulterior Motives - Charlatans - False Flag - Prejudice - Assumptions - Behind the Curtains - Controlling History - Transparency - Illusion of Control

Closed Platform or walled garden or closed ecosystem is a software system wherein the carrier or service provider has control over applications, content, and/or media, and restricts convenient access to non-approved applicants or content. This is in contrast to an open platform, wherein consumers generally have unrestricted access to applications and content.

What is the Brain Made of - How does the Brain get Energy

Whole Brain from AboveHuman Brain weighs about 3 Pounds, which is 2% of a person's weight, but consumes as much as 25 percent of our body’s oxygen, burns 20% of our total calories each day, with glucose being the main energy source for the brain that runs on around 12 watts of power, which is a fifth of the power required by a standard 60 watt light bulb. The Brain has 400 miles of capillaries, 86 Billion Microscopic neurons in constant synaptic communication, making 10 quadrillion calculations every second. Each neuron is like a tiny branching tree, whose limbs reach out and touch other neurons making between 5,000 and 10,000 connections with other neurons, that’s more than 500 trillion connections performing a dazzling array of complex mental processes every second, geared to generating and regulating our sensations and perceptions, how we reason, how we think, our emotions, our mental images, our attention span, learning, and our memory which is essentially a Pattern of connections between neurons. Protein.

What is the synaptic firing rate of the human brain? 200 times per second, 17.2 trillion action potentials? Each neuron has, on average, about 7,000 synaptic connections with other neurons. That puts the synapse count in the neighborhood of 600 trillion synapses. In young children, before synaptic pruning begins in earnest, the estimated number reaches as high as 1 quadrillion synapses.  Brain Waves.

Resting Metabolic Rate of the Human Brain - 1300 kilocalories, or kcal, the kind used in nutrition. 1,300 kcal over 24 hours = 54.16 kcal per hour = 15.04 gram calories per second. 15.04 gram calories/sec = 62.93 joules/sec = about 63 watts. 20 percent of 63 watts = 12.6 watts.

Energy Drain of a Brain at Rest. Tiny sacs called vesicles, that hold messages being transmitted between brain cells, may be constantly oozing energy, and that leakage is likely a trade-off for the brain being ready to fire at all times, according to a new study published December 3rd 2021 in the journal Science Advances. Scientists previously assumed this energy drain had to do with the fact that the brain is electrically active, which means that brain cells, or neurons, are constantly firing electrical signals to communicate, a process that burns large amounts of an energy molecule known as adenosine 5'-triphosphate or ATP. A team has been researching junctions in the brain called synapses, where neurons meet and communicate by launching tiny vesicles packed with chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. They found that a "proton pump" was responsible for about 44% of all the energy used in the resting synapse. When they dug further, the researchers discovered that the proton pump had to keep working, and burning ATP, because the vesicles were always "leaking" protons. But the researchers found that even after the vesicles were full of neurotransmitters, the transporter proteins continued to change shape. Even though they weren't carrying neurotransmitters into the vesicles, they continued to spit protons out, requiring the proton pump to keep working to refill the vesicle's reservoir of protons.

ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate is a nucleoside triphosphate which is a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts to either the di- or monophosphates, respectively ADP and AMP. Other processes regenerate ATP such that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA. From the perspective of biochemistry. ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components: a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate. 3 ways ATP is generated: Cellular Respiration. Aerobic, converts glucose to 36 ATP+co2+H2O. Creatine phosphate breakdown. Anaerobic, recharges ADP to ATP. Fermentation. anaerobic, converts glucose to 2 ATP + lactic acid. Magnesium - Mitochondrial DNA - Proton Pump.

ATP Trapping. Trapping the ATP binding state leads to a detailed understanding of the F1-ATPase mechanism.

Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Polyphosphates can adopt linear or a cyclic ring structures. In biology, the polyphosphate esters ADP and ATP are involved in energy storage. A variety of polyphosphates find application in mineral sequestration in municipal waters, generally being present at 1 to 5 ppm. GTP, CTP, and UTP are also nucleotides important in the protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism, respectively.

Nucleoside Triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar. They are the building blocks of both DNA and RNA, which are chains of nucleotides made through the processes of DNA replication and transcription. Nucleoside triphosphates also serve as a source of energy for cellular reactions and are involved in signaling pathways. Nucleoside triphosphates cannot be absorbed well, so they are typically synthesized within the cell. Synthesis pathways differ depending on the specific nucleoside triphosphate being made, but given the many important roles of nucleoside triphosphates, synthesis is tightly regulated in all cases. Nucleoside analogues may also be used to treat viral infections. For example, azidothymidine (AZT) is a nucleoside analogue used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

A piece of brain matter the size of a grain of sand contains approximately 100,000 neurons, 2 million axons, and 1 billion synapses.

"So your brain requires a lot of food energy, so don't waste it. You have to make sure that you keep adding to your knowledge base so that you are not just feeding yourself to run in circles, to never progress or amount to anything is a waste of potential."

Scientists explain why neurons consume so much fuel even when at rest. Pound for pound, the brain consumes vastly more energy than other organs, and it remains a fuel-guzzler even when its neurons are not firing signals called neurotransmitters to each other. Now researchers have found that the process of packaging neurotransmitters may be responsible for this energy drain.

How much Oxygen does the Brain need? The brain has a high energy demand and reacts very sensitively to oxygen deficiency. The brain requires a disproportionate amount of energy compared to its body mass. This energy is mainly generated by aerobic metabolic processes that consume considerable amounts of oxygen. Therefore, the oxygen concentrations in the brain are an important parameter that influences the function of nerve cells and glial cells. However, how much oxygen is consumed in the brain and how this is related to neuronal activity was so far largely unknown.

Brain Basics Provides Information on How the Brain Works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps us better understand and treat disorders.

Gray Matter is made up of about 86 Billion Neurons and just as many non neuronal cells which includes not just glial, but also the endothelial cells, which gather and transmit signals while the white matter is made of dendrites and axons that the neurons use to transmit signals. The brain is composted of about 75% water and is the fattiest organ in the body, consisting of a minimum of 60% fat. It's not the size of the brain that matters, it is the number of neurons in the brain that gives it more information processing ability. Bigger brains sometimes have less neurons because the neurons are larger, and smaller brains can have more neurons because the neurons are smaller.

Cortex - Lobes - Reptilian Brain

The human brain is built and designed to learn and built to be creative. It's very important to know how you developed, what influences affected your development, and that human development continues throughout your lifetime.

Left Side of Brain - Serial Processing

Serial Memory Processing is the act of attending to and processing one item at a time. This is usually contrasted against parallel memory processing, which is the act of attending to and processing all items simultaneously. Serial processing is processing that occurs sequentially. There is an explicit order in which operations occur and in general the results of one action are known before a next action is considered. Serial processing systems may mimic the action of parallel systems, albeit with a concurrent (and usually serious) loss in efficiency. Compare to parallel processing.

Jill Bolte Taylor TED Talks (youtube)

N400 is part of the normal brain response to words and other meaningful (or potentially meaningful) stimuli, including visual and auditory words, sign language signs, pictures, faces, environmental sounds, and smells. A component of time-locked EEG signals known as event-related potentials (ERP). It is a negative-going deflection that peaks around 400 milliseconds post-stimulus onset, although it can extend from 250-500 ms, and is typically maximal over centro-parietal electrode sites.

Cerebral Hemisphere. The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter, the cerebral cortex, that is supported by an inner layer of white matter. In eutherian (placental) mammals, the hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a very large bundle of nerve fibers. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure and the fornix, also join the hemispheres and these are also present in other vertebrates. These commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. There are three poles of the hemispheres named as the occcipital pole (at the back), the frontal pole, and at the front of the temporal lobe the temporal pole. The central sulcus is a prominent fissure which separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Macroscopically the hemispheres are roughly mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, which is a slight warping of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side. On a microscopic level, the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, shows the functions of cells, quantities of neurotransmitter levels and receptor subtypes to be markedly asymmetrical between the hemispheres. However, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or even across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species.

Interhemispheric is between hemispheres, especially between the two hemispheres of the brain.

Unihemispheric Slow-Wave Sleep

Hemispheric Asymmetry Handedness and Cerebral Dominance (Britannica)

Info Graphic (image)

How the brain is not symmetrical and the hemispheres are not equal. Although the brain is divided into two halves, it is not exactly a mirror image. Some functions are processed more on the left side, others more on the right. Scientists have now discovered heritable underpinnings of brain asymmetry and how much we share with monkeys.

They say that it's easier to rehabilitate a person who has had a stroke on the left side of the brain then it is to rehabilitate a person who has had a stroke on the right side, why?

The ability to spell is in two areas of the left hemisphere, one towards the front of the brain and the other at the lower part of the brain towards the back.

Cerebral Cortex

Midbrain is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

Anatomical Terms of Location. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood. That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the middle.

Linear Learners - Holistic Learners

Children use both brain hemispheres to understand language, unlike adults. Infants and young children have brains with a superpower, of sorts, say neuroscientists. Whereas adults process most discrete neural tasks in specific areas in one or the other of their brain's two hemispheres, youngsters use both the right and left hemispheres to do the same task. The finding suggests a possible reason why children appear to recover from neural injury much easier than adults.

Corpus Callosum is a large, C-shaped nerve fiber bundle found beneath the cerebral cortex. It stretches across the midline of the brain, connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres. It makes up the largest collection of white matter tissue found in the brain. Callosal commissure, is a wide, thick nerve tract, consisting of a flat bundle of commissural fibers, beneath the cerebral cortex in the brain. The corpus callosum is only found in placental mammals. It spans part of the longitudinal fissure, connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres, enabling communication between them. It is the largest white matter structure in the human brain, about ten centimetres in length and consisting of 200–300 million axonal projections. A number of separate nerve tracts, classed as subregions of the corpus callosum, connect different parts of the hemispheres. The main ones are known as the genu, the rostrum, the trunk or body, and the splenium.

Corpus Callosotomy or Split-Brain Surgery may be performed in patients with the most extreme and uncontrollable forms of epilepsy, when frequent seizures affect both sides of the brain.

Split-Brain or callosal syndrome is a type of disconnection syndrome when the corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is severed to some degree. Thalamus.

Pingala is left brain dominant and is associated with the sun. Ida is the introverted, lunar nadi, and corresponds to the left side of the body and the right side of the brain. Left and Right Brain + Ida and Pingala Nadi.

180 Regions of the Brain. The human cerebral cortex requires a map or parcellation of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas.

Right Side of Brain - Parallel Processing

Parallel Processing in psychology is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality. This becomes most important in vision, as the brain divides what it sees into four components: color, motion, shape, and depth. These are individually analyzed and then compared to stored memories, which helps the brain identify what you are viewing. The brain then combines all of these into the field of view that you see and comprehend. Parallel processing has been linked, by some experimental psychologists, to the Stroop effect. This is a continual and seamless operation.

Parallel Processing in DSP implementation is a technique duplicating function units to operate different tasks (signals) simultaneously. Accordingly, we can perform the same processing for different signals on the corresponding duplicated function units. Further, due to the features of parallel processing, the parallel DSP design often contains multiple outputs, resulting in higher throughput than not parallel.

Parallel Computing is a type of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, or the execution of processes are carried out simultaneously.

Parallel (angles) - Parallel Wiring - Lineal Thinking - Multitasking - Intelligence

In parallel processing systems, many events may be considered and acted upon simultaneously. Since a variety of actions may be considered simultaneously, coherence in behavior is an issue for parallel systems. A parallel system may be synchronous, in which there is an explicit parallel decision cycle or asynchronous. In asynchronous systems, there are usually a set of independent components which act autonomously to one another; this makes coherence an even more difficult problem. A parallel architecture does not necessarily imply parallel processing; for instance, the human cognitive architecture is inherently serial at the cognitive level even though the biological band is explicitly parallel. However, there may tremendous improvements to efficiency for some parallel processing strategies, compared to serial ones.

Spatial intelligence - Music - Creativity

More parallel 'traffic' observed in human brains than in other animals. Brain signals are sent from a source to a target, establishing a polysynaptic pathway that intersects multiple brain regions, like a road with many stops along the way. In the non-human brains, information was sent along a single "road," while in humans, there were multiple parallel pathways between the same source and target.

Lateralization of Brain Function refers to how some neural functions, or cognitive processes tend to be more dominant in one hemisphere than the other. (Dual Brain Theory) The medial longitudinal fissure separates the human brain into two distinct cerebral hemispheres, connected by the corpus callosum. Although the macrostructure of the two hemispheres appears to be almost identical, different composition of neuronal networks allows for specialized function that is different in each hemisphere. Lateralization of brain structures is based on general trends expressed in healthy patients; however, there are numerous counterexamples to each generalization. Each human's brain develops differently leading to unique lateralization in individuals. This is different from specialization as lateralization refers only to the function of one structure divided between two hemispheres. Specialization is much easier to observe as a trend since it has a stronger anthropological history. The best example of an established lateralization is that of Broca's and Wernicke's areas where both are often found exclusively on the left hemisphere. These areas frequently correspond to handedness, however, meaning that the localization of these areas is regularly found on the hemisphere corresponding to the dominant hand (anatomically on the opposite side). Function lateralization, such as semantics, intonation, accentuation, and prosody, has since been called into question and largely been found to have a neuronal basis in both hemispheres. Another example is that each hemisphere in the brain tends to represent one side of the body. In the cerebellum this is the same bodyside, but in the forebrain this is predominantly the contralateral side.

Ambidextrous (using both hands)

Asymmetry is the lack of equality or the lack of equivalence between parts or aspects of something. Asymmetry is the absence of symmetry. The property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection. The absence of violation of symmetry that are either expected or desired can have important consequences for a system. Symmetry is an important property of both physical and abstract systems and it may be displayed in precise terms or in more aesthetic terms.

Brain Asymmetry means that the brain has an overall leftward posterior and rightward anterior asymmetry or brain torque. There are particularly large asymmetries in the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes, which increase in asymmetry in the antero-posterior direction beginning at the central region. Brain asymmetry can refer to at least two quite distinct findings. Neuroanatomical differences between the left and right sides of the brain, and Lateralized functional differences and lateralization of brain function. Neuroanatomical differences themselves exist on different scales, from neuronal densities, to the size of regions such as the planum temporale, to—at the largest scale—the torsion or "wind" in the human brain, reflected shape of the skull, which reflects a backward (posterior) protrusion of the left occipital bone and a forward (anterior) protrusion of the right frontal bone. In addition to gross size differences, both neurochemical and structural differences have been found between the hemispheres. Asymmetries appear in the spacing of cortical columns, as well as dendritic structure and complexity. Larger cell sizes are also found in layer III of Broca's area. The human brain has an overall leftward posterior and rightward anterior asymmetry (or brain torque). There are particularly large asymmetries in the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes, which increase in asymmetry in the antero-posterior direction beginning at the central region. Leftward asymmetry can be seen in the Heschl gyrus, parietal operculum, Silvian fissure, left cingulate gyrus, temporo-parietal region and planum temporale. Rightward asymmetry can be seen in the right central sulcus (potentially suggesting increased connectivity between motor and somatosensory cortices in the left side of the brain), lateral ventricle, entorhinal cortex, amygdala and temporo-parieto-occipital area. Sex-dependent brain asymmetries are also common. For example, human male brains are more asymmetrically lateralized than those of females. However, gene expression studies done by Hawrylycz and colleagues and Pletikos and colleagues, were not able to detect asymmetry between the hemispheres on the population level. People with autism have much more symmetrical brains than people without it.

Telling Left from Right: Cilia as cellular force sensors during embryogenesis. A new study now reveals that cilia in the organizer function as sensors for mechanical force exerted by flow to shape the left-right body plan of the developing embryo. Although the human body is externally symmetric across the left-right axis, there are remarkable left-right asymmetries in the shape and positioning of most internal organs including the heart, lungs, liver, stomach, and brain. Left-right asymmetry is known to be established during early embryogenesis by a small cluster of cells termed the left-right organizer. Within this organizer, motile cilia, hair-like structures on the cell surfaces, beat rapidly to create a leftward directional flow of extracellular fluid, which is the first outward sign of a left-right difference.

Central Sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe.

L-directed thinking and R-directed thinking. The L-directed (left brain–directed) thinking skills are sequential, literal, functional, textual, and analytic—typically functions believed to be performed by the left hemisphere of the human brain. The R-directed (right brain–directed) thinking skills are characterized as simultaneous, metaphorical, aesthetic, contextual, and synthetic—typically functions assigned to the right hemisphere of the brain.

Modularity of Mind is the notion that a mind may, at least in part, be composed of innate neural structures or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed functions with different regions supporting specific abilities. Domain specificity: modules only operate on certain kinds of inputs—they are specialized. Informational encapsulation: modules need not refer to other psychological systems in order to operate. Obligatory firing: modules process in a mandatory manner. Fast speed: probably due to the fact that they are encapsulated (thereby needing only to consult a restricted database) and mandatory (time need not be wasted in determining whether or not to process incoming input). Shallow outputs: the output of modules is very simple. Limited accessibility. Characteristic ontogeny: there is a regularity of development. Fixed neural architecture. Brain modules provide the basic building blocks from which larger, "intrinsic connectivity networks" are constructed. Each network includes multiple brain structures that are activated together when a person engages a particular cognitive skill. Rather than forming permanent connections, we are constantly updating our prior knowledge, but only if we continue to keep learning and updating what we know, which most people don't, and most assume that they are.

Evolutionary and heritable axes shape our brain. Every region has its place in the brain. However, it has been unclear why brain regions are located where they are. Now, scientists have defined two main axes along which brain regions are genetically organized, stretching from posterior to anterior and inferior to superior in the brain. These axes are mainly shaped by genes and evolution. Reptilian Brain

Cognitive Module is the modularity of mind and the closely related society of mind theory, a specialized tool or sub-unit that can be used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks.

List of Regions in the Human Brain (wiki)

Using a cappella to explain speech and music specialization. Study suggests humans have developed complementary neural systems in each hemisphere for auditory stimuli. Song sounds are processed simultaneously by two separate brain areas – one in the left hemisphere and one in the right. On the left side you can decode the speech content but not the melodic content, and on the right side you can decode the melodic content but not the speech content.

Researchers Were Not Right About Left Brains, Study Suggests. Uniquely human cognitive abilities may have evolved by adapting ancestral asymmetry pattern. The left and right side of the brain are involved in different tasks. This functional lateralization and associated brain asymmetry are well documented in humans. The left and right side of our brain are specialized for some cognitive abilities. For example, in humans, language is processed predominantly in the left hemisphere, and the right hand is controlled by the motor cortex in the left hemisphere.

Brain Maintenance 101 - Taking Care of Your Mind

All Schools need to Teach Students about proper Brain Maintenance.

Brain Parts Map Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. Neural Stem Cells.

Hippocampal Sclerosis is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus.

Alzheimer's - Brain Proteins - Cognition - Plasticity - Neuron Genesis - Wiring - Brain Food - Exercise

Synaptic Pruning is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals, including humans. Pruning starts near the time of birth and is completed by the time of sexual maturation in humans. At birth, the human brain consists of approximately 86 (± 8) billion neurons. The infant brain will increase in size by a factor of up to 5 by adulthood. Two factors contribute to this growth: the growth of synaptic connections between neurons, and the myelination of nerve fibers; the total number of neurons, however, remains the same. Pruning is influenced by environmental factors and is widely thought to represent learning. After adolescence, the volume of the synaptic connections decreases again due to synaptic pruning. Pruning is a function of the brain that helps to minimize the number of connections to a specific memory in order to make that memory more efficient with less noise. Pruning Plants also has benefits. Pruning negative thoughts can also have benefits. Clearing the cache in working memory can help free up neurons.

Nibbling Synapses: Glial cells eating of synapses may enhance learning and memory. As our brains develop, cells within it 'eat' neuronal elements to clear out debris, pathogens and help improve efficiency. A recent study showed that motor learning in mice helped enhance the engulfing of synapses by Bergmann glial cells. The discovery could have possible implications for explaining why synaptic shrinkage and loss occur in depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Synapses -- structures that allow neurons to pass signals to one another -- are regularly pruned throughout a brain's development to improve its efficiency. Disruption of this is thought to lead to various brain disorders. Glial cells, non-neuronal cells occupying about half of the brain, were previously believed to be like glue -- merely filling the gap between neurons. However, recent findings show that glia encode information in their own unique way. When cells engulf neighboring cells to flush out debris and pathogens, it is called phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by microglia, immune cells in the brain, in damaged and diseased brain tissue has long been recognized. Recent reports have established that astrocytes and microglia phagocytose neuronal elements, including synapses during early brain development or when dramatic neuronal network remodeling occurs in the diseased brain. Scientists capture detailed snapshots of mouse brain cells nibbling on neurons. 3D structures of cells and connections reveal new role for an understudied brain cell. The surprising findings point to another possible role for oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Immune system sculpts rat brains during development. Brain region size controls behavior preferences in adult rats. Researchers have identified the mechanism for why and how one brain region differs in size between male and female rats. The study found that immune system cells in the brains of females consume and digest neurons to sculpt a region of the brain during development and that later affects behavioral preferences in adulthood.

New study links placental oxygen levels to fetal brain development. Researchers use MRI to show how health of placenta may influence childhood cognition and behavior. Toxins.

Developmental crossroads in the brain. Study reveals how proteins direct nerve cell precursors to turn into specialized neurons. Brain development is a highly orchestrated process involving numerous parallel and sequential steps. Many of these steps depend on the activation of specific genes. A protein called MEIS2 plays a crucial role in this process: it activates genes necessary for the formation of inhibitory projection neurons. These neurons are vital for motion control and decision-making. A MEIS2 mutation, known from patients with severe intellectual disability, was found to disrupt these processes. The study provides valuable insights into brain development and consequences of genetic mutations.

Fixing Rogue Brain Cells may hold key to preventing neurodegeneration. Researchers identify new therapeutic approach targeting astrocytes, the brain’s most abundant cells.

Large-scale animal study links brain pH changes to wide-ranging cognitive issues. Altered brain pH and lactate levels as a transdiagnostic endophenotype in neuropsychiatric disorders with cognitive impairment.

New tool provides researchers with improved understanding of stem cell aging in the brain. The UW-Madison team combined autofluorescence -- that natural light emission -- and sequencing genetic material in single cells to study the behavior of neural stem cells.

Cerebral Atrophy describes a loss of neurons and the connections between them. (space brain).

Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Brain Size (evolution)

Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Toxins - Processed Food - Body Burden - Dumbed Down Education - Misinformation

Decay Theory proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time or from the lack of recalling that memory. Information is therefore less available for later retrieval as time passes and memory, as well as memory strength, wears away.

Glymphatic System is a system for waste clearance in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Also known as the glymphatic clearance pathway, or paravascular system.

Brain Fog is when a person experiences confusion, forgetfulness, absent-mindedness, inability to focus, easily distracted, depression, feeling weird or lacking mental clarity. Brain fog can be caused by eating bad food or drinking bad water, overworking, lack of sleep, stress, fatigue, hormonal changes, lacking vitamins, minerals and omega 3's, low sugar, drugs or alcohol, smoking, inflammation, microbial imbalance, not enough exercise, dehydration, and viruses.

160 genes linked to brain shrinkage in study of 45,000 adults. Comparison of genes and MRI results shows associations.

A cell therapy using myeloid cells bound to drug delivery microparticles reduces disease burden in a preclinical multiple sclerosis model. Multiple sclerosis or MS is an autoimmune disease that destroys the protective myelin covering around nerves. Every five minutes, someone is diagnosed with the disease around the world, adding to about 2.8 million individuals that currently have to live with it. Now researchers have developed a cell therapy that leverages myeloid cells, the very type of immune cells that cause MS-triggering nerve inflammation in patients. By attaching 'backpacks' loaded with anti-inflammatory drugs to the cells, and infusing them into a mouse model of MS, they were able to partially reverse paralysis and restore movement. Many cell therapies, such as the famed CAR-T cell therapies, require the mobilization of immune cells from specific tissue compartments in the body with drugs, genetic modification, and then amplification over weeks outside of the body. Myeloid cells can be directly retrieved using established methods and modified with backpacks within hours, making the therapy more easily translatable. In addition, some myeloid cell types possess the ability to traverse the blood-brain barrier, which makes them particularly suitable for treating CNS diseases.

Neurodegeneration in myelin disease: No myelin is better than bad myelin. Efficient removal of abnormal myelin allows survival of nerve fibers targeted by adaptive immune cells, according to a novel study. Myelin is an insulating sheath around axons -- the processes connecting nerve cells -- that is mostly composed of lipids and proteins. It enables rapid conduction of electrical signals and supports neuronal integrity and function. In the central nervous system, myelin is formed by specialized glial cells called oligodendrocytes. Myelinated fiber tracts are particularly vulnerable to various pathogenic processes and myelin diseases are often associated with chronic inflammation of the nervous system. A prime example is multiple sclerosis, a serious and frequent neurological disease in which immune cells drive demyelination, i.e., the loss of myelin. However, maladaptive immune reactions also contribute to other disorders associated with myelin defects, including hereditary and aging-related diseases. Brain Injuries.

Where neural stem cells feel at home. Researchers have created an artificial cell environment that could promote the regeneration of nerves. Usually, injuries to the brain or spinal cord don't heal easily due to the formation of fluid-filled cavities and scars that prevent tissue regeneration. One starting point for medical research is therefore to fill the cavities with a substance that offers neural stem cells optimal conditions for proliferation and differentiation.

De-aging the Virtual Brain: Computational models used to identify key brain targets for stimulation and counter brain aging. As the brain ages, it “reorganizes” itself, and its neurodynamics and the connections between neurons change dramatically, often resulting in a decrease of cognitive functions. Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as applying electrical or magnetic currents, have recently emerged as possible treatments for neurological and degenerative disorders, contrasting and mitigating the natural effects of aging. Another way to stimulate the brain is learning about the brain and everything that helps you to better understand yourself and the world around you.

White Matter Hyperintensities - Leukoaraiosis is a particular abnormal change in appearance of white matter near the lateral ventricles. It is often seen in aged individuals, but sometimes in young adults. Alzheimer's.

Surprisingly simple model explains how brain cells organize and connect. A new study by physicists and neuroscientists describes how connectivity among neurons comes about through general principles of networking and self-organization, rather than the biological features of an individual organism. While the vast number of connections may seem random, networks of brain cells tend to be dominated by a small number of connections that are much stronger than most. Despite the importance of these strong connections, scientists were unsure if this heavy-tailed pattern arises because of biological processes specific to different organisms, or due to basic principles of network organization. Neurons sometimes disconnect and rewire with each other -- weak connections are pruned, and stronger connections can be formed elsewhere. Crystalized Intelligence.

Study finds strongest evidence to date of brain's ability to compensate for age-related cognitive decline. Scientists have found the strongest evidence yet that our brains can compensate for age-related deterioration by recruiting other areas to help with brain function and maintain cognitive performance.

I think that the grey matter in the adolescent brain declines mostly because of our inadequate education system rather then it just being the normal process of Neuron Pruning. Synaptic pruning is a little to close to a lobotomy or frontotemporal dementia. And you can't say that it's a normal process when the process itself hasn't been clearly defined. This is not to say that we forget things that are no longer perceived to be important to us, it's just that deciding what's important to remember is not clearly defined. The Prefrontal Cortex also tends to lose volume with age, but age can't be the only factor? This type of Atrophy should not be happening, it's not a Frontal Lobe Disorder, it's more of an Education Disorder. Education should be about preserving brain matter, not decreasing it. Does neurogenesis slow down when learning slows down? We're fully aware of the plasticity of the brain and it's ability to repair and rewire itself. So it seems like we just got here yesterday.

It's not so much the aging brain, it's more about the long term abuse that accumulates from eating bad food, from the lack of sleep, from the lack of exercise, from the lack of learning, and from the exposure to chemicals and toxins in our environment. Academic education can positively affect aging of the brain. The benefits of good education and lifelong learning extend into old age. The initial findings of a long-term study show that certain degenerative processes are reduced in the brains of academics. Their brains are better able to compensate age-related cognitive and neural limitations.

You make more mistakes when your tired or suffer from the lack of sleep. The brain needs to be rested and healthy in order to maximize its function and capabilities. And it's not just the lack of sleep that will lower your awareness and lower your IQ, it is also the lack of healthy food and nutrition that can have negatives effects on your brain power. And there is also one more thing that will impeded your thinking, and that is knowledge and information. And without knowledge and information, a rested and healthy brain is just about useless.

Long-Term Depression is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

New Molecules Reverse Memory Loss Linked to Depression, Aging. The molecules are chemical tweaks of benzodiazepines, a class of anti-anxiety and sedative medications that also activate the GABA system, but are not highly targeted.

Memory loss reversed or abated in those with cognitive decline. Researchers sought to determine whether a comprehensive and personalized program, designed to mitigate risk factors of Alzheimer's disease could improve cognitive and metabolic function in individuals experiencing cognitive decline. Findings provided evidence that this approach can improve risk factor scores and stabilize cognitive function.

Source of remarkable memory of 'superagers' revealed. 'Superagers' who performed a challenging memory task in an MRI scanner were able to learn and recall new information as well as 25-year-old participants. Neurons in the visual cortex of brains of superaging older adults retain their selective and efficient ability to process visual stimuli and create a distinct memory of the images. In the future, interventions to train specific areas of the brain to be more efficient may enable normal aging adults to enhance memory and other cognitive functions.

Platelets can replicate the benefits of exercise in the brain. Researchers have found an injection of a specific blood factor can replicate the benefits of exercise in the brain. They've discovered that platelets secrete a protein, exerkine CXCL4/Platelet factor 4 or PF4, that rejuvenates neurons in aged mice in a similar way to physical exercise. This protein, which is released from platelets after exercise, results in regenerative and cognitive improvements when injected into aged mice.

Scientists discover external protein network can help stabilize neural connections. The Noelin family of secreted proteins bind to the external portion of AMPA glutamate receptors and stabilize them on the neuronal cellular membrane, a process necessary for transmission of full-strength signals between neurons, according to a new study. The Noelin family of secreted proteins bind to the external portion of AMPA glutamate receptors and stabilize them on the neuronal cellular membrane, a process necessary for transmission of full-strength signals between neurons. Without this external, stabilizing protein network, the AMPA receptors are no longer retained at the synapse, leading to weak, short-lived synaptic signals. The findings not only provide insight into processes such as learning and memory but also the development of blinding conditions like glaucoma.

SuperAger is someone in their 80s or older who exhibits cognitive function that is comparable to that of an average middle-aged individual. Additionally, this group has been shown to exhibit less brain volume loss.

Programmed Cell Death is the death of a Cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

Concussions (injuries) - Blood Brain Barrier

Frontal Lobe Disorder is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma.

Researchers map genetic ‘switches’ behind human brain evolution. UCLA researchers have developed the first map of gene regulation in human neurogenesis, the process by which neural stem cells turn into brain cells and the cerebral cortex expands in size. Chromosomal folding patterns affect how genetic information is encoded.

For older adults, a better diet may prevent brain shrinkage. People who eat a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts and fish may have bigger brains.

Secrets of brain development. A subset of neurons related to memory and neuroplasticity continue to migrate into the brain through toddlerhood. The new research suggests that a subset of inhibitory neurons within the entorhinal cortex, or EC -- an area of the brain essential for forming memories -- continue to migrate into this region where they build new neuronal connections from birth through toddlerhood.

Diseases affect brain's networks selectively, BrainMap analysis affirms. Researchers studied 43 brain disorders and strongly affirmed a theory called the 'network degeneration hypothesis.' This theory holds that disease-related structural damage invades functional networks used in human behavior and often repeats in 'co-alteration networks.' The brain possesses a complex architecture of functional networks as its information-processing machinery. Is the brain's network architecture itself a target of disease? If so, which networks are associated with which diseases? What can this tell us about the underlying causes of brain disorders? Atrophy or hypertrophy of gray matter follows network-based principles. Neurological diseases have stronger network associations than psychiatric diseases. Some diseases have more diffuse effects across networks than others. Huntington's disease, for example, affects nine networks and schizophrenia affects seven, whereas major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder affect two each.

