Offsets - Voting with your Actions
is to compensate
, or to
negative side effects
from over consumption
give something in
that was used in
order to sustain
, and to avoid
. Offsetting is a
to do what is
. We must
not force other people
suffer from or disrespectful actions that cause damage. And we must not be
short term gains
that steal from future generations.
You Vote around 100 times Everyday
Everything that you do in life has an effect on the world, and
every action that you take
is a vote for something, whether that something is good, bad, right or
or just plain stupid.
You have to understand what you are
really voting for
. Everything that we do is
cause and effect
. Everyone needs to fully understand the
the benefits of our actions. We have to make our votes count
. And if we
all vote together, we can change the world. But if we only
, then we're not voting, we're only
ignorant process that fools people into believing that we live in a
. This is far from the truth. We need to stop giving away the
responsibility for life to other people, this doesn't work, as everyone
can clearly see today, we have a lot of problems, problems that we can
solve if we work together
, vote together, and
share life's responsibilities
An average American makes around 35,000 decisions
and a child makes about 3,000 decisions a day. These
decisions range from the mundane, like what color shirt to wear, to the
important, whether to eat healthy or exercise. About 226.7 of decisions
are about food alone. In the last three decades, the number of products in
the average supermarket increased from an average of nearly 9,000 to
almost 47,000, according to the Food Marketing Institute, a trade group.
This is not just about
. This is more about waste, abuse, corruption, and unsustainable
practices that is
our earth and killing life on our planet, which in
turn is abusing the health, liberty's and freedoms of people who
live now and the future
generations of people that will follow. There's just too much
going around that confuses and distracts the public about the
facts. We need to logically inform and educate the public. We
should be preparing people for the changes our world will endure
instead of wasting time blaming who is at fault. The more time
we waste, and the more propaganda
will only guarantee more suffering and more damage.
"Stupidity is not Sustainable" "Think Globally, Act Locally"
If we all choose together to live healthier
lives, and live cleaner
lives, and live more sustainable
life will eventually be less expensive and more affordable for everyone. So
it's about making better choices and making logical decisions.
So call it whatever you want. Call it green living or environmentally friendly
living, or green ideas, or
, or low impact living, or
just learning to reduce waste
. It all adds up to progress and continuous improvements in the quality of
life for everyone. Support the good things in
, support good choices, support good advancements and support good technology. And at
the same time, work on ways for stopping the bad things in life, things
that cause us to make bad choices and
bad decisions, and things that create bad behaviors
Don't support bad things or look the other way
Actions to Reduce your Footprint
Lower Waste and Dependence
- Ocean Clean
Environmental Education Reduce
Green Building Ideas
Green Building Products
Alternate Fuel Cars
- Natural BurialFood
Green Energy Choices
Extended Producer Responsibility
is a strategy to add all of the
associated with a
product throughout the product life cycle to the market price of that
product. Extended producer responsibility legislation is a driving force
behind the adoption of remanufacturing initiatives because it "focuses on
the end-of-use treatment
of consumer products and
has the primary aim to increase the amount and degree of product recovery
and to minimize the environmental impact of waste materials".
Support EPR Laws
will not work without also improving our methods
of educating the public
about better choices and better options.
Choices and options that would ultimately give people more
control over their own destiny, and more control over their quality of life.
The Cost of Doing Nothing
Ignorance is this worlds biggest killer
. People think that
because they have money
that they have the right to waste and
abuse people, time and resources. This thinking is not just
but this type of selfish
and puts everyone
around you at risk
Lowering my carbon count
, or human footprint, has many benefits then just lowering
. I save money, I don't pollute the earth
that much, I produce less waste and I'm definitely a lot healthier.
These are just a few of the things that I have changed in my
lifestyle. These are not major changes or sacrifices either,
it's just being little more aware and respectful to the
environment and to the future generations that will hopefully
enjoy this planet as much as I have. So above are just some of
my eco-initiatives to make me more eco-conscious, eco-friendly
and also help my frugality. I'm a conscience consumer and sometimes
. When people become
more aware of what carbon
they can use to naturalize their negative impact on
the planet then everyone can make a difference without giving up their
freedom of choice. Of course choosing actions that do not have a negative
impact will save the time and energy of having to seek out a carbon
offset, thus making this process obsolete. My Votes
Low Carbon Hub
is a social enterprise that’s out to prove we can meet our energy needs in
a way that’s good for people and good for the planet.
community-owned renewable energy installations across Oxfordshire that not
only produce clean energy but accelerates the transition to the zero
carbon energy system we need for the future, providing electricity, heat
and a clean transport system, all powered by renewables.
"Another factor in maintaining
balance involves the element of time. As we peer into society's
future, we – you and I, and our government – must avoid the
impulse to live only for today, plundering for, for our own ease
and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow. We cannot
mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without asking
the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage. We want
democracy to survive for all generations to come, not to become
the insolvent phantom of tomorrow."
Dwight D. Eisenhower
On Jan. 17, 1961.
I know that a lot of my efforts are being neutralized by other peoples
negative actions. That's why I do multiple things. Not only do I treat the
diseases and threats, I also work on the cure and long term goals. I'm not
only responsible for my local surroundings, I'm also responsible for the
entire planet, the entire system as a whole.
Everything is connected
as long as you know where the connections are the strongest and where the
connections are the weakest. You need to maintain the strong connections
while improving the weak connections. Live, Learn, Love and
Progress...Let's get on with this.
Environmental Quotes and Sayings
Votes - Choices - Options
You don't need to have your own car or bike, you can just share one.
I gave up my car in June 2008. I either
ask for a Ride, Car Pool, Borrow a Car, Rent a Car,
, Shuttle Van,
, or other
. When I ride my bike I'm voting for
. I'm voting for better health. I'm voting for less noise and
traffic. I'm voting to stop murder by oil. I'm voting for life. (86% of
American workers drive to work).
policy to demolish freeways and create mixed-use urban
areas, parks, residential, commercial, or other land uses. Such highway
removal is often part of a policy to promote smart growth,
transit-oriented development, walkable and bicycle-friendly cities
some cases freeways are retained as less intrusive and expansive
boulevards, retained as freeways within tunnels beneath a city, or
relocated through less densely-developed areas.
Demand Responsive Transport
is flexible routing and
scheduling of small/medium vehicles operating in shared-ride mode between
pick-up and drop-off locations according to passengers needs.
When you need a Ride there are many alternatives, but that depends on where you live.
Shared Transport Car Pooling
Bla Bla Car
Trusted carpooling Connecting people who need to travel with
drivers who have empty seats.
5 million rides
In China, on Didi, the ride-sharing platform, 11 million
rides taken every day.
rideshare matching and
Driver to Drive Your Car.
Rent a Car
by the Hour.
phone’s GPS to offer a personal parking valet in crowded cities.
Researchers at MIT
just 3,000 four-person cars could serve 98 percent of the demand
currently being met by almost 14,000 taxis.
How many taxis does a city need?
A taxi dispatching approach could cut
the number of cars on the road while meeting rider demand.
Fleet of autonomous 3-D printed boats could service cities to reduce road traffic
is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short
periods of time, often by the hour. They are attractive to customers who
make only occasional use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like
occasional access to a vehicle of a different type than they use
day-to-day. The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business
or the users may be organized as a company, public agency, cooperative, or
ad hoc grouping. Carsharing services are available in over 1,000 cities in
Condo complexes, businesses and apartments can group
Peer-to-Peer Car Sharing
is the process whereby existing car owners make their vehicles
available for others to rent for short periods of time. Peer-to-peer
carsharing is a form of person-to-person lending or collaborative
consumption, as part of the sharing economy. The business model is closely
aligned with traditional car clubs such as Streetcar or Zipcar, but
replaces a typical fleet with a ‘virtual’ fleet made up of vehicles from
participating owners. With peer-to-peer carsharing, participating car
owners are able to charge a fee to rent out their vehicles when they are
not using them. Participating renters can access nearby and affordable
vehicles and pay only for the time they need to use them.
Auto Insurance for Personal Vehicle Sharing
AB 1871 Bill
- Liability, Collision and Comprehensive Coverage Policy, with a
deductible. Supplemental Liability Protection will pay for damage you do
to others’ vehicles or property. A typical limit is $1 million. If you
have no auto insurance (for example, if you don’t own a car), you should
buy this. Credit cards often provide coverage for rental cars, assuming
you have used the card to pay for the rental and the rental is in your
name. You’ll automatically have this coverage if it’s included with your
credit card — no need to call or sign forms. But it is secondary coverage,
meaning your own auto insurance policy will pay out first. Call your
credit card issuer to confirm the details. Personal Accident Insurance
covers medical costs for you and your passengers if you’re involved in an
accident. This includes ambulance, medical care and death benefits.
Loss-Damage Waiver (LDW), also called a collision damage waiver (CDW),
gets you off the hook for any damage to the rental vehicle or theft of the
car. It’s technically not insurance but rather a waiver that says the
rental car company won’t come after you.
How to start your own car Sharing Program
Electric Car-Sharing Service begins in
. 1,000 of its cars, and 2,000 charging points (spread out
over 500 stations) in Singapore by 2020.
Car 2 Go
Rent a Car from Someone Nearby
Youth Transit Alliance
Personal Vehicle Sharing
Monitor Car Driving and Location
are websites that are also good for finding car shares.
has already been deployed in 20 countries across
Asia-Paciﬁc, Middle-East, North America and Europe. Carries up to 15
passengers, access ramp for wheelchairs, fixed or on demand routes, 45 mph
Concept - CES 2018 - Self Driving Vans
There are also people and
that will pay you to
someone's car from point A to point B
Bicycle Sharing System
is a service in which bicycles are
made available for shared
use to individuals on a very short term basis.
Bike share schemes allow people to borrow a bike from point "A" and return
it at point "B". Many bike-share systems offer subscriptions that make the
first 30–45 minutes of use either free or very inexpensive, encouraging
use as transportation. This allows each bike to serve several users per
day. In most bike-share cities, casual riding over several hours or days
is better served by bicycle rental than by bike-share. For many systems,
smartphone mapping apps show nearby stations with available bikes and open
docks. List of Bicycle Sharing Systems
Every apartment complex and every condo complex should have its own Bikes to
bike-share service. At $2 for 30 minutes.
lets you rent a convenient, easy-to-use electric assist bike provided by JUMP using
your Uber app.
world's First & Largest Smart Bike Share.
Dockless Bike Share
does not require a docking station. With dockless
systems, bicycles can be parked within a defined district at a bike rack
or along the sidewalk. Dockless bikes can be located and unlocked using a
smartphone app.Gobee bike
conveniently locate a Gobee bike near you and ride to a destination of
your choosing – completely unshackled dockless bikes.
Mass Destruction' Of Dockless Bikes In France
Lime BikeDonkey Bike
24/7 Bike Rental - Find a bike near you and unlock with your
Bike Share Everywhere
25 Best Bike Share Programs In The World
Citi Bike 101
Bike Sharing Info-Graph
Rent a Bike
If you do use a car get regular tune-ups and properly
inflate the tires.
Same for bikes.
Sixty percent of Americans
live in areas with
. Health effects from air pollution include
changes in lung function, coughing, heart attacks, lung cancer
and premature death.
Maximizing Bike-Share Ridership: New research says it's all about location
10% increase in bike-availability levels increases ridership by 12%.
"You can make a choice, but sometimes you don't have a
choice until someone gives you a choice."
refers to a range of small, lightweight vehicles operating at
speeds typically below 25 km/h (15 mph) and driven by users personally.
Micromobility devices include bicycles, Ebikes, electric scooters,
electric skateboards, shared bicycles, and electric pedal assisted (pedelec)
bicycles. Initial definitions set the primary condition for inclusion in
the category of micromobility to be a gross vehicle weight of less than
500 kilograms (1,100 lb). However, the definition has evolved to exclude
devices with internal combustion engines and those with top speeds above
45 kilometres (28 mi)/h.
You don't need cable TV
have no Cable TV or Satellite TV Service since August 2007.
(Cord Cutter) I connect my
to my 50 inch screen TV using a
, which makes
the picture high definition quality. A
Digital Subscriber Line
, or DSL high speed
connection provides all my
and so much more. I
only see and read things that interest me with a lot
I also have a lot more to choose from and it's
always on my
which makes it very convenient. This
saves me money on the electric bill and saves me a lot of time
that would normally be wasted watching TV. The only down side is
that sometimes I can't watch certain live sports broadcasts so I
go to a sports bar or visit my friends house who is still paying
for cable. So it's not a TV anymore it's called a
is the best source to connect to.
In 2013 the average time Americans spend with digital media each day will
surpass traditional TV viewing time
- News Links
Energy Saving Tools
Internet Connections and Tips
Disable My Cable
I use the
to do things digitally that saves a lot of money,
time, resources and reduces waste. Electronic
- Jet Book
- E Books
. - American Consumer Institute
has calculated the world will save roughly 1 BILLION tons of
carbon in the next ten years by operating on the Internet.
Buy, Sell or Rent Used Text Books
Pay it Green
- Eco Geek
Saving Screen Savers
Bike Powered Generator
How To Info, Dictionaries, Research,
Health & More
If printing, using the
with its thinner strokes can reduce ink consumption.
3: Conserve Energy - Reduce Waste
Lower the heat
and wear a sweater and thick socks in the winter
months. Use extra Blankets.
- Energy Conservation
Open the windows more in the summer months and use a
to Stay Cool
Green Building Products
Green Building Ideas
Green Ideas Info-Graph
Turn off Electronic Power Siphons
by using a power strip with a on and off switch.
They are also known as Phantom loads, standby power or vampire
power. These are devices that still consume electricity while
they are turned off or in
which is also called vampire power, vampire draw, phantom load, ghost load
or leaking electricity ("phantom load" and "leaking electricity" are
defined technical terms with other meanings, adopted for this different
purpose), refers to the way electric power consumed by electronic and
electrical appliances while they are switched off (but are designed to
draw some power) or in a standby mode.
Calculating the Cost of Standby Features
. To calculate the annual cost
of an energy vampire, you need to know a few pieces of information: An
estimate of the standby power consumed by that device. An estimate of the
amount of time that the device remains in standby mode.
Your electrical cost per kilowatt hour (kWh)
Energy Saving Power StripHome Energy
Electricity Usage Monitor
Use appliances that are
use less energy then plasmas.
Ink jet printers
tend to be more energy-efficient than laser
full uses less energy.
Powered Concert Stages
light bulbs and turn off lights and
when not in use. -
Put PC into
when not in use. Saves energy and extends
the life of the PC. -
I also Host my Website on servers that are Powered by 100% Wind
Wash clothes in
water instead of hot
. Also try to buy eco friendly clothing that
cotton or other
I don't wash my clothes as much as I use to. No need to wash
clothes when they're not dirty or smelly.
Stain Removal 101
Recycle old Clothes you're not wearing anymore or not using.
The average American will still trash 81 pounds of unwanted
garments this year, that's 26 Billion Pounds of Clothing a Year,
which equals 26 billion pounds of textiles annually added to
Bluejeans Go Green
Us it Again
Drop Off Locations
Bamboo is also soft and dries faster, and
it's a renewable resource. Soy fabric is warm, biodegradable,
and resists bacteria.
Cotton into Rayon
Air dry dishes instead
of heat drying dishes when using the dishwasher
. When using
Natural Dishwashing Liquid
. I noticed the sponge never gets
that horrible odor that it gets from those name brand
the same dish, bowl and utensils and just wash them after each
use. I use to be an idiot and keep using other plates and
utensils till I filled the dishwasher, now I never use the
I use only cold water when washing the dishes.