Researchers map converging trajectories of cognitive development through adolescence. Cognitive skills underlying the ability to plan, switch from task to task and resist tempting distractions usually matures by the time an individual turns 18 years old, a new study says.

New imaging method illuminates oxygen's journey in the brain. A new bioluminescence imaging technique has created highly detailed, and visually striking, images of the movement of oxygen in the brains of mice. The method, which can be easily replicated by other labs, will enable researchers to more precisely study forms of hypoxia in the brain, such as the denial of oxygen to the brain that occurs during a stroke or heart attack. The new research tool is already providing insight into why a sedentary lifestyle may increase risk for diseases like Alzheimer's.

Team builds better tool for assessing infant brain health. Researchers have created a new, open-access tool that allows doctors and scientists to evaluate infant brain health by assessing the concentration of various chemical markers, called metabolites, in the brain. The tool compiled data from 140 infants to determine normal ranges for these metabolites. Metabolites play an important role in normal brain growth, development and function. Assessing metabolites in the brain normally involves proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a technology that uses an MRI not for visual imaging but to detect and identify specific molecules in the tissues of interest. The most common approach requires extensive imaging and detailed calculations of the amount of water inside and outside brain tissues to standardize these measures, a costly and time-consuming approach.

Brain Growth - Brains Natural Defenses

Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem cells. Neurogenesis occurs during embryogenesis in all animals and is responsible for producing all the neurons of the organism. Prior to the period of neurogenesis, neural stem cells first multiply until the correct number of progenitor cells is achieved. Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.

Brain Food - Exercise - DNA Defenses - Stem Cells - Plasticity - Regeneration - Neural Pruning

Neuroregeneration involves the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Neuroregenerative mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses.

The brain reaches 80% of its maximum size by age 3. The volume of gray matter, which represents brain cells, peaks before age 6 in most people. The volume of white matter — a way of measuring the connections between brain cells — peaks before age 29 in most people. The loss of white matter accelerates after age 50 in some people.

A simple combination of molecules converts cells neighboring damaged neurons into functional new neurons, which could potentially be used to treat stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and brain injuries.

Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells. Ependyma is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and is shown to serve as a reservoir for neuroregeneration.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical Nerve Growth Factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support survival of existing neurons, and encouraging growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain—areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking. BDNF is also expressed in the retina, kidney, saliva, prostate, motor neurons and skeletal muscle. BDNF itself is important for long-term memory. Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells in a process known as neurogenesis. Neurotrophins are proteins that help to stimulate and control neurogenesis, BDNF being one of the most active. Mice born without the ability to make BDNF suffer developmental defects in the brain and sensory nervous system, and usually die soon after birth, suggesting that BDNF plays an important role in normal neural development. Other important neurotrophins structurally related to BDNF include NT-3, NT-4, and NGF. BDNF is made in the endoplasmic reticulum and secreted from dense-core vesicles. It binds carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and the disruption of this binding has been proposed to cause the loss of sorting of BDNF into dense-core vesicles. The phenotype for BDNF knockout mice can be severe, including postnatal lethality. Other traits include sensory neuron losses that affect coordination, balance, hearing, taste, and breathing. Knockout mice also exhibit cerebellar abnormalities and an increase in the number of sympathetic neurons. Certain types of physical exercise have been shown to markedly (threefold) increase BDNF synthesis in the human brain, a phenomenon which is partly responsible for exercise-induced neurogenesis and improvements in cognitive function. Niacin appears to upregulate BDNF and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression as well.

Nerve Growth Factor is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons. It is perhaps the prototypical growth factor, in that it was one of the first to be described. Numerous biological processes involving NGF have been identified, two of them being the survival of pancreatic beta cells and the regulation of the immune system.

Neurotrophin are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons. They belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that can signal particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow. Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic factors are secreted by target tissue and act by preventing the associated neuron from initiating programmed cell death – allowing the neurons to survive. Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells, to form neurons. Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed prenatally, parts of the adult brain (for example, the hippocampus) retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells, a process known as neurogenesis. Neurotrophins are chemicals that help to stimulate and control neurogenesis.

Neurotrophic Factors are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.

How do adult brain circuits regulate new neuron production? Researchers identified a brain circuit that controls neuron development in the adult brain. It runs from near the front of the brain back to the hippocampus, a learning- and memory-related structure. Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus occurs throughout adult life and supports the hippocampus's crucial functions in storing and retrieving memories. Genesis of new neurons does not stop at birth or even in childhood. In a few select areas of the brain, it can continue throughout adulthood, and is believed to be vitally important for certain forms of learning and memory, and in mood regulation.

Older adults grow just as many new brain cells as young people. The generation of new neurons in the DG neurogenic niche starts from quiescent radial-glia-like type I neural progenitor cells (QNPs) expressing glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2), brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP), and nestin (Encinas et al., 2011).

DNA Repair

Scientists Discover the Mathematical Rules underpinning Brain Growth. Life is rife with patterns. It's common for living things to create a repeating series of similar features as they grow: think of feathers that vary slightly in length on a bird's wing or shorter and longer petals on a rose. Each neuron is surrounded by roughly a dozen neighbors similar to itself, but that interspersed among them are other kinds of neurons. This unique arrangement means that no single neuron sits flush against its twin, while still allowing different types of complementary neurons to be close enough to work together to complete tasks.

Charting the developing brain. How networks form. Researchers use connectomic mapping in the developing cortex to uncover the developmental wiring rules for inhibitory neurons.

Structure of crucial receptor in brain development, function. OHSU scientists elucidate structure of receptors targeted by antidepressants, other pharmaceutical drugs; could lead to improved therapies. Scientists have revealed the molecular structure of a type of receptor that's crucial to brain development and function. 'This study shows the dominant assemblies and states of the GABA receptor. That's really the huge breakthrough -- nobody had been able to figure out which of the hundreds of thousands of these assemblies are most highly populated,' said the senior author.

Scientists pinpoint what makes brain cells develop in a specific order. A study of the visual system of fruit flies reveals factors regulating neuron development and uncovers similarities with human brain development. The human brain is composed of 80 billion neurons. These nerve cells differ in their form, function, and connectivity with other neurons to form neural networks. This complexity allows the brain to perform its many functions, from controlling speech and vision to storing memories and generating emotions.

New insights on brain development sequence through adolescence. Brain maturation sequence renders youth sensitive to environmental impacts through adolescence. Brain development does not occur uniformly across the brain, but follows a newly identified developmental sequence, according to a new study. Brain regions that support cognitive, social, and emotional functions appear to remain malleable -- or capable of changing, adapting, and remodeling -- longer than other brain regions, rendering youth sensitive to socioeconomic environments through adolescence.

Astrocytes as neural stem cells in the adult brain. In the adult mammalian brain, bona fide neural stem cells were discovered in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the largest neurogenic niche lining the striatal wall of the lateral ventricles of the brain. In this region resides a subpopulation of astrocytes that express the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and carbohydrate Lewis X (LeX). Astonishingly, these GFAP-expressing progenitors display stem-cell-like features both in vivo and in vitro. Throughout life SVZ astrocytes give rise to interneurons and oligodendrocyte precursors, which populate the olfactory bulb and the white matter, respectively. The role of the progenies of SVZ astrocytes has not been fully elucidated, but some evidence indicates that the new neurons play a role in olfactory discrimination, whereas oligodendrocytes contribute to myelinate white matter tracts. In this chapter, we describe the astrocytic nature of adult neural stem cells, their organization into the SVZ and some of their molecular and genetic characteristics.

Brain stem cells divide over months. Scientists have been able to observe the way stem cells in the adult brains of mice divide over the course of months to create new nerve cells. Their study shows that brain stem cells are active over a long period, and thus provides new insights that will feed into stem cell research. Stem cells create new nerve cells in the brain over the entire life span. One of the places this happens is the hippocampus, a region of the brain that plays a significant role in many learning processes. A reduction in the number of newly formed nerve cells has been observed, for example, in the context of depression and Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with reduced memory performance in these conditions.

Cognitive Reserve describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain. The mind's resilience is evaluated behaviorally, whereas the neuropathological damage is evaluated histologically, although damage may be estimated using blood-based markers and imaging methods.

Cognitive Off-Loading - Brain Chip - Stimulation

Cognitive Science - Cognition Tests - Placebos

Brain Health (University of Texas at Dallas)

Long-Term Potentiation is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength.

Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner. Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.

New Brain Networks come online during adolescence, allowing teenagers to develop more complex adult social skills that prepare teenagers for adult life. Brain regions that are important for more advanced social skills, such as being able to imagine how someone else is thinking or feeling called theory of mind. Connections that were initially weak became stronger, and connections that were initially strong became weaker.

Perineuronal Net are specialized extracellular matrix structures responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain.

Extracellular Matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

Hemispherectomy is a very rare surgical procedure in which one cerebral hemisphere (half of the brain) is removed, disconnected, or disabled.

Cognitive Module - Modularity of Mind

Mild Cognitive Impairment is a brain function syndrome involving the onset and evolution of cognitive impairments beyond those expected based on the age and education of the individual, but which are not significant enough to interfere with their daily activities.

Neuro-Inflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue.

Inflammatory Response System - Inflammation - Blood Brain Barrier

Neuroimmunology is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases.

Depression - Sleep

Cytokine category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behaviour of cells around them.

IL-2 Receptor is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.

Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

Meditation - Brain Food - Consuming Knowledge

Neuron Pruning is similar to a computer when a person deletes old computer files. Brain cells are programed to die if not used, which makes room for more cell growth. Brilliant!

Changing Old Habits (programming)

Pruning Decision Trees is a technique in machine learning that reduces the size of decision trees by removing sections of the tree that provide little power to classify instances. Pruning reduces the complexity of the final classifier, and hence improves predictive accuracy by the reduction of overfitting.

Modular Segregation of Structural Brain Networks Supports the Development of Executive Function in Youth. A study of nearly 900 young people ages 8 to 22 found that the ability to control impulses, stay on task and make good decisions increased steadily over that span as the brain remodeled its information pathways to become more efficient. The finding helps explain why these abilities, known collectively as executive function, take so long to develop fully. This is mostly because people don't get a high quality education in order for this natural process to be effective. The human brain is organized into large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood and adolescence. However, it remains unknown whether the underlying white matter architecture is similarly refined during development, potentially allowing for improvements in executive function. Structural network modules become more segregated by learning valuable knowledge, with weaker connections between modules and stronger connections within modules. Evolving modular topology facilitates global network efficiency and is driven by Learning that helps strengthen the hub edges present both within and between modules. Critically, both modular segregation and network efficiency are associated with enhanced executive performance and mediate the improvement of executive functioning with age. Together, results delineate a process of structural network maturation that supports executive function in youth.

Phagocytosis is involved in the acquisition of nutrients for some cells. The process is homologous to eating at the level of single-celled organisms; in multicellular animals, the process has been adapted to eliminate debris and pathogens, as opposed to taking in fuel for cellular processes, except in the case of the animal Trichoplax.

Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS).

Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling.

We are Born with 100 Billion Neurons in our Brain and spinal cord. During the early years following birth, humans manufacture an estimated 250,000 neurons per minute, and then spend the next few years wiring them together. We also lose thousands of neurons everyday, but we have the ability to make the remaining neurons form connections with beneficial counterparts. It seems that some neurons never die, giving us the ability to hold on to memories that are important to us. Even as we grow old into adulthood, the human brain makes hundreds of new neurons everyday all through life, mostly in the hippocampus, a key region for memory.

Old Memories are not deleted even when they are not recalled for years. Amnesia does not mean memories are deleted, just the files have been misplaced.

Benjaman Kyle

Canadian man missing for 30 years remembers real identity

Billions of neuronal connections are made in the human brain in early childhood; some can only be made during this period, and others require much more training to achieve the same result later in life, although the brain’s plasticity ensures that it never stops learning.

Brain Connector density is at its highest level in the first three years of life

Early Childhood Learning 

The Brain Drain starts with an ineffective education that ends with people not knowing what to do, or where to go.

Brain Maintenance Responsibilities

Maintaining our physical and mental wellbeing is one of our most important responsibilities. But like all things, we have to learn how this responsibility is performed. If you're not using it, you're losing it. The Brain is a machine that needs maintenance. Maintaining skills and abilities at a proficient level needs exercise. Just like all muscles, muscles become weak when you stop using them. And neuron connections in the brain become weaker when you stop using them. So what would be the perfect brain exercises that you can do to maximize your cognitive ability and stay sharp? What are the most effective and efficient ways to maintain optimum physical and mental wellbeing?  Brain Food  What are the physical exercises people must do in order to maintain physical and mental strength?

Caudate Nucleus plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well, including procedural learning, associative learning, and executive functions (e.g., inhibitory control), among other functions. The caudate is also one of the brain structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic loop.

Reading is extremely important, but just don't read anything. People who tell others to read anything are ignorant, and they are misleading you. Don't just read anything. Consume the most valuable knowledge and information that you can find. Learn the right things at the right time. In order to become more knowledgeable about yourself and the world around you, you need to carefully choose what to read, and know how to apply new knowledge and information to the knowledge and information you have gained in previous years of your life. And you also must understand that most of what you read and hear is not relevant. Comprehension is extremely valuable skill, but that skill is wasted if you never read valuable knowledge and information.

Humans only use 10% of their Brains is just a metaphor that resembles our failing education system. People don't have enough knowledge and information that would give them the ability to use the full power of the human brain. MRI's show that only certain areas of the brain show activity during certain actions. The adult brain makes new neurons, but only in very restricted areas. For example, the hippocampus of an adult rat makes between 5,000-10,000 new neurons each day. Joe Herbert’s lab in Cambridge has showed that cortisol dramatically decreases the rate new brain cells are made. So perhaps some of the adverse effects of stress are related to fewer brain cells being created in the hippocampus. Did you know that people with O Blood Type have more gray matter in their brain?

Computational Neuroscience
Artificial Neural Network - Default Mode Network
Brain Plasticity - Brain Food

Maybe this type of brain damage is from endocrine disruptors or maybe even Fluoride? Hey you never know, better safe then sorry. Either way it's still an education problem.

Toxins and Child Development

Endocrine Disruptor are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder, cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body (including limbs); breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.

Pesticides - Body Burden

Processed Food Dangers - Drug Use Dangers

Smart Drugs Dangers - Cognition Measuring

Synaptic Noise refers to the constant bombardment of synaptic activity in neurons.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor are chemicals that inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family.

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

Lateral Lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GRM5 gene.

Donepezil is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for further research into potential applications.

Exercise and Training Increases Size of Hippocampus and Improves Memory

45 minutes of exercise three days a week can actually increase the volume of the brain. Even for people who have been very sedentary, exercise improves cognition and helps people perform better on things like planning, scheduling, multitasking and working memory. Increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus.

Brain Function Examination - Basic Brain Maintenance for Adults (PDF)

Memory Exercises - Brain Games - Learning Toys

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor - Growth Differentiation Factor (GDF11)

Regenerative Biology is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

Socially-induced brain ‘fertilization’: play promotes brain derived neurotrophic factor transcription in the amygdala and dorsolateral frontal cortex in juvenile rats.

Prosocial foundations of children's academic achievement.

Enhancing Cognition

Klotho is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KL gene. This gene encodes a type-I membrane protein that is related to β-glucuronidases. Reduced production of this protein has been observed in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and this may be one of the factors underlying the degenerative processes. Cell Reports.

Synaptic GluN2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2B gene.

NMDA Receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. It is activated when glutamate and glycine (or D-serine) bind to it, and when activated it allows positively charged ions to flow through the cell membrane. The NMDA receptor is very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function.

Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism. Most eukaryotes have two matching sets of chromosomes; that is, they are diploid. Diploid organisms have the same loci on each of their two sets of homologous chromosomes, except that the sequences at these loci may differ between the two chromosomes in a matching pair and that a few chromosomes may be mismatched as part of a chromosomal sex-determination system. If both alleles of a diploid organism are the same, the organism is homozygous at that locus. If they are different, the organism is heterozygous at that locus. If one allele is missing, it is hemizygous, and, if both alleles are missing, it is nullizygous.

Plasticity - Learning - Cognitive

Brain Secret For Instant Genius (youtube)

Think of your brain as being like a car. A well maintained car is reliable and hardly ever breaks down. If you put in good gas, it runs better and goes faster. If you constantly make improvements to your car by learning about all the new technological advancements that are available, then your brain, or car, will be a high performance machine with more capabilities.

Brain Memory Capacity - Spatial Intelligence

"If your brain becomes Hard Wired and Cemented in Place, that means you have stopped learning, which is very dangerous in todays world, physically and mentally. "  (Keep Learning my Friends)

Plasticity - The Jennifer Aniston Neuron (youtube) - Funny Joke

"When I here about research that has not included people with disabilities, the research raises more questions then it answers. There is a lot we can learn from blind people, deaf people and anyone with a disability."

I see a day when we will be able to communicate with the cells in our own bodies without having to use drugs. We already know how to manipulate stem cells manually, but one day soon we will be able to tell the stem cells in our bodies to repair things that are causing us problems. We can already manipulate atoms into a language, so it's just a matter of time that we will discover the language of our cells, and be able to communicate with them and give them special instructions when needed.

The Human Brain makes up only 2% mass in the body but uses 20% of the bodies oxygen and calories. Feed Me Seymore, but this time Feed me information and knowledge, please!

The brain processes 400 Billion bits of information a second. BUT, we are ONLY aware of 2,000 of those?" -Dr. Joseph Dispenza, D.C.  The average "clock speed" of neurons in the brain is a mere 200 firings per second. 10 Mbits of information are transmitted along each optic nerve PER SECOND. But is transmission speed the same thing as processing speed? Brain processes data no faster than 60 bits per second? The brain processes around 0.1 quadrillion information bytes per second? The human body sends 11 million bits per second to the brain for processing, yet the conscious mind seems to be able to process only 50 bits per second? It appears that a tremendous amount of compression is taking place if 11 million bits are being reduced to less than 50. Note that the discrepancy between the amount of information being transmitted and the amount of information being processed is so large that any inaccuracy in the measurements is insignificant.

What Each Human Senses Processes? eyes - 10,000,000 bits per second. skin - 1,000,000 bits per second. ears - 100,000 bits per second. smell - 100,000 bits per second. taste - 1,000 bits per second.

Smart Brain Tech - Brain Master - Mind Modulations - Mind Update - Mind and Life - Child Mind

Brain Documentaries (films)

Mensa. Identify and foster human intelligence for the benefit of humanity, to encourage research in the nature, characteristics and uses of intelligence, and to promote stimulating intellectual and social opportunities for its members. 

Gifted - Defining Intelligence

Brain Games - Educational Toys

N-back task is a continuous performance task that is commonly used as an assessment in cognitive neuroscience to measure a part of working memory and working memory capacity. Memory.

Resources for Brain Fitness: Mind Stretchers - Changing Minds - Cogni Fit - The Mental Fitness Center - Posit Science - Cog Med - Your Amazing Brain - Brain Connection - Mind Institute - Mind Research - The Mind Institute - Sharp Brains - Center for Brain Health - Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences.

Incredible Years - Parents, Teachers & Children Training. 

Sleep - Memory - Awareness - Meditation - Hypnosis - Counseling - Therapy.

Physical Exercises can be designed to improve certain parts of the body. Brain exercises should also be designed in the same way. So the brain exercise will also be a test as well as a quick way to run a systems check. So what Brain Functions do you think you need to exercise and check.

Neuroscience - Cognitive Neuroscience

Nervous System Diagram Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.

is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior.

Nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts. Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is potentially misleading since many neurons do not form nerves, and nerves also include non-neuronal Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Each nerve is a cordlike structure containing bundles of axons. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium. The axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, and each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. Finally, the entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. Nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body.

Computational Neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics. Computational neuroscience is distinct from psychological connectionism and from learning theories of disciplines such as machine learning, neural networks, and computational learning theory in that it emphasizes descriptions of functional and biologically realistic neurons (and neural systems) and their physiology and dynamics. These models capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. These computational models are used to frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments. Brain and Computer Similarities.

Neuroscience Resources

Child Neurology Society - Child Neurology Foundation - Child Development

Neuroscience Society - Neuroscience Institute

Neurology - Neurology - Neurological Diagnostic Tests - Journal of Neurology

Journal of Neuroscience - Neurological Disorders

International Neuropsychological Society

Affective Neuroscience and Development Laboratory (Harvard)

Contemplative Neuroscience the study of neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. Contemplative neuroscience looks into neurological, physiological, epigenetic, behavioral, social and cognitive manifestations or consequences of a state of mind which is at the same time meditative/mindful and compassionate/calm and selfless/altruistic although bodily-aware. Social Neuroscience.

Developmental Neuroscience describes the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.

Nervous System

Nervous System is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system or PNS. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent. Spinal nerves serve both functions and are called mixed nerves. The PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Somatic nerves mediate voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when organisms are in a relaxed state. The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves. At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of cell, called the neuron, also known as a "nerve cell". Neurons have special structures that allow them to send signals rapidly and precisely to other cells. They send these signals in the form of electrochemical waves traveling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. A cell that receives a synaptic signal from a neuron may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated. The connections between neurons can form neural pathways, neural circuits, and larger networks that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior. Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply glia), which provide structural and metabolic support. Nervous systems are found in most multicellular animals, but vary greatly in complexity. The only multicellular animals that have no nervous system at all are sponges, placozoans, and mesozoans, which have very simple body plans. The nervous systems of the radially symmetric organisms ctenophores (comb jellies) and cnidarians (which include anemones, hydras, corals and jellyfish) consist of a diffuse nerve net. All other animal species, with the exception of a few types of worm, have a nervous system containing a brain, a central cord (or two cords running in parallel), and nerves radiating from the brain and central cord. The size of the nervous system ranges from a few hundred cells in the simplest worms, to around 300 billion cells in African elephants. The central nervous system functions to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others and to receive feedback. Malfunction of the nervous system can occur as a result of genetic defects, physical damage due to trauma or toxicity, infection or simply of ageing. The medical specialty of neurology studies disorders of the nervous system and looks for interventions that can prevent or treat them. In the peripheral nervous system, the most common problem is the failure of nerve conduction, which can be due to different causes including diabetic neuropathy and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuroscience is the field of science that focuses on the study of the nervous system. Development of the Nervous System refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryonic development to adulthood. Defects in neural development can lead to malformations and a wide variety of sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments, including holoprosencephaly and other neurological disorders in the human such as Rett syndrome, Down syndrome and intellectual disability. The central nervous system is composed entirely of two kinds of specialized cells: neurons and glia. Hence, every information processing system in the CNS is composed of neurons and glia; so too are the networks that compose the systems (and the maps). Clearly, without these two types of cells, the CNS would not be able to do what it does (which is everything having to do with our minds and how we move our bodies). Neurons are the basic information processing structures in the CNS. Everything occurring above the level of neurons qualifies as information processing too. But nothing below the level of neurons does. the function of a neuron is to receive INPUT "information" from other neurons, to process that information, then to send "information" as OUTPUT to other neurons. (Synapses are connections between neurons through which "information" flows from one neuron to another.) Hence, neurons process all of the "information" that flows within, to, or out of the CNS. All of it! All of the motor information through which we are able to move; all of the sensory information through which we are able to see, to hear, to smell, to taste, and to touch; and of course all of the cognitive information through which we are able to reason, to think, to dream, to plan, to remember, and to do everything else that we do with our minds. Processing so many kinds of information requires many types of neurons; there may be as many as 10,000 types of them. Processing so much information requires a lot of neurons. How many? Well, "best estimates" indicate that there are around 200 billion neurons in the brain alone! And as each of these neurons is connected to between 5,000 and 200,000 other neurons, the number of ways that information flows among neurons in the brain is so large, it is greater than the number stars in the entire universe! While we are considering numbers, it is worth noting that there are as many as 50 times more glia than neurons in our CNS! Glia (or glial cells) are the cells that provide support to the neurons. In much the same way that the foundation, framework, walls, and roof of a house prove the structure through which run various electric, cable, and telephone lines, along with various pipes for water and waste, not only do glia provide the structural framework that allows networks of neurons to remain connected, they also attend to the brain's various house keeping functions, such as removing debris after neuronal death.

Cranial Nerves - Cortex - Emotions - Neurology - Behavior - HOS - Muscles - Fascia

Central Nervous System is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is so named because it integrates information it receives from, and coordinates and influences the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals. The nervous system is adaptable.

Somatic Nervous System connects the central nervous system with the body's muscles and skin. Its primary function is to control voluntary movements and reflex arcs, while also helping us process the senses of touch, sound, taste, and smell. It's made up of motor neurons and sensory neurons that help the body perform voluntary activities.

Autonomic Nervous System is a component of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion, and sexual arousal. It contains three anatomically distinct divisions, the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous system. Autonomic Nervous System is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate response.

Sympathetic Nervous System controls fight-or-flight responses and prepares the body for strenuous physical activity. Sympathetic Nervous System directs the body's rapid involuntary response to dangerous or stressful situations. A flash flood of hormones boosts the body's alertness and heart rate, sending extra blood to the muscles. Sympathetic Nervous System is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

Parasympathetic Nervous System is responsible for the body's rest and digestion response when the body is relaxed, resting, or feeding. It basically undoes the work of sympathetic division after a stressful situation. Parasympathetic Nervous System controls bodily functions when a person is at rest. Some of its activities include stimulating digestion, activating metabolism, and helping the body relax. Parasympathetic Nervous System is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system.

Enteric Nervous System facilitates the motor, sensory, absorptive, and secretory functions of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the largest and most complex unit of the peripheral nervous system, with ~600 million neurons releasing a multitude of neurotransmitters. Enteric Nervous System is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system. It is capable of acting independently of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, although it may be influenced by them. Has its own independent reflex activity. The ENS is also called the second brain. It is derived from neural crest cells. The enteric nervous system is capable of operating independently of the brain and spinal cord, but does rely on innervation from the autonomic nervous system via the vagus nerve and prevertebral ganglia in healthy subjects. However, studies have shown that the system is operable with a severed vagus nerve. The neurons of the enteric nervous system control the motor functions of the system, in addition to the secretion of gastrointestinal enzymes. These neurons communicate through many neurotransmitters similar to the CNS, including acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin. The large presence of serotonin and dopamine in the gut are key areas of research for neurogastroenterologists.

Peripheral Nervous System controls involuntary bodily functions and regulates glands. It is divided into two main parts, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. Peripheral Nervous System is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system. The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), along with the retina. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the diencephalon. Cranial nerve ganglia originated in the CNS. However, the remaining ten cranial nerve axons extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS. The autonomic nervous system is an involuntary control of smooth muscle and glands. The connection between CNS and organs allows the system to be in two different functional states: sympathetic and parasympathetic.

Endocannabinoid System - Focused Control - Biofeedback

Spinal Cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system or the CNS. It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord, which contains cerebrospinal fluid. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system. In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone, passing through the foramen magnum and entering the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae. The spinal cord extends down to between the first and second lumbar vertebrae, where it ends. The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. It is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and around 43 cm (17 in) long in women. The diameter of the spinal cord ranges from 13 mm (1⁄2 in) in the cervical and lumbar regions to 6.4 mm (1⁄4 in) in the thoracic area. The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. It is also a center for coordinating many reflexes and contains reflex arcs that can independently control reflexes. It is also the location of groups of spinal interneurons that make up the neural circuits known as central pattern generators. These circuits are responsible for controlling motor instructions for rhythmic movements such as walking.

Pain - Paralyzed - Numbness

Brainstem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood. The brainstem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It also regulates the central nervous system, and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle. The brainstem has many basic functions including heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating. Brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, and the pons and medulla oblongata of the hindbrain. Sometimes the diencephalon, the caudal part of the forebrain, is included. The brain stem controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, and it also controls basic body functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, and whether one is awake or sleepy. The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The Brainstem is the posterior part of the brain or nearer the rear, continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. The midbrain is continuous with the thalamus of the diencephalon through the tentorial notch, and sometimes the diencephalon is included in the brainstem. The brainstem is a very small component of the brain, making up only around 2.6 percent of its total weight. It has the critical role of regulating cardiac and respiratory function, helping to control heart rate and breathing rate. It also provides the main motor and sensory nerve supply to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Ten pairs of cranial nerves come from the brainstem. Other roles include the regulation of the central nervous system and the body's sleep cycle. It is also of prime importance in the conveyance of motor and sensory pathways from the rest of the brain to the body, and from the body back to the brain. These pathways include the corticospinal tract (motor function), the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway (fine touch, vibration sensation, and proprioception), and the spinothalamic tract (pain, temperature, itch, and crude touch). Modulate.

Reptilian Brain - Primal Brain

Nerve is any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body.

Sensory Nervous System - Cranial Nerves - Endocannabinoid System

Breakthrough in using stem cells to treat enteric nervous system disorders. The enteric nervous system contains between 400-600 million nerves and is crucial for everyday functions such as digestion, fluid absorption and communicating with the immune system.

Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems.

Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart.

Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity). Neurotoxins are an extensive class of exogenous chemical neurological insults that can adversely affect function in both developing and mature nervous tissue.

Oligodendrocyte are a type of neuroglia whose main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the myelin sheath. A single oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping approximately 1 μm of myelin sheath around each axon; Schwann cells, on the other hand, can wrap around only one axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons. Oligodendrocytes are found only in the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. These cells were originally thought to have been produced in the ventral neural tube; however, research now shows oligodendrocytes originate from the ventral ventricular zone of the embryonic spinal cord and possibly have some concentrations in the forebrain. They are the last cell type to be generated in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes were discovered by Pío del Río Hortega.

Brain and Body (youtube)

Brain Side Veiw Blood Brain Barrier is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells, which are connected by tight junctions with an extremely high electrical resistivity of at least 0.1 Ω⋅m. The blood–brain barrier allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. On the other hand, the blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes are necessary to create the blood–brain barrier. A small number of regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs (CVOs), do not have a blood–brain barrier. The main functions of this barrier, namely maintenance of brain homeostasis, regulation of influx and efflux transport, and protection from harm, are determined by its specialized multicellular structure. Every constituent cell type makes an indispensible contribution to the BBB’s integrity. But, if one member of the BBB fails and as a result, the barrier breaks down, there can be dramatic consequences, and neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration can occur.

Alzheimer's - Disruption in the Blood-Brain Barrier: The Missing Link between Brain and Body Inflammation in Bipolar Disorder? - Blood-Brain Barrier on a Chip - Injuries to the Brain.

Scientists breach Brain Barriers to attack tumors. The brain is equipped with barriers designed to keep out dangerous pathogens. Researchers have now found a novel way to circumvent the brain's natural defenses when they're counterproductive. While the brain itself has no direct way for disposing of cellular waste, tiny vessels lining the interior of the skull collect tissue waste and dispose of it through the body's lymphatic system, which filters toxins and waste from the body. It is this disposal system that researchers exploited in the new study. These vessels form shortly after birth, spurred in part by the gene known as vascular endothelial growth factor C, or VEGF-C.

Novel ultrasound uses microbubbles to open blood-brain barrier to treat glioblastoma in humans. In the first in-human clinical trial, scientists used a novel, skull-implantable ultrasound device to open the blood-brain barrier and repeatedly permeate large, critical regions of the human brain to deliver chemotherapy that was injected intravenously. This is potentially a huge advance for glioblastoma patients because the most potent chemotherapy can't permeate the blood-brain barrier to reach the aggressive and deadly brain tumor.

Breaching the blood-brain barrier to deliver precious payloads. Researchers use ultrasound to develop delivery system for potent RNA drugs. RNA-based drugs may change the standard of care for many diseases, making personalized medicine a reality. So far these cost-effective, easy-to-manufacture drugs haven't been very useful in treating brain tumors and other brain disease. But a team has shown that a combination of ultrasound and RNA-loaded nanoparticles can temporarily open the protective blood-brain barrier, allowing the delivery of potent medicine to brain tumors.

Our own immune cells damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Researchers have shown that microglia, a class of immune cells in the brain, regulate the permeability of the brain's protective barrier in response to systemic inflammation. During inflammation, microglia initially protect the barrier's integrity, but they can later reverse their behavior and increase the barrier's permeability.