4: Conserve Water
Don't run the water when brushing your teeth
. Leaky faucets wastes
about 3,000 gallons of water a year. Depending on the type of
shower head, taking a four-minute shower instead of an
eight-minute shower could also save almost 10 gallons of water.
Water Conservation Technologies
Clean Water Rights
Use natural Cleaners -
Toilet or Bidet
Dishwashers or Hand Washing Dishes
Use old soap slivers in a
Hand Soap Dispenser
or in a
Loofah Soap Pouch
or use it to make new
In the US alone, over 10 million trees and 21 billion
gallons of water are consumed each year to create paper receipts. "I tell
stores not to print my receipt or I have them send it to my e-mail
5: Food - Healthy - Sustainable - Organic
I'm trying to eat only organic food and locally grown food. Locally
organic grown foods
have less impact on the environment and also help
who care more about the health of people and
the health of the land then a lot of these big farms.
I eat less
and high fatty foods too. Meat eaters contribute seven
times more greenhouse gas emissions then
have shown red meat requires 28 times more land to produce than
pork or chicken, needs 11 times more water, and results in five
times more emissions. Meat lovers’
cause double the
climate-warming emissions. It takes just
441 gallons of water
to produce one pound of boneless beef—or about
110 gallons for a quarter-pound hamburger.
Food for Thought app tallies the nutritional data and
footprint associated with each food item and with the overall
meal, such as the amount of calories in a salad and the amount
of water that would be used in growing the lettuce.
Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters,
vegetarians and vegans in the UK
Organic Food Info
Organic Consumers Association
Organic Grain Quinoa
Organic We Trust
Organic Consumer Safety
Lesser Evil Snacks
No genetically modified ingredients, No refined sugars, No refined salt,
No antibiotics and or hormones, No preservatives, No artificial flavors or
colors, No hydrogenated oils, No meat products (only lacto-ovo vegetarian
or vegan)* Only Organic Dairy.
(wild foods) -
Wilderness Family Naturals
Green Micro Gym
Eat This, Not That!
Growing your own food
can help lower the food bill and also help you eat more healthy.
Eating Healthy, Exercising and Sleeping Well are also very important.
City Garden Tips
says the average 600-square-foot
garden costs $70 to plant (24.5 feet by 24.5 feet), and produces
about 300 pounds of fresh produce that's worth around $600.
That's a $530 return on your investment.
Earth Box Garden Kit
- Portable Stoves
When cooking on a
use the right size burner to match the size of the
covered so the heat setting doesn't have to be that
on a stove can sometimes use less
energy then a
Cooking large batches of food saves
energy because it takes less energy to reheat leftovers then
cooking a meal from scratch.
Soaking your pasta in a bowl of water for an hour before dinner
will reduce boiling pasta time to almost 1 minute.
Food Waste - Wasted Food
American Supermarkets are throwing away
nearly two million
tons of fresh food
every year, 30% of our food, the same for the
UK, enough food to feed over 10 million people a year. The true cost of this
is passed on to customers in prices
and the environment in landfill
, while the supermarkets' profits continue to soar.
30 percent of the U.S. food supply goes to
— 133 billion pounds of
it every year, equivalent to $161 billion. 1,249 calories per day for each
and every American. That's 62 percent of the recommended 2,000-calorie
adult daily diet. 45 percent of all food
happens in the home.
consumes around 10 per cent more food than it needs
, while almost nine
per cent is thrown away or left to spoil.
Food Waste Info-Graph
(leftover harvest farm food)
Misunderstanding Food Date Labels linked with Higher Food Discards
Confusion about when to worry about food safety is widespread.
The Coronavirus Pandemic
waged a silent war across the country. Because of the lack of planning
and preparations, American farmers were forced to pour out milk, crush eggs, toss fresh fruits and
vegetables, euthanize livestock and plow under perfectly robust crops.
Meanwhile, financially beleaguered Americans are lining up at
food banks in unprecedented numbers, humanitarian leaders fear a global
starvation pandemic is burgeoning, and grocery store shelves are sparsely
filled. In Maryland, Delaware farms to destroy 2M chickens due to plant
A large portion of our food is now produced for restaurants,
hotels, schools, and institutional users, about 50 percent
A lot of the food supply chain was built to supply commercial
and retail foodservice outlets. So the need to quickly repurpose
production practices and distribution systems in the space of a
few weeks is absolutely necessary.
Supermarkets lost about $15 billion annually in unsold fruits and
vegetables alone, and throw away, on average, 12 percent of
produce and 7 percent of meat and poultry.
French Law Forbids Food Waste by Supermarkets Since 2016
. France has
become the first country in the world to ban supermarkets from throwing
away or destroying unsold food. Forcing them instead to donate it to
charities and food banks. Of the 7.1m tonnes of food wasted in France
annually, 67% is binned by consumers, 15% by restaurants and 11% by shops.
Each year 1.3bn tonnes of food are wasted worldwide.
French Food Waste Law Changing How Grocery Stores Approach Excess Food
French supermarkets must donate to food banks by law. Americans waste some
200 billion pounds of food a year. That's enough to fill up the
90,000-seat Rose Bowl stadium every day.
saving wasted food from stores.
About 40 percent of food in the United States today goes uneaten.
average American consumer wastes 10 times as
much food as someone in Southeast Asia — up 50 percent from Americans in
the 1970's. Yet, 1 in 6 Americans doesn't have
enough to eat, says the U.S. Department of Agriculture. And food waste
costs us about $165 billion a year and sucks up
25 percent of our freshwater supply.
Farmers Dumping Milk
, Even as
People Go Hungry?
farmers have no distribution network to sell their food — even
though many others would want it.
People Dying from Over Eating while People are Starving
Food waste is the largest source of municipal solid waste in the
U.S. and the most destructive type of household waste in terms
of greenhouse gas emissions, the researchers report.
More than 1 billion metric tons of food is lost or wasted each
, never making it from the farm to fork. The energy we put
into growing this food that nobody ever eats contributes 3.3
billion metric tons of annual carbon dioxide every year. Food
too expensive to be purchased will rot in the warehouse. Food
too unprofitable to harvest will be lost in the field. Food loss
at the production and distribution level accounts for two-thirds
of global food waste in a world where
more than 800 million people are chronically hungry.
is a temperature-controlled supply chain. -
A Third of the World’s Food is being Wasted.
The Food Loss
and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard (or FLW Standard)
is a global standard that provides requirements and guidance for
quantifying and reporting on the weight of food and/or
associated inedible parts removed from the food supply
chain—commonly referred to as “food loss and waste” (FLW).
Roughly 133 billion pounds of food go uneaten each year in the
., according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Eat It: A Food Waste Story
people live on nothing but discarded food.
Reducing Household Food Waste
. Researchers employed a values-based
intervention in an attempt to reduce household food waste in 53 families
in the Phoenix area. In the United States, where food is relatively easy
to come by for most of the population, roughly $165 billion worth of it is
wasted every year. That's enough to fill 730 college football stadiums.
And of the food that is wasted, the majority of it is at the household
level. if you can show people how much they're wasting and what that means
in terms of dollars and cents or lost opportunities for their kids to eat
nutritious fruits and vegetables, then you have put value back in the
food, and that could potentially drive down food waste.
that Help Reduce Food Waste
Food-app Reduces Food Waste
App for Food Waste
Food Recovery Network
DC Central Kitchen
Pare Up App
Stop Wasting Food movement Denmark
Waste No Food
ZERA Food Recycler
turn today’s food scraps into tomorrow’s fertilizer, within 24 hours.
Food Share Filter
We the Feedies
Call or text WhatsApp us on 99625 18992 , and someone will pick it up.
enables millions of growers in this country to
donate excess garden produce to a local food pantry.