Restoring the blood-brain barrier. Scientists discover a treatment in mice to repair the blood-brain barrier, which is key to brain health. There's a bouncer in everyone: The blood-brain barrier, a layer of cells between blood vessels and the rest of the brain, kicks out toxins, pathogens and other undesirables that can sabotage the brain's precious gray matter.

Cerebrospinal Fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. There is about 125mL of CSF at any one time, and about 500mL is generated every day. CSF acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. The CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. The CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. There is also a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid. A sample of CSF can be taken via lumbar puncture. This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges. Although noted by Hippocrates, it was only in the eighteenth century that Emanuel Swedenborg is credited with its rediscovery, and as late as 1914 that Harvey W. Cushing demonstrated CSF was secreted by the choroid plexus. Lymphatic System.

Fluid flow in the brain can be manipulated by sensory stimulation. Blood flow induced by visual stimulation drives the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. Researchers report that the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain is linked to waking brain activity. The study demonstrates that manipulating blood flow in the brain with visual stimulation induces complementary fluid flow. Just as our kidneys help remove toxic waste from our bodies, cerebrospinal fluid helps remove toxins from the brain, particularly while we sleep.

Nasopharyngeal lymphatics found to be crucial for cerebrospinal fluid outflow. Researchers have uncovered a distinctive network of lymphatic vessels at the back of the nose that plays a critical role in draining cerebrospinal fluid  from the brain. The study, sheds light on a previously unknown route for CSF outflow, potentially unlocking new avenues for understanding and treating neurodegenerative conditions.

Circumventricular Organs are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB). The CVOs allow for the linkage between the central nervous system and peripheral blood. Additionally, they are an integral part of neuroendocrine function. The highly permeable capillaries allow the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue to sample from and secrete to circulating blood. CVOs also have roles in body fluid regulation, cardiovascular functions, immune responses, thirst, feeding behavior and reproductive behavior. CVOs can be classified as either sensory or secretory organs serving homeostatic functions and body water balance. The sensory organs include the area postrema (AP), the subfornical organ (SFO) and the vascular organ of lamina terminalis, all having the ability to sense signals in blood, then pass that information neurally to other brain regions. Through their neural connections, they provide direct information to the autonomic nervous system from the systemic circulation. The secretory organs include the subcommissural organ (SCO), the neural lobe of the pituitary gland, the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, the median eminence, and the pineal gland. These organs are responsible for secreting hormones and glycoproteins into the peripheral blood using feedback from both the brain environment and external stimuli. All of the circumventricular organs, except the subcommissural organ, contain extensive vasculature and permeable capillaries which define a sensory and secretory system within the brain. Furthermore, all CVOs contain neural tissue, enabling a neuroendocrine role. The choroid plexus, having permeable capillaries, does not contain neural tissue, but rather its primary role is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and so is typically excluded from classification as a CVO.

Endothelium is a type of epithelium that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells.

The Brain rids itself of waste products. Other organs in the body achieve this via a system called the lymphatic system. A network of lymphatic vessels extends throughout the body in a pattern similar to that of blood vessels. Waste products from cells, plus bacteria, viruses and excess fluids drain out of the body’s tissues into lymphatic vessels, which transfer them to the bloodstream. Blood vessels then carry the waste products to the kidneys, which filter them out for excretion. Lymphatic vessels are also a highway for circulation of white blood cells, which fight infections, and are therefore an important part of the immune system.

Inside the central nervous system is a region that includes the brain and spinal cord, it is the job of certain cells, called microglia, to clean up that cellular debris. Microglia have counterparts called macrophages that serve similar function outside the CNS in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the region that contains most of the sensory and motor nerves.

Molecular Switch for Repairing Central Nervous System Disorders.

Neuropsychology studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviors. It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders.

Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

Neurologist is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system (and its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system); including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. There is significant overlap between the fields of neurology and psychiatry, with the boundary between the two disciplines and the conditions they treat being somewhat nebulous.

Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. It should not be confused with neuropathy, which refers to disorders of the nerves themselves (usually in the peripheral nervous system).

Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.

Clinical Neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.

Molecular switch for repairing central nervous system disorders. By genetically switching off a receptor activated by blood proteins, named Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1), the body switches on regeneration of myelin, a fatty substance that coats and protects nerves.

Cognitive Science - Psychological Processes

Cognitive Neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how the brain's mental processes are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories, produce language, recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve. Cognition enhancement.

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry is a growing multidisciplinary field arising out of cognitive psychology and neuropsychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function. Fantasy.

Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level. Therefore, their understanding is closely linked to the practice of neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, two disciplines that broadly seek to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to perception defragmentation of concepts, memory embed, association and recall both in the thought process and behavior.

Neurological Disorder is any disorder of the nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness. There are many recognized neurological disorders, some relatively common, but many rare. They may be assessed by neurological examination, and studied and treated within the specialities of neurology and clinical neuropsychology. Interventions for neurological disorders include preventative measures, lifestyle changes, physiotherapy or other therapy, neurorehabilitation, pain management, medication, or operations performed by neurosurgeons. The World Health Organization estimated in 2006 that neurological disorders and their sequelae (direct consequences) affect as many as one billion people worldwide, and identified health inequalities and social stigma/discrimination as major factors contributing to the associated disability and suffering.

Neuropsychologia is an International Journal in Behavioural and Cognitive Neuroscience.

Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.

Peripheral Neuropathy is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly prescribed antibiotics including Metronidazole and the Fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.), traumatic injury, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection.

Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the Mind and its Processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology. The typical analysis of cognitive science span many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is that "thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures.

Cognitive Neuroscience the scientific study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive activities are affected or controlled by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both psychology and neuroscience, overlapping with disciplines such as physiological psychology, cognitive psychology, and neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neuropsychology, and computational modeling.

Cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind.

Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences - Cognitive Processes

Cognitive decline may be detected using network analysis, according to Concordia researchers. esearchers use network analysis to study whether it can reveal the subtle changes associated with subjective cognitive decline that cannot otherwise be detected through standard test analyses. By running a statistical analysis of data merged from two large Canadian data sets, the researchers were able to visualize the strength of relationships between the nodes among people who are classified as cognitively normal (CN), or who have diagnoses of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD).

NeuroFeedback is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography, to teach self-regulation of brain function. Typically, sensors are placed on the scalp to measure activity, with measurements displayed using video displays or sound.

Brain Waves - Binaural Beats - Society for Neuro-Feedback Research - Stimulation

Neurofeedback helps to control Learning Success. Our brain uses filter systems to efficiently manage the gigantic amounts of information that flow over us. Neuronal alpha oscillations are among them. They help to reduce the flow of information in certain brain regions. The oscillations can be specifically influenced by special training. A team from the Neural Plasticity Lab at the Institute of Neuroinformatics at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) and the Department of Neurology at the RUB Hospital Bergmannsheil has discovered that test subjects can influence their learning success in a tactile task themselves. Thoughts and feelings influence the oscillations.

Intelligence Testing - Addictions - Science Kits - Cells

Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools. These areas of research are important for the integration and analysis of increasingly large-volume, high-dimensional, and fine-grain experimental data. Neuroinformaticians provide computational tools, mathematical models, and create interoperable databases for clinicians and research scientists. Neuroscience is a heterogeneous field, consisting of many and various sub-disciplines (e.g., cognitive psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and behavioral genetics). In order for our understanding of the brain to continue to deepen, it is necessary that these sub-disciplines are able to share data and findings in a meaningful way; Neuroinformaticians facilitate this. Neuroinformatics stands at the intersection of neuroscience and information science.

Neurons - Nerve Cells

Neuron Anatomy Diagram Neuron or nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system, and of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. Brain cells typically last an entire lifetime. Neurons in the cerebral cortex, for example, are not replaced when they die.

Trans-Synaptic Nanocolumn (youtube video animation) - Neuron Cell Diagram (image).

Neurotransmitter - Neuromodulation - Hormones - Memories

Neural Pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another. Neurons are connected by a single axon, or by a bundle of axons known as a nerve tract, or fasciculus. Shorter neural pathways are found within grey matter in the brain, whereas longer projections, made up of myelinated axons, constitute white matter. In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway, that provides a connectional route from the entorhinal cortex to all fields of the hippocampal formation, including the dentate gyrus, all CA fields (including CA1), and the subiculum. Descending motor pathways of the pyramidal tracts travel from the cerebral cortex to the brainstem or lower spinal cord. Ascending sensory tracts in the dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) carry information from the periphery to the cortex of the brain. Thought Processes.

Afferent is a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system.

Neural Circuit is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated. Neural circuits interconnect to one another to form large scale brain networks. Biological neural networks have inspired the design of artificial Neural Networks.

Sensory Neurons - Nerves - Receptors

Neuropil is a dense network of interwoven nerve fibers and their branches and synapses, together with glial filament. Neuropil is any area in the nervous system composed of mostly unmyelinated axons, dendrites and glial cell processes that forms a synaptically dense region containing a relatively low number of cell bodies. The most prevalent anatomical region of neuropil is the brain which, although not completely composed of neuropil, does have the largest and highest synaptically concentrated areas of neuropil in the body. For example, the neocortex and olfactory bulb both contain neuropil. White matter, which is mostly composed of myelinated axons (hence its white color) and glial cells, is generally not considered to be a part of the neuropil.

Types of Neurons Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.

There are as many as 10,000 specific types of neurons in the human brain, generally speaking, there are three kinds of neurons: motor neurons (for conveying motor information), sensory neurons (for conveying sensory information), and interneurons (which convey information between different types of neurons).

Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons. Neuroscience.

Neurochemical is an organic molecule, such as serotonin, dopamine, or nerve growth factor, that participates in neural activity. The science of neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other. They are neuronal signaling molecules that influence the activity of the brain and the body in specific ways. Different neuropeptides are involved in a wide range of brain functions, including analgesia, reward, food intake, metabolism, reproduction, social behaviors, learning and memory.

Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems), including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system.

When neurons die, their debris needs to be quickly removed in order for the surrounding brain tissue to continue to function properly. Alzheimer's.

Monoamine Neurotransmitter are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (-CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. Monoaminergic systems, i.e., the networks of neurons that utilize monoamine neurotransmitters, are involved in the regulation of cognitive processes such as emotion, arousal, and certain types of memory. It has been found that monoamine Neurotransmitters play an important role in the secretion and production of neurotrophin-3 by astrocytes, a chemical which maintains neuron integrity and provides neurons with trophic support. Drugs used to increase (or reduce) the effect of monoamine are sometimes used to treat patients with psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.

Neurotransmitter - Neuromodulation

Synapse is a structure that permits a neuron or nerve cell to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron. Communication from a neuron to any other cell type, such as to a motor cell, although such non-neuronal contacts may be referred to as junctions, which isa historically older term.

Excitatory Synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell. Neurons form networks through which nerve impulses travel, each neuron often making numerous connections with other cells. These electrical signals may be excitatory or inhibitory, and, if the total of excitatory influences exceeds that of the inhibitory influences, the neuron will generate a new action potential at its axon hillock, thus transmitting the information to yet another cell.

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential is a postsynaptic potential that makes the post synaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential. This temporary depolarization of postsynaptic membrane potential, caused by the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell, is a result of opening ligand-gated ion channels.

Synaptic Potential refers to the potential difference across the postsynaptic membrane that results from the action of neurotransmitters at a neuronal synapse. In other words, it is the “incoming” signal that a neuron receives. There are two forms of synaptic potential: excitatory and inhibitory. The type of potential produced depends on both the postsynaptic receptor, more specifically the changes in conductance of ion channels in the post synaptic membrane, and the nature of the released neurotransmitter. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) depolarize the membrane and move the potential closer to the threshold for an action potential to be generated. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) hyperpolarize the membrane and move the potential farther away from the threshold, decreasing the likelihood of an action potential occurring. The Excitatory Post Synaptic potential is most likely going to be carried out by the neurotransmitters glutamate and acetylcholine, while the Inhibitory post synaptic potential will most likely be carried out by the neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA and glycine. In order to depolarize a neuron enough to cause an action potential, there must be enough EPSPs to both depolarize the postsynaptic membrane from its resting membrane potential to its threshold and counterbalance the concurrent IPSPs that hyperpolarize the membrane. As an example, consider a neuron with a resting membrane potential of -70 mV (millivolts) and a threshold of -50 mV. It will need to be raised 20 mV in order to pass the threshold and fire an action potential. The neuron will account for all the many incoming excitatory and inhibitory signals via summative neural integration, and if the result is an increase of 20 mV or more, an action potential will occur.

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

Neural Inhibition is the interruption or blockade of activity and restriction of activity patterns in both space and time. Inhibitory neurons are nerve cells that act by silencing their synaptic partners. Interneurons are types of nerve cells, typically found in integrative areas of the central nervous system, whose axons (and dendrites) are limited to a single brain area. This feature distinguishes them from principal cells, which often have axonal projections outside the brain area where their cell bodies and dendrites are located.

Interneuron is one of the three classifications of neurons found in the human body. Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system. They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons, and relay interneurons. Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information. Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions. The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision-making. Unlike the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the central nervous system, including the brain, contains many interneurons. In the neocortex (making up about 80% of the human brain), approximately 20-30% of neurons are interneurons. Interneurons in the CNS are primarily inhibitory, and use the neurotransmitter GABA or glycine. However, excitatory interneurons using glutamate in the CNS also exist, as do interneurons releasing neuromodulators like acetylcholine. Investigations into the molecular diversity of neurons is impeded by the inability to isolate cell populations born at different times for gene expression analysis. An effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons is neuronal birthdating. This can be achieved using nucleoside analogs such as EdU, which is a thymidine analogue which is incorporated into the DNA of dividing cells. (Interneuron is also called relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron).

Gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger in your brain. It slows down your brain by blocking specific signals in your central nervous system (your brain and spinal cord). GABA is known for producing a calming effect. γ-Aminobutyric acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the developmentally mature mammalian central nervous system. Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Neuromodulation.

Spinal Interneuron is an interneuron found in the spinal cord that relays signals between afferent neurons and efferent neurons. Different classes of spinal interneurons are involved in the process of sensory-motor integration. Most interneurons are found in the grey column, a region of grey matter in the spinal cord. Spindle Neuron.

Cholinergic Neuron is a nerve cell which mainly uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or ACh to send its messages.

Synaptic Noise refers to the constant bombardment of synaptic activity in neurons. This occurs in the background of a cell when potentials are produced without the nerve stimulation of an action potential, and are due to the inherently random nature of synapses. These random potentials have similar time courses as excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), yet they lead to variable neuronal responses. The variability is due to differences in the discharge times of action potentials. Load Noises.

Summation in neurophysiology is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals, both from multiple simultaneous inputs (spatial summation), and from repeated inputs (temporal summation). Depending on the sum total of many individual inputs, summation may or may not reach the threshold voltage to trigger an action potential.

Chemical Synapse are biological junctions through which neurons signal can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands. Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system. They are crucial to the biological computations that underlie perception and thought. They allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body.

Axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body. Myelinated axons are known as nerve fibers. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and glands. Axon Terminal.

Dendrite are the branched projections of a neuron that act to propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. Electrical stimulation is transmitted onto dendrites by upstream neurons (usually their axons) via synapses which are located at various points throughout the dendritic tree. Dendrites play a critical role in integrating these synaptic inputs and in determining the extent to which action potentials are produced by the neuron. Apical Dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the apex of a pyramidal cell. Basal Dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the base of a pyramidal cell that receives information from nearby neurons and passes it to the soma, or cell body.

Pyramidal Cell are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. Pyramidal neurons are also one of two cell types where the characteristic sign, Negri bodies, are found in post-mortem rabies infection. Pyramidal neurons were first discovered and studied by Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, studies on pyramidal neurons have focused on topics ranging from neuroplasticity to cognition.

Granule Cell has been used for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies. Granule cells are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the superficial layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the olfactory bulb, and the cerebral cortex. Cerebellar granule cells account for the majority of neurons in the human brain. These granule cells receive excitatory input from mossy fibers originating from pontine nuclei. Cerebellar granule cells project up through the Purkinje layer into the molecular layer where they branch out into parallel fibers that spread through Purkinje cell dendritic arbors. These parallel fibers form thousands of excitatory granule-cell–Purkinje-cell synapses onto the intermediate and distal dendrites of Purkinje cells using glutamate as a neurotransmitter. Layer 4 granule cells of the cerebral cortex receive inputs from the thalamus and send projections to supragranular layers 2–3, but also to infragranular layers of the cerebral cortex.

Soma is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.

Potassium Channel functions to conduct potassium ions down their electrochemical gradient, doing so both rapidly (up to the diffusion rate of K+ ions in bulk water) and selectively (excluding, most notably, sodium despite the sub-angstrom difference in ionic radius). Biologically, these channels act to set or reset the resting potential in many cells. In excitable cells, such as neurons, the delayed counterflow of potassium ions shapes the action potential.

Ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization. Proton Pump.

Neural Coding is a neuroscience related field concerned with characterizing the relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble. Based on the theory that sensory and other information is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode both digital and analog information.

Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord. It is made up of protein and fatty substances. This myelin sheath allows electrical impulses to transmit quickly and efficiently along the nerve cells. Myelin is a lipid-rich fatty white substance substance that surrounds nerve cell axons (the nervous system's "wires") to insulate them and increase the rate at which electrical impulses (called action potentials) are passed along the axon. The myelinated axon can be likened to an electrical wire (the axon) with insulating material (myelin) around it. However, unlike the plastic covering on an electrical wire, myelin does not form a single long sheath over the entire length of the axon. Rather, each myelin sheath insulates the axon over a single long section and, in general, each axon comprises multiple long myelinated sections separated from each other by short gaps called nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is formed in the central nervous system (CNS) by glial cells called oligodendrocytes and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) by glial cells called Schwann cells. In the CNS, axons carry electrical signals from one nerve cell body to another. In the PNS, axons carry signals to muscles and glands or from sensory organs such as the skin. Each myelin sheath is formed by the concentric wrapping of an oligodendrocyte (CNS) or Schwann cell (PNS) process (a limb-like extension from the cell body) around the axon. Myelin reduces the capacitance of the axonal membrane. On a molecular level, it increases the distance between the cations on the outside of the axon and the Na?-ions that enter the axon at the nodes of Ranvier during an action potential and move through the axoplasm beneath the myelin sheath. This greatly reduces the magnitude of the repulsive forces (which are inversely proportional to the square of the distance, as per Coulomb's law) between them that would otherwise act to inhibit the movement of the Na?-ions. The discontinuous structure of the myelin sheath results in saltatory conduction, whereby the action potential "jumps" from one node of Ranvier, over a long myelinated stretch of the axon called the internode, before "recharging" at the next node of Ranvier, and so on, until it reaches the axon terminal. Nodes of Ranvier are the short (c. 1 micron) unmyelinated regions of the axon between adjacent long (c. 0.2 mm – >1 mm) myelinated internodes. Once it reaches the axon terminal, this electrical signal provokes the release of a chemical message or neurotransmitter that binds to receptors on the adjacent post-synaptic cell (e.g., nerve cell in the CNS or muscle cell in the PNS) at specialised regions called synapses. This "insulating" role for myelin is essential for normal motor function (i.e. movement such as walking), sensory function (e.g. hearing, seeing or feeling the sensation of pain) and cognition (e.g. acquiring and recalling knowledge), as demonstrated by the consequences of disorders that affect it, such as the genetically determined leukodystrophies; the acquired inflammatory demyelinating disorder, multiple sclerosis; and the inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Due to its high prevalence, multiple sclerosis, which specifically affects the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord and optic nerve), is the best known disorder of myelin.

Myelination determines the nerve cell power of inhibition, study finds. The brain contains billions of nerves that connect with each other via cable- like structures called axons. Axons transmit electrical impulses and are often wrapped in a fatty substance called myelin. This substance increases the speed of nerve impulses and reduces the energy lost over long distances. Loss or damage of the myelin layer -- which is the case for multiple sclerosis- can cause serious disability. Although myelinated axons play pivotal roles in brain function, only little is understood about their role in the electrical architecture of local circuits where experiences are processed, and memories are stored.

Myelin Sheath Gap are periodic gaps in the insulating myelin sheaths of myelinated axons where the axonal membrane is exposed to the extracellular space.

Myelinogenesis is generally the proliferation of myelin sheaths throughout the nervous system, and specifically the progressive myelination of nerve axon fibers in the central nervous system. This is a non-simultaneous process that occurs primarily postnatally in mammalian species, beginning in the embryo during the midst of early development and finishing after birth. Myelination Learning.

Myelin Basic Protein is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system. The myelin sheath is a multi-layered membrane, unique to the nervous system, that functions as an insulator to greatly increase the velocity of axonal impulse conduction. MBP maintains the correct structure of myelin, interacting with the lipids in the myelin membrane.

Methylome is the set of nucleic acid methylation modifications in an organism's genome or in a particular cell.

New kinds of brain cells revealed. Salk and UC San Diego scientists analyzed methylation patterns of neurons to find new subtypes.

Myelin-forming glial cells are crucial for the temporal processing of acoustic signals.

Neuroglia also called Glial Cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. They maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons. In the central nervous system, glial cells include Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous systems glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells. They have four main functions: (1) To surround neurons and hold them in place (2) To supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons (3) To insulate one neuron from another (4) To destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons. They also play a role in neurotransmission and synaptic connections, and in physiological processes like breathing.

Microglia are a type of neuroglia or glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system. Microglia are glial cells derived from mesoderm that function as macrophages or scavengers in the central nervous system and form part of the reticuloendothelial system. Microglia are a type of neuroglia or glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system. Microglia (and other neuroglia including astrocytes) are distributed in large non-overlapping regions throughout the CNS. Microglia are key cells in overall brain maintenance—they are constantly scavenging the CNS for plaques, damaged or unnecessary neurons and synapses, and infectious agents. Since these processes must be efficient to prevent potentially fatal damage, microglia are extremely sensitive to even small pathological changes in the CNS. This sensitivity is achieved in part by the presence of unique potassium channels that respond to even small changes in extracellular potassium. Recent evidence shows that microglia are also key players in the sustainment of normal brain functions under healthy conditions. Microglia also constantly monitor neuronal functions through direct somatic contacts and exert neuroprotective effects when needed. The brain and spinal cord, which make up the CNS, are not usually accessed directly by pathogenic factors in the body's circulation due to a series of endothelial cells known as the blood–brain barrier, or BBB. The BBB prevents most infections from reaching the vulnerable nervous tissue. In the case where infectious agents are directly introduced to the brain or cross the blood–brain barrier, microglial cells must react quickly to decrease inflammation and destroy the infectious agents before they damage the sensitive neural tissue. Due to the lack of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood–brain barrier), microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. Microglial cells are extremely plastic, and undergo a variety of structural changes based on location and system needs. This level of plasticity is required to fulfill the vast variety of functions that microglia perform. The ability to transform distinguishes microglia from macrophages, which must be replaced on a regular basis, and provides them the ability to defend the CNS on extremely short notice without causing immunological disturbance. Microglia adopt a specific form, or phenotype, in response to the local conditions and chemical signals they have detected.

Neurogenesis - Plasticity - Processing

Astrocyte are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They perform many functions, including biochemical support of endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier,  provision of nutrients to the nervous tissue, maintenance of extracellular ion balance, regulation of cerebral blood flow, and a role in the repair and scarring process of the brain and spinal cord following infection and traumatic injuries.

Oligodendrocyte are a type of neuroglia. Their main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by creating the myelin sheath, which is 80% lipid and 20% protein. A single oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping approximately 1 μm of myelin sheath around each axon; Schwann cells, on the other hand, can wrap around only one axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons.

Bergmann Glial Cells in cerebellum are electrically nonexcitable cells that in many ways serve the same functions as protoplasmic astrocytes in forebrain. Bergmann glia are chiefly responsible for glutamate uptake and extracellular K+ homeostasis (1).

Radial Glial Cells, or radial glial progenitor cells, are bipolar-shaped progenitor cells that are responsible for producing all of the neurons in the cerebral cortex. RGPs also produce certain lineages of glia, including astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Their cell bodies (somata) reside in the embryonic ventricular zone, which lies next to the developing ventricular system. During development, newborn neurons use radial glia as scaffolds, traveling along the radial glial fibers in order to reach their final destinations. Despite the various possible fates of the radial glial population, it has been demonstrated through clonal analysis that most radial glia have restricted, unipotent or multipotent, fates. Radial glia can be found during the neurogenic phase in all vertebrates (studied to date). The term "radial glia" refers to the morphological characteristics of these cells that were first observed: namely, their radial processes and their similarity to astrocytes, another member of the glial cell family.

Schwann Cell are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. There are two types of Schwann cell, myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. The Schwann cell promoter is present in the Downstream region of the Human Dystrophin Gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized in a tissue specific manner.

Transcriptomic and Morphophysiological evidence for a Specialized Human Cortical GABAergic cell type. We describe convergent evidence from transcriptomics, morphology, and physiology for a specialized GABAergic neuron subtype in human cortex. Using unbiased single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we identify ten GABAergic interneuron subtypes with combinatorial gene signatures in human cortical layer 1 and characterize a group of human interneurons with anatomical features never described in rodents, having large ‘rosehip’-like axonal boutons and compact arborization. These rosehip cells show an immunohistochemical profile (GAD1+CCK+, CNR1–SST–CALB2–PVALB–) matching a single transcriptomically defined cell type whose specific molecular marker signature is not seen in mouse cortex. Rosehip cells in layer 1 make homotypic gap junctions, predominantly target apical dendritic shafts of layer 3 pyramidal neurons, and inhibit backpropagating pyramidal action potentials in microdomains of the dendritic tuft. These cells are therefore positioned for potent local control of distal dendritic computation in cortical pyramidal neurons.

Claustrum is a sheet of neurons that is attached to the underside of the neocortex in the center of the brain. Contains a great deal of longitudinal connections between its neurons that could serve to synchronize the entire anterior-posterior extent of the claustrum.

Subtle Differences In Brain Cells like Astrocyte cells Hint at Why Many Drugs Help Mice But Not People. To compare mouse and human brain cells, researchers first analyzed sixteen thousand human brain cells taken from the middle temporal gyrus, a part of the cortex, the brain's outermost layer. Then they looked at cells taken from the same area of a mouse brain. In one sense, they are remarkable similar, both mice and people had about 100 different types of cells in this region of the brain. But a close comparison of 75 of these brain cell types revealed small differences. Microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain have a slightly different genetic signature in mice and people.

Neuroscientists roll out first comprehensive atlas of brain cells. BRAIN initiative consortium takes census of motor cortex cells in mice, marmoset and humans.

Brain cell differences could be key to learning in humans and AI. Researchers have found that variability between brain cells might speed up learning and improve the performance of the brain and future AI.

Mapping the mouse brain, and by extension, the human brain too. Researchers further refine the organization of cells within key regions of the mouse brain and the organization of transcriptomic, epigenomic and regulatory factors that provide these brain cells with function and purpose. The circuits of the human brain contain more than 100 billion neurons, each linked to many other neurons via thousands of synaptic connections, resulting in a three-pound organ that is profoundly more complex than the sum of its innumerable parts.

Signals - Modulation

Neuro-Modulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. This is in contrast to classical synaptic transmission, in which one presynaptic neuron directly influences a single postsynaptic partner. Neuromodulators secreted by a small group of neurons diffuse through large areas of the nervous system, affecting multiple neurons. Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, and norepinephrine.

Electrical Stimulation - Cell Signaling - Artificial Circuitry

Modulation in electronics is the transmission of a signal by using it to vary a carrier wave; changing the carrier's amplitude or frequency or phase.

Neurotransmission also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron). Neurotransmission is essential for the process of communication between two neurons. Synaptic transmission relies on: the availability of the neurotransmitter; the release of the neurotransmitter by exocytosis; the binding of the postsynaptic receptor by the neurotransmitter; the functional response of the postsynaptic cell; and the subsequent removal or deactivation of the neurotransmitter. Information is carried from one cell to the other by neurotransmitters such as glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin, which activate receptors on the receiving neuron to convey excitatory or inhibitory messages.

Inhibitory signals work to cancel the signal. Every time an action potential is triggered in a neuron, that cell will release whatever types of neurotransmitter it has, because calcium cannot tell the difference between one vesicle and another.

Excitatory transmitter generates a signal called an action potential in the receiving neuron. An inhibitory transmitter prevents it. Neuromodulators regulate groups of neurons. Excitatory neurotransmitters have excitatory effects on the neuron. Noise.

Neuropeptide are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

Neurotransmitter also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely identified.

Neurotransmitter Transporter are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons. Their primary function is to carry neurotransmitters across these membranes and to direct their further transport to specific intracellular locations. There are more than twenty types of neurotransmitter transporters. Vesicular transporters move neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, regulating the concentrations of substances within them. Vesicular transporters rely on a proton gradient created by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in order to carry out their work: v-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP, causing protons to be pumped into the synaptic vesicles and creating a proton gradient. Then the efflux of protons from the vesicle provides the energy to bring the neurotransmitter into the vesicle. Neurotransmitter transporters frequently use electrochemical gradients that exist across cell membranes to carry out their work. For example, some transporters use energy obtained by the cotransport, or symport, of Na+ in order to move glutamate across membranes. Such neurotransporter cotransport systems are highly diverse, as recent development indicates that uptake systems are generally selective and associate with a specific neurotransmitter. Normally, transporters in the synaptic membrane serve to remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft and prevent their action or bring it to an end. However, on occasion transporters can work in reverse, transporting neurotransmitters into the synapse, allowing these neurotransmitters to bind to their receptors and exert their effect. This "nonvesicular release" of neurotransmitters is used by some cells, such as amacrine cells in the retina, as a normal form of neurotransmitter release.

Signal Transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are generally termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used. The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a signaling cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events along a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. These molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and many other processes. In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a wide variety of ways. Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors. Such effectors are often linked to second messengers, which can activate secondary effectors, and so on. Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. As with other signals, the transduction of biological signals is characterized by delay, noise, signal feedback and feedforward and interference, which can range from negligible to pathological. With the advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to acquired drug resistance.

Neurons in the brain can carry two signals at once. Using a strategy similar to multiplexing in telecommunications. The results may explain how the brain processes complex information from the world around us, and may also provide insight into some of our perceptual and cognitive limitations.

A role for cell 'antennae' in managing dopamine signals in the brain. Study is first to show proper signaling relies on neuronal cilia. A historically overlooked rod-like projection present on nearly every cell type in the human body may finally be getting its scientific due. A new study has found that these appendages, called cilia, on neurons in the brain have a key role in ensuring a specific dopamine receptor's signals are properly received.

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Many different stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, virus infection, ligands for heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors, transforming agents, and carcinogens, activate the ERK pathway.

Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer as well as in signal transduction. It is also a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal. Adenosine also plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation.

Neuromuscular Junction is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.

Norepinephrine is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction—in other words, it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles. This property means that drugs that affect cholinergic systems can have very dangerous effects ranging from paralysis to convulsions. Acetylcholine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, both as an internal transmitter for the sympathetic nervous system and as the final product released by the parasympathetic nervous system. In the brain, acetylcholine functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. The brain contains a number of cholinergic areas, each with distinct functions. They play an important role in arousal, attention, memory and motivation. Partly because of its muscle-activating function, but also because of its functions in the autonomic nervous system and brain, a large number of important drugs exert their effects by altering cholinergic transmission. Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause harm by inactivating or hyperactivating muscles via their influences on the neuromuscular junction. Drugs that act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, such as atropine, can be poisonous in large quantities, but in smaller doses they are commonly used to treat certain heart conditions and eye problems. Scopolamine, which acts mainly on muscarinic receptors in the brain, can cause delirium and amnesia. The addictive qualities of nicotine are derived from its effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain.

Acetylcholine as a Neuromodulator: Cholinergic Signaling Shapes Nervous System

Ed Boyden: Light Switch for Neurons (youtube)

Sensory Neurons  - Somatosensory System

Brain Areas Map Neural Oscillation is rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram. Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing frequency of individual neurons. A well-known example of macroscopic neural oscillations is alpha activity.

Gamma Waves is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

Glutamate Receptor are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate (the conjugate base of glutamic acid) is abundant in the human body, but particularly in the nervous system and especially prominent in the human brain where it is the body's most prominent neurotransmitter, the brain's main excitatory neurotransmitter, and also the precursor for GABA, the brain's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation. Glutamate System is a fast-signaling system that is very important for information processing in neuronal networks of the neocortex and hippocampus in particular. Glutamate is very much involved in the process of long-term potentiation, which is a neuronal model of memory. Glutamate is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter that is released by nerve cells in the brain. It is responsible for sending signals between nerve cells, and under normal conditions it plays an important role in learning and memory.

Glutamate as a neurotransmitter refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells. It is by a wide margin the most abundant neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. It is used by every major excitatory function in the vertebrate brain, accounting in total for well over 90% of the synaptic connections in the human brain. It also serves as the primary neurotransmitter for some localized brain regions, such as cerebellum granule cells. Serotonin.

AMPA is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, where it mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate. There are several types of glutamatergic ion channels in the central nervous system including AMPA, kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) channels. In the synapse, these receptors serve very different purposes. AMPA can be used experimentally to distinguish the activity of one receptor from the other in order to understand their differing functions. AMPA generates fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP). AMPA activates AMPA receptors that are non-selective cationic channels allowing the passage of Na+ and K+ and therefore have an equilibrium potential near 0 mV. (AMPA stands for, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).

AMPA Receptor is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been traditionally classified as a non-NMDA-type receptor, along with the kainate receptor. Its name is derived from its ability to be activated by the artificial glutamate analog AMPA. Associated with learning, memory, behavior and mood.

Neuroendocrine Cell are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood. In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration.

Nervous Tissue: 1. Identify neurons and understand the functional relationship between the soma and cell processes. 2. Distinguish between glial cells and neurons and know the different functions of these supporting glial cells. 3. Identify and understand the connective tissue elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. 4. Distinguish between specific organs/structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems (i.e. cerebellum, peripheral nerve, autonomic ganglion).


Remake, Refill, Reuse: Recycling at the Synapse Revealed. A neuron, when activated, propagates an electrical signal. But that signal cannot cross the synapse -- the junction between two neurons. So, communication from one neuron to the next is accomplished by the release of tiny membrane capsules containing signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters across the synapse. The electrical signal triggers these capsules, called vesicles, to fuse with membrane at the neuron's pre-synaptic terminal, thereby releasing neurotransmitters into the cleft between the two cells. The neurotransmitters travel across the cleft, then activate receptors in the post-synaptic neuron, triggering an electrical signal in that next cell. Because the neurotransmitter signal goes in one direction -- from the pre-synaptic neuron to the post-synaptic one -- vesicles must be re-formed for the process to continue. "Recycling is a critical process to keep synapses functional. Vesicle recycling involves three steps: First, lipid membrane must be pinched off from the neuron's membrane to form vesicles, a process called endocytosis. Then, the vesicles must be refilled with neurotransmitter. Finally, filled vesicles must be transported to the release site. Although endocytosis has been well-studied, little was known about the refilling process. Neurons can form excitatory connections or inhibitory ones, depending on which neurotransmitters they release across the synapse. The neurotransmitter glutamate passes along an excitatory signal, meaning that it boosts the chance that the electrical signal from the first cell will be passed along to the second. The neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, on the other hand, transmit an inhibitory message, telling the subsequent cell not to fire. The vesicular GABA uptake rate was estimated using a special technique called caged GABA compound UV photolysis. The researchers injected GABA that was "caged" by a synthetic compound that prevents it from refilling vesicles, into the pre-synaptic terminal. The neurotransmitter's release from the cage is controlled by UV illumination, which provides the energy to change the synthetic compound's 3D structure. Using a flash of UV light, the scientists could release the GABA into the pre-synaptic terminal at a specific moment and then measure the rate of uptake of GABA back into the vesicles. The time taken to refill the vesicles with GABA is nearly identical to the overall time taken for a synapse to recover from synaptic depression -- a neuron's inability to fire because the vesicles carrying the message across the synapse are used up. This implies that most of the recovery time is devoted to refilling the vesicles. In contrast, reforming the vesicles takes relatively less time. Vesicle refilling is time consuming because GABA is concentrated 10-100 times inside the vesicle, compared to the rest of the cell, using molecular pumps. Therefore, the researchers concluded that the slow rate of refilling vesicles with GABA can be a rate-limiting step for the neurotransmitter recycling process at inhibitory synapses. Since all inhibitory neurons in the brain use either GABA or glycine, a neurotransmitter which is recycled in the same way as GABA and refilled into vesicles using the same molecular pump, this principle likely applies to all inhibitory neurons in the brain. This suggests that the vesicle refilling process is crucial to maintaining many important brain functions.

Neurometrics is the science of measuring the underlying organization of the brain's electrical activity. Certain brainwave frequencies are associated with general psychological processes. EEGs are used to measure the brain waves.

A new means of neuronal communication discovered in the human brain. An international research group has discovered in the human brain a new functional coupling mechanism between neurons, which may serve as a communication channel between brain regions. Neuronal oscillations are an essential part of the functioning of the human brain. They regulate the communication between neural networks and the processing of information carried out by the brain by pacing neuronal groups and synchronising brain regions. High-frequency oscillations with frequencies over 100 Hertz are known to indicate the activity of small neuronal populations. However, up to now, they have been considered to be exclusively a local phenomenon. The findings of the European research project demonstrate that also high-frequency oscillations over 100 Hertz synchronize across several brain regions. This important finding reveals that strictly-timed communication between brain regions can be achieved by high-frequency oscillations. The researchers observed that high-frequency oscillations were synchronised between neuronal groups with a similar architecture of brain structures across subjects, but occurring in individual frequency bands. Carrying out a visual task resulted in the synchronisation of high-frequency oscillations in the specific brain regions responsible for the task execution. These observations suggest that high-frequency oscillations convey within the brain 'information packages' from one small neuronal group to another. The discovery of high-frequency oscillations synchronised between brain regions is the first evidence of the transmission and reception of such information packages in a context broader than individual locations in the brain. The finding also helps to understand how the healthy brain processes information and how this processing is altered in brain diseases.

Individual neurons mix multiple RNA edits of key synapse protein, fly study finds. Neurons stochastically generated up to eight different versions of a protein regulating neurotransmitter release, which could vary how they communicate with other cells. Neurons are talkers. They each communicate with fellow neurons, muscles or other cells by releasing neurotransmitter chemicals at "synapse" junctions, ultimately producing functions ranging from emotions to motions.

Brainwave Entrainment is a colloquialism for 'neural entrainment', which denotes how the aggregate oscillation frequency, resulting from synchronous electrical activity among ensembles of cortical neurons, can adjust to synchronize with the periodic vibration of an external stimulus, such as a sustained acoustic frequency perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of intermittent sounds perceived as rhythm, or a regularly intermittent flashing light.

Volume Control in the brain that supports learning and memory. A 'molecular volume knob' regulating electrical signals in the brain helps with learning and memory. Synapses are tiny contact points that allow neurons in the brain to communicate at different frequencies. The brain converts electrical inputs from the neurons into chemical neurotransmitters that travel across these synaptic spaces. The amount of neurotransmitter released changes the numbers and patterns of neurons activated within circuits of the brain. That reshaping of synaptic connection strength is how learning happens and how memories are formed. Two functions support these processes of memory and learning. One, known as facilitation, is a series of increasingly rapid spikes that amplifies the signals that change a synapse's shape. The other, depression, reduces the signals. Together, these two forms of plasticity keep the brain in balance and prevent neurological disorders such as seizures. Beyond discovering that the electrical signals which flow across synapses in the brain's hippocampus are analog, the Dartmouth research also identified the molecule that regulates the electrical signals. The molecule -- known as Kvß1 -- was previously shown to regulate potassium currents, but was not known to have any role in the synapse controlling the shape of electrical signals. These findings help explain why loss of Kvß1 molecules had previously been shown to negatively impact learning, memory and sleep in mice and fruit flies. The research also reveals the processes that allow the brain to have such high computational power at such low energy. A single, analog electrical impulse can carry multi-bit information, allowing greater control with low frequency signals.

Grey Matter - White Matter

Grey Matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries. Grey matter is distinguished from white matter, in that it contains numerous cell bodies and relatively few myelinated axons, while white matter contains relatively very few cell bodies and is composed chiefly of long-range myelinated axon tracts. The colour difference arises mainly from the whiteness of myelin. In living tissue, grey matter actually has a very light grey colour with yellowish or pinkish hues, which come from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies. Worldwide scientific collaboration unveils genetic architecture of gray matter.

Gyrification is the process of forming the characteristic folds of the cerebral cortex The peak of such a fold is called a gyrus (plural: gyri), and its trough is called a sulcus (plural: sulci). The neurons of the cerebral cortex reside in a thin layer of 'gray matter', only 2–4 mm thick, at the surface of the brain. Much of the interior volume is occupied by 'white matter', which consists of long axonal projections to and from the cortical neurons residing near the surface. Gyrification allows a larger cortical surface area and hence greater cognitive functionality to fit inside a smaller cranium. Development.

Thalamus is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. Hypothalamus.

Voxel-Based Morphometry is a comparison of the local concentration of gray matter between two groups of subjects.

White Matter refers to axon tracts and commissures. Long thought to be passive tissue, it actively affects learning and brain functions, modulating the distribution of action potentials, acting as a relay and coordinating communication between different brain regions. White matter is named for its relatively light appearance resulting from the lipid content of myelin. However, the tissue of the freshly cut brain appears pinkish white to the naked eye because myelin is composed largely of lipid tissue veined with capillaries. Its white color in prepared specimens is due to its usual preservation in formaldehyde. Concussions. Brain’s White Matter is the tissue that connects and protects neurons emanating from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, is a region of particular importance for rational decision-making and effortful problem-solving.

Cingulum Bundle is a prominent white matter tract that interconnects frontal, parietal, and medial temporal sites, while also linking subcortical nuclei to the cingulate gyrus. Despite its apparent continuity, the cingulum’s composition continually changes as fibres join and leave the bundle.

Cingulum in the Brain is a collection of white matter, fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. It forms the white matter core of the cingulate gyrus, following it from the subcallosal gyrus of the frontal lobe beneath the rostrum of corpus callosum to the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus of the temporal lobe. Neurons of the cingulum receive afferent fibers from the parts of the thalamus that are associated with the spinothalamic tract. This, in addition to the fact that the cingulum is a central structure in learning to correct mistakes, indicates that the cingulum is involved in appraisal of pain and reinforcement of behavior that reduces it. Cingulotomy, the surgical severing of the anterior cingulum, is a form of psychosurgery used to treat depression and OCD. The cingulum was one of the earliest identified brain structures. Laughter.

Developmental increases in white matter network controllability support a growing diversity of brain dynamics.

What lies between grey and white in the brain. Making the superficial white matter visible in the living human brain. Traditionally, neuroscience regards the brain as being made up of two basic tissue types. Billions of neurons make up the grey matter, forming a thin layer on the brain's surface. These neuronal cells are interlinked in a mindboggling network by hundreds of millions of white matter connections, running in bundles, deeper in the brain. Until very recently, not much was known about the interface between the white and grey matter -- the so-called superficial white matter -- because methods were lacking to study it in living human brains. Yet, previous investigations had suggested the region to be implicated in devastating conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. We demonstrated that the superficial white matter contains a lot of iron. It is known that iron is necessary for the process of myelination

Brain Imaging - Seeing the Brain beneath the Surface

Adult and Child Brain Scans Medical Imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

Neuro Imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Physicians who specialize in the performance and interpretation of neuroimaging in the clinical setting are neuroradiologists.

Electroencephalography or EEG, is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

EEG Info - Electrocardiography ECG or EKG (Heart) - Sleep Monitoring

Brain MRI Scan Electrocorticography is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. (ECoG).

Positron Emission Tomography is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. In modern PET-CT scanners, three dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a CT X-ray scan performed on the patient during the same session, in the same machine. (PET).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the inside of the body. (MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging).

Fiber Optic Light-Based Sensor measures tiny magnetic fields such as those produced when neurons fire in the brain.

Proton NMR is the application of nuclear magnetic resonance in NMR spectroscopy with respect to hydrogen-1 nuclei within the molecules of a substance, in order to determine the structure of its molecules. In samples where natural hydrogen (H) is used, practically all the hydrogen consists of the isotope 1H (hydrogen-1; i.e. having a proton for a nucleus). A full 1H atom is called protium.

Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Brain (PDF)

Diffusion MRI - Electron Microscopes

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera. However, it is able to provide true 3D information. This information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the patient, but can be freely reformatted or manipulated as required.

CT Scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

EMI- AT Scan (wiki)

Tomography refers to imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. The method is used in radiology, archaeology, biology, atmospheric science, geophysics, oceanography, plasma physics, materials science, astrophysics, quantum information, and other areas of science. In most cases the production of these images is based on the mathematical procedure tomographic reconstruction.

X-Rays is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV Rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. The X-rays we detect from the Sun do not come from the Sun's surface, but from the solar corona, which is the upper layer of the Sun's atmosphere. Only very hot gases can emit X-rays, and the corona, at millions of degrees, is hot enough to emit X-rays, while the much cooler surface of the Sun is not. X-ray Eyes.

Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using neuroimaging techniques.

Radiology uses Medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose and/or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. Radiation Exposure.

Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object. To create the image, a beam of X-rays, a form of electromagnetic radiation, are produced by an X-ray generator and are projected toward the object. A certain amount of X-ray is absorbed by the object, dependent on its density and structural composition. The X-rays that pass through the object are captured behind the object by a detector (either photographic film or a digital detector). The generation of flat two dimensional images by this technique is called projectional radiography. In computed tomography (CT scanning) an X-ray source and its associated detectors rotate around the subject which itself moves through the conical X-ray beam produced. Any given point within the subject is crossed from many directions by many different beams at different times. Information regarding attenuation of these beams is collated and subjected to computation to generate two dimensional images in three planes (axial, coronal, and sagittal) which can be further processed to produce a three dimensional image. Applications of radiography include medical (or "diagnostic") radiography and industrial radiography. Similar techniques are used in airport security (where "body scanners" generally use backscatter X-ray). Neutron Imaging.

Photoacoustic Imaging is a biomedical imaging modality based on the photoacoustic effect. In photoacoustic imaging, non-ionizing laser pulses are delivered into biological tissues (when radio frequency pulses are used, the technology is referred to as thermoacoustic imaging). Some of the delivered energy will be absorbed and converted into heat, leading to transient thermoelastic expansion and thus wideband (i.e. MHz) ultrasonic emission. The generated ultrasonic waves are detected by ultrasonic transducers and then analyzed to produce images. It is known that optical absorption is closely associated with physiological properties, such as hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. As a result, the magnitude of the ultrasonic emission (i.e. photoacoustic signal), which is proportional to the local energy deposition, reveals physiologically specific optical absorption contrast. 2D or 3D images of the targeted areas can then be formed. (Laser Induced Sound Waves).

Photoacoustic Effect is the formation of sound waves following light absorption in a material sample. In order to obtain this effect the light intensity must vary, either periodically (modulated light) or as a single flash (pulsed light). The photoacoustic effect is quantified by measuring the formed sound (pressure changes) with appropriate detectors, such as microphones or piezoelectric sensors. The time variation of the electric output (current or voltage) from these detectors is the photoacoustic signal. These measurements are useful to determine certain properties of the studied sample. For example, in photoacoustic spectroscopy, the photoacoustic signal is used to obtain the actual absorption of light in either opaque or transparent objects. It is useful for substances in extremely low concentrations, because very strong pulses of light from a laser can be used to increase sensitivity and very narrow wavelengths can be used for specificity. Furthermore, photoacoustic measurements serve as a valuable research tool in the study of the heat evolved in photochemical reactions (see: photochemistry), particularly in the study of photosynthesis. Most generally, electromagnetic radiation of any kind can give rise to a photoacoustic effect. This includes the whole range of electromagnetic frequencies, from gamma radiation and X-rays to microwave and radio. Still, much of the reported research and applications, utilizing the photoacoustic effect, is concerned with the near ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectral regions.

Functional Imaging is a medical imaging technique of detecting or measuring changes in metabolism, blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption. As opposed to structural imaging, functional imaging centers on revealing physiological activities within a certain tissue or organ by employing medical image modalities that very often use tracers or probes to reflect spatial distribution of them within the body. These tracers are often analogous to some chemical compounds, like glucose, within the body. To achieve this, isotopes are used because they have similar chemical and biological characteristics. By appropriate proportionality, the nuclear medicine physicians can determine the real intensity of certain substance within the body to evaluate the risk or danger of developing some diseases.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

Functional Neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.

Patch-type brain wave sensor that can easily be attached just like applying a cool soft gel sheet to the forehead.

Diffuse Optical Imaging is a method of imaging using near-infrared spectroscopy or NIRS or fluorescence-based methods. When used to create 3D volumetric models of the imaged material DOI is referred to as diffuse optical tomography, whereas 2D imaging methods are classified as diffuse optical topography. The technique has many applications to neuroscience, sports medicine, wound monitoring, and cancer detection. Typically DOI techniques monitor changes in concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and may additionally measure redox states of cytochromes. The technique may also be referred to as diffuse optical tomography (DOT), near infrared optical tomography (NIROT) or fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT), depending on the usage. In neuroscience, functional measurements made using NIR wavelengths, DOI techniques may classify as functional near infrared spectroscopy fNIRS.

Enlitic uses deep learning to analyze radiographs and CT and MRI scans.

Optical Tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research. Optical tomography in industry is used as a sensor of thickness and internal structure of semiconductors.

Optical Coherence Tomography is an established medical imaging technique that uses light to capture micrometer-resolution, three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue). Optical coherence tomography is based on low-coherence interferometry, typically employing near-infrared light. The use of relatively long wavelength light allows it to penetrate into the scattering medium. Confocal microscopy, another optical technique, typically penetrates less deeply into the sample but with higher resolution. Depending on the properties of the light source (superluminescent diodes, ultrashort pulsed lasers, and supercontinuum lasers have been employed), optical coherence tomography has achieved sub-micrometer resolution (with very wide-spectrum sources emitting over a ~100 nm wavelength range). Spatial Intelligence.

Deep-Brain Exploration with Nanomaterial. Near-infrared (NIR) light applied above the skull can easily pass through brain tissue with minimal scattering and reach deep structures. Up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs; blue) in the tissue can absorb this light and locally emit visible light sufficient to activate light-sensitive channels expressed in nearby neurons.

Industrial Process Imaging or process tomography are methods used to form an image of a cross section of vessel or pipe in a chemical engineering or mineral processing, or petroleum extraction or refining plant. Process imaging is used for the development of process equipment such as filters, separators and conveyor, as well as monitoring of production plant including flow rate measurement. As well as conventional tomographic methods widely used in medicine such as X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma ray tomography, and ultra-sound tomography, new and emerging methods such as electrical capacitance tomography and magnetic induction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography (similar to medical electrical impedance tomography) are also used.

Process Tomography consists of tomographic imaging of systems, such as process pipes in industry. In tomography the 3D distribution of some physical quantity in the object is determined. There is a widespread need to get tomographic information about process. This information can be used, for example, in the design and control of processes. Tomography involves taking measurements around the periphery of an object (e.g. process vessel or patient) to determine what is going on inside. The best known technique is CAT scanning in medicine, however process tomography instrumentation needs to be cheaper, faster and more robust.

Research - Microscopes

Organoid is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in three dimensions that shows realistic micro-anatomy. They are derived from one or a few cells from a tissue, embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, which can self-organize in three-dimensional culture owing to their self-renewal and differentiation capacities. The technique for growing organoids has rapidly improved since the early 2010s, and it was named by The Scientist as one of the biggest scientific advancements of 2013.

Stimulating the Brain - Small Electrical Pulses - Magnets

Electrical Brain Stimulation is a form of electrotherapy and technique used in research and clinical neurobiology to stimulate a neuron or neural network in the brain through the direct or indirect excitation of its cell membrane by using an electric current. It is used for research or for therapeutical purposes. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation.

Deep Brain Stimulation involves the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Brain Implants - Sound Waves - Light

Neuromodulation is the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemical agents, to specific neurological sites in the body. It is carried out to normalize – or modulate – nervous tissue function. Neuromodulation is an evolving therapy that can involve a range of electromagnetic stimuli such as a magnetic field (rTMS), an electric current, or a drug instilled directly in the subdural space (intrathecal drug delivery). Emerging applications involve targeted introduction of genes or gene regulators and light (optogenetics), and by 2014, these had been at minimum demonstrated in mammalian models, or first-in-human data had been acquired. The most clinical experience has been with electrical stimulation. Neuromodulation, whether electrical or magnetic, employs the body's natural biological response by stimulating nerve cell activity that can influence populations of nerves by releasing transmitters, such as dopamine, or other chemical messengers such as the peptide Substance P, that can modulate the excitability and firing patterns of neural circuits. There may also be more direct electrophysiological effects on neural membranes as the mechanism of action of electrical interaction with neural elements. The end effect is a "normalization" of a neural network function from its perturbed state. Presumed mechanisms of action for neurostimulation include depolarizing blockade, stochastic normalization of neural firing, axonal blockade, reduction of neural firing keratosis, and suppression of neural network oscillations. Although the exact mechanisms of neurostimulation are not known, the empirical effectiveness has led to considerable application clinically. Existing and emerging neuromodulation treatments also include application in medication-resistant epilepsy, chronic head pain conditions, and functional therapy ranging from bladder and bowel or respiratory control to improvement of sensory deficits, such as hearing (cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants) and vision (retinal implants). Technical improvements include a trend toward minimally invasive (or noninvasive) systems; as well as smaller, more sophisticated devices that may have automated feedback control, and conditional compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging. Neuromodulation therapy has been investigated for other chronic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, chronic pain, and as an adjunctive treatment in recovery from stroke.

Brain Waves - Brainwaves - Brain Computer Interface - Magnets

Electroceutical is a device that treats ailments with electrical impulses.

Bioelectronics is a field of research in the convergence of biology and electronics.

Magneto Encephalography is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.

Trans-Cranial Magnetic Stimulation is a magnetic method used to stimulate small regions of the brain. During a TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or "coil", is placed near the head of the person receiving the treatment. The coil produces small electric currents in the region of the brain just under the coil via electromagnetic induction. The coil is connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers electric current to the coil.

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation is a form of neurostimulation which uses constant, low current delivered to the brain area of interest via electrodes on the scalp.

Reactivation of latent working memories with transcranial magnetic stimulation

Wireless Magnetothermal Deep Brain Stimulation. Wireless deep brain stimulation of well-defined neuronal populations could facilitate the study of intact brain circuits and the treatment of neurological disorders. Here, we demonstrate minimally invasive and remote neural excitation through the activation of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 by magnetic nanoparticles. When exposed to alternating magnetic fields, the nanoparticles dissipate heat generated by hysteresis, triggering widespread and reversible firing of TRPV1(+) neurons. Wireless magnetothermal stimulation in the ventral tegmental area of mice evoked excitation in subpopulations of neurons in the targeted brain region and in structures receiving excitatory projections. The nanoparticles persisted in the brain for over a month, allowing for chronic stimulation without the need for implants and connectors.

Electroconvulsive Therapy - Electroshock Therapy - Electric Field Therapy - Cancer

Wirelessly rechargeable soft brain implant controls brain cells. Researchers have invented a smartphone-controlled soft brain implant that can be recharged wirelessly from outside the body. It enables long-term neural circuit manipulation without the need for periodic disruptive surgeries to replace the battery of the implant. Scientists believe this technology can help uncover and treat psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as addiction, depression, and Parkinson's.

Non-invasive nerve stimulation boosts learning of foreign language sounds. A simple earbud-like device that imperceptibly stimulates the brain could significantly improve the wearer's ability to learn the sounds of a new language. Researchers used a non-invasive technique called transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), in which a small stimulator is placed in the outer ear and can activate the vagus nerve using unnoticeable electrical pulses to stimulate one of the nerve's nearby branches.

New neuroimaging technique studies brain stimulation for depression. A team of psychiatrists and biomedical engineers applied an emerging functional neuroimaging technology, known as diffuse optical tomography, to better understand how rTMS works so they can begin to improve the brain stimulation procedure's effectiveness in treating depression. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, or rTMS, was FDA approved in 2008 as a safe and effective noninvasive treatment for severe depression resistant to antidepressant medications. A small coil positioned near the scalp generates repetitive, pulsed magnetic waves that pass through the skull and stimulate brain cells to relieve symptoms of depression. The procedure has few side effects and is typically prescribed as an alternative or supplemental therapy when multiple antidepressant medications and/or psychotherapy do not work.

Electricity from electric eels may transfer genetic material to nearby animals. Researchers have discovered that electric eels can alter the genes of tiny fish larvae with their electric shock. Their findings help to better understand electroporation, a method by which genes can be transported using electricity.

Electroporation or electropermeabilization is a technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane. This may allow chemicals, drugs, electrode arrays or DNA to be introduced into the cell, also called electrotransfer.

New tool activates deep brain neurons by combining ultrasound, genetics. It is the first work to show that sonothermogenetics can control behavior by stimulating a specific target deep in the brain.

Brain Injuries

Brain Damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury.

Traumatic Brain Injury occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. Intracranial Traumatic Brain Injury occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain.

Blunt Trauma is physical trauma to a body part, either by impact, injury or physical attack. The latter is usually referred to as blunt force trauma. Blunt trauma is the initial trauma, from which develops more specific types such as contusions, abrasions, lacerations, and/or bone fractures. Blunt trauma is contrasted with penetrating trauma, in which an object such as a projectile or knife enters the body.

Brain Injury Rehabilitation - Recovery after Brain Injury - Peptide hydrogels could help Heal Traumatic Brain Injuries - Stem Cells

Brain Injury Explanation - Brain Injuries Heal Faster when people Move - Stimulation - EEG

Apps for Brain Injuries (PDF) - Coma - Stroke

Phineas P. Gage was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his life‍—‌effects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage. (1823–1860).

Man missing 90% of his brain leads a normal life. No it's not a republican. This exceedingly rare condition has left a man called Jonathan with a distinctive way of speaking and a walk that is slightly awkward. He also lacks the balance to ride a bicycle. But all that hasn't kept him from living on his own, holding down an office job and charming pretty much every person he meets. Cerebellum is the portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control or controls balance for walking and standing, and other complex motor functions. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as emotional control such as regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning in humans.

Concussion is defined as a head injury with a temporary loss of brain function. Symptoms include a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, which may not be recognized if subtle. A variety of signs accompany concussion including headache, feeling in a fog, and emotional changeability. Physical signs (such as loss of consciousness or amnesia), behavioral changes (such as irritability), cognitive impairment (such as slowed reaction times), or sleep disturbances. Fewer than 10% of sports-related concussions among children are associated with loss of consciousness.

Concussions in Sports - Inflammation

Impact Test App for Minor Concussions.

Eye-Sync Eye Tracking Technology helps diagnose concussions on the spot. 60-second tool to objectively screen for ocular-motor synchronization, a key impairment in concussion.

Molecules in Spit may be able to Diagnose and Predict Length of Concussions.

Scientists discover Concussion Biomarker by measuring the brain’s ability to process sound or auditory response. Children who sustained concussions had on average a 35 percent smaller neural response to pitch.

Soccer heading linked to measurable decline in brain function. New research links soccer heading -- where players hit the ball with their head -- to a measurable decline in the microstructure and function of the brain over a two-year period.

Fast MRIs offer alternative to CT scans for Pediatric Head Injuries.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is a progressive degenerative disease found in people who have had a severe blow or repeated blows to the head. The disease was previously called dementia pugilistica (DP), i.e. "punch-drunk," as it was initially found in those with a history of boxing. CTE has been most commonly found in professional athletes participating in American football, rugby, ice hockey, boxing, professional wrestling, stunt performing, bull riding, rodeo, and other contact sports who have experienced repeated concussions or other brain trauma. Its presence in domestic violence is also being investigated. It can affect high school athletes, especially American football players, following few years of activity. It is a form of tauopathy.

In the quest for a TBI therapy, astrocytes may be the bull’s-eye. Treatment could aim to raise levels of a neuroprotective molecule, studies hint. New studies show what happens when an enzyme called monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is genetically inactivated in experimental mice. Typically, MAGL breaks down a neuroprotective molecule called 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), diminishing the latter's beneficial effects in the brain. Findings point to the need to develop therapeutic interventions for inhibition of 2-AG degradation in astrocytes, cells that enhance the activity of neurons.

Amnesia caused by head injury reversed in early mouse study. A mouse study designed to shed light on memory loss in people who experience repeated head impacts, such as athletes, suggests the condition could potentially be reversed. The research in mice finds that amnesia and poor memory following head injury is due to inadequate reactivation of neurons involved in forming memories.

Can I have your Brain? The quest for truth on concussions and CTE: Chris Nowinski - Concussion Foundation.

Woodpeckers Brain experiences a seemingly catastrophic impact every time beak meets wood.

Rehabilitation Neuropsychology of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease, trauma or stroke.

Repairing nerve cells after injury and in chronic disease. Researchers discovered a mechanism for repairing damaged nerves during peripheral neuropathy in mice, wherein the protein Mitf orchestrates nerve repair after both trauma-induced and chronic nerve damage conditions, like Charcot Marie Tooth disease. Their findings may inspire novel therapeutics that bolster repair function and heal peripheral neuropathy -- even in hereditary and developmental cases. Each year in the United States there are more than 3 million cases of peripheral neuropathy, wherein nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord are damaged and cause pain and loss of feeling in the affected areas. Peripheral neuropathy can occur from diabetes, injury, genetically inherited disease, infection, and more. Salk scientists have now uncovered in mice a mechanism for repairing damaged nerves during peripheral neuropathy. They discovered that the protein Mitf helps turn on the repair function of specialized nervous system Schwann cells.

People with more education have brains that are better able to find ways around the damage caused by an injury. Language Disorders.

Researchers using exosome IV to treat traumatic brain injury. A team of researchers from the University of Georgia’s Regenerative Bioscience Center has found that neural exosomes—“cargo” molecules within the nervous system that carry messages to the brain—can minimize or even avert progression of traumatic brain injury when used as part of a new cell-to-cell messaging technology. The finding could result in the first delivery platform and regenerative treatment for TBI.

O2 & Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Reverses Brain Damage in Drowned Toddler. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the therapeutic administration of 100% oxygen at environmental pressures greater than one atmosphere, while normobaric oxygen therapy (NBOT) is oxygen administered at one atmosphere.

Neuro Skills - Brain Injury - Stroke - BBB

Parallel recovery of consciousness and sleep in acute traumatic brain injury.

Word and face recognition can be adequately supported with half a brain. An unprecedented study of brain plasticity and visual perception found that people who, as children, had undergone surgery removing half of their brain correctly recognized differences between pairs of words or faces more than 80% of the time. Considering the volume of removed brain tissue, the surprising accuracy highlights the brain's capacity -- and its limitations -- to rewire itself and adapt to dramatic surgery or traumatic injury.

A good sleep for a fresh mind in patients with acute traumatic brain injury.

Sleeping Knowledge.

Structural Advanced MRI Imaging.

Novel small molecule potently attenuates neuroinflammation in brain and glial cells. In a preclinical study show that their small molecule drug, SRI-42127, can potently attenuate the triggers of neuroinflammation. These experiments in glial cell cultures and mice now open the door to testing SRI-42127 in models of acute and chronic neurological injury. Neuroinflammation can worsen outcomes in stroke, traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury, as well as accelerate neurodegenerative diseases like ALS, Parkinson's or Alzheimer's. This suggests that limiting neuroinflammation may represent a promising new approach to treat neurological diseases and neuropathic pain that are driven by neuroinflammation.