Be alerted when your food expires and know when food
should be used up.
before your food expires. Food Preserving Knowledge
uses mobile technology to safely route surplus food from
wholesalers and restaurants to food banks and soup kitchens
instead of landfills.
view the available leftovers around you, make your selection,
and arrange for pick-up or delivery.
scan barcodes or enter manually to keep track of what
you have at home. Get reminders for expiry dates.
can help consumers use food while at peak quality
and reduce waste. The storage times listed are intended as
useful guidelines and are not hard-and-fast rules. Some foods
may deteriorate more quickly while others may last longer than
suggested. The times will vary depending on the growing
Green Egg Shopper
Reduce food waste by never missing 'Use
by' dates. A comprehensive shopping list app with solid built in
features to let users manage shopping lists, reduce food waste,
watch expenses, and avoid overbuying. Helps save MONEY, FOOD,
and ENVIRONMENT in 3 simple steps.
Denmark opens first Food Waste Supermarket selling surplus produce
Looking at Food Waste
Feeding The StarvingFood Stamps
Food for Thought
Half the Food from Farm to Fork is
...Food industry loses 8% in Production, Trucking Wastes
4%, Grocery Stores Waste 6%, Restaurants Waste 15% and Homes Throw
Commercial Food Waste Ban
About 40% of the planet's crops currently are fed to animals
, so if we eat less meat, we
will have more food.
California caterers, hotels and
throw out roughly 1.5 million tons of perfectly good
food. Restaurants dump tens of
thousands of tons of edible food every
year. The vast majority of California's 90,000 restaurants and eateries do not participate in
Food Donation Programs
520,000 tons of food waste is generated annually in Connecticut
Tonight with John Oliver: Food Waste (HBO)
food movement? Maybe garbage-to-plate dining
Manhattan restaurant Blue Hill, chef Dan Barber is turning food
waste into cuisine.
collectively reduce food waste at scale.
Food Shift Movement
Donating Food are Protected from law Suites under the Food
offer legal protection to people who give
reasonable assistance to those who are, or who they believe to be,
injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated.
Child Nutrition Act
signed on October 11, 1966,
helps meet the nutritional needs of children
Fighting Hunger Incentive Act of 2014
provided an enhanced
tax deduction for businesses that donated their food inventory to
The average American throws away 33 pounds of food each month
Households waste up to a third of food bought.
Reuters Food and Agriculture Summit
Farmers can lose some 30%-40% by weight of all food grown.
Millions of tons of fruit and vegetables rot in fields and
orchards or are plowed over each year.
Waste to Energy
Some foods from harvesting are thrown away just because of appearance and
size. Food Waste
The average person needs to eat around 700 lbs. of food a year.
reports that Americans throw away 96 billion pounds of food
every year, or 263 million pounds a day. Break it down even
further, and you've got 11 million pounds of food trashed every
hour, or a ton and a half each second.
Food Hate Waste
USDA and EPA Join with Private Sector, Charitable Organizations
to Set Nation's First Food Waste Reduction Goals
Make Food Last Longer when Storing
Food Expiration Dates
A study found that up to 30% of
vegetables in the UK were not harvested because of their
. The report also found that between 30% and
50% of the four billion tonnes of food produced around the world
each year went to waste.
It suggested that half the food bought in Europe and the US was
thrown away. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers said the
waste was being caused by poor storage, strict sell-by dates,
bulk offers and consumer fussiness, poor engineering and
agricultural practices, inadequate transport and storage
infrastructure through to supermarkets demanding cosmetically
perfect foodstuffs and encouraging consumers to overbuy through
buy-one-get-one-free offers. The report also found that huge
amounts of water, totaling 550 billion cubic metres, were being
used to grow crops that were never eaten.
Water for food
could reach 10 to 13 trillion cubic metres a year by 2050.
Stuart: Global Food Waste Scandal
- A Story of Excess
End Food Waste
Inside the 1.3 billion tons of food
wasted every year worldwide is 45 trillion gallons of water, and
Meat, of course, requires more water in its production than any
America could Feed 800 Million People from the Grain that
Livestock Eat Factory
The contribution of food waste to global and European nitrogen
Europeans throw away 90 million tons
of food each year costing $130 billion every year. 40 tons of
food have been given away via the network
Cutting food waste by a quarter would
mean enough food for everyone, says UN
With the global population rising, wastage of products including
45% of all fruit and vegetables and 20% of meat is one of the
greatest challenges to achieving food security. Each year 1.3bn
tonnes of food, about a third of all that is produced, is
wasted, including about 45% of all fruit and vegetables, 35% of
fish and seafood, 30% of cereals, 20% of dairy products and 20%
of meat. Meanwhile, 795 million people suffer from severe
The environmental impact of food
loss and waste is high.
The carbon footprint
of food produced and not eaten is estimated
at 3.3 gigatonnes of CO2
, meaning that if food waste were a
country it would rank as the third highest national emitter of
greenhouse gases after the US and China. About 1.4bn hectares,
or close to 30% of available agricultural land, is used to grow
or farm food that is subsequently wasted. And more surface and
groundwater, or “blue water”, is used to produce wasted food
around the globe than is used for agriculture by any single
country, including India and China. -
To Cut Food Waste, Spain's Solidarity Fridge Supplies Endless
communal refrigerator shared by citizens in
of almost any variety have flesh high in fiber and beta
carotene. Their seeds, delicious when toasted or baked, can be
rich in vitamin B-12, potassium and protein. The problem is that
people didn't eat the vast majority of the 1.91 billion pounds
of pumpkins grown in the U.S. in 2014. Instead of throwing away
in landfills, they make great livestock feed. You
can also donate your
local farmer's market, or compost them yourself.
Food waste also comes from people who
eat food, but do nothing important with the energy produced by
Like eating food but doing nothing
except watching TV shows that don't benefit you or anyone else.
Like eating food and then polluting the earth.
Like eating food and doing things that indirectly kill
people. If you knew that you were going to kill someone, why did
you eat first? That's food waste. It's like
eating the last meal
before being executed, what's the
point, the last thing you should be doing is putting things in
your head and in your heart, and not putting things in your mouth.
People are also eating more food then they need, thus
1.9 Billion People are Over Weight and Obsess
. Most foods we
don't need, too much salt, sugar, bad fats and cholesterol, and
highly processed foods with low nutritional value.
"No need to tell your kids anymore to finish their
vegetables because kids are
starving in Africa
, which was an ignorant and humiliating
statement to begin with, it's better to state the facts, tell
them they are not just wasting food, they are in fact wasting
all the time, people, energy, water and resources that went into
making this food available for you to eat, so
you are not just wasting food, you are wasting life. So if you
are not hungry now then please save it for later, and please
never forget, if you want to make the most out of what life
gives you, then don't waste the opportunity that millions of
people have given you, and please don't waste all the things
that mother earth provides for us, this is everyone's
Eleven months is the average age of an
apple in a grocery store in the United States.
This is because of cold storage where they can control
temperature, gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) and
humidity; All kept at specified levels. Apples take in oxygen
and give off carbon dioxide as starches in the flesh change to
sugar. In sealed CA rooms, this respiratory process reduces the
oxygen level to slow the ripening process. Temperature is around
32 to 36 degrees Fahrenheit. Humidity is maintained at 95
percent. Exact conditions in the rooms are set according to the
fruit variety. Fruit picked too early will not store well in CA
nor will those that are picked past their proper maturity.
(CA storage) -
Cold storage warehouse fails to protect workers from hazardous
is organic matter that has been decomposed and
recycled as a Fertilizer
amendment. Compost is a key
ingredient in Organic Farming
is the disintegration of materials by
, or other
biological means. Biodegradable is distinct in meaning from compostable.
means that a
product can be consumed by
Compostable means that an
object can easily break down under composting conditions.
is something that is capable
of being decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms so that it can
be safely reused by the earths soil without leaving any
- Plastic Waste
Naturally degradable bioplastics with new route to PHAs chemical catalysis
for an existing class of biomaterials
Decomposer are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms,
and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition.