Damage to white matter is linked to worse cognitive outcomes after brain injury. A new study challenges the idea that gray matter (the neurons that form the cerebral cortex) is more important than white matter (the myelin covered axons that physically connect neuronal regions) when it comes to cognitive health and function. The findings may help neurologists better predict the long-term effects of strokes and other forms of traumatic brain injury.

New cell therapy improves memory and stops seizures following TBI. Transplanting new inhibitory neurons may repair damaged brain circuits. Transplanted interneurons improve memory precision after traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injuries affect 2 million Americans each year and cause cell death and inflammation in the brain. People who experience a head injury often suffer from lifelong memory loss and can develop epilepsy.

Researchers invent tiny, Light-Powered Wires to Modulate Brain's Electrical Signals. A new study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to manipulate electrical signaling between neurons. The research offers a new avenue to shed light on--and perhaps someday treat--brain disorders.

Neuroscientists explore mysterious 'events' in the brain that open new avenues for understanding brain injuries and disorders. Using a new model of brain activity, computational neuroscientists are exploring striking bursts of activity in the human brain that have not been examined before. These bursts may have potential to serve as biomarkers for brain disease and conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, dementia, and ADHD.

Neuroscientists illuminate how brain cells 'navigate' in the light and dark. Brain mechanism identified that tracks angular head motion during navigation. Researchers have discovered how individual and networks of cells in an area of the brain called the retrosplenial cortex encode this angular head motion in mice to enable navigation both during the day and at night.

Implantable, Biodegradable Devices speed Nerve Regeneration in rats. Peripheral nerve injuries leave people with tingling, numbness and weakness in their arms, hands and legs. Researchers have developed an implantable, bioabsorbable device that speeds recovery in rats by stimulating injured nerves with electricity.

Bioelectronic Medicine. Biodegradable wireless device implant provides electrical stimulation that speeds nerve regeneration and improves healing of a damaged nerve. Device delivers pulses of electricity to damaged nerves in rats after a surgical repair process, accelerating the regrowth of nerves and enhancing the recovery of muscle strength and control. The device is the size of a dime and the thickness of a sheet of paper.

Bioresorbable is material that may dissolve or be absorbed in the body. Also called biodegradable, or naturally-dissolving.

Testing new drugs with “ALS-on-a-chip”. 3-D tissue model replicates the motor neuron connections affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. There is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease that gradually kills off the motor neurons that control muscles and is diagnosed in nearly 6,000 people per year in the United States.

Creating Custom Brains from the ground up. The developing forebrain can then be reconstituted from genetically engineered stem cells containing the specific genetic modifications desired for study.

Routing Gene Therapy directly into the Brain. A therapeutic technique to transplant blood-forming (hematopoietic) stem cells directly into the brain could herald a revolution in our approach to treating central nervous system diseases and neurodegenerative disorders.

Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain.

Neurointensive Care deals with life-threatening diseases of the nervous system, which are those that involve the brain, spinal cord and nerves.

Blood Brain Barrier - Water on the Brain

Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS).

Adrenoleukodystrophy is a disease linked to the X chromosome. It is a result of fatty acid buildup caused by the relevant enzymes not functioning properly, which then causes damage to the myelin sheathes of the nerves, resulting in seizures and hyperactivity. Other side effects include problems with speaking, listening, and understanding verbal instructions.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis also known as Lou Gehrig's disease and motor neurone disease. MND is a specific disease that causes the death of neurons which control voluntary muscles. Some also use the term "motor neuron disease" for a group of conditions of which ALS is the most common. ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. This results in difficulty in speaking, swallowing, and eventually breathing.

Strokes - Bleeding - Blockage

Cerebral Hemorrhage is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles. Symptoms can include headache, one sided weakness, vomiting, seizures, decreased level of consciousness, and neck stiffness. Often symptoms get worse over time. Fever is also common. In many cases bleeding is present in both the brain tissue and the ventricles. Internal Bleeding.

Aneurysm is an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon, caused by a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall. A brain aneurysm (AN-yoo-riz-um) is a bulge or ballooning in a blood vessel in the brain. It often looks like a berry hanging on a stem. A brain aneurysm can leak or rupture, causing bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

Clinicians report real-world results on the use of a new device to treat brain aneurysms. In an international study of patients with brain aneurysms (balloon-like bulges in weakened blood vessels), the Woven Endobridge device had a favorable efficacy and safety profile.

Embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel. The embolus may be a blood clot (thrombus), a fat globule (fat embolism), a bubble of air or other gas (gas embolism), or foreign material. An embolism can cause partial or total blockage of blood flow in the affected vessel. Such a blockage (a vascular occlusion) may affect a part of the body distant from the origin of the embolus. An embolism in which the embolus is a piece of thrombus is called a thromboembolism. An embolism is usually a pathological event, i.e., accompanying illness or injury. Sometimes it is created intentionally for a therapeutic reason, such as to stop bleeding or to kill a cancerous tumor by stopping its blood supply. Such therapy is called embolization.

Stroke is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side among others. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Hemorrhagic strokes may also be associated with a severe headache. Every 40 seconds, someone in the U.S. has a stroke. About 795,000 people in the United States have a stroke each year. Researchers already knew that the overall rate of stroke in Africa is among the world's highest, with around 316 new cases each year per 100,000 people. (The U.S. rate, by comparison, is around 246 new cases per 100,000 people, according to the CDC.) But the study sheds new light on the prevalence of hemorrhagic stroke. Increased consumption of tobacco and processed food. The number of people in Africa with hypertension is projected to rise from 80 million in 2000 to 150 million by 2025. High Blood Pressure. A hemorrhagic stroke is either a brain aneurysm burst or a weakened blood vessel leak. Blood spills into or around the brain and creates swelling and pressure, damaging cells and tissue in the brain. There are two types of hemorrhagic stroke called intracerebal and subarachnoid. The two types of hemorrhagic strokes are intracerebral (within the brain) hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures. Two types of weakened blood vessels usually cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). New stroke-healing gel helped regrow neurons and blood vessels in mice with stroke-damaged brains.

Silent Stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke. Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future. (white matter stroke).

Thrombotic Strokes are strokes caused by a thrombus or blood clot that develops in the arteries supplying blood to the brain. This type of stroke is usually seen in older persons, especially those with high cholesterol and atherosclerosis (a buildup of fat and lipids inside the walls of blood vessels) or diabetes.

Global Aphasia is a severe form of nonfluent aphasia, caused by damage to the left side of the brain, that affects receptive and expressive language skills (needed for both written and oral language) as well as auditory and visual comprehension. Acquired impairments of communicative abilities are present across all language modalities, impacting language production, comprehension, and repetition. Patients with global aphasia may be able to verbalize a few short utterances and use non-word neologisms, but their overall production ability is limited. Their ability to repeat words, utterances, or phrases is also affected. Due to the preservation of the right hemisphere, an individual with global aphasia may still be able to express themselves through facial expressions, gestures, and intonation. This type of aphasia often results from a large lesion of the left perisylvian cortex. The lesion is caused by an occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery and is associated with damage to Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and insular regions which are associated with aspects of language. Global aphasia typically results from an occlusion to the trunk of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), which affects a large portion of the perisylvian region of the left cortex. Cause. Global aphasia is usually a result of a thrombotic stroke, which occurs when a blood clot forms in the brain's blood vessels. Treatment. Speech and language therapy is typically the primary treatment for individuals with aphasia. The goal of speech and language therapy is to increase the person’s communication abilities to a level functional for daily life. Goals are chosen based on collaboration between speech language pathologists, patients, and their family/caregivers. Goals should be individualized based on the person’s aphasia symptoms and communicative needs. Language Disorders.

Brainstem Stroke happens when blood supply to the base of the brain is stopped. This can affect many functions in the body, such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. There are two main types: ischemic and hemorrhagic . An ischemic stroke is the most common type. Medical care is needed right away. Brainstem Infarction.

Researchers map crystals to advance treatments for stroke, diabetes, dementia. A team of researchers have mapped the crystal structure of a protein called 'mitoNEET' and pinpointed how a drug latches on it. MitoNEET, a key regulator of mitochondrial function and lipid homeostasis.

What happens when the brain loses a hub? Rare experiment during brain surgery helps researchers better understand neural networks. Neuroscientists have obtained the first direct recordings of the human brain in the minutes before and after a brain hub crucial for language meaning was surgically disconnected. The results reveal the importance of brain hubs in neural networks and the remarkable way in which the human brain attempts to compensate when a hub is lost, with immediacy not previously observed.

New hope for sight recovery in stroke survivors. Researchers have used MRI imaging to map visual brain activity in stroke survivors with sight loss that gives new hope for rehabilitation and recovery.

Lost brain function restored in mice after stroke. In an ischemic stroke, lack of blood flow to the brain causes damage, which rapidly leads to nerve cell loss that affects large parts of the the vast network of nerve cells in the brain. This may lead to loss of function such as paralysis, sensorimotor impairment and vision and speech difficulties, but also to pain and depression. About 60 per cent of stroke sufferers, experience lost somatosensori functions such as touch and position sense. Rodents treated with the mGluR5 inhibitor regained their somatosensori functions.

Transient Ischemic Attack is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) – either focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal – without acute infarction (tissue death). TIAs have the same underlying cause as strokes: a disruption of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and are often referred to as mini-strokes. Symptoms caused by a TIA resolve in 24 hours or less. TIA was originally defined clinically by the temporary nature of less than 24 hours of the associated neurologic symptoms.

UCLA study shows how brain begins repairs after ‘silent strokes’ Blocking a molecular receptor helps restore brain function.

Smart cells teach Neurons to Heal themselves.

New Stem-Cell based stroke treatment repairs damaged brain tissue. Reduces brain damage and accelerates the brain's natural healing tendencies in animal models.

Nerve repair, with help from stem cells. Researchers teamed up to create a novel approach to surgically repairing injured peripheral nerves that relies on the versatility of gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A new approach to repairing peripheral nerves marries the regenerating power of gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells with a biological scaffold to enable the functional recovery of nerves following a facial injury, according to a study by a cross-disciplinary team from the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine and Perelman School of Medicine.

Researchers regrow damaged nerves with polymer and protein. Researchers have created a biodegradable nerve guide -- a polymer tube -- filled with growth-promoting protein that can regenerate long sections of damaged nerves, without the need for transplanting stem cells or a donor nerve.

"A finding suggests that people with more education have brains that are better able to "find ways around the damage" caused by an injury." 

Controlled scar formation in the brain. When the brain suffers injury or infection, glial cells surrounding the affected site act to preserve the brain's sensitive nerve cells and prevent excessive damage. A team of researchers has been able to demonstrate the important role played by the reorganization of the structural and membrane elements of glial cells. The nervous system lacks the ability to regenerate nerve cells and is therefore particularly vulnerable to injury. Following brain injury or infection, various cells have to work together in a coordinated manner in order to limit damage and enable recovery. 'Astrocytes', the most common type of glial cell found in the central nervous system, play a key role in the protection of surrounding tissues. They form part of a defense mechanism known as 'reactive astrogliosis', which facilitates scar formation, thereby helping to contain inflammation and control tissue damage. Astrocytes can also ensure the survival of nerve cells located immediately adjacent to a site of tissue injury, thereby preserving the function of neuronal networks. The researchers were able to elucidate a new mechanism which explains what processes happen inside the astrocytes and how these are coordinated. To enable scar formation, drebrin controls the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, an internal scaffold responsible for maintaining astrocyte mechanical stability. By doing so, drebrin also induces the formation of long cylindrical membrane structures known as tubular endosomes, which are used in the uptake, sorting and redistribution of surface receptors and are needed for the defensive measures of astrocytes.

Disability Rating Scale - Pain Scale

Constraint-induced Movement Therapy is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.


Scientists shrink stroke damage in mice by calming immune cells outside brain.

About 14% of cerebral palsy cases may be tied to brain wiring genes. Study points to genes that control the establishment of neural circuits during early development. Researchers confirm that about 14% of all cases of cerebral palsy, a disabling brain disorder for which there are no cures, may be linked to a patient's genes and suggest that many of those genes control how brain circuits become wired during early development. The results led to recommended changes in the treatment of at least three patients, highlighting the importance of understanding the role genes play in the disorder.

Immune cells invade aging brains, disrupt new nerve cell formation or impair nerve cell generation. The healthy brain is by no means devoid of immune cells. In fact, it boasts its own unique version of them, called microglia. But a much greater variety of immune cells abounding in the blood, spleen, gut and elsewhere in the body are ordinarily denied entry to the brain, as the blood vessels pervading the brain have tightly sealed walls. The resulting so-called blood-brain barrier renders a healthy brain safe from the intrusion of potentially harmful immune cells on an inflammatory tear as the result of a systemic illness or injury. Killer T Cells.

Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for further research into potential applications.

Aphasia is an inability to comprehend language and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.

Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex), in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task. A person with apraxia has impaired volitional control of speech making it difficult to move his or her lips or tongue to the right place, as the messages from the brain to the mouth are disrupted. The nature of the brain damage determines the severity and the absence of sensory loss or paralysis helps explain the level of difficulty.

Agnosia is the inability to interpret sensations or the inability to process sensory information, which often leads to a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss. It is usually associated with brain injury or neurological illness, particularly after damage to the occipitotemporal border, which is part of the ventral stream. Agnosia only affects a single modality, such as vision or hearing. More recently, a top-down interruption is considered to cause the disturbance of handling perceptual information. 

Brain-Computer Interface - Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Cerebellar Hypoplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorder of cerebellar maldevelopment presenting as early onset non progressive ataxia, hypotonia, and motor learning disability. Various causes has been incriminated like hereditary, metabolic, toxic and viral agents. Woman with no Cerebellum.

Communication App - Autism

Diffuse Axonal Injury is a brain injury in which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area. DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury, and is a major cause of unconsciousness and persistent vegetative state after severe head trauma. It occurs in about half of all cases of severe head trauma and may be the primary damage that occurs in concussion. The outcome is frequently coma, with over 90% of patients with severe DAI never regaining consciousness. Those who do wake up often remain significantly impaired.

Locked-in Syndrome is a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally due to complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body except for the eyes. Total locked-in syndrome is a version of locked-in syndrome wherein the eyes are paralyzed as well. People with locked-in syndrome are conscious and can think and reason, but are unable to speak or move. Vertical eye movements and blinking can be used to communicate.

Brigham and Women's - Rhinochill - Music Therapy

Hemispatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of the brain is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space is observed. It is defined by the inability of a person to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where that inability is not due to a lack of sensation. Hemispatial neglect is very commonly contralateral to the damaged hemisphere, but instances of ipsilesional neglect (on the same side as the lesion) have been reported.

Split-Brain is a lay term to describe the result when the corpus callosum connecting the two hemispheres of the brain is severed to some degree. It is an association of symptoms produced by disruption of or interference with the connection between the hemispheres of the brain.

NeurodegenerativeBrain Shrinkage

Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality. Ataxia is a non-specific clinical manifestation implying dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that coordinate movement, such as the cerebellum.

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis
Human Senses

Autoimmune Disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired. Often symptoms come and go.

Ramona Pierson (video)

Midbrain is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

Transplanted embryonic neurons integrate into adult neocortical circuits Implanting new neurons to integrate with existing neocortical circuits. Grafting

Acquired Savant Syndrome is when a brain injury can sometimes activate incredible skills that a person never experienced before.

Anoxic Brain Injuries are caused by a complete lack of oxygen to the brain, which results in the death of brain cells after approximately four minutes of oxygen deprivation. Hypoxicischemic Injury or stagnant anoxia, may occur when oxygen-carrying blood cannot reach the brain, resulting in oxygen deprivation caused by strokes, but can also be caused by other pulmonary conditions, such as cardiac arrest or cardiac arrhythmia. Anemic Anoxia occurs when the blood cannot properly carry enough oxygen or if there is not enough blood in the body itself to support the oxygen needs of the brain (i.e., lack of oxygen to the brain). Toxic Anoxia occurs when chemicals or poisons hinder the ability of the brain to receive oxygen from blood cells. Anoxic Anoxia is caused by the lack of oxygen in the air, resulting in suffocation. The effects of an anoxic brain injury may include: headache, difficulty coordinating balance, vision problems, seizures, changes in sensory perception, trouble speaking and swallowing, changes in sleep pattern, lack of bowel and bladder control, changes in sexual function, motor impairment, personality changes, difficulty forming sentences, confusion, trouble communicating, difficulty with reason, focus and logic, memory impairments, depression, poor concentration, mood swings, limited attention span, disorientation, forgetfulness, acting inappropriately. O2.

Hypoxic Brain Injuries are brain injuries that form due to a restriction on the oxygen being supplied to the brain. The restricted flow of oxygen causes the gradual death and impairment of brain cells.

Coma - Unconscious

Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions. Coma Scale (wiki)

UCLA scientists use Ultrasound to jump-start a Man’s Brain after Coma.

Restoring Consciousness with Vagus Nerve Stimulation. After 15 years in a vegetative state, nerve stimulation restores consciousness.

Persistent Vegetative State is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness. After four weeks in a vegetative state (VS), the patient is classified as in a persistent vegetative state. Paralysis.

Ways to Communicate

Brain Death is the complete and irreversible loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).

Detection of Brain Activation in Unresponsive Patients with Acute Brain Injury. Machine learning was applied to EEG recordings to detect brain activation in response to commands that patients move their hands. The functional outcome at 12 months was determined with the Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended (GOS-E; levels range from 1 to 8, with higher levels indicating better outcomes).

Source of hidden consciousness in 'comatose' brain injury patients found. Researchers have identified brain circuits that, when injured, make conscious patients with acute brain injury appear unresponsive, a phenomenon known as hidden consciousness. Columbia researchers have identified brain injuries that may underlie hidden consciousness, a puzzling phenomenon in which brain-injured patients are unable to respond to simple commands, making them appear unconscious despite having some level of awareness. Using a technique we developed called bi-clustering analysis, we were able to identify patterns of brain injury that are shared among patients with CMD and contrast to those without CMD or cognitive motor dissociation.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner can detect brain activity associated with thoughts, feelings and intentions. More active areas of the brain receive more oxygenated blood, and the fMRI scanner can detect this and pinpoint where the activity is occurring. This allows us to see when a person is conscious and their brain is working normally, even when outward appearances suggest they are in a zombie-like state, unaware of the world around them.

Heartbeat can help detect signs of consciousness in patients after a coma. A novel diagnostic method for patients with disorders of consciousness. A new study shows that heart brain interactions, measured using electroencephalography (EEG), provide a novel diagnostic method for patients with disorders of consciousness.

Glasgow Outcome Scale is a scale of patients with brain injuries, such as cerebral traumas that groups victims by the objective degree of recovery.
1. Death - Severe injury or death without recovery of consciousness.
2. Persistent vegetative state - Severe damage with prolonged state of unresponsiveness and a lack of higher mental functions.
3. Severe disability - Severe injury with permanent need for help with daily living.
4. Moderate disability - No need for assistance in everyday life, employment is possible but may require special equipment.
5. Low disability - Light damage with minor neurological and psychological deficits.

Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling or sensory loss in the affected area if there is sensory damage as well as motor.

Regenerating Nerve Fibers across complete Spinal Cord Injury. Scientists have designed a three-stepped recipe for regenerating electro-physiologically active nerve fibers across complete spinal cord lesions in rodents. Rehabilitation is still required to make these new nerve fibers functional for walking.

Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. Younger children or infants may present irritability, poor appetite and fever. Neurological examinations usually reveal a drowsy or confused patient. Stiff neck, due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain, indicates that the patient has either meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

Treatment of Prion Disease with Heterologous Prion Proteins. Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are incurable brain diseases caused by modifications of the prion protein. Prions can be transmitted through contaminated food, surgical instruments and blood. Transmission of prions has caused the kuru epidemic in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, which in turn has caused variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Furthermore, injection of prion-contaminated hormones has caused hundreds of TSE cases. In order to develop drugs to prevent the spread of prions into the brain after exposure via food or medical procedures, it is necessary to gain an understanding of how prions propagate from the site of entry to the brain. Blood Brain Barrier.

Hydrocephalus or water on the brain, is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain. This typically causes increased pressure inside the skull. Older people may have headaches, double vision, poor balance, urinary incontinence, personality changes, or mental impairment. In babies there may be a rapid increase in head size. Other symptoms may include vomiting, sleepiness, seizures, and downward pointing of the eyes Hydrocephalus can occur due to birth defects or be acquired later in life. Associated birth defects include neural tube defects and those that result in aqueductal stenosis. Other causes include meningitis, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. There are four types of hydrocephalus: communicating, non-communicating, ex-vacuo, and normal pressure. Diagnosis is typically made by examination and medical imaging. Hydrocephalus is typically treated by the surgical placement of a shunt system. A procedure called a third ventriculostomy may be an option in a few people. Complications from shunts may include overdrainage, underdrainage, mechanical failure, infection, or obstruction. This may require replacement. Outcomes are variable; however, many live normal lives. Without treatment, death may occur. About one to two per 1,000 newborns have hydrocephalus. Rates in the developing world may be more. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is estimated to affect about 5 per 100,000 people with rates increasing with age. Description of hydrocephalus by Hippocrates date back more than 2000 years.

Brain-Eating Amoebae parasites halted by silver nanoparticles. Researchers have developed silver nanoparticles coated with anti-seizure drugs that can kill brain-eating amoebae while sparing human cells.

Naegleria Fowleri is a species of the genus Naegleria, belonging to the phylum Percolozoa. It is a free-living, bacteria-eating amoeba that can be pathogenic, causing a fulminant (sudden and severe) brain infection called naegleriasis, also known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This microorganism is typically found in bodies of warm freshwater, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and hot springs. It is also found in the soil near warm-water discharges of industrial plants, and in unchlorinated or minimally-chlorinated swimming pools. It can be seen in either an amoeboid or temporary flagellate stage.

Awareness - Brain Disorders - Disorders

Special Needs - Dyslexia

Documentaries - Vaccines - Brain Stimulation

Brain noise contains unique signature of dream sleep. First EEG measure of REM sleep allows scientists to distinguish dreaming from wakefulness. Dream or REM sleep is distinguished by rapid eye movement and absence of muscle tone, but electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are indistinguishable from those of an awake brain. Neuroscientists have now found an EEG signature of REM sleep, allowing scientists for the first time to distinguish dreaming from wakefulness through brain activity alone. This could help in determining the prognosis for coma patients, and allow study of the impact of anesthesia on dreaming.

Our Brains are wrinkled like Walnuts by the time we are born. Babies born without these wrinkles -- called smooth brain syndrome -- suffer from severe developmental deficiencies and their life expectancy is markedly reduced. Now researchers have developed a method for growing tiny 'brains on chips' from human cells that enabled them to track the physical and biological mechanisms underlying the wrinkling process.

Plasticity - Brain Adaptation

Neuro Plasticity is the brains ability to remain changeable or plastic even into adulthood.

Learning - Training - Experiences - Knowledge Integration - Creating - Nero Genesis - Synesthesia - Stubbornness - Will Power - Crystalized Intelligence

Synaptic Plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity. Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory. Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse. There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters. Synaptic plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses has been found to be dependent upon postsynaptic calcium release.

Oxytocin drives development of neural connections in adult-born neurons. We discovered that oxytocin, a peptide, or short protein, produced in the brain, drives events that contribute to neural circuit plasticity. The researchers discovered that the levels of oxytocin increase in the olfactory bulb, peaking at the time the new neurons incorporate themselves into neural networks.

Thalamus regulates adaptability of the adult brain. It is generally believed that the adaptability of the adult brain mainly takes place in the cortex. However, a new study shows that the thalamus, a relay station for incoming motor and sensory information, plays an unexpectedly important role in this process.

Brain is 'rewired' during pregnancy to prepare for motherhood. Researchers have shown that pregnancy hormones ‘rewire’ the brain to prepare mice for motherhood. The findings show that both estrogen and progesterone act on a small population of neurons in the brain to switch on parental behavior even before offspring arrive. These adaptations resulted in stronger and more selective responses to pups.

The brain is not hard wired in every area. There are areas of the brain that are changeable or can be modified, which is a blessing and a curse. Because if you are not aware of how you are creating connections in your brain, then you might be creating bad behaviors or creating false realities. These changes can happen gradual over time, which means that changing and correcting bad connections will also take some time to fix. But once you set up these connections correctly, then your thinking will become second nature. The brain can make new connections even after a stroke, so even a damaged brain can be repaired or repurposed.

Stimulus - Nero-Modulation - Hormones - Reward - Addictions - Feedback Loop - Hypnosis - Brain Washing - Behavior - Programming - Developing - Adult Learning - Speed Learning - Games - Immersion - Coaching - Brain Injury - Chemicals - Vibrations - AssociationsReconsolidation Therapy - Primal Brain - Instincts

Malleability of Intelligence describes the processes by which human intelligence may be augmented through changes in neuroplasticity. These changes may come as a result of genetics, learning, pharmacological factors, psychological factors, behavior, or environmental conditions. Growth Mindset states that intellectual abilities are not fixed, they are developed.

Silent synapses are abundant in the adult brain. These immature connections may explain how the adult brain is able to form new memories and absorb new information. Neuroscientists discovered that the adult brain contains millions of 'silent synapses' -- immature connections between neurons that remain inactive until they're recruited to help form new memories. The researchers found that glutamate would not generate any electrical signal in the filopodium receiving the input, unless the NMDA receptors were experimentally unblocked. This offers strong support for the theory the filopodia represent silent synapses within the brain, the researchers say. The researchers also showed that they could "unsilence" these synapses by combining glutamate release with an electrical current coming from the body of the neuron. This combined stimulation leads to accumulation of AMPA receptors in the silent synapse, allowing it to form a strong connection with the nearby axon that is releasing glutamate.

Sensory Adaptation is the process in which changes in the sensitivity of sensory receptors occur in relation to the stimulus. All senses are believed to experience sensory adaptation. However, some experimental psychologists say that the sense of pain does not experience this phenomenon. How the Brain Repurposes Unused Regions.

Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity is a biological process that adjusts the strength of connections between neurons in the brain. The process adjusts the connection strengths based on the relative timing of a particular neuron's output and input action potentials (or spikes). The STDP process partially explains the activity-dependent development of nervous systems, especially with regard to long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Transistors (IC's).

Neural Adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus. It is usually experienced as a change in the stimulus. For example, if a hand is rested on a table, the table's surface is immediately felt on the skin. After a little while though this is no longer felt. The sensory neurons that initially respond are no longer stimulated to respond; this is an example of neural adaptation. All sensory and neural systems have a form of adaptation to constantly detect changes in the environment. Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms to sense vital changes in their environment. Some key players in several neural systems include Ca2+ions (see Calcium in biology) that send negative feedback in second messenger pathways that allow the neural receptor cells to close or open channels in response to the changes of ion flow. There are also mechanoreception systems that use calcium inflow to physically affect certain proteins and move them to close or open channels. Functionally, it is highly possible that adaptation may enhance the limited response range of neurons to encode sensory signals with much larger dynamic ranges by shifting the range of stimulus amplitudes. Also, in neural adaptation there is a sense of returning to baseline from a stimulated response. Recent work suggests that these baseline states are actually determined by long-term adaptation to the environment. Varying rates or speed of adaptation is an important indicator for tracking different rates of change in the environment or the organism itself. Current research shows that although adaptation occurs at multiple stages of each sensory pathway, it is often stronger and more stimulus specific at “cortical” level rather than “subcortical stages.” In short, neural adaptation is thought to happen at a more central level at the cortex. Phantom Limbs.

Astrocytes eat connections to maintain plasticity in adult brains. Developing brains constantly sprout new neuronal connections called synapses as they learn and remember. Important connections -- the ones that are repeatedly introduced, such as how to avoid danger -- are nurtured and reinforced, while connections deemed unnecessary are pruned away. Adult brains undergo similar pruning, but it was unclear how or why synapses in the adult brain get eliminated. Now, a team of researchers has found the mechanism underlying plasticity and, potentially, neurological disorders in adult brains. Gray matter in the brain contains microglia and astrocytes, two complementary cells that, among other things, support neurons and synapses. Microglial are a frontline immunity defense, responsible for eating pathogens and dead cells, and astrocytes are star-shaped cells that help structure the brain and maintain homeostasis by helping to control signaling between neurons. It is astrocytes and not microglia that constantly eliminate excessive and unnecessary adult excitatory synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity. In the adult hippocampal CA1 region, astrocytes are the major player in eliminating synapses, and this astrocytic function is essential for controlling synapse number and plasticity.

Star cells in the brain render memory flexible. Star cells in the brain render memory flexible. Hippocampal astrocytes co-release D-serine and glutamate for the regulation of synaptic plasticity and cognitive flexibility. Astrocytes, which are star-shaped cells in the brain, regulate cognitive flexibility. Specifically, they found that the astrocytes' ability to simultaneously regulate and integrate synaptic plasticity of nearby synapses is important for facilitating cognitive flexibility.

Doctors removed one-sixth of a child’s brain or more than 15 percent. Entire remapping of the function of one hemisphere onto the other. The ability of the brain to reorganize, create new connections, and even heal itself after injury. Neuroplasticity allows the brain to strengthen or even recreate connections between brain cells—the pathways that help us learn a foreign language, for instance, or how to ride a bike.

Surgeons removed the left side of her brain. In most people, speech and language live in the brain's left hemisphere. But Mora Leeb is not most people. When she was 9 months old, surgeons removed the left side of her brain. Yet at 15, Mora plays soccer, tells jokes, gets her nails done, and, in many ways, lives the life of a typical teenager. Mora's right hemisphere has taken on jobs usually done on the left side. It's an extreme version of brain plasticity, the process that allows a brain to modify its connections to adapt to new circumstances. Human brains are also lateralized, which allows each hemisphere to specialize in processing certain types of information, or specific behaviors. Mora had lost the left-brain areas that usually play a critical role in producing and understanding speech. That meant her right brain would have to take on these jobs if she was ever going to carry on a conversation or read a book. your brain doesn't start out having word recognition completely on the left and face recognition completely on the right. Early on, these two critical functions appear to compete for space. To give each enough room, the brain usually pushes words to the left and faces to the right. When adults experience an injury to one side of the brain, it often results in permanent impairment. A stroke on the right side tends to impair facial recognition, while a stroke on the left side tends to affect a person's speech and language.

Brain injuries can sometimes give people new abilities. Acquired savant syndrome occurs when the brain responds to trauma. The syndrome refers to the new skills or abilities that emerge in a previously “normal” person.

Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback that measures brain waves to produce a signal that can be used as feedback to teach self-regulation of brain function. Neurofeedback is commonly provided using video or sound, with positive feedback for desired brain activity and negative feedback for brain activity that is undesirable. Related technologies include hemoencephalography biofeedback (HEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) biofeedback. NFB is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography (EEG), to teach self-regulation of brain function. Typically, sensors are placed on the scalp to measure activity, with measurements displayed using video displays or sound. Stimulation.

Hebbian Theory is a neuroscientific theory claiming that an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from a presynaptic cell's repeated and persistent stimulation of a postsynaptic cell. It is an attempt to explain synaptic plasticity, the adaptation of brain neurons during the learning process."Cells that fire together wire together.

Hebbian Learning is when simultaneous activation of cells leads to pronounced increases in synaptic strength between those cells. It also provides a biological basis for errorless learning methods for education and memory rehabilitation. In the study of neural networks in cognitive function, it is often regarded as the neuronal basis of unsupervised learning.

Psychedelic Drugs promote Neural Plasticity in Rats and Flies - Change Perspective

Potential link between Vitamin D deficiency and loss of Brain Plasticity.

Brain Plasticity Restored in adult mice through targeting specific nerve cell connections. The study focused on a subtype of inhibitory cell also found in people called Parvalbumin neurons, which exert significant power over the timing of the "critical period" for brain maturation. A molecule called SynCAM 1 stabilizes these long-range synapses, and if SynCAM 1 is removed from these synapses in adult brains, even for a short time, brain plasticity can be restored. This finding could support development of more targeted treatments for human conditions such as autism spectrum disorder and stroke.