Decomposition is the process by which
organic substances are
broken down into much simpler forms of
matter. The process is
essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical
space in the biome. Bodies of living organisms begin to
decompose shortly after death. Animals, such as
worms, also help
decompose the organic materials. Organisms that do this are
known as decomposers. Although no two organisms decompose in the
same way, they all undergo the same sequential stages of
decomposition. One can differentiate abiotic from biotic
decomposition (biodegradation). The former means "degradation of a
substance by chemical or physical processes, e.g., hydrolysis. The latter
means "the metabolic breakdown of materials into simpler components by
living organisms", typically by microorganisms.
Chemical Decomposition is the separation of a single chemical compound
into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds. Chemical
decomposition is usually regarded and defined as the exact opposite of
chemical synthesis. In short, the
chemical reaction in which two or more products are formed from a single
reactant is called a decomposition reaction.
Microbiology of Decomposition is the study of all
fungi) involved in
decomposition, the chemical and physical processes during which
organic matter is broken down and reduced to
its original elements. Decomposition microbiology can be divided between
two fields of interest: Decomposition of plant materials; Decomposition of
cadavers and carcasses.
is waste which is neither chemically nor biologically reactive and
will not decompose
. Examples of this are
sand and concrete. This has particular relevance to landfills as inert
waste typically requires lower disposal fees than biodegradable waste or
. This type of
waste coagulates in the environment and can cause
, much like filling up of areas, but they are also
relatively less harmful than plastics as they don't give out harmful
residues after hundreds of years.
is a layer of material applied to the surface of an
area of soil to conserve moisture, to improve the fertility and
health of the soil, to reduce weed growth, to enhance the visual
appeal of the area.
is an accumulation
of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter. It is unique to natural
areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
is a genus of approximately 380 accepted species of mosses, commonly known
as "peat moss
". Accumulations of Sphagnum
can store water, since both living and dead plants can hold large
quantities of water inside their cells; plants may hold 16–26 times as
much water as their dry weight, depending on the species. The empty cells
help retain water in drier conditions. Hence, as sphagnum moss grows, it
can slowly spread into drier conditions, forming larger mires, both raised
bogs and blanket bogs. These peat accumulations then provide habitat for a
wide array of peatland plants, including sedges and ericaceous shrubs, as
well as orchids and carnivorous plants. Sphagnum and the peat formed from
it do not decay readily because of the phenolic compounds embedded in the
moss's cell walls. In addition, bogs, like all wetlands, develop anaerobic
soil conditions, which produces slower anaerobic decay rather than aerobic
microbial action. Peat moss can also acidify its surroundings by taking up
cations, such as calcium and magnesium, and releasing hydrogen ions. Under
the right conditions, peat can accumulate to a depth of many meters.
Different species of Sphagnum have different tolerance limits for flooding
and pH, so any one peatland may have a number of different Sphagnum
species. Individual peat moss plants consist of a main stem, with tightly
arranged clusters of branch fascicles usually consisting of two or three
spreading branches and two to four hanging branches. The top of the plant,
or capitulum, has compact clusters of young branches. Along the stem are
scattered leaves of various shapes, named stem leaves; the shape varies
according to species. The leaves consist of two kinds of cells; small,
green, living cells (chlorophyllose cells), and large, clear, structural,
dead cells (hyaline cells). The latter have the large water-holding
is a holistic, ecological, and ethical approach to
farming, gardening, food, and nutrition.
Waste to Energy
- Biogas System for
Home Energy Supply
Upcycled manure may ignite new sustainable fertilizing trend
Judiciously decomposing organic matter from 700 degrees Fahrenheit to
1,200 degrees F, without oxygen -- a process known as pyrolysis -- and
retaining nutrients from dairy lagoons can transform manure into a
manageable, ecologically friendly biochar fertilizer, according to new
research. Cow manure -- a longtime agricultural waste headache for dairy
farmers -- soon may ignite a new sustainable fertilizing trend.
Avoid Common Composting Mistakes
Organic Land Care
(Backyard Trench Composting)
people who wish to recycle their kitchen scraps or
with their neighbors who are
already composting, worm-farming or keep chickens. Now you can divert
waste from landfill while getting to know the people around you!
Residential Compost Collection Program
Composting turning Food Waste into Fuel and Plastic
instead of burying it in a landfill
produces far less methane.
High-Tech Electronics Made from Autumn Leaves
. New process converts
this organic biomass waste matter into a porous carbon material that can
be used to produce high-tech electronics. The dried leaves were first
ground into a powder, then heated to 220 degrees Celsius for 12 hours.
This produced a powder composed of tiny carbon microspheres. These
microspheres were then treated with a solution of potassium hydroxide and
heated by increasing the temperature in a series of jumps from 450 to 800
C. The chemical treatment corrodes the surface of the carbon microspheres,
making them extremely porous. The final product, a black carbon powder,
has a very high surface area due to the presence of many tiny pores that
have been chemically etched on the surface of the microspheres. The high
surface area gives the final product its extraordinary electrical
Human Body Composting
invertebrates are likely to contribute to the decomposition process.
Together with bacteria, fungi, and other microbes, these organisms make up
a complex food web or energy pyramid with primary, secondary, and tertiary
(organisms that eat secondary consumers). centipedes, predatory mites,
rove beetles, fomicid ants,
(organisms that eat primary consumers).
springtails, some types of mites, feather-winged beetles
protozoa, rotifera, soil flatworms.
(organisms that eat organic residues). bacteria, fungi,
actinomycetes, nematodes, some types of mites, snails, slugs, earthworms,
millipedes, sowbugs, whiteworms.
leaves, grass clippings, other plant debris, food scraps,
fecal matter and animal bodies including those of soil invertebrates.
is a euphemism for human feces collected at night
from cesspools, privies, etc. and sometimes used as a
fertilizer. Another definition is "untreated excreta transported
without water (e.g. via containers or buckets)" -
ready-to-use, homemade fertilizer
describes several forms of treated sewage sludge
that is intended for agricultural use as a soil conditioner.
Although sewage sludge has long been used in agriculture.
7: The Power of "RE"
Recycle - Reclaim - Recover
- Reshape - Rework -
- Reevaluate -
- Recombination -
- Refuse and Remove unsustainable
Products and Services.
. Don't waste
You are free to choose, but you are not free from the
of your choice....
What every consumer needs to know....
is the evaluation
of processes that
alongside resource and
to least favorable actions. The hierarchy establishes preferred program
based on sustainability
. To be
sustainable, waste management
cannot be solved only with technical
end-of-pipe solutions and an integrated approach is necessary.
means reducing, reusing,
recycling, and composting
nothing going to landfill or incineration
is the process of
converting waste materials
reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce
the consumption of fresh raw materials,
, air pollution (from
incineration) and water pollution
landfilling) by decreasing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and
lowering greenhouse gas emissions compared to plastic production.
Recycling is a key component of modern waste
and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse and Recycle" waste hierarchy.
Recycling needs to be Government funded because a
will not make much
money from recycling, even knowing that the benefits of recycling far out
way the cost of not recycling
. Important and
activities sometimes need
to be subsidized
ships more than 30 large containers six days a week from
Recycle Central to paper mills, glass plants, and other manufacturers that
purchase specific recycled materials.
San Francisco’s Transfer Station
Closed Loop Recycling
protects the quality loss for new product rather
than the reduced functionality. Also, closed loop recycling system
contains various benefits that reduces the engagements of original
materials and protect the environment. The closed recycling loop is formed
by collecting recyclable materials, transforming into a new product and
arranging the waste back into consumer circulation. It extracted
post-consumer waste or byproduct of other process then recycles these
items and produces into new products, such as recycling magazine or
newspapers to produce other types of paper or paper-board. It also ensures
the recyclable resources are valuable and they are able to be recycled and
re-purposed into the same products. Closed loop recycling system is a
concept that certain recycling
measures to maintain the materials
are useful as long as possible and reduce the burdens of the environment.