Perineuronal Net are specialized extracellular matrix structures responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain. PNNs are found around certain neuron cell bodies and proximal neurites in the central nervous system. PNNs play a critical role in the closure of the childhood critical period, and their digestion can cause restored critical period-like synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. They are largely negatively charged and composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, molecules that play a key role in development and plasticity during postnatal development and in the adult. PNNs appear to be mainly present in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, brainstem, and the spinal cord. Studies of the rat brain have shown that the cortex contains high numbers of PNNs in the motor and primary sensory areas and relatively fewer in the association and limbic cortices. In the cortex, PNNs are associated mostly with inhibitory interneurons and are thought to be responsible for maintaining the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the adult brain.

Chondroitin Sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid). It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan. A chondroitin chain can have over 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulfated in variable positions and quantities. Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage, and provides much of its resistance to compression. Along with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has become a widely used dietary supplement for treatment of osteoarthritis.

A malformation illustrates the incredible plasticity of the brain. One in 4,000 people is born without a corpus callosum, a brain structure consisting of neural fibers that are used to transfer information between hemisphere. 25% of them do not have any symptoms. Neuroscientists discovered that when the neuronal fibers that act as a bridge between the hemispheres are missing, the brain reorganizes itself and creates an impressive number of connections inside each hemisphere, recreating connections using alternative neural pathways.

Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood. Child Development. Our brains do change from early to mid-adulthood.

Long-Term Potentiation is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. The opposite of LTP is long-term depression, which produces a long-lasting decrease in synaptic strength. Potential - Reprogram.

Long-term Depression is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus. Cognitive Decline - Learning Methods.

Neural Development refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to the final years of life.

Neural Facilitation which postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) (EPPs or EPSPs) evoked by an impulse are increased when that impulse closely follows a prior impulse. PPF is thus a form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Stimulus.

Brain AnatomyNeurotrophins

Synaptogenesis occurs throughout a healthy person's lifespan.

Brain Improvement Methods - Cognitive Exercises - 10,000 Hour Rule

Nervous System Development (wiki)

Neurotrophin are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.

Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Through precise genetic mechanisms of cell fate determination, many different varieties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are generated from different kinds of neural stem cells. The Brain can generate about 700 new neurons each day.

Sandrine Thuret: Grow New Brain Cells (video)

Arc Protein is a plasticity protein believed to play a critical role in learning and memory-related molecular processes. Dysfunctions in the production of Arc protein has been implicated as an important factor in understanding of various neurological conditions including: Amnesia; Alzheimer's disease; Autism spectrum disorders; and, Fragile X syndrome.

Temporarily closing a single eye of a young mouse for a few days deprives the visual cortex of normal input, and the neurons' electrophysiological response to visual experience changes. By contrast, young mice without Arc cannot adapt to the new experience in the same way.

Neuroglia are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Sensory Neuron are nerve that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system, ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.

Interneuron create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS).

Neuroconstructivism is how the brain progressively sculpts itself and how it gradually becomes specialized over developmental time.

Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.

Human Neurons Continue to Migrate after Birth Late migration of inhibitory neurons could play a role in human cognitive abilities, neurological disease. Inhibitory neurons, which use the neurotransmitter GABA, make up about 20 percent of the neurons in the cerebral cortex and play a vital role in balancing the brain’s need for stability with its ability to learn and change.

Scientists discover anatomical changes in the brains of the newly sighted. Following cataract removal, some of the brain's visual pathways seem to be more malleable than previously thought. Neuroscientists discovered anatomical changes that occur in the white matter of visual-processing areas of the brain, in children who have congenital cataracts surgically removed.

Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential. The opposite of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential is an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), which is a synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron more likely to generate an action potential. They can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signaling. Placebos.

Memory molecule limits plasticity by calibrating calcium. Researchers have identified a novel role for the CA2-enriched protein RGS14 and provided insights into the mechanism by which it limits plasticity.

Bromodeoxyuridine is a synthetic nucleoside that is an analog of thymidine. BrdU is commonly used in the detection of proliferating cells in living tissues. 5-Bromodeoxycytidine is deaminated to form BrdU.

is cause to grow or increase rapidly.

Thymidine is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. Deoxythymidine is the DNA nucleoside T, which pairs with deoxyadenosine (A) in double-stranded DNA. In cell biology it is used to synchronize the cells in G1/early S phase.

Dentate Gyrus

Neural plasticity depends on this long noncoding RNA's journey from nucleus to synapse. A long noncoding RNA is a type of RNA that exceeds 200 nucleotides, and does not get translated into protein. There are thousands of these long noncoding RNA in our cells, but in most cases, their function isn't yet known. What is known is that usually, they tend to stay within the cell nucleus. Some regulate the transcription of genes.

Videos - Pure Science Specials

The Brain that Changes Itself (youtube) Season 1 Ep. 85 |  01/04/2015 |  55:05.

Changing Your Mind (youtube) Season 1 Ep. 84 |  01/03/2015 | 52:26.

Mental Makeover Episode 1. The Brain that Changes Itself, Norman Doidge (youtube)

Robots that Adapt (youtube)

Cause of phantom limb pain in amputees, and potential treatment, identified reorganisation of the wiring of the brain is the underlying cause of phantom limb pain. Induced sensorimotor brain plasticity controls pain in phantom limb patients.

Intelligent Trial and Error Algorithm

Plasticine is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids.

Stem Cell are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. Stem Cell Research.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.

Progenitor Cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell. The most important difference between stem cells and progenitor cells is that stem cells can replicate indefinitely, whereas progenitor cells can divide only a limited number of times.

Endogeny are substances and processes that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

Exogeny is the fact of an action or object originating externally. It contrasts with endogeny or endogeneity, the fact of being influenced within a system.

Endocannabinoid System is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors. Known as "the body’s own cannabinoid system", the ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids.

Postsynaptic Potential are changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.

Astrocyte are star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord.

NMDA Receptor is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. 


Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Genetic mutation to improve cognitive flexibility. The ability to adapt to changing situations. The gene, KCND2, codes for a protein that regulates potassium channels, which control electrical signals that travel along neurons. The electrical signals stimulate chemical messengers that jump from neuron to neuron.

A relationship between stability and plasticity in the brain is regulated in the matrix with the help of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases or MMPs, which can “digest” the extracellular matrix and thus “loosen” it. A team from the University of Göttingen has now been able to show in a new study that blocking the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 can have opposing effects depending on whether the brain is sick or healthy.

Drug Dangers - Brain Tumors - Biology

As we continually educate ourselves and learn new things, rather than forming permanent connections, we are forming new connections. And the more readily the brain forms and reforms its connectivity in response to changing needs, the better the brain works.

Brain Research - Who's in There?

Functional Areas of the Brain Brain Research studies the structure and function of human brains and the nervous system. Understanding the biological basis of learning, memory, behavior, perception, and consciousness is considered the “ultimate challenge” of behavioral brain research.

Human Brain Project aims to put in place a cutting-edge research infrastructure that will allow scientific and industrial researchers to advance our knowledge in the fields of neuroscience, computing, and brain-related medicine.

Human Brain Project (video)
Human Brain Project (video)

Allen Institute for Brain Science

Brain Research - The Dana Foundation

Your Wonderful Brain summary of the key features and functions of your brain (PDF)

Medical Imaging Technology - The ways we can see into our Brains.

Neuromorphic Engineering describes the use of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system.

Mammalian Brains is the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned and stained brains of mammals. Viewers can see and download photographs of brains of over 100 different species of mammals (including humans) representing over 20 Mammalian Orders.

Triune Brain consists of the reptilian complex, the paleomammalian complex (limbic system), and the neomammalian complex (neocortex), viewed as structures sequentially added to the forebrain in the course of evolution.

Brainwave Entrainment is a colloquialism for 'neural entrainment', which denotes how the aggregate oscillation frequency, resulting from synchronous electrical activity among ensembles of cortical neurons, can adjust to synchronize with the periodic vibration of an external stimulus, such as a sustained acoustic frequency perceived as pitch, a regularly repeating pattern of intermittent sounds perceived as rhythm, or a regularly intermittent flashing light.

Multiplexing is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

Cerebellum Anatomy can be viewed at three levels. At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a tightly folded and crumpled layer of cortex, with white matter underneath, several deep nuclei embedded in the white matter, and a fluid-filled ventricle in the middle. At the intermediate level, the cerebellum and its auxiliary structures can be broken down into several hundred or thousand independently functioning modules or "microzones". At the microscopic level, each module consists of the same small set of neuronal elements, laid out with a highly stereotyped geometry.

Anatomy and Functional Areas of the Brain Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Tryptophan is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, and a side chain indole, classifying it as a non-polar, aromatic amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it and thus it must be obtained from the diet. Tryptophan is also a precursor to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays the principal role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone.

Ion Channel are pore-forming membrane proteins whose functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present in the membranes of all cells. Ion channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins).

Endorphins are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals. They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium).


Monoamine Oxidase are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines. They are found bound to the outer membrane of mitochondria in most cell types in the body.

Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

Pineal Gland (third eye)

Ventricular System is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus, a network of ependymal cells involved in the production of CSF. The ventricular system is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord (from the fourth ventricle) allowing for the flow of CSF to circulate. All of the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord is lined with ependyma, a specialised form of epithelium.

Related Subjects - Neuromodulation - Neurotoxins - Neurology - Electromagnetic Fields - Action Potential - Brain Computer Comparisons - Plasticity - Neurons - Early Development - Hormones - Reward System - Hippocampus - Spatial Intelligence - Memory - Alzheimer's - Central Nervous System - Biology - Environment - Heart.


Cerebral Cortex is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. It is separated into two cortices, by the longitudinal fissure that divides the cerebrum into the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The two hemispheres are joined beneath the cortex by the corpus callosum. The cerebral cortex is the largest site of neural integration in the central nervous system. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. The human cerebral cortex is 2 to 4 millimetres (0.079 to 0.157 in) thick. The outer layer cerebral cortex is the outer covering of gray matter over the hemispheres. This is typically 2- 3 mm thick, covering the gyri and sulci. In most mammals, apart from small mammals that have small brains, the cerebral cortex is folded, providing a greater surface area in the confined volume of the cranium. Apart from minimising brain and cranial volume, cortical folding is crucial for the wiring of the brain and its functional organization. In mammals with a small brain there is no folding and the cortex is smooth. A fold or ridge in the cortex is termed a gyrus (plural gyri) and a groove is termed a sulcus (plural sulci). These surface convolutions appear during fetal development and continue to mature after birth through the process of gyrification. In the human brain the majority of the cerebral cortex is not visible from the outside, but buried in the sulci, and the insular cortex is completely hidden. The major sulci and gyri mark the divisions of the cerebrum into the lobes of the brain. There are between 14 and 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex. These are organised into cortical columns and minicolumns of neurons that make up the layers of the cortex. Most of the cerebral cortex consists of the six-layered neocortex. Cortical areas have specific functions such as movement in the motor cortex, and sight in the visual cortex. Child Development.

Prefrontal Cortex is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe. This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals. The prefrontal cortex gives us the tools to intelligently regulate our thoughts, actions and emotions through extensive connections with other brain regions, and by learning valuable  knowledge.

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain that undergoes a prolonged period of maturation which lasts until adulthood. An important function of the DLPFC is the executive functions, such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, inhibition, focus, and abstract reasoning.

Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain. The ventral medial prefrontal is located in the frontal lobe at the bottom of the cerebral hemispheres and is implicated in the processing of risk and fear. It also plays a role in the inhibition of emotional responses, and in the process of decision making and self control. It is also involved in the cognitive evaluation of morality.

Operant and Classical Conditioning - PTSD

Structural Variations in Prefrontal Cortex Mediate the Relationship between Early Childhood Stress and Spatial Working Memory. The PFC contains the Brodmann areas BA8, BA9, BA10, BA11, BA12, BA13, BA14, BA24, BA25, BA32, BA44, BA45, BA46, and BA47. The prefrontal cortex plays a central role in cognitive control functions, and dopamine in the PFC modulates cognitive control, thereby influencing attention, impulse inhibition, prospective memory, and cognitive flexibility. Structural differences in the prefrontal cortex can affect empathy, cognition and decision making and cause conduct disorder or behavior disorders and criminal behavior. Psychopaths.

Perirhinal Cortex is a cortical region in the medial temporal lobe that is made up of Brodmann areas 35 and 36. It receives highly processed sensory information from all sensory regions, and is generally accepted to be an important region for memory. It is bordered caudally by postrhinal cortex or parahippocampal cortex (homologous regions in rodents and primates, respectively) and ventrally and medially by entorhinal cortex.

Brodmann Area 10 is the anterior-most portion of the prefrontal cortex in the human brain. 

Brodmann area 25 region is extremely rich in serotonin transporters and is considered as a governor for a vast network involving areas like hypothalamus and brain stem, which influences changes in appetite and sleep; the amygdala and insula, which affect the mood and anxiety; the hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory formation; and some parts of the frontal cortex responsible for self-esteem. This region is particularly implicated in the normal processing of sadness.

Posterior Cingulate Cortex is the backmost part of the cingulate cortex, lying behind the anterior cingulate cortex. This is the upper part of the "limbic lobe". The cingulate cortex is made up of an area around the midline of the brain. Surrounding areas include the retrosplenial cortex and the precuneus. Cytoarchitectonically the posterior cingulate cortex is associated with Brodmann areas 23 and 31. The posterior cingulate cortex forms a central node in the default mode network of the brain. It has been shown to communicate with various brain networks simultaneously and is involved in various functions. Along with the precuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex has been implicated as a neural substrate for human awareness in numerous studies of both the anesthesized and vegetative (coma) state. Imaging studies indicate a prominent role for the posterior cingulate cortex in pain and episodic memory retrieval. Increased size of posterior ventral cingulate cortex is related to declines in working memory performance. The posterior cingulate cortex has been strongly implicated as a key part of several intrinsic control networks.

Orbitofrontal Cortex is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making. The OFC is considered anatomically synonymous with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Therefore, the region is distinguished due to the distinct neural connections and the distinct functions it performs. It is defined as the part of the prefrontal cortex that receives projections from the magnocellular, medial nucleus of the mediodorsal thalamus, and is thought to represent emotion and reward in decision making. It gets its name from its position immediately above the orbits in which the eyes are located. Considerable individual variability has been found in the OFC of both humans and non-human primates. Brainstem.

Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain. The ventral medial prefrontal is located in the frontal lobe at the bottom of the cerebral hemispheres and is implicated in the processing of risk and fear. It also plays a role in the inhibition of emotional responses, and in the process of decision making and self control. It is also involved in the cognitive evaluation of morality. Brain Food

Lobes of the Brain. The four main lobes of the brain is the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe and the temporal lobe. The three lobes of the human cerebellum are the flocculonodular lobe, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. There are two lobes of the thymus. Terminologia Anatomica (1998) and Terminologia Neuroanatomica (2017) divides the cerebrum into 6 lobes. Each lobe of the brain consists of different sub regions that work together to create full function within the entirety of the brain. Lobe in anatomy is a somewhat rounded subdivision of a bodily organ or part. Lobe in botany is a part into which a leaf is divided.

Frontal Lobe is located at the front of the brain, is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain. The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation. Dopamine tends to limit and select sensory information arriving from the thalamus to the forebrain. 

Hippocampus (memory) - Amygdala - Striatum - Cerebellum - Cortex

Forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain. At the five-vesicle stage, the forebrain separates into the diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, and pretectum) and the telencephalon which develops into the cerebrum. The cerebrum consists of the cerebral cortex, underlying white matter, and the basal ganglia.

Subcortical involves the nerve centers below the cerebral cortex.

Key Features and Functions of your Brain (brain research)

Parietal Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. Integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Precuneus the medial area of the superior parietal cortex, which is involved with episodic memory, visuospatial processing, reflections upon self, and aspects of consciousness.

Temporal Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobe is involved in processing sensory input into derived meanings for the appropriate retention of visual memory, language comprehension, and emotion association.

Medial Temporal Lobe includes the hippocampus, amygdala and parahippocampal regions, and is crucial for episodic and spatial memory. The theta rhythm is believed to be crucial in the encoding and retrieval of memories. Medial prefrontal cortex is a brain region related to self-thought, pride, self reflection, self worth, criticism and moralizing.

Occipital Lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.

Retrosplenial Cortex is a cortical area in the brain comprising Brodmann areas 29 and 30. It is secondary association cortex, making connections with numerous other brain regions. The region's name refers to its anatomical location immediately behind the splenium of the corpus callosum in primates, although in rodents it is located more towards the brain surface and is relatively larger. Its function is currently not well understood, but its location close to visual areas and also to the hippocampal spatial/memory system suggest it may have a role in mediating between perceptual and memory functions, particularly in the spatial domain. However, its exact contribution to either space or memory processing has been hard to pin down.

Fusiform Gyrus also known as the discontinuous occipitotemporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in Brodmann area 37. The fusiform gyrus is located between the lingual gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus.

Entorhinal Cortex is an area of the brain located in the medial temporal lobe and functioning as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex. The EC-hippocampus system plays an important role in declarative (autobiographical/episodic/semantic) memories and in particular spatial memories including memory formation, memory consolidation, and memory optimization in sleep. The EC is also responsible for the pre-processing (familiarity) of the input signals in the reflex nictitating membrane response of classical trace conditioning, the association of impulses from the eye and the ear occurs in the entorhinal cortex.

Cingulate Cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex. It is an integral part of the limbic system, which is involved with emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory. The combination of these three functions makes the cingulate gyrus highly influential in linking motivational outcomes to behavior (e.g. a certain action induced a positive emotional response, which results in learning). This role makes the cingulate cortex highly important in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. It also plays a role in executive function and respiratory control. White Matter.

Association Cortex is the cerebral cortex outside the primary areas. It is essential for mental functions that are more complex than detecting basic dimensions of sensory stimulation, for which primary sensory areas appear to be necessary. In humans the association areas are by far the most developed part of the cerebral cortex, and the brain in general. These areas are necessary for perceptual activities, like recognizing objects (toasters, horses, trees, words, etc), rather than simple contours, edges or sensory qualities like color or pitch.

Why are the brain's nerve cells organized into modules? Scientists have revealed that the outer part of our brain or cortex is skilled at managing all the info it gets from the outside world thanks to special groups of nerve connections called modules, which work together but also independently. Scientists have found that the outer cortex of the mammalian brain is able to maintain control over all the external inputs it receives because of how its nerve networks are organized into interconnected but independently functioning 'modules.'

Modular Design is a design principle that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules (such as modular process skids), which can be independently created, modified, replaced, or exchanged with other modules or between different systems. Modular Programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a program into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.

Anterior Cingulate Cortex is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum. It consists of Brodmann areas 24, 32, and 33. It appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate. It is also involved in certain higher-level functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, impulse control, and emotion. Learning - Ego.

Insular Cortex is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes). The insulae are believed to be involved in consciousness and play a role in diverse functions usually linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's Homeostasis, which is the metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes. These functions include perception, motor control, self-awareness, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal experience. In relation to these, it is involved in psychopathology. The insular cortex is divided into two parts: the larger anterior insula and the smaller posterior insula in which more than a dozen field areas have been identified. The cortical area overlying the insula toward the lateral surface of the brain is the operculum (meaning lid). The opercula are formed from parts of the enclosing frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Posterior is located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure. Anterior is near the head end or toward the front plane of a body.

Neocortex is the largest part of the cerebral cortex which covers the two cerebral hemispheres, with the allocortex making up the rest. The neocortex is made up of six layers, labelled from the outermost inwards, I to VI. In humans, the neocortex is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language. There are two types of cortex in the neocortex – the true isocortex and the proisocortex. The neocortex has also been shown to play an influential role in sleep, memory and learning processes. Semantic memories appear to be stored in the neocortex, specifically the anterolateral temporal lobe of the neocortex. It is also involved in instrumental conditioning; responsible for transmitting sensory information and information about plans for movement to the basal ganglia. The firing rate of neurons in the neocortex also has an effect on slow-wave sleep. When the neurons are at rest and are hyperpolarizing, a period of inhibition occurs during a slow oscillation, called the down state. When the neurons of the neocortex are in the excitatory depolarizing phase and are firing briefly at a high rate, a period of excitation occurs during a slow oscillation, called the up state.

Primary Somatosensory Cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus, and is part of the somatosensory system. At the primary somatosensory cortex, tactile representation is orderly arranged (in an inverted fashion) from the toe (at the top of the cerebral hemisphere) to mouth (at the bottom). However, some body parts may be controlled by partially overlapping regions of cortex. Each cerebral hemisphere of the primary somatosensory cortex only contains a tactile representation of the opposite (contralateral) side of the body. The amount of primary somatosensory cortex devoted to a body part is not proportional to the absolute size of the body surface, but, instead, to the relative density of cutaneous tactile receptors located on that body part. The density of cutaneous tactile receptors on a body part is generally indicative of the degree of sensitivity of tactile stimulation experienced at said body part. For this reason, the human lips and hands have a larger representation than other body parts.

Cerebellum is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning in humans. Anatomically, the human cerebellum has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres. Its cortical surface is covered with finely spaced parallel grooves, in striking contrast to the broad irregular convolutions of the cerebral cortex. These parallel grooves conceal the fact that the cerebellar cortex is actually a continuous thin layer of tissue tightly folded in the style of an accordion. Within this thin layer are several types of neurons with a highly regular arrangement, the most important being Purkinje cells and granule cells. This complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but almost all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain sensorimotor calibration in terms of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum. These models derive from those formulated by David Marr and James Albus, based on the observation that each cerebellar Purkinje cell receives two dramatically different types of input: one comprises thousands of weak inputs from the parallel fibers of the granule cells; the other is an extremely strong input from a single climbing fiber. The basic concept of the Marr–Albus theory is that the climbing fiber serves as a "teaching signal", which induces a long-lasting change in the strength of parallel fiber inputs. Observations of long-term depression in parallel fiber inputs have provided support for theories of this type, but their validity remains controversial. Cerebellum checks and corrects thoughts, movement. The cerebellum has a hand in every aspect of higher brain functions — not just movement, but attention, thinking, planning and decision-making. Almost 80% of neurons are in the cerebellum. Neurons known as granule cells, account for 80 percent of the neurons in the brain – all packed into the cerebellum – but only about 10 percent of its volume. Cerebellum accounts for just 10 percent of the organ's total volume, but contains more than 50 percent of its neurons. Cerebellum, tucked in the back of the brain mostly just keeping our muscles running smoothly. Its larger neighbor, the cerebrum, gets all the attention. It’s the seat of intelligence, the home of thinking and planning, but not consciousness. The cerebellum – which literally means “little brain” – is thought to just sit there helping us balance and breathe, like some kind of wee heating and ventilation system. Neurons within the cerebellum respond to and learn to anticipate rewards. Brain Stem.

Little Brain or Cerebellum not so little after all. When we say someone has a quick mind, it may be in part thanks to our expanded cerebellum that distinguishes human brains from those of macaque monkeys, for example. High-resolution imaging shows the cerebellum is 80 percent of the area of the cortex, indicating it has grown as human behavior and cognition evolved.

Little Brain better visualized with the help of new technology. The cerebellum, or our little brain, is mainly responsible for our motor skills. Furthermore, the structure is important for behavior and cognition. The cerebellum is a part of your brain located at the back of your head, just above and behind where your spinal cord connects to your brain itself. Although this part only accounts for 10 percent of the volume of our brain, the cerebellum contains more brain cells than the rest of our brain, and is therefore an important area that we want to map out properly. The cerebellum is highly folded in humans compared to other mammals. This makes it a difficult structure to fully visualize and therefore study, because of the condensed layers. To really properly image it, you need high resolution imaging. Using current imaging techniques, only a small portion of the cerebellar anatomy could be visualized, leaving the remaining details ignored. The ingenious structure is therefore still largely undiscovered.

Rhinal Cortex is proposed to be part of the neural circuit for explicit memory.

Allocortex is one of the two types of cerebral cortex, the other being the neocortex. It is characterized by having just three or four cell layers, in contrast with the six layers of the neocortex, and takes up a much smaller area than the neocortex. There are three subtypes of allocortex: the paleocortex, the archicortex, and the periallocortex – a transitional zone between the neocortex and the allocortex.

Visual Cortex is a part of the cerebral cortex that plays an important role in processing visual information.

Visual System is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions. It detects and interprets information from visible light to build a representation of the surrounding environment. The visual system carries out a number of complex tasks, including the reception of light and the formation of monocular representations; the buildup of a nuclear binocular perception from a pair of two dimensional projections; the identification and categorization of visual objects; assessing distances to and between objects; and guiding body movements in relation to the objects seen. The psychological process of visual information is known as visual perception, a lack of which is called blindness. Non-image forming visual functions, independent of visual perception, include the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and circadian photoentrainment.

Frontal Eye Fields are a region located in the frontal cortex, more specifically in Brodmann area 8 or BA8, of the primate brain. In humans, it can be more accurately said to lie in a region around the intersection of the middle frontal gyrus with the precentral gyrus, consisting of a frontal and parietal portion. The FEF is responsible for saccadic eye movements for the purpose of visual field perception and awareness, as well as for voluntary eye movement. The FEF communicates with extraocular muscles indirectly via the paramedian pontine reticular formation. Destruction of the FEF causes deviation of the eyes to the ipsilateral side.

Researchers discover brain area crucial for recognizing visual events. Researchers report that a brain region in the superior temporal sulcus is crucial for processing and making decisions about visual information.

Lateral Intraparietal Cortex is found in the intraparietal sulcus of the brain. This area is most likely involved in eye movement, as electrical stimulation evokes saccades (quick movements) of the eyes. It is also thought to contribute to working memory associated with guiding eye movement, examined using a delayed saccade task described below: A subject focuses on a fixation point at the center of a computer screen. A target (for instance a shape) is presented at a peripheral location on the screen. The target is removed and followed by a variable-length delay period. The initial focus point in the middle of the screen is removed. The subject's task is to make a saccade to the location of the target. Neurons in area LIP have been shown to start responding with the initial presentation of the stimulus. The neurons keep responding through the delay period until the fixation point is removed. As the neural response stops, the saccadic eye movement starts and the animal soon focuses on the exact location of the previously shown target. There is also evidence for neurons firing for saccadic responses in the two-alternative forced choice task. The conclusion of this task experiment is that neurons in area LIP store information (the location of the target) useful for guiding the saccadic movement; that is, this area of the cortex shows modality-specific working memory.

Auditory Cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates. It is a part of the auditory system, performing basic and higher functions in hearing. It is located bilaterally, roughly at the upper sides of the temporal lobes – in humans on the superior temporal plane, within the lateral fissure and comprising parts of Heschl's gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus, including planum polare and planum temporale (roughly Brodmann areas 41, 42, and partially 22). Unilateral destruction results in slight hearing loss, whereas bilateral destruction results in cortical deafness.

Sensory Cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes. Just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex lies the somatosensory association cortex, which integrates sensory information from the primary somatosensory cortex (temperature, pressure, etc.) to construct an understanding of the object being felt. Inferior to the frontal lobes are found the olfactory bulbs, which receive sensory input from the olfactory nerves and route those signals throughout the brain. Not all olfactory information is routed to the olfactory cortex. Some neural fibers are routed directly to limbic structures, while others are routed to the supraorbital region of the frontal lobe. Such a direct limbic connection makes the olfactory sense unique. The brain cortical regions are related to the auditory, visual, olfactory, and somatosensory (touch, proprioception) sensations, which are located lateral to the lateral fissure and posterior to the central sulcus, that is, more toward the back of the brain. The cortical region related to gustatory sensation is located anterior to the central sulcus. Note that the central sulcus (sometimes referred to as the central fissure) divides the primary motor cortex (on the precentral gyrus of the posterior frontal lobe) from the somatosensory cortex (on the postcentral gyrus of the anterior parietal lobe). The somatosensory cortex is involved in somatic sensation, visual stimuli, and movement planning.

Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain. There are some differences in the basal ganglia of primates. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, habit learning, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. Each of these components has a complex internal anatomical and neurochemical organization. The largest component, the striatum (dorsal and ventral), receives input from many brain areas beyond the basal ganglia, but only sends output to other components of the basal ganglia. The pallidum receives input from the striatum, and sends inhibitory output to a number of motor-related areas. The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function. The subthalamic nucleus receives input mainly from the striatum and cerebral cortex, and projects to the globus pallidus. Popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection – in helping to decide which of several possible behaviors to execute at any given time. In more specific terms, the basal ganglia's primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly. Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. The basal ganglia are of major importance for normal brain function and behaviour. Their dysfunction results in a wide range of neurological conditions including disorders of behaviour control and movement. Those of behaviour include Tourette syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and addiction. Movement disorders include, most notably Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra, Huntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum, dystonia, and more rarely hemiballismus. The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning as well as cognition and frontal lobe functioning, via the mesolimbic pathway from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the mesocortical pathway. A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine in cigarettes, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal. There is also evidence implicating overactivity of the VTA dopaminergic projection in schizophrenia.

Striatum also known as the neostriatum or striate nucleus, is one of the nuclei in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain. The striatum is a critical component of the motor and reward systems. It receives both glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs from different sources, and serves as the primary input to the rest of the basal ganglia nuclei.

Premotor Cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.

Areas of the Brain that Control Senses Superior Parietal Lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the postcentral gyrus above the end of the sulcus. The superior parietal lobule contains Brodmann's areas 5 and 7.

Thalamus (hypothalamus)

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone also known as corticotropin is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It is also used as a medication and diagnostic agent.

N-Acetylaspartic Acid  is a derivative of aspartic acid with a formula of C6H9NO5 and a molecular weight of 175.139. NAA is the second-most-concentrated molecule in the brain after the amino acid glutamate. It is detected in the adult brain in neurons, oligodendrocytes and myelin and is synthesized in the mitochondria from the amino acid aspartic acid and acetyl-coenzyme A.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Chemoreceptor is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance and generates a biological signal. This signal may be in the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nerve cell), or in the form of a neurotransmitter that can activate a nearby nerve fiber if the chemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such the taste receptor in a taste bud or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body. In more general terms, a chemosensor detects chemicals in the internal or external environment and transmits that information to the nervous system.

Receptor in biochemistry is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell. In this sense, a receptor is a protein-molecule that recognizes and responds to endogenous chemical signals, e.g. an acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However, sometimes in pharmacology, the term is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes, transporters and ion channels.

Trigeminal Nerve is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The largest of the cranial nerves, its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three and -geminus, or twin; thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each trigeminal nerve (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory, and the mandibular nerve has sensory (or "cutaneous") and motor functions.

Transcriptome is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.

Alternative Splicing in the Mammalian Nervous System.

Brainstem - Spinal Cord

Reticular Activating System is a set of connected nuclei in the brains of vertebrates that is responsible for regulating wakefulness and sleep-wake transitions. As its name implies, its most influential component is the reticular formation.

Reticular Formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem. The reticular formation is not anatomically well defined because it includes neurons located in diverse parts of the brain. The neurons of the reticular formation all play a crucial role in maintaining behavioral arousal and consciousness. The functions of the reticular formation are modulatory and premotor. The modulatory functions are primarily found in the rostral sector of the reticular formation and the premotor functions are localized in the neurons in more caudal regions.

Arcuate Fasciculus is a bundle of axons that forms part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, an association fiber tract. The arcuate bidirectionally connects caudal temporal cortex and inferior parietal cortex to locations in the frontal lobe.

Informatics Platform for Imaging Research.

The Brain Observatory

Long-term neural and physiological phenotyping of a single human.

My Connectome Data Sharing

New Technique Captures the Activity of an entire Brain in a Snapshot.

The Brain Dictionary - Word Map of the Brain (youtube)

MRI scans show mapping of the semantic systems of the brain. How the brain organizes words and language in the brain. Words are grouped by meaning. So basically what I'm doing with BK101 is just mimicking my brains organizing ability. Interactive map showing which brain areas respond to hearing different words. The map reveals how language is spread throughout the cortex and across both hemispheres, showing groups of words clustered together by meaning. The beautiful interactive model allows us to explore the complex organization of the enormous dictionaries in our heads.

TSRI Scientists Reveal Single-Neuron Gene Landscape of the Human Brain.

Transcriptome is the set of all messenger RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells. It differs from the exome in that it includes only those RNA molecules found in a specified cell population, and usually includes the amount or concentration of each RNA molecule in addition to the molecular identities.