It means the materials can be recycled
indefinitely with no degradation of quality and properties
major condition allows the recyclable product conversion of the same
product as pre-consumer. The most suitable materials of closed loop
recycling are aluminum, glass and plastic as they will not lose the
quality during the recycling and reproducing process. Furthermore,
biodegradable disposal is another phase of closed loop recycling system
that unrecyclable materials and byproduct which is useless in production
will be break down into natural materials return to the environment
without pollution and deleterious impacts. Closed loop recycling technique
is repeatedly recycling and reusing materials instead of down cycling, its
process is to maintain material engaged in a loop arrangement to support a
circular economy. Recycling and reusing throughout the whole process
rather than used only once and turned into waste. The principles of the
process are collection, manufacturing and supplying, and the collection
phase is to divert and gather recyclable materials to support the
operation of the process.
Companies should be fined or
penalized for using packaging that can not be recycled or is too difficult to recycle.
Circular Economy is an economic system aimed at minimizing waste and
making the most of resources. In a circular system resource input and
waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimized by slowing, closing, and
narrowing energy and material loops; this can be achieved through
long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing,
refurbishing, and recycling. This regenerative approach is in contrast to
the traditional linear economy, which has a 'take, make, dispose' model of
production. Proponents of the circular economy suggest that a sustainable
world does not mean a drop in the quality of life for consumers, and can
be achieved without loss of revenue or extra costs for manufacturers. The
argument is that circular business models can be as profitable as linear
models, allowing us to keep enjoying similar products and services.
Upcycling also known as creative reuse, is the process of
transforming by-products, waste materials, useless, or unwanted products
into new materials or products of better quality or for better
Downcycling is the process of converting waste materials or
useless products into new materials or products of lesser quality and
reduced functionality. Downcycling aims to prevent wasting potentially
useful materials, reduce consumption of fresh raw materials, energy usage,
air pollution and water pollution. Its goals are also lowering greenhouse
gas emissions (though re-use of tainted toxic chemicals for other purposes
can have the opposite effect) as compared to virgin production. A clear
example of downcycling is plastic recycling, which turns the material into lower grade plastics.
All Garbage should have a
deposit-return system that would
give incentive to recycle all garbage
and to force manufactures to make recyclable materials that can be returned for a fee.
Consumers recycle more when they think about how their waste can be
transformed into new products.
Single-Stream Recycling refers to a system in which all paper fibers,
plastics, metals, and other containers are mixed in a collection truck,
instead of being sorted by the depositor into separate commodities
(newspaper, paperboard, corrugated fiberboard, plastic, glass, etc.) and
handled separately throughout the collection process. In single-stream,
both the collection and processing systems are designed to handle this
fully commingled mixture of recyclables, with materials being separated
for reuse at a materials recovery facility (MRF). The single-stream option
replaces the dual-stream option, which is where people separate certain
recyclable materials and place them in separate containers for collection.
Waste Sorting is the process by which waste is separated
into different elements. Waste sorting can occur manually at the household
and collected through curbside collection schemes, or automatically
separated in materials recovery facilities or mechanical biological
treatment systems. Hand Sorting was the first method used in the history
of waste sorting.
Sorting Recyclable Materials
contamination. Everyone should know the recycling rules in their area.
- Home - Building Recycling
recycling when non-recyclables are placed in the wrong recycling bin or
container. Contamination can include anything from food waste to plastic
bags. Different recycling systems allow for different materials to be
recycled and consider different materials as contaminants.
When Good Intentions Have Harsh
Consequences. When communities fail to educate the members of their
community, then community members will make costly mistakes that will
erode the system and do more harm than good.
Only about one-tenth of all solid garbage in the United States
Only 5.7% of all plastics are recycled every year.
the U.S. was exporting almost 700,000 tons of
trash a year to China alone
. Overall, China imported 7 million tons
of waste from around the world.
is a service provided to households, typically in
urban and suburban areas of collecting and disposing of household waste
and recyclables. It is usually accomplished by personnel using purpose
built vehicles to pick up household waste in containers acceptable to or
prescribed by the municipality.
Materials Recovery Facility
is a specialized plant that receives,
separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user
manufacturers. Generally, there are two different types: clean and dirty materials recovery facilities.
How Sweden is
turning its waste into gold
(youtube) - Sweden recycles nearly all of
its waste with only 1% of its waste going to Landfills. And the waste that
is not recycled gets incinerated to produce electricity and heating.
Solid Waste Recycling Facts
Municipal Solid Waste
is a waste type consisting of
that are discarded by the
" can also refer specifically to
, as in a garbage disposal; the two are
sometimes collected separately.
72% of Americans do not know plastics are made from petroleum
and 40% believe petroleum plastics will biodegrade at some
point. (Insight Marketing and ADM study, April 27, 2007).
Singularity University Student Projects - UpCycle (youtube)
10% of U.S. oil consumption - approximately 2 million barrels a
day - is used to make plastic.
(Insight Marketing and ADM study, April 27, 2007)
Plastic does not biodegrade, but instead goes through the
process of photo degradation, where it turns into plastic dust.
Agalita Foundation for Marine Research)
The Future of Business on Earth(youtube)
Disposable Item Time in Months to Biodegrade:
Recyclable products when composted properly: 2-3
months. Cotton Rags: 1-5 months. Paper: 2-5 months. Rope: 3-14
months. Orange peels: 6 months. Cigarette butts: 12-144
months. Paper milk cartons (plastic coated): 60 months. Plastic bags: 120-240
months. Leather shoes: 300-480
months. Nylon fabric: 360-480
months. Tin cans: 600-1,200
months. Plastic 6-pack holder rings: 5,400
months. Glass bottles: 12 million
months (that means you can use the same
glass your entire life, and then pass it on to future
generations). Plastic bottles: Forever. List above is from
and Hazardous Waste - Biodegradation
In the U.S., 4.39 pounds of trash per day and up to 56 tons of
trash per year are created by the average person. Every year we fill enough garbage trucks to form a line that
would stretch from the earth, halfway to the moon. Each day the United States throws away enough trash to fill
63,000 garbage trucks. Almost 1/3 of the waste generated in the U.S. is packaging.
Disposable diapers take centuries to biodegrade. The average
baby soils about 8,000 of them before toilet training kicks in,
adds up to 3.7 million tons of municipal waste each year, up
from 350,000 tons in 1970. That means that 2.3 percent of
landfill waste in the U.S. is diapers.
Americans throw away 2.5 million plastic bottles every hour.
Garbage Patch -
Commodification (wiki) - Every year, Americans make enough plastic film to shrink-wrap
the state of Texas. Americans throw away enough aluminum cans to rebuild our
commercial air fleet every three months, and enough iron and
steel to supply all our nation's automakers every day.
Throwing away one aluminum can wastes as much energy as if that
can were 1/2 full of gasoline. In the U.S., an additional 5 million tons of waste is generated
during the holidays. Four million tons of this is wrapping paper
and shopping bags.
Americans receive almost 4 million tons of junk mail every
year. Most of it winds up in landfills.
Americans toss out enough paper and plastic cups, forks and
spoons every year to circle the equator 300 times.
The average American office worker goes through around 500
disposable cups every year. Nearly 44 million American workers purchase or eat lunch out every weekday.
As of 1992, 14 billion pounds of trash were dumped into ocean annually around the world.
Forty-three thousand tons of food is thrown out in the United States each day.
Sixty-five billion aluminum soda cans are used each year.
In 40 years, less than 10% of
plastic has ever been recycled. Oil and gas companies
who are the makers of plastic, have known that all along, even as they spent millions of dollars telling
the American public the opposite, as way to fend
off plastic bans and to keep its sales growing at the cost of peoples lives
and the environment. Their own internal records dating back to the 1970s
show that industry officials long knew that recycling plastic on a large
scale was going to reduce their profits. The industry now
produces many more different and more complex
kinds of plastics that are more costly to sort,
and in many cases, can't be recycled at all.
Efforts to reduce plastic consumption are mounting nationwide, but any
plan to slow the growth of plastic will face an industry with billions of
dollars of future profits at stake. For
decades, Americans have been sorting their trash believing that most
plastic could be recycled. But the truth is, the vast majority of all
plastic produced can't be or won't be recycled. Plastic production overall
is now expected to triple by 2050, and once again, the industry is
spending money on ads and public relations to promote plastic and
recycling. If the public thinks the recycling
is working, then they're not going to be as concerned about the environment.
Repurpose is to reuse something for a different
altering something to make it more suited for a different purpose.
Adapt for use in a different
Creativity - Positive Thinking.
is the process by which an object with one use value is transformed or
redeployed as an object with an alternative use value. This kind of
activity is as old as human civilization.
Rehash is old
material that is slightly reworked and used again.
Present or use over, with no or few changes. Go back
Adapting is to
change and modify oneself to new or different
conditions. Make fit for, or change to suit a new
Adaptation is to enhance the fitness and survival of
individuals by adapting, learning and changing to ones environment.
external changes occur.
is the different operation
types that a machine can perform.
Material handling flexibility
ability to move the products within a manufacturing facility.
is the ability to produce a product in different ways.
is the set of products that the
is the ability to add new products in the system.
is the different routes (through machines and
workshops) that can be used to produce a product in the system.
is the ease to profitably increase or decrease the output of an
existing system. At firm level, it is the ability of a firm to operate
profitably at different output levels. Firms often use volume flexibility
as a benchmark to assess their performance vis-à-vis their competitors.
is the ability to build out the capacity of a system.
is the ability to run a system automatically.
is the number of products a system currently can
is the ability of the system to adapt to market demands.
is to use an item again after it has been used. This
includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same
function, and creative reuse where it is used for a different function.
Some of the world’s biggest companies, including Unilever, Nestlé, and
PepsiCo, are rolling out reusable packaging for certain products in an
attempt to phase out single-use plastics — and to alleviate their own
reputations as polluters.
is manufactured of
is specifically designed for multiple trips and extended life. A reusable
package or container is “designed for reuse without impairment of its
is any type of packaging that allows the consumer or user to
reseal or reclose the packaging. Often packaging needs to be resealed in
order to maintain product freshness or prevent spillage. Reusable
packaging allows for multiple uses which can help
is the use of existing assets
in some form
of a particular process, like within the software product
process. Assets are products and by-products of the software
life cycle and include
, software components, test suites,
designs and documentation. Leverage is modifying existing assets as needed to
meet specific system requirements. Because reuse implies the creation of a
separately maintained version of the assets needed, it is preferred over leverage.
are the simplest form of reuse. A chunk of code is regularly
. Proponents claim that
offer a more advanced form of reusability, although it
has been tough to objectively measure and define levels or scores of
The ability to reuse relies in an essential way on the ability to build
larger things from smaller parts, and being able to identify
among those parts. Reusability is often a required
software. Reusability brings several aspects to
that do not need to be considered when reusability is
not required. Reusability implies some explicit management of
issues. If these issues are not considered, software may appear to be reusable
point of view, but will not be reused in practice. Software reusability more specifically refers to design features of a
software element (or collection of software elements) that enhance its
suitability for reuse. Many reuse design principles were developed at the WISR workshops. Candidate design features for software reuse include:
, Brief: small size,
, Localization of volatile (changeable
design assumptions (David
, Simple: low
Consensus has not yet been reached on this list on the relative importance of
the entries nor on the issues which make each one important for a particular
class of applications.
is a product or service that is
freely interchangeable with another in satisfying an obligation. Freely
exchangeable for or replaceable by another of like nature or kind in the
satisfaction of an obligation or purpose
is to add a component or
accessory to something that did not have it when manufactured.
refers to the addition of new technology or features to
older systems. Power plant retrofit, improving power plant efficiency /
increasing output / reducing emissions. Home energy retrofit, the
improving of existing buildings with energy efficiency equipment. Seismic
retrofit, the process of strengthening older buildings in order to make
them earthquake resistant. Benefits of a retrofit: Saving on investments
while benefiting from new technologies. Optimization of existing plant
components. Adaptation of the plant for new or changed products. Increase
in piece number and cycle time. Guaranteed spare parts availability.
(Replacement and Modernization - R&M)
the process of devising a unique method
solving a problem
due to lack of time or
resources. In a technical context, this can mean adapting a device for
some use other than that which it was designed for, or building a device
from unusual components in an ad-hoc fashion. Improvisation in engineering
is to solve a problem with the tools and materials immediately at hand.
refers to the market for any used goods or assets, or
an alternative use for an existing product or asset where the customer base is the second market.
(wiki). New improved parts.
is a process of elimination that involves
the amount of waste produced
in society and helps to eliminate the
generation of harmful and persistent wastes
, supporting the efforts to
promote a more sustainable society
redesigning products and/or changing societal patterns, concerning
consumption and production, of waste generation, to prevent the creation
of waste. Moderation
Recycling Hotline Earth 911
EPA Disposing Appliances Responsibly
Recycling InfoMemory X
Ferris Wheel Recycling Center
exchange of plastic for money.
to Recycle -
Money Saving Ideas
Recycle 4 U
Recycling Facts and Figures
Reusable Surplus Building Materials
Make a Home Foundation
Repurposed Materials Inc
i Recycle Phone App Locates recycling places nearby
I use a pay as you go
Saves money and lowers the risk of brain tumors and
low sperm count
Product Stewardship Safely Disposing of Hazardous Products
Converting packing peanuts to battery components
Reverse Vending Recycling Machines
Grinder! Red Giant Eats a Car in Under 2 Minutes
Giving furniture a second life with IKEA
tyres into Reclaimed Steel, Diesel Oil and Carbon.
Electronic Waste - e-waste
Recycle old Electronic Devices
Buy and Sell old
of Electronics (2010)
Fixing Old Electronics
E-Waste Electronics Recycling NYC Gadget Trash
Electronics Reuse Conference
discovers new techniques for
refurbishing and recycling electronics efficiently and cost
Pulling valuable metals from e-waste makes financial sense
The most toxic
place on earth - Agbogbloshie
(youtube) - More than 6,000 people live
on Africa's most toxic
tip, people whose fate begins on our doorstep. In Europe and the USA, the
commodity Mafia smuggles containers full of used electrical appliances
through customs and in doing so, earns a huge share in a billion-dollar
business: trade with resources and illegal scrap. Broken computers,
televisions or refrigerators arrive in
harbours on a daily basis. They are stripped bare in
and burned. The copper that they peel out of burning
cables is worth no more than a few cents for the children of Agbogbloshie
E-Waste Global Graphic
Safer Disposal of Printed Circuit Boards
that are composed of 30% metallic and 70% nonmetallic particles. Metallic components can be recovered from crushed circuit boards by
magnetic and high-voltage electrostatic separations, leaving behind
nonmetallic particles including resins, reinforcing materials,
brominated flame retardants
and other additives. Scientists have linked compounds in brominated flame
retardants to endocrine disorders and fetal tissue damage.
Biodegradable displays for sustainable electronics
Functioning of the display is based on the so-called
electrochromic effect of the initial organic material. When voltage is
applied, light absorption is modified and the material changes its color.
Electrochromic displays have a low energy consumption and simple component
architecture compared to commercially available displays, such as LED,
LCD, and E-paper. Another advantage is that these displays can be produced
by inkjet printing in a customized, inexpensive, and material-efficient
way. Moreover, this process is suited for scaling with a high throughput.
The materials used mainly are of natural origin or biocompatible. Sealing
with gelatine makes the display adhesive and flexible, such that it can be
worn directly on the skin.
Compostable Electronics for Printing
Degradable Electronic Components created from Corn Starch
Poly(lactic acid)/Metal-Organic Framework Nanocomposites Exhibiting Good
Mechanical, Flame Retardant, and Dielectric Properties for the Fabrication
of Disposable Electronics.
Fully Recyclable Printed Electronics developed
. New technique reclaims
nearly 100% of all-carbon-based
while retaining future functionality of the materials.
Engineers have developed fully recyclable printed electronics. By
demonstrating a crucial and relatively complex computer component -- the
transistor -- created with three carbon-based inks, the researchers hope
to inspire a new generation of recyclable electronics to help fight the
growing global epidemic of electronic waste.