Ganglionic Eminence In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration. It is present in the embryonic and fetal stages of neural development found between the thalamus and caudate nucleus.

Researchers identified 16 neuronal subtypes in the cerebral cortex. Human brain houses diverse populations of neurons, new research shows.

Neural Connections

Developing Fetal Brain Connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram". More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system. Corpus callosum connects the left and right sides of the brain.

A Multi-Modal Parcellation of Human Cerebral Cortex.

Neuro-Science Blueprint Connectome - Human Connectome Project

Association Structures - Junctions - Links - Networks - File Systems - Personal Education

Connectomics is the production and study of connectomes, which is the comprehensive maps of connections within an organism's nervous system. More generally, it can be thought of as the study of neuronal wiring diagrams with a focus on how structural connectivity, individual synapses, cellular morphology, and cellular ultrastructure contribute to the make up of a network. Comparative connectomics can provide insight into general principles of neural wiring that apply across species and can examine to what extent variations in connectivity between species may form the basis for differences in brain function. Connections are made by neurons that link the sensory inputs and motor outputs with centers in the various lobes of the cerebral cortex.

Pediatric PTSD Related Subnetworks in the Brain Hub Neurons and Brain Networked File Systems. File systems were built with NO abstraction. Total logical, totally hierarchical structure from top to bottom. But your brain is completely different – built on trillions of abstractions or pathways to data. Over the span of several millennia humans have been recording, storing, retrieving, collaborating and sharing content. Brain processes content in a way that is fundamentally unstructured and abstract. Networked file systems evolved to an abstraction based on addresses and universal resource locators, not hierarchical, logical structures. The file system suddenly became impractical and not scalable or interoperable. Web based apps today like YouTube, Facebook, Instagram and other content based systems don’t use file systems. But every enterprise today still relies on those archaic file systems from the 60s. Some consider file systems to be the best, worst option. Individual memories aren't stored in individual files in the brain. Instead they are stored as connections between things. For example, if you went to the zoo when you were young, a connection would be created between you, zoo animals, your parents, the weather, your emotions at the time. So a single memory can be stored all over the brain, and overlap with other related memories. You can't read the memory like you read a file, but when you start think about one of those things, you remember the things connected with it. Hub neurons play an important role not only in maintaining spontaneous network oscillatory activity but also in the processing of sensory input from other brain areas. Some brain regions have a central role in supporting integrated brain function, marking them as network hubs. Some brain regions are highly connected, acting as network hubs. Functional hubs emerge in primary areas and shift to association areas during childhood. The complete network of neuronal connections comprising the human brain is called the connectome. Connections within this intricate network are distributed unevenly, such that certain network elements possess a relatively large number of connections, marking them as putative network hubs. Brain hubs facilitate the integration of functionally specialized and anatomically disparate neural systems a role supported by their tendency to form long-range connections and their topological position within the brain, which suggests that they mediate a large fraction of signal traffic. In the mature adult human brain, hubs typically localize to areas of association cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus – regions that play a central role in higher-order cognition. Human brain development unfolds over a protracted period, extending across 2–3 decades and following a series of sequential yet overlapping stages, including neuronal migration, axonal growth, synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning and myelination. hub connectivity during prenatal and infant development, childhood, and adolescence, focusing on where hubs are located, how hub connectivity changes through development, and how hubs may be related to cognitive abilities. We draw a distinction between structural connectivity networks, which reflect the physical infrastructure of the brain and constrain the potential communication capacity between brain regions, and functional connectivity networks, which more directly index the actual dynamics taking place in the network. hub neurons are amongst the earliest-emerging neurons, all being born prior to any signs of movement in the animal. The localization of functional hubs to primary sensory and motor areas of the prenatal/neonate brain is thought to be linked to the initial development of cognitive, motor and visual processes. It may also reflect the relative structural immaturity of long-range fibers that link spatially disparate association areas, given that these long-range fibers undergo myelination well into the third and fourth decades of life, and that primary systems are relatively localized, and dominated by short-range connectivity. Thus, an adult-like binary topology of hub connectivity may be established early, but its relative immaturity may limit its role in promoting integrative dynamics, which are only fully realized when long-range projections have completely myelinated. This early immaturity would be expected to produce dynamics that are predominantly segregated, resulting in a preponderance of functional connectivity hubs in early-developing primary areas. Functional hubs may then shift to association areas as long-range projection fibers myelinate and enable more integrated processing. The spatial topography of structural and functional hubs is consistent from childhood to adulthood. While the binary topology of the structural connectome is highly stable by childhood, the strength of hub connectivity undergoes further changes. During childhood, the fractional anisotropy (FA) of hub connections increases, and these increases are greater than those observed for other types of connections. In parallel, the mean diffusivity (MD) in frontal and parietal association fibers also showed the largest changes during childhood and adolescence. FA and MD measure the extent to which axonal bundles constrain the direction and magnitude of water diffusion and are often taken as a markers of white matter integrity. Thus, changes in these measures are thought to reflect the maturation of hub connections, possibly due to factors such as myelination and denser packing of axons. However, FA and MD can be affected by numerous microstructural changes and other factors related to data acquisition, meaning that their physiological significance can be hard to interpret. As the strength of hub connectivity increases in childhood, it is expected that hub areas should occupy a more topologically central role in the network when connection weights are considered in the analysis. Several studies of weighted networks have found that the centrality of hubs in medial frontal and parietal regions does indeed increase from early to late childhood, but that the centrality of lateral cortical hubs decreases during this time. When a memory is created, information flows from the cortex, the part of the brain rich in nerve cells, to the hippocampus, the central switching point for memories in the brain. The information flows in the opposite direction when we retrieve a memory. The hippocampus is a small, curved formation located deep in the temporal lobe of the brain. As part of the limbic system, the hippocampus has three primary functions: forming new memories, learning, and emotions. The human mind operates by association. With one item in its grasp, it snaps instantly to the next that is suggested by the association of thoughts. Selection by association, rather than indexing, may yet be mechanized. Hub Neurons in Modulating Cortical Dynamics.

Brain Map is a database of neuronal cell types based on multimodal characterization of single cells to enable data-driven approaches to classification.

Brain Map - Brain Span - Vaop - Eye Wire

Researchers construct first 'multiome' atlas of cell development in the human cerebral cortex from before birth to adulthood. A team of researchers has created the first 'multiome' atlas of brain cell development in the human cerebral cortex across six broad developmental time points from fetal development into adulthood, shedding new light on their roles during brain development and disease. Analysis pinpointed regions of chromatin associated with the regulation of genes known to play a pivotal role in human brain development. Notably, they revealed that these regulatory regions are often enriched for genetic signals associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In addition to creating the first atlas of human brain cell development in the human cerebral cortex, the research team prioritized 152 risk genes that play a causal role in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Neuroimaging Data-Sharing Initiative.

Neurotransmitter - Neuromodulation - Hormones

Researcher reveal insights into Brain Circuitry. Novel molecular insights into how multiple cell types drive the formation and maturation of brain circuits. A team studied synapses in the cerebral cortex, a brain region that controls sensory information processing and motor control. The study involved the use of mice that were missing the ?2?-1 receptor, which is necessary for how neurons respond to signals coming from non-neuronal cells called astrocytes. ?2?-1 is significant because it is also the receptor for the commonly prescribed pain medication, gabapentin. With ?2?-1 missing, cortical neurons made very few synapses with each other, showing that brain circuitry was highly impaired. Using a technique called 3D electron microscopy, the authors determined that ?2?-1 was also required for proper synapse structure. Risher et al. further observed that ?2?-1 is able to promote synapse formation and growth through a well-known signaling molecule called Rac1, while promotion of ?2?-1 and/or Rac1 signaling is sufficient to restore brain connectivity.

Complex brain cell connections in the cerebellum more common than believed. Although the prevailing wisdom among neuroscientists is that Purkinje cells have just one primary dendrite that connects with a single climbing fiber from the brain stem, new research shows that nearly all Purkinje cells in the human cerebellum have multiple primary dendrites.

Researchers Launch Atlas of Developing Human Brain. Gene Expression Study May Provide Insights into Autism, other Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Brain-like functions emerging in a metallic nanowire network. Emerging fluctuation-based functionalities are expected to open a way to novel memory device technology.

Multi-Dimensional Universe in Brain Networks - Thinking Levels

Multi-Dimensional Universe in Brain Networks Discovered (youtube)

Large-Scale Brain Network are collections of widespread brain regions showing functional connectivity by statistical analysis of the fMRI BOLD signal or other recording methods such as EEG, PET and MEG. An emerging paradigm in neuroscience is that cognitive tasks are performed not by individual brain regions working in isolation but by networks consisting of several discrete brain regions that are said to be "functionally connected". Functional connectivity networks may be found using algorithms such as cluster analysis, spatial independent component analysis or ICA, seed based, and others. Synchronized brain regions may also be identified using long-range synchronization of the EEG, MEG, or other dynamic brain signals. The set of identified brain areas that are linked together in a large-scale network varies with cognitive function. When the cognitive state is not explicit (i.e., the subject is at "rest"), the large-scale brain network is a resting state network or RSN. As a physical system with graph-like properties, a large-scale brain network has both nodes and edges and cannot be identified simply by the co-activation of brain areas. In recent decades, the analysis of brain networks was made feasible by advances in imaging techniques as well as new tools from graph theory and dynamical systems. Large-scale brain networks are identified by their function and provide a coherent framework for understanding cognition by offering a neural model of how different cognitive functions emerge when different sets of brain regions join together as self-organized coalitions. The number and composition of the coalitions will vary with the algorithm and parameters used to identify them. In one model, there is only the default mode network and the task-positive network, but most current analyses show several networks, from a small handful to 17. The most common and stable networks are enumerated below. The regions participating in a functional network may be dynamically reconfigured. Disruptions in activity in various networks have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, Alzheimer's, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD and bipolar disorder. Because brain networks can be identified at various different resolutions and with various different neurobiological properties, there is no such thing as a universal atlas of brain networks that fits all circumstances.

Deep inside the brain: Unraveling the dense networks in the cerebral cortex. Researchers use 3-dimensional electron microscopy to map the local connectome in the cerebral cortex. Mammalian brains, with their unmatched number of nerve cells and density of communication, are the most complex networks known. While methods to analyze neuronal networks sparsely have been available for decades, the dense mapping of neuronal circuits is a major scientific challenge. Researchers have now succeeded in the dense connectomic mapping of brain tissue from the cerebral cortex, and quantify the possible imprint of learning in the circuit. Unlike any other organ, our brains contain extremely densely packed networks of membranous cables that are used by our about 86 billion nerve cells for communication amongst each other. Since each nerve cell in the main part of mammalian brains, the so-called cerebral cortex, communicates with about 1,000 other nerve cells via synapses placed along these cables over long distances, one expects a total of about 5 million kilometers of wires packed into our skulls -- more than 10 times longer than all highways on our planet, in each of our brains. The cables we find in our (and other mammalian) brains are as thin as 50 to 100 nanometers in diameter, about 1000th the diameter of our hairs. The resulting cable convolute is of such density and magnitude, that for more than 100 years, researchers have been able to only map connectivity between a miniscule fraction of neurons in a given piece of brain.

Scientists Discover Hidden Patterns of Brain Activity.

The Blue Brain Project - A Swiss Brain Initiative.

Playground Tensor Flow Tinker With a Neural Network Right Here in Your Browser..Cortex.

Researchers sorted Cells from the Cortex, the outermost shell and the cognitive center of the brain, into 133 different "cell types" based on the genes the cells switch on and off.

Holonomic Brain Theory is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network. Pribram suggests these processes involve electric oscillations in the brain's fine-fibered dendritic webs, which are different from the more commonly known action potentials involving axons and synapses. These oscillations are waves and create wave interference patterns in which memory is encoded naturally, and the waves may be analyzed by a Fourier transform.

Brodmann Areas 1, 2 and 3 are the primary somatosensory cortex; area 4 is the primary motor cortex; area 17 is the primary visual cortex; and areas 41 and 42 correspond closely to primary auditory cortex. Higher order functions of the association cortical areas are also consistently localized to the same Brodmann areas by neurophysiological, functional imaging, and other methods. (e.g., the consistent localization of Broca's speech and language area to the left Brodmann areas 44 and 45). However, functional imaging can only identify the approximate localization of brain activations in terms of Brodmann areas since their actual boundaries in any individual brain requires its histological examination.

Limbic System

Limbic System is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately underneath the medial temporal lobe of the cerebrum primarily in the forebrain. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories. The limbic system is also known as the paleomammalian cortex. Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it critically aids the formation of memories. With a primordial structure, the limbic system is involved in lower order emotional processing of input from sensory systems and consists of the amygdaloid nuclear complex (amygdala), mammillary bodies, stria medullaris, central gray and dorsal and ventral nuclei of Gudden. This processed information is often relayed to a collection of structures from the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon, including the prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, limbic thalamus, hippocampus including the parahippocampal gyrus and subiculum, nucleus accumbens (limbic striatum), anterior hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area, midbrain raphe nuclei, habenular commissure, entorhinal cortex, and olfactory bulbs.

Limbic System

Limbic System


Hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms. Homeostasis.

Paraventricular Nucleus of Hypothalamus is a neuronal nucleus in the hypothalamus. It contains groups of neurons that can be activated by stressful and/or physiological changes. Many PVN neurons project directly to the posterior pituitary where they release oxytocin into the general circulation. While the Supraoptic nucleus release vasopressin. Other PVN neurons control various anterior pituitary functions, while still others directly regulate appetite and autonomic functions in the brainstem and spinal cord.

Thalamus is a part of the brain that has several functions such as relaying of sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness. It is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. The medial surface of the two halves constitute the upper lateral wall of the third ventricle.

Human Thalamus is an Integrative Hub for Functional Brain Networks. Neural Netwoks.

Epithalamus is a (dorsal) posterior segment of the diencephalon. The diencephalon is a part of the forebrain that also contains the thalamus, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The epithalamus includes the habenula and their interconnecting fibers the habenular commissure, the stria medullaris and the pineal gland.

Stria Terminalis is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. Serving as a major output pathway of the amygdala, the stria terminalis runs from its centromedial division to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. The activity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis correlates with anxiety in response to threat monitoring. (BNST). What is the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis?

Pituitary Gland is an Endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: growth, blood pressure, certain functions of the sex organs, thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth, nursing, water/salt concentration at the kidneys, temperature regulation and pain relief.

Thalamic Reticular Nucleus is part of the ventral thalamus that forms a capsule around the thalamus laterally. However, recent evidence from mice and fish question this statement and define it as dorsal thalamic structure. It is separated from the thalamus by the external medullary lamina. Reticular cells are GABAergic, and have discoid dendritic arbors in the plane of the nucleus.

Superior Colliculus or optic tectum, forms a major component of the midbrain. It is a layered structure, with a number of layers that varies by species. The layers can be grouped into the superficial layers (stratum opticum and above) and the deeper layers (the remaining layers). Neurons in the superficial layers receive direct input from the retina and respond almost exclusively to visual stimuli. Many neurons in the deeper layers also respond to other modalities, and some respond to stimuli in multiple modalities. The deeper layers also contain a population of motor-related neurons, capable of activating eye movements as well as other responses. The general function of the tectal system is to direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric ("body-centered") space. Each layer contains a topographic map of the surrounding world in retinotopic coordinates, and activation of neurons at a particular point in the map evokes a response directed toward the corresponding point in space. In primates, the superior colliculus has been studied mainly with respect to its role in directing eye movements. Visual input from the retina, or "command" input from the cerebral cortex, create a "bump" of activity in the tectal map, which, if strong enough, induces a saccadic eye movement. Even in primates, however, the superior colliculus is also involved in generating spatially directed head turns, arm-reaching movements, and shifts in attention that do not involve any overt movements. In other species, the tectum is involved in a wide range of responses, including whole-body turns in walking rats, swimming fishes, or flying birds; tongue-strikes toward prey in frogs; fang-strikes in snakes; etc.

A brain circuit in the thalamus helps us hold information in mind. Researchers have identified a circuit in the anterior thalamus that is necessary for remembering how to navigate a maze. The thalamus, a small structure located near the center of the brain, contributes to working memory and many other executive functions, such as planning and attention. The anterior thalamus is divided into three sections: ventral, dorsal, and medial. The anterodorsal thalamus is involved in creating mental maps of physical spaces, while the anteroventral thalamus helps the brain to distinguish these memories from other memories of similar spaces.

Charting hidden territory of the human brain. Neuroscientist shave discovered a novel, non-invasive imaging-based method to investigate the visual sensory thalamus, an important structure of the human brain and point of origin of visual difficulties in diseases such as dyslexia and glaucoma. The new method could provide an in-depth understanding of visual sensory processing in both health and disease in the near future.

Artificial Brain - Building a Human Brain

Artificial Brain describes research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain. Artificial brain is software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain. Research investigating "artificial brains" and brain emulation plays three important roles in science: An ongoing attempt by neuroscientists to understand how the human brain works, known as cognitive neuroscience. A thought experiment in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, demonstrating that it is possible, at least in theory, to create a machine that has all the capabilities of a human being. A long term project to create machines exhibiting behavior comparable to those of animals with complex central nervous system such as mammals and most particularly humans. The ultimate goal of creating a machine exhibiting human-like behavior or intelligence is sometimes called strong AI. An example of the first objective is the project reported by Aston University in Birmingham, England where researchers are using biological cells to create "neurospheres" (small clusters of neurons) in order to develop new treatments for diseases including Alzheimer's, motor neurone and Parkinson's disease.

Blue Brain Project aims to create a digital reconstruction of the brain by reverse-engineering mammalian brain circuitry.

When I hear people say they want to build a human brain I can't help but laugh. If you want to build a human brain there's this thing we have called child birth. But this time around you could actually educate this child fully and completely so the child grows up to be an intelligent human being. Then this intelligent human can then find you and then kick you in the balls for being such an ignorant moron. Build a human brain, are you kidding me, are you that stupid, or the people funding you that stupid? You can't even work the brain you have, and you want to build another brain on your own, you have a lot to learn. (kidding of course). Because even then, some of the dumbest ideas can result in some of the most amazing breakthroughs and discoveries. So the people wanting to build a human brain will first have to figure out how the human brain works, and in doing so, will most likely learn something new, so this venture may not be a total waste of time, unless this new information we learn gets exploited and misused. If the information and knowledge that is learned is not shared with the public correctly, then the public will most likely not know how to use this information effectively, and not benefit from it, like they should. Like the Hadron Collider, not everything that is learned is shared, and not everything that is shared is learned.

Electronic Synapses that can Learn, moving towards an artificial brain?

Artificial Synapses made from Nanowires.

Nanowire networks learn and remember like a human brain. Scientists have demonstrated nanowire networks can exhibit both short- and long-term memory like the human brain. To test the capabilities of the nanowire network, the researchers gave it a test similar to a common memory task used in human psychology experiments, called the N-Back task. An N-Back score of 7, the average for people, indicates the person can recognize the same image that appeared seven steps back.

Artificial nanofluidic synapses can store computational memory. In a step toward nanofluidic-based neuromorphic -- or brain-inspired -- computing, engineers have succeeded in executing a logic operation by connecting two chips that use ions, rather than electrons, to process data. Information Storage Types.

AI's memory-forming mechanism found to be strikingly similar to that of the brain. An interdisciplinary team consisting of researchers has revealed a striking similarity between the memory processing of artificial intelligence (AI) models and the hippocampus of the human brain. This new finding provides a novel perspective on memory consolidation, which is a process that transforms short-term memories into long-term ones, in AI systems.

Artificial Intelligence - Brain to Brain Communication - Self-Replicate - Similarities - Network

Adaptive optical neural network connects thousands of artificial neurons. International team of researchers develops photonic processor with adaptive neural connectivity. Physicists working with computer specialists have developed a so-called event-based architecture, using photonic processors. In a similar way to the brain, this makes possible the continuous adaptation of the connections within the neural network.

Scientists release state-of-the-art spike-sorting software Kilosort4. Researchers have released Kilosort4, the newest version of a popular spike-sorting software that enables scientists to make sense of the mountains of data collected from recording the simultaneous activity of hundreds of neurons. How do researchers make sense of the mountains of data collected from recording the simultaneous activity of hundreds of neurons? Neuroscientists all over the world rely on Kilosort, software that enables them to tease apart spikes from individual neurons to understand how the brain's cells and circuits work together to process information.

Researchers 3D-print functional human brain tissue. It's an achievement with important implications for scientists studying the brain and working on treatments for a broad range of neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Quantum material exhibits 'non-local' behavior that mimics brain function. Creating brain-like computers with minimal energy requirements would revolutionize nearly every aspect of modern life. New research shows a possible way to improve energy-efficient computing. New research shows that electrical stimuli passed between neighboring electrodes can also affect non-neighboring electrodes. Known as non-locality, this discovery is a crucial milestone toward creating brain-like computers with minimal energy requirements.

AI system self-organizes to develop features of brains of complex organisms. Scientists have shown that placing physical constraints on an artificially-intelligent system -- in much the same way that the human brain has to develop and operate within physical and biological constraints -- allows it to develop features of the brains of complex organisms in order to solve tasks.

Building a better Brain-in-a-Dish, faster and cheaper. Researchers report on the development of a new protocol for creating human cortical organoids -- mini-brains derived directly from primary cells that can be used to better explore and understand the real thing.

The rise of the Assembloid. Assembloids are 3-dimensional, self-organizing cultures created by the combination of two or more distinctly patterned organoids or an organoid plus additional cell or tissue type(s) that are used to model cell migration and connectivity. Interneurons are born in deep regions of the brain, and then they have to migrate all the way to the cortex. A team simulated the migration of interneurons by creating assembloids containing two types of organoids. One resembled an area deep in the brain called the subpallium, where most interneurons are generated. The other organoid resembled the cerebral cortex, where interneurons are supposed to end up. The process worked just the way it's supposed to in assembloids containing typical organoids. So next, the team used a gene-editing technique called CRISPR to alter the organoids. This approach allowed the team to study the effect of more than 400 genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. And they found that 46 of those genes were involved in either the generation of interneurons, or with their migration. Knock out a part of those genes and interneurons no longer arrived where they were supposed to. In the cerebral cortex, interneurons serve as inhibitory neurons, which means they act a bit like the brake in a car. The interneurons can release a neurotransmitter that tells other neurons to reduce their activity. Meanwhile, excitatory neurons act as the accelerator, telling other cells to become more active. Brain networks rely on a delicate balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

Human brain cells in a dish learn to play Pong in real time. The experiments are evidence that even brain cells in a dish can exhibit inherent intelligence, modifying their behavior over time.

Realistic computer models of brain cells. Investigators have created the most bio-realistic and complex computer models of individual brain cells -- in unparalleled quantity. Their research details how these models could one day answer questions about neurological disorders -- and even human intellect -- that aren't possible to explore through biological experiments.

Cerebral Organoid describes artificially grown, in vitro, miniature organs resembling the brain. Cerebral organoids are created by culturing human pluripotent stem cells in a three-dimensional rotational bioreactor and develop over a course of months. The human brain is an extremely complex system of heterogeneous tissues and consists of an extremely diverse array of neurons. This complexity has made studying the brain and understanding how it works a difficult task in neuroscience, especially when it comes to neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of creating an in vitro neurological model is to study these diseases in a more simple and variable space; free of in vivo limitations, especially when working with humans. The varying physiology between human and other mammalian models limits the scope of study in neurological disorders. Cerebral organoids are synthesized tissues that contain several types of nerve cells and have anatomical features that resemble mammalian brains. Cerebral organoids are most similar to layers of neurons called the cortex and choroid plexus. In some cases, structures similar to the retina, meninges and hippocampus can form. Stem cells have the potential to grow into many different types of tissues and their fate is dependent on many factors.

Society is not ready to make human brains, which is proven by our current education system. Scientists explain the future ethical implications of this research with regards to brain organoids, a laboratory-made structure that is designed to grow and behave like the brain. Stem cell research has allowed medicine to go places that were once science fiction. Using stem cells, scientists have manufactured heart cells, brain cells and other cell types that they are now transplanting into patients as a form of cell therapy. Eventually, the field anticipates the same will be possible with organs.

Will future computers run on human brain cells? Breaking ground on new field of 'organoid intelligence', which is reproducing cognitive functions, such as learning and sensory processing, in a lab-grown human-brain.

Biological Computers use biologically derived molecules — such as DNA and/or proteins — to perform digital or real computations. The development of biocomputers has been made possible by the expanding new science of nano-biotechnology.

Neuromorphic Engineering is the use of very-large-scale integration systems containing electronic analog circuits to mimic neuro-biological architectures present in the nervous system. In recent times the term neuromorphic has been used to describe analog, digital, mixed-mode analog/digital VLSI, and software systems that implement models of neural systems (for perception, motor control, or multisensory integration). The implementation of neuromorphic computing on the hardware level can be realized by oxide-based memristors, threshold switches, and transistors. A key aspect of neuromorphic engineering is understanding how the morphology of individual neurons, circuits, applications, and overall architectures creates desirable computations, affects how information is represented, influences robustness to damage, incorporates learning and development, adapts to local change (plasticity), and facilitates evolutionary change. Neuromorphic engineering is an interdisciplinary subject that takes inspiration from biology, physics, mathematics, computer science, and electronic engineering to design artificial neural systems, such as vision systems, head-eye systems, auditory processors, and autonomous robots, whose physical architecture and design principles are based on those of biological nervous systems.

Researchers develop a material that mimics how the brain stores information. First artificial synapse that reproduces learning during sleep. Researchers have developed a magnetic material capable of imitating the way the brain stores information. The material makes it possible to emulate the synapses of neurons and mimic the learning that occurs during deep sleep. Neuromorphic computing is a new computing paradigm in which the behavior of the brain is emulated by mimicking the main synaptic functions of neurons. Among these functions is neuronal plasticity: the ability to store information or forget it depending on the duration and repetition of the electrical impulses that stimulate neurons, a plasticity that would be linked to learning and memory. Among the materials that mimic neuron synapses, memresistive materials, ferroelectrics, phase change memory materials, topological insulators and, more recently, magneto-ionic materials stand out. In the latter, changes in the magnetic properties are induced by the displacement of ions within the material caused by the application of an electric field. In these materials it is well known how the magnetism is modulated when applying the electric field, but the evolution of magnetic properties when voltage is stopped (that is, the evolution after the stimulus) is difficult to control. This makes it complicated to emulate some brain-inspired functions, such as maintaining the efficiency of learning that takes place even while the brain is in a state of deep sleep (i.e., without external stimulation). The researchers have developed a material based on a thin layer of cobalt mononitride (CoN) where, by applying an electric field, the accumulation of N ions at the interface between the layer and a liquid electrolyte in which the layer has been placed can be controlled. "The new material works with the movement of ions controlled by electrical voltage, in a manner analogous to our brain, and at speeds similar to those produced in neurons, of the order of milliseconds, We have developed an artificial synapse that in the future may be the basis of a new computing paradigm, alternative to the one used by current computers. By applying voltage pulses, it has been possible to emulate, in a controlled way, processes such as memory, information processing, information retrieval and, for the first time, the controlled updating of information without applied voltage. This control has been achieved by modifying the thickness of the cobalt mononitride layers (which determines the speed of the ions motion), and the frequency of the pulses. The arrangement of the material allows the magnetoionic properties to be controlled not only when the voltage is applied but also, for the first time, when the voltage is removed. Once the external voltage stimulus disappears, the magnetization of the system can be reduced or increased, depending on the thickness of the material and the protocol how the voltage has been previously applied. This new effect opens a whole range of opportunities for new neuromorphic computing functions. It offers a new logic function that allows, for example, the possibility of mimicking the neural learning that occurs after brain stimulation, when we sleep profoundly. This functionality cannot be emulated by any other type of existing neuromorphic materials. "When the thickness of the cobalt mononitride layer is below 50 nanometers and with a voltage applied at a frequency greater than 100 cycles per second, we have managed to emulate an additional logic function: once the voltage is applied, the device can be programmed to learn or to forget, without the need for any additional input of energy, mimicking the synaptic functions that take place in the brain during deep sleep, when information processing can continue without applying any external signal.

Computation and Neural Systems explores the relationship between the structure of neuron-like circuits/networks and the computations performed in such systems, whether natural or synthetic. The program was designed to foster the exchange of ideas and collaboration among engineers, neuroscientists, and theoreticians.

Making AI smarter with an artificial, multisensory integrated neuron. A team focused on integrating a tactile sensor and a visual sensor so that the output of one sensor modifies the other, with the help of visual memory that can subsequently influence and aid the tactile responses for navigation. This would not be possible if our visual and tactile cortex were to respond to their respective unimodal cues alone. The researchers fabricated the multisensory neuron by connecting a tactile sensor to a phototransistor based on a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide, a compound that exhibits unique electrical and optical characteristics useful for detecting light and supporting transistors. The sensor generates electrical spikes in a manner reminiscent of neurons processing information, allowing it to integrate both visual and tactile cues. To simulate touch input, the tactile sensor used triboelectric effect, in which two layers slide against one another to produce electricity, meaning the touch stimuli was encoded into electrical impulses. To simulate visual input, the researchers shined a light into the monolayer molybdenum disulfide photo memtransistor -- or a transistor that can remember visual input, like how a person can hold onto the general layout of a room after a quick flash illuminates it.

Teaching ancient brains new tricks. Scientists have found a way to decode the brain activity associated with individual abstract scientific concepts pertaining to matter and energy, such as fermion or dark matter.

2D Materials could be used to simulate brain synapses in computers. Computers could mimic neural networks in the brain -- and be much more energy efficient -- with a new computer component that mimics how the brain works by acting like a synaptic cell. It's called an electrochemical random access memory or ECRAM, and researchers have developed materials that offer a commercially-viable way to build these components.

New brain-like computing device simulates human learning. Like Pavlov's dog, device can be conditioned to learn by association. Researchers developed new synaptic transistors that can mimic the human brain's plasticity by simultaneously processing and storing data. After connecting transistors into a device, researchers conditioned it to associate light with pressure -- similar to how Pavlov's dog associated a bell with food. The way our current computer systems work is that memory and logic are physically separated. Currently, the memory resistor, or "memristor," is the most well-developed technology that can perform combined processing and memory function, but memristors suffer from energy-costly switching and less biocompatibility. These drawbacks led researchers to the synaptic transistor -- especially the organic electrochemical synaptic transistor, which operates with low voltages, continuously tunable memory and high compatibility for biological applications. Still, challenges exist.

The Octopus' Brain and the human brain share the same 'jumping genes'. A new study has identified an important molecular analogy that could explain the remarkable intelligence of these invertebrates. The neural and cognitive complexity of the octopus could originate from a molecular analogy with the human brain, according to a new study. The research shows that the same 'jumping genes' are active both in the human brain and in the brain of two species, Octopus vulgaris, the common octopus, and Octopus bimaculoides, the Californian octopus.

Scientists complete first map of an insect brain. This team's connectome of a baby fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster larva, is the most complete as well as the most expansive map of an entire insect brain ever completed. It includes 3,016 neurons and every connection between them: 548,000.

New algorithm disentangles intrinsic brain patterns from sensory inputs. Scientists have developed a new machine learning method that reveals surprisingly consistent intrinsic brain patterns across different subjects by disentangling these patterns from the effect of visual inputs. Researchers Discover Hidden Brain Pattern

Team creates novel rabies viral vectors for neural circuit mapping. New tools can detect microstructural changes in aging and Alzheimer's disease brain neurons. A research team has created 20 new recombinant rabies viral vectors for neural circuit mapping that offer a range of significant advantages over existing tools, including the ability to detect microstructural changes in models of aging and Alzheimer's disease brain neurons.


Protein are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. A single protein can have over a 500,000 atoms. Proteins are the most diverse biomolecules on Earth. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. Proteins, the components of our body that execute, control and organize basically all functions in our cells, are made out of strings of amino acids, which -- like an origami -- are folded into specific and complex three-dimensional structures according to their desired functions. However, since folding and maintaining of such structures is highly sensitive to cellular or environmental stress, proteins can potentially misfold or form clumps (aggregates). Such undesired protein waste can be toxic for cells and may even lead to cell death. Because several human neurodegenerative diseases are known to be linked to an accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, basic science aimed to understand how cells remove cellular garbage is elementary for designing strategies for a potential prevention or cure of such disorders. Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life. Among their many jobs, they carry oxygen, build tissue, copy DNA for the next generation, and coordinate events within and between cells. There are 20 Molecules used to make proteins with 20 to the 100 power of variations. Hydrophilic - PH (7.4).

Protein as a nutrient are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal (17 kJ) per gram; in contrast, lipids provide 9 kcal (37 kJ) per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine. There are five dispensable amino acids which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress. These six are arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline and tyrosine. Humans need the essential amino acids in certain ratios. Some protein sources contain amino acids in a more or less 'complete' sense. This has given rise to various ranking systems for protein sources, as described in the article. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: meats, dairy products, fish and eggs as well as grains, legumes and nuts. Vegetarians and vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating a variety of plant proteins. It is commonly believed that athletes should consume a higher-than-normal protein intake to maintain optimal physical performance. Warning: Too much protein can be bad for your health, especially protein from certain foods.

Protein is an essential nutrient which helps form the structural component of body tissues and is used within many biological processes, for example protein is used to make enzymes, antibodies to help us fight infection as well as DNA the building blocks to life. It’s also needed to make up muscle tissue which in turn helps to keep our bodies active, strong, and healthy. Most protein is stored in the body as muscle, generally accounting for around 40-45% of our body’s total pool, so it makes sense that if you increase activity, perhaps to improve health and fitness or body composition, you also need to consider protein as an important food group in your diet.

Our Bodies make roughly 20,000 different kinds of Proteins. Some take the shape of molecular sheets. Others are sculpted into fibers, boxes, tunnels, even scissors. A protein’s particular shape enables it to do a particular job. Every protein in nature is encoded by a gene. With that stretch of DNA as its guide, a cell assembles a corresponding protein from building blocks known as amino acids. Selecting from twenty or so different types, the cell builds a chain of amino acids. That chain may stretch dozens, hundreds or even thousands of units long. Once the cell finishes, the chain folds on itself, typically in just a few hundredths of a second. Proteins fold because each amino acid has an electric charge. Parts of the protein chain are attracted to one another while other parts are repelled. Some bonds between the amino acids will yield easily under these forces; rigid bonds will resist.

Protein Complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains. Protein complexes are distinct from multienzyme complexes, in which multiple catalytic domains are found in a single polypeptide chain. Protein complexes are a form of quaternary structure. Proteins in a protein complex are linked by non-covalent protein–protein interactions. These complexes are a cornerstone of many (if not most) biological processes. The cell is seen to be composed of modular supramolecular complexes, each of which performs an independent, discrete biological function.

Protein Synthesis (how proteins are made) - From DNA to Protein - 3D (youtube) - This 3D animation shows how proteins are made in the cell from the information in the DNA code.

Researchers use generative AI to design novel proteins. Researchers have developed an artificial intelligence system that can create proteins not found in nature using generative diffusion, the same technology behind popular image-creation platforms such as DALL-E and Midjourney. Our model learns from image representations to generate fully new proteins, at a very high rate. All our proteins appear to be biophysically real, meaning they fold into configurations that enable them to carry out specific functions within cells. Proteins are made from chains of amino acids that fold into three-dimensional shapes, which in turn dictate protein function.

Neuroscientists discover new structure of important protein in the brain. Crystallising and mapping a novel conformation of LeuT, a bacterial protein that belongs to the same family of proteins as the brain's so-called neurotransmitter transporters. These transporters are special proteins that sit in the cell membrane. As a kind of vacuum cleaner, they reuptake some of the neurotransmitters that nerve cells release when sending a signal to one another. Transporters are extremely important for regulating the signaling between neurons in the brain and thus the balance of how the whole system works.

Discovery of highly specific fatty acid attachment to proteins. A key player in this modification process is protein fatty acid attachment ('protein fatty acylation'), akin to adding a specialized component (i.e., fatty acids) that allows proteins to anchor themselves to cellular membranes.

Peptide are short chains of amino acids linked by peptide (amide) bonds. Peptide is a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-. Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as an arbitrary benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 or fewer amino acids. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way, often bound to ligands such as coenzymes and cofactors, or to another protein or other macromolecule (DNA, RNA, etc.), or to complex macromolecular assemblies. Finally, while aspects of the lab techniques applied to peptides versus polypeptides and proteins differ (e.g., the specifics of electrophoresis, chromatography, etc.), the size boundaries that distinguish peptides from polypeptides and proteins are not absolute: long peptides such as amyloid beta have been referred to as proteins, and smaller proteins like insulin have been considered peptides. Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed "residues". A water molecule is released during formation of each amide bond. All peptides except cyclic peptides have an N-terminal (amine group) and C-terminal (carboxyl group) residue at the end of the peptide (as shown for the tetrapeptide in the image). Constrained Peptides represent a new class of peptide molecules whose supramolecular structure is controlled via intra-molecular covalent bonds, generally to confer upon them bio-chemical and/or physicochemical properties superior to those of ordinary peptides. Water - Neuropeptides.

Protein Precursor is an inactive protein or peptide that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule. The name of the precursor for a protein is often prefixed by pro-. Examples include proinsulin and proopiomelanocortin, which are both prohormones.

Protein Data Bank is a database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations (PDBe, PDBj, and RCSB - youtube channel - PDB101). The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein Data Bank, wwPDB. The PDB is a key in areas of structural biology, such as structural genomics. Most major scientific journals, and some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB. Many other databases use protein structures deposited in the PDB. For example, SCOP and CATH classify protein structures, while PDBsum provides a graphic overview of PDB entries using information from other sources, such as Gene ontology. Protein Atlas.

Motor Proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells. They convert chemical energy into mechanical work by the hydrolysis of ATP. Flagellar rotation, however, is powered by a proton pump.

Serum is an amber, watery fluid, rich in proteins, that separates out when blood coagulates.

Whey is the serum or watery part of milk that is separated from the curd in making cheese.

Protein isoform is an ambiguous term describing either several different forms of protein coded from the same gene, or proteins with amino acid sequence and functional similarities, even when they are products of different genes.

Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, with many functions.

Protein Domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain. Each domain forms a compact three-dimensional structure and often can be independently stable and Folded. Many proteins consist of several structural domains. One domain may appear in a variety of different proteins. Molecular evolution uses domains as building blocks and these may be recombined in different arrangements to create proteins with different functions. Domains vary in length from between about 25 Amino Acids up to 500 amino acids in length. Domains often form functional units, such as the calcium-binding EF hand domain of calmodulin. Because they are independently stable, domains can be "swapped" by genetic engineering between one protein and another to make chimeric proteins.

Proteins use a Lock and Key system to Bind to DNA. Scientists have traditionally thought that DNA Binding Proteins use patterns in the genome's code of As, Cs, Ts, and Gs to guide them to the right location, with a given protein only binding to a specific sequence of letters. In a new study, scientists discovered that proteins must rely on another clue to know where to bind: the DNA's three-dimensional shape. You can think of DNA as a string of letters -- As, Cs, Ts, and Gs -- that together spell out the information needed for the construction and function of cells. Each cell in your body shares the same DNA. So, for cells to take on their differing roles, they must be able to turn on and off specific genes with precise control. The genes active in a brain cell, for instance, are different than those active in a skin cell.

Hemeproteins have diverse biological functions including the transportation of diatomic gases, chemical catalysis, diatomic gas detection, and electron transfer. The heme iron serves as a source or sink of electrons during electron transfer or redox chemistry. In peroxidase reactions, the porphyrin molecule also serves as an electron source. In the transportation or detection of diatomic gases, the gas binds to the heme iron. During the detection of diatomic gases, the binding of the gas ligand to the heme iron induces conformational changes in the surrounding protein. In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe(IV) and hemeproteins involved in mitochondrial redox, oxidation-reduction, cycle between Fe(II) and Fe(III). It has been speculated that the original evolutionary function of hemoproteins was electron transfer in primitive sulfur-based photosynthesis pathways in ancestral cyanobacteria-like organisms before the appearance of molecular oxygen. Hemoproteins achieve their remarkable functional diversity by modifying the environment of the heme macrocycle within the protein matrix. For example, the ability of hemoglobin to effectively deliver oxygen to tissues is due to specific amino acid residues located near the heme molecule. Hemoglobin reversibly binds to oxygen in the lungs when the pH is high, and the carbon dioxide concentration is low. When the situation is reversed (low pH and high carbon dioxide concentrations), hemoglobin will release oxygen into the tissues. This phenomenon, which states that hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity is inversely proportional to both acidity and concentration of carbon dioxide, is known as the Bohr effect. The molecular mechanism behind this effect is the steric organization of the globin chain; a histidine residue, located adjacent to the heme group, becomes positively charged under acidic conditions (which are caused by dissolved CO2 in working muscles, etc.), releasing oxygen from the heme group. Heme protein is a protein that contains a heme prosthetic group. They are a large class of metalloproteins. The heme group confers functionality, which can include oxygen carrying, oxygen reduction, electron transfer, and other processes. Heme is bound to the protein either covalently or noncovalently bound or both. The heme consists of iron cation bound at the center of the conjugate base of the porphyrin, as well as other ligands attached to the "axial sites" of the iron. The porphyrin ring is a planar dianionic, tetradentate ligand. The iron is typically Fe2+ or Fe3+. One or two ligands are attached at the axial sites. The porphyrin ring has 4 nitrogen atoms that bind to the iron, leaving two other coordination positions of the iron available for bonding to the histidine of the protein and a divalent atom. Hemeproteins probably evolved to incorporate the iron atom contained within the protoporphyrin IX ring of heme into proteins. As it makes hemeproteins responsive to molecules that can bind divalent iron, this strategy has been maintained throughout evolution as it plays crucial physiological functions. Oxygen (O2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) bind to the iron atom in heme proteins. Once bound to the prosthetic heme groups, these molecules can modulate the activity/function of those hemeproteins, affording signal transduction. Therefore, when produced in biologic systems (cells), these gaseous molecules are referred to as gasotransmitters.

Heme is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands. Many porphyrin-containing metalloproteins have heme as their prosthetic group; these are known as hemoproteins. Hemes are most commonly recognized as components of hemoglobin, the red pigment in blood, but are also found in a number of other biologically important hemoproteins such as myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases, heme peroxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

Apolipoprotein are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins. They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in water. However, because of their detergent-like (amphipathic) properties, apolipoproteins and other amphipathic molecules (such as phospholipids) can surround the lipids, creating the lipoprotein particle that is itself water-soluble, and can thus be carried through water-based circulation (i.e., blood, lymph). Apolipoproteins also serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers that regulate the metabolism of lipoproteins and their uptake in tissues.

Ribonucleoprotein is a nucleoprotein that contains RNA, i.e. it is an association that combines a ribonucleic acid and an RNA-binding protein together. Such a combination can also be referred to as a protein-RNA complex. These complexes play an integral part in a number of important biological functions that include DNA replication, regulating gene expression and regulating the metabolism of RNA. A few examples of RNPs include the ribosome, the enzyme telomerase, vault ribonucleoproteins, RNase P, hnRNP and small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs), which have been implicated in pre-mRNA splicing (spliceosome) and are among the main components of the nucleolus.

Transmembrane Protein is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached. Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the biological membrane. They frequently undergo significant conformational changes to move a substance through the membrane. Transmembrane proteins are polytopic proteins that aggregate and precipitate in water. They require detergents or nonpolar solvents for extraction, although some of them (beta-barrels) can be also extracted using denaturing agents. The other type of integral membrane protein is the integral monotopic protein that is also permanently attached to the cell membrane but does not pass through it.

Integral Membrane Protein is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane. All transmembrane proteins are IMPs, but not all IMPs are transmembrane proteins. IMPs comprise a significant fraction of the proteins encoded in an organism's genome. Proteins that cross the membrane are surrounded by annular lipids, which are defined as lipids that are in direct contact with a membrane protein. Such proteins can only be separated from the membranes by using detergents, nonpolar solvents, or sometimes denaturing agents.

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene. GDNF is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. It signals through GFRα receptors, particularly GFRα1.

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (brain maintenance)

FOXP2 Protein Speech & Language Gene is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language. Initially identified as the genetic factor of speech disorder in KE family, its gene is the first gene discovered associated with speech and language. The gene is located on chromosome 7 (7q31, at the SPCH1 locus), and is expressed in fetal and adult brain, heart, lung and gut.

Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CADM1 gene.

Ras subfamily is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs. All Ras protein family members belong to a class of protein called small GTPase, and are involved in transmitting signals within cells (cellular signal transduction). Ras is the prototypical member of the Ras superfamily of proteins, which are all related in 3D structure and regulate diverse cell behaviours. When Ras is 'switched on' by incoming signals, it subsequently switches on other proteins, which ultimately turn on genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival. Mutations in ras genes can lead to the production of permanently activated Ras proteins. As a result, this can cause unintended and overactive signaling inside the cell, even in the absence of incoming signals. Because these signals result in cell growth and division, overactive Ras signaling can ultimately lead to cancer. The 3 Ras genes in humans (HRas, KRas, and NRas) are the most common oncogenes in human cancer; mutations that permanently activate Ras are found in 20% to 25% of all human tumors and up to 90% in certain types of cancer (e.g., pancreatic cancer). For this reason, Ras inhibitors are being studied as a treatment for cancer and other diseases with Ras overexpression. More than 30 percent of all human cancers – including 95 percent of pancreatic cancers and 45 percent of colorectal cancers — are driven by mutations of the RAS family of genes.

Shaping the social networks of neurons. Identification of a protein complex that attracts or repels nerve cells during development. The three proteins Teneurin, Latrophilin and FLRT hold together and bring neighboring neurons into close contact, enabling the formation of synapses and the exchange of information between the cells. In the early phase of brain development, however, the interaction of the same proteins leads to the repulsion of migrating nerve cells.

Exosome Complex is a multi-protein intracellular complex capable of degrading various types of RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecules. Exosome complexes are found in both eukaryotic cells and archaea, while in bacteria a simpler complex called the degradosome carries out similar functions.

Driving force behind cellular 'protein factories' identified. Researchers have identified the driving force behind a cellular process linked to neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and motor neuron disease. The endoplasmic reticulum is the cell's protein factory, producing and modifying the proteins needed to ensure healthy cell function. It is the cell's biggest organelle and exists in a web-like structure of tubes and sheets. The ER moves rapidly and constantly changes shape, extending across the cell to wherever it is needed at any given moment.

Protein's 'silent code' affects how cells move. Two forms of the ubiquitous protein actin differ by only four amino acids but are dissimilar in 13% of their nucleotide coding sequences due to silent substitutions. A new study reveals that these supposedly 'silent' differences have an impact on how fast actin mRNA gets translated into protein and subsequently on the protein's function in propelling cell movement.

Powerful technique allows scientists to study how proteins change shape inside cells. The scientists' new 'binder-tag' technique allows researchers to pinpoint and track proteins that are in a desired shape or 'conformation,' and to do so in real time inside living cells. The scientists demonstrated the technique in, essentially, movies that track the active version of an important signaling protein -- a molecule, in this case, important for cell growth. Understanding how proteins bend, twist, and shape-shift as they go about their work in cells is enormously important for understanding normal biology and diseases. But a deep understanding of protein dynamics has generally been elusive due to the lack of good imaging methods of proteins at work. Now, for the first time, scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have invented a method that could enable this field to take a great leap forward.

Conformational Change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors. A macromolecule is usually flexible and dynamic. Its shape can change in response to changes in its environment or other factors; each possible shape is called a conformation, and a transition between them is called a conformational change. Factors that may induce such changes include temperature, pH, voltage, light in chromophores, concentration of ions, phosphorylation, or the binding of a ligand. Transitions between these states occur on a variety of length scales (tenths of Å to nm) and time scales (ns to s), and have been linked to functionally relevant phenomena such as allosteric signaling and enzyme catalysis.

Conformation-Activity Relationship is the relationship between the biological activity and the chemical structure or conformational changes of a biomolecule. This terminology emphasizes the importance of dynamic conformational changes for the biological function, rather than the importance of static three-dimensional structure used in the analysis of structure–activity relationships. The conformational changes usually take place during intermolecular association, such as protein–protein interaction or protein–ligand binding. A binding partner changes the conformation of a biomolecule (e.g. a protein) to enable or disable its biochemical activity.

Cellular proteins enable tissues to sense, react to mechanical force. Cellular proteins that hold cells and tissues together also perform critical functions when they experience increased tension. A new study observed that when tugged upon in a controlled manner, these proteins -- called cadherins -- communicate with growth factors to influence in vitro tumor growth in human carcinoma cells.

Proteopathy refers to a class of diseases in which certain proteins become structurally abnormal, and thereby disrupt the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body. Often the proteins fail to fold into their normal configuration; in this misfolded state, the proteins can become toxic in some way (a gain of toxic function) or they can lose their normal function.

Prions are misfolded proteins with the ability to transmit their misfolded shape onto normal variants of the same protein. They characterize several fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and many other animals.

PRNP or prion protein is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (protease-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and P for protein), also known as CD230 (cluster of differentiation 230). Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in many other tissues throughout the body.

Prion Diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or TSEs, are a group of rare, fatal brain diseases that affect animals and humans. They are caused by an infectious agent known as a prion, which is derived from a misfolded version of a normal host protein known as prion protein.

Protein Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification of proteins in which an amino acid residue is phosphorylated by a protein kinase by the addition of a covalently bound phosphate group. Phosphorylation alters the structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated, deactivated, or modifying its function. The reverse reaction of phosphorylation is called dephosphorylation, and is catalyzed by protein phosphatases. Protein kinases and phosphatases work independently and in a balance to regulate the function of proteins. The amino acids most commonly phosphorylated are serine, threonine, and tyrosine in eukaryotes, and histidine in prokaryotes, which play important and well-characterized roles in signaling pathways and metabolism. However, many other amino acids can also be phosphorylated, including arginine, lysine, and cysteine.


Tau Protein are proteins that stabilize microtubules. They are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and are less common elsewhere, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.

AI system can generate novel proteins that meet structural design targets. These tunable proteins could be used to create new materials with specific mechanical properties, like toughness or flexibility. A new machine-learning system can generate protein designs with certain structural features, and which do not exist in nature. These proteins could be utilized to make materials that have similar mechanical properties to existing materials, like polymers, but which would have a much smaller carbon footprint.

Researchers have developed a new class of artificial proteins.

Structural biology: Molecular scissors caught in the act. Structure of an enzyme crucial for tRNA maturation sheds light on cause of neurodegenerative disorders. In all living organisms, the biomolecule transfer RNA (tRNA) plays a fundamental role in protein production. tRNAs are generated from precursor molecules in several steps. The enzyme tRNA splicing endonuclease (TSEN), among other things, catalyzes one step in this process. Mutations in TSEN lead to a neurodegenerative disorder called pontocerebellar hypoplasia, which is associated with severe disabilities and early death. Researchers have now deduced the function of TSEN from its structure and in so doing paved the way in the search for active substances against pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are among the most common types of RNA in a cell and are indispensable for protein production in all known organisms. They have an important "translation" function: They determine how the sequence of nucleic acids, in which the genetic information is encoded, is transcribed into a sequence of amino acids from which proteins are built. Transfer RNAs are generated from precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs), which are converted in several steps into the mature tRNA with a complex three-dimensional structure. In some tRNAs, this includes a step in which a certain section, known as an intron, is excised. In humans, the tRNA splicing endonuclease (TSEN) performs this task. The enzyme RNA kinase CLP1, which binds directly to TSEN, also plays a role in ensuring the correct conversion of tRNAs. If TSEN and CLP1 are unable to interact with each other due to a genetic mutation, it seems that tRNAs can no longer form correctly either. The consequences of this are often seen in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. One of these is pontocerebellar hypoplasia, which leads to severe disabilities and premature death in earliest childhood. This very rare progressive disorder manifests itself in an abnormal development of the cerebellum and the pons, a part of the brain stem. Although TSEN activity is essential for life, it was to date mostly unclear how the enzyme binds pre-tRNAs and how introns are excised. The lack of a three-dimensional structure of the enzyme also made it difficult to assess the changes triggered by specific pathogenic mutations. By means of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) conducted at facilities of the Julius-Maximilians University of Würzburg and of the Institute of Biochemistry at Goethe University Frankfurt, researchers led by Dr. Simon Trowitzsch from the Institute of Biochemistry at Goethe University have now succeeded in shedding light on the three-dimensional structure of a TSEN/pre-tRNA complex. With the aid of their cryo-EM reconstructions, the research team was able to show for the first time how TSEN interacts with the L-shaped pre-tRNA. TSEN then excises the intron from the long arm of the L. "First, TSEN settles in the corner of the L. It can then recognize both the short and the long arm as well as the angle between them," explains Trowitzsch. The TSEN subunit 54 (TSEN54) plays a key role in pre-tRNA recognition, as the researchers have now been able to corroborate. The subunit serves as a "molecular ruler" and measures the distance between the long and the short arm of the L. In this way, TSEN recognizes at which point the pre-tRNA needs to be cleaved in order to remove the intron. New findings on the interaction of the RNA kinase CLP1 and the TSEN subunit TSEN54 were a surprise: CLP1 evidently binds to an unstructured and thus very flexible region of TSEN54. It is precisely this region that contains an amino acid most frequently mutated in patients with pontocerebellar hypoplasia. "For us, this is an important indication that drug development in the future should concentrate on maintaining the interaction of TSEN and CLP1," Samoil Sekulovski, first author of the study, is convinced. The scientists now hope that the structural data will make it possible to simulate models that can be used to search for potential active substances. Trowitzsch sums up: "Although a promising therapy is still a long way ahead of us, our structure indeed forms a solid foundation for a better understanding of how TSEN works and what the disease patterns of its mutants are."

Doubling down on known protein families. Using a novel computational approach, researchers confirm microbial diversity is wilder than ever. Harnessing the collective power of more than 26,000 microbiome datasets, all accessible through the publicly available Integrated Microbial Genomes & Microbiomes (IMG/M) database, they successfully crafted the Novel Metagenome Protein Families (NMPF) Catalog. Metagenomic sequencing allows researchers to study the entire genetic makeup of these communities via whole genome sequencing of the samples, without being able to distinguish which gene belongs to each individual microbial species within a community. Therefore, the process hinges on referencing to existing genome sequences. The team started with 8 billion metagenome genes from IMG (the study also references data from the JGI's Genomes from Earth's Microbiome, or GEM catalog). Then they removed any genes with even a remote similarity to previously known genes, leaving them with around 1.2 billion novel genes. There is still 70-80% of known microbial diversity out there that is not yet captured genomically.

Scientists discover a previously unknown way cells break down proteins. Short-lived proteins control gene expression in cells to carry out a number of vital tasks, from helping the brain form connections to helping the body mount an immune defense. These proteins are made in the nucleus and are quickly destroyed once they've done their job. The mechanism degrades short-lived proteins that support brain and immune functions. It is well established that cells can break down proteins by tagging them with a small molecule called ubiquitin. The tag tells the proteasome that the proteins are no longer needed, and it destroys them. However, sometimes the proteasome breaks down proteins without the help of ubiquitin tags, leading researchers to suspect that there was another, ubiquitin-independent mechanism of protein degradation. One group of proteins that seemed to be degraded by an alternative mechanism are stimuli-induced transcription factors: Proteins rapidly made in response to cellular stimuli that travel to the nucleus of a cell to turn on genes, after which they are rapidly destroyed. Follow-up experiments revealed that in addition to Fos and EGR1, midnolin may also be involved in breaking down hundreds of other transcription factors in the nucleus. With the aid of a machine learning tool called AlphaFold that predicts protein structures, plus results from a series of lab experiments, the team was able to flesh out the details of the mechanism. They established that midnolin has a "Catch domain" -- a region of the protein that grabs other proteins and feeds them directly into the proteasome, where they are broken down. This Catch domain is composed of two separate regions linked by amino acids (think mittens on a string) that grab a relatively unstructured region of a protein, thus allowing midnolin to capture many different types of proteins. Of note are proteins like Fos that are responsible for turning on genes that prompt neurons in the brain to wire and rewire themselves in response to stimuli. Other proteins like IRF4 activate genes that support the immune system by ensuring that cells can make functional B and T cells. When cells have too much or too little of transcription factors such as Fos, problems with learning and memory may arise. In multiple myeloma, cancer cells become addicted to the immune protein IRF4, so its presence can fuel the disease. The researchers are especially interested in identifying diseases that may be good candidates for the development of therapies that work through the midnolin-proteasome pathway.

Folding Proteins

Protein Folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native three-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner. It is the physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from a random coil. Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids. This polypeptide lacks any stable (long-lasting) three-dimensional structure (the left hand side of the first figure). As the polypeptide chain is being synthesized by a ribosome, the linear chain begins to fold into its three-dimensional structure. Folding of many proteins begin even during translation of the polypeptide chain. Amino acids interact with each other to produce a well-defined three-dimensional structure, the folded protein (the right hand side of the figure), known as the native state. The resulting three-dimensional structure is determined by the amino acid sequence or primary structure (Anfinsen's dogma). The correct three-dimensional structure is essential to function, although some parts of functional proteins may remain unfolded, so that protein dynamics is important. Failure to fold into native structure generally produces inactive proteins, but in some instances misfolded proteins have modified or toxic functionality. Several neurodegenerative and other diseases are believed to result from the accumulation of amyloid fibrils formed by misfolded proteins. Many allergies are caused by incorrect folding of some proteins, because the immune system does not produce antibodies for certain protein structures. Denaturation of proteins is a process of transition from the folded to the unfolded state. It happens in cooking, in burns, in proteinopathies, and in other contexts. The duration of the folding process varies dramatically depending on the protein of interest. When studied outside the cell, the slowest folding proteins require many minutes or hours to fold primarily due to proline isomerization, and must pass through a number of intermediate states, like checkpoints, before the process is complete. On the other hand, very small single-domain proteins with lengths of up to a hundred amino acids typically fold in a single step. Time scales of milliseconds are the norm and the very fastest known protein folding reactions are complete within a few microseconds. Understanding and simulating the protein folding process has been an important challenge for computational biology since the late 1960s.

Welcome to Fold it !! (youtube)

Folding Proteins turned into a Game - Cellular Automaton - Wolfram Physics - In-Vitro

Knot Theory is the study of mathematical knots. While inspired by Knots which appear in daily life, such as those in shoelaces and rope, a mathematical knot differs in that the ends are joined so it cannot be undone, the simplest knot being a ring (or "unknot"). In mathematical language, a knot is an embedding of a circle in 3-dimensional Euclidean space.

Trefoil Knot - Brunnian Link - Reidemeister Move - Net Knots - Animated knots - Real Knots - Untangling the mechanics of knots (youtube)

A.I. excels at creating new proteins beyond alphaFold. Over the past two years, machine learning has revolutionized protein structure prediction. Now there's a similar revolution in protein design. Biologists show that machine learning can be used to create protein molecules much more accurately and quickly than previously possible. By creating new, useful proteins not found in nature, they hope this advance will lead to many new vaccines, treatments, tools for carbon capture, and sustainable biomaterials.

AlphaFold is an artificial intelligence program developed by Google's DeepMind which performs predictions of protein structure. The program is designed as a deep learning system.

Protein-Folding Simulations Sped up with New Algorithm.

Protein Structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule. Proteins are polymers – specifically polypeptides – formed from sequences of amino acids, the monomers of the polymer. A single amino acid monomer may also be called a residue indicating a repeating unit of a polymer. Proteins form by amino acids undergoing condensation reactions, in which the amino acids lose one water molecule per reaction in order to attach to one another with a peptide bond. By convention, a chain under 30 amino acids is often identified as a peptide, rather than a protein. To be able to perform their biological function, proteins fold into one or more specific spatial conformations driven by a number of non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic packing. To understand the functions of proteins at a molecular level, it is often necessary to determine their three-dimensional structure. This is the topic of the scientific field of structural biology, which employs techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and dual polarisation interferometry to determine the structure of proteins. Protein structures range in size from tens to several thousand amino acids. By physical size, proteins are classified as nanoparticles, between 1–100 nm. Very large aggregates can be formed from protein subunits. For example, many thousands of actin molecules assemble into a microfilament. A protein generally undergoes reversible structural changes in performing its biological function. The alternative structures of the same protein are referred to as different conformational isomers, or simply, conformations, and transitions between them are called conformational changes. The structure of a protein is hierarchically arranged, from a primary to quaternary structure. The wide variation in amino acid sequences accounts for the different conformations in protein structure. Many protein structures have now been determined and reveal that protein molecules can adopt the same fold despite having very different sequences. It has been suggested that, owing to different stereochemical constraints, the number of ways that a sequence can fold may be limited. Protein Quaternary Structure is the number and arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex. It includes organizations from simple dimers to large homooligomers and complexes with defined or variable numbers of subunits. It can also refer to biomolecular complexes of proteins with nucleic acids and other cofactors. Quaternary structure exists in proteins consisting of two or more identical or different polypeptide chains (subunits). Subunits are held together by noncovalent forces; as a result, oligomeric proteins can undergo rapid conformational changes that affect biological activity.

By running Rosetta@home on your computer when you're not using it you will speed up and extend our efforts to design new proteins and to predict their 3-dimensional shapes. Proteins are the molecular machines and building blocks of life.

Scientists Program Proteins to Pair exactly. Technique paves the way for the creation of protein nanomachines and for engineering of new cell functions.

Listening in to how proteins talk and learning their language. Machine learning accelerates the design of synthetic proteins with desired functions, facilitating future therapeutic, diagnostic and biotechnology applications. We trained UniRep on about 24 million protein sequences for roughly 3 weeks to enable it to predict sequences and their relationship to features like protein stability, secondary structure, and accessibility of internal sequences to surrounding solvents within proteins it had never seen before.

Modeling Software (engineering) - Competitive Programming.

Supercomputers help supercharge Protein Assembly. Using proteins derived from jellyfish, scientists assembled a complex sixteen protein structure composed of two stacked octamers by supercharging alone. This research could be applied to useful technologies such as pharmaceutical targeting, artificial energy harvesting, 'smart' sensing and building materials, and more. Computational modeling through XSEDE allocations on Stampede2 (TACC) and Comet (SDSC) refined measurements of structure. Using supercomputers, scientists are just starting to design proteins that self-assemble to combine and resemble life-giving molecules like hemoglobin. Nano Assembly.

Complex Molecules emerge without evolution or design. In biology, folded proteins are responsible for most advanced functions. These complex proteins are the result of evolution or design by scientists. Now scientists have discovered a new class of complex folding molecules that emerge spontaneously from simple building blocks.

Biomolecular Structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

What Web Browsers and Proteins have in Common. Researchers discover molecular 'add-ons' that customize protein interfaces. Researchers discovered tiny bits of molecular material -- which they named "add-ons" -- on the outer edges of the protein interface that customize what a protein can do. They chose the name because the add-ons customize the interface between proteins the way software add-ons customize a web interface with a user.

On the Role of Anionic Lipids in charged Protein Interactions with Membranes.

Protein Domain

Scientists have found a way to ‘unboil’ eggs – and it could be a life-saver.

Designer Proteins fold DNA. Biophysicists construct complex hybrid structures using DNA and proteins.

Journey to the Center of the Mind - The Amboy Dukes (youtube - 1968) - Leave your cares behind, Come with us and find, The pleasures of a journey to the center of the mind. Come along if you care, Come along if you dare, Take a ride to the land inside of your mind. Beyond the seas of thought, Beyond the realm of what, Across the streams of hopes and dreams where things are really not. Come along if you care, Come along if you dare, Take a ride to the land inside of your mind. But please realize, You'll probably be surprised, For it's the land unknown to man, Where fantasy is fact, So if you can, please understand, You might not come back. Come along if you care, Come along if you dare, Take a ride to the land inside of your mind. How happy life could be, If all of mankind Would take the time to journey to the center of the mind, Would take the time to journey to the center of the mind, Center of the mind (The mind, the mind).

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