Revolution electronics recycling company
that specializes in the reuse
and recycling of
e-waste across Canada
or e-waste recycling is the disassembly and
separation of components and raw materials of waste electronics. Although
the procedures of re-use, donation and repair are not strictly recycling,
they are other common sustainable ways to dispose of IT waste.
Breakthrough in Dissolving Electronics Holds Promise for Biomedicine
Researchers develop 3-D-printed biomaterials that degrade on demand
The waste from discarded electronic
gadgets and appliances has increased by two-thirds in East Asia over five
years since 2012, posing a growing threat to health and the environment
unless proper disposal becomes the norm. The United Nations University
biggest culprit with its electronic waste more than doubling.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive
is the European
Community Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic
equipment (WEEE) which, together with the RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU,
became European Law in February 2003. The WEEE Directive set collection,
recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods, with a
minimum rate of 4 kilograms per head of population per annum recovered for
recycling by 2009. The RoHS Directive set restrictions upon European
manufacturers as to the material content of new electronic equipment
placed on the market. The symbol adopted by the European Council to
represent waste electrical and electronic equipment comprises a
crossed-out wheelie bin with or without a single black line underneath the
symbol. The black line indicates that goods have been placed on the market
after 2005, when the Directive came into force. Goods without the black
line were manufactured between 2002 and 2005. In such instances, these are
treated as "historic WEEE" and fall outside reimbursement via producer
Researchers looked at the
of a mobile phone and found
that in the United Kingdom alone, there are 85 million unused phones
sitting around, containing $170 million worth of gold among their internal
parts. For every 1 million cell phones that are recycled, 35,274 pounds of
copper, 772 pounds of silver, 75 pounds of gold, and 33 pounds of
palladium can be recovered. But we’re only recycling 8 percent of our
aims to develop smartphones that are designed and produced
with minimal environmental impact.
your Cell Phone
The End of Ownership
(VPRO Backlight, 47:52)
- Planned Obsolescence
Make sure that the
electronic recycling company you're using is not sending
to foreign countries.
About 50 million
tons of electronic waste were
generated worldwide in 2012
, that number could grow to 65.4
million tons of e-waste by 2017, with the majority of the waste
in the world coming from manufacturing and production. Basel
tracked electronic waste donated to recycling centers
in the U.S., and found out that 40 percent of it ended up in dumps in Hong
Environmentally friendly way of extracting gold from waste electronics has
been discovered by Scottish based chemists
. (youtube) (7% Gold, 300 tons).
Mail - Junk Mail
system for physically transporting
postcards, letters, and parcels. Postal
can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on
. Since the mid-19th century, national postal systems have
generally been established as a government monopoly, with a fee on the
article prepaid. Proof of payment is usually in the form of an adhesive
postage stamp, but a postage meter is also used for bulk mailing. Modern
private postal systems are distinguished from national postal agencies by
the terms "courier" or "delivery service". Postal authorities often have
functions aside transporting letters. In some countries, a postal,
telegraph and telephone (PTT) service oversees the postal system, in
addition to telephone and telegraph systems. Some countries' postal
systems allow for savings accounts and handle applications for passports.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU), established in 1874, includes 192 member
countries and sets the rules for international mail exchanges.
List of National Postal Services
USPS: Last Week
Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act
requires the United States
Postal Service to make annual payments of between $5.4 billion and $5.8
billion to the Postal Service Retiree Health Benefits Fund from 2007 to
2016. This provision of the law has been highly controversial, as no other
federal agency is required to pre-fund future retirees' health benefits in
this manner. The consequences of this funding requirement have been blamed
for the perilous financial condition of the Postal Service, but no
consensus has been reached on its fiscal effects, given other contributors
such as stiff competition and other economic circumstances. In June 2011,
the United States Postal Service had to suspend its weekly payment of $115
million into the fund because it had reached $8 billion in debt and the
retirement plan had a surplus of $6.9 billion.
Postal Regulatory Commission
is an independent regulatory agency created by the Postal Reorganization
Act of 1970. Like the Postal Service, it was defined in law as an
independent establishment of the executive branch. The Postal
Reorganization Act of 1970 created the PRC—originally named the Postal
Rate Commission—to set the rates for different classes of mail by holding
hearings on rates proposed by the USPS. From 1970 through 2006, the PRC
also had oversight authority over the USPS in areas besides rates changes.
Specifically, that additional oversight consisted of conducting public,
on-the-record hearings concerning proposed mail classification or major
service changes and of recommending actions to be taken by the postal
1.7 Million Packages are stolen or go missing
every day, adding up to more than $25 million in lost goods and
90,000 Packages Disappear Daily in N.Y.C.
Express Mail is an expedited mail delivery service for which the
customer pays a premium for faster delivery. Express mail is a service for
domestic and international mail, and is in most nations governed by the
country's own postal administration. Since 1999, the international express
delivery services are governed by the EMS Cooperative.
Universal Postal Union was established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874,
is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal
policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
The UPU contains four bodies consisting of the Congress, the Council of
Administration (CA), the Postal Operations Council (POC) and the
International Bureau (IB). It also oversees the Telematics and Express
Mail Service (EMS) cooperatives. Each member agrees to the same terms for
conducting international postal duties. The UPU's headquarters are located
in Bern, Switzerland.
"No Free Papers or
Tell your mail carrier to stop putting
junk mail in your mail box. Place this note on or in your
Junk Mail Stoppers
Get Rid of Junk Mail (wikihow)
Postal Service by the Numbers
Post No Bills refers to many city laws
which forbid the posting of handbills, or any type of signs on public or
Ban the Phonebook and save 5 million trees each year.
(19 billion catalogs = 53 million trees 56 billion gallons of waste
Do Not Call (spam emails)
Donate Magazines -
Opt Out Prescreen
- Direct Marketing
Some Postal Service Workers when delivering the
mail put the mail letters in the mailbox so that the letters fall out when
you open the mail box. What kind of
scumbag would do that? They're mad because I ask them not to give me
unsolicited mail. So they think that they
have a right to be a scumbag because I don't want waste and abuse. Ignorance.
Postal workers are being abused and they are taking it out on people. They
need to improve training and add
education knowledge as part of the
Postal is an American English slang phrase referring to becoming
extremely and uncontrollably angry, often to the point of violence, and
usually in a workplace environment.
List of Postal Killings (wiki)
is the deliberate killing or attempted killing by a soldier of a fellow
soldier, usually a superior officer or non-commissioned officer (NCO).
All that garbage that comes in the
Junk Mail should be a crime. People should not be allowed to
use peoples time and use our resources to send people something
in the mail they don't need. What a waste of paper to spend it
on useless information. And the news-papers are not any better.
News-Papers have about 10%
useful information, with the other 90% is of the information
being irrelevant. This garbage and waste should not be forced on
people. It's disrespectful to waste resources and it's
disrespectful to waste peoples time with
especially when some images are degrading to humans on several
levels. All printed media should be 90% useful information. And
the other 10% should be clearly labeled as irrelevant
information. This would increase everyone's knowledge about
their community and offer everyone a chance to communicate
important information. When people are more informed about their
surroundings, the surroundings will always improve because they
are now more aware of the possibilities. That's just natural, so
why are we acting so unnatural?
Save the Post Office (but not the
scumbag workers who make them look bad).
Landfills - Waste
is a person employed by a public or private enterprise to collect and
remove refuse (waste) and recyclables from residential, commercial,
industrial or other collection site for further processing and disposal.
Disposal is all the activities and actions required to
from its inception to its final disposal.
Have Garbage Days
With the underground containers found in most neighborhoods in Amsterdam.
Landfills is a site for the disposal of
burial and the oldest form of waste treatment (although the burial part is
modern; historically, refuse was just left in piles or thrown into pits).
Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized
waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Also known
as dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground.
There is No Away. When you through
something away it does not mean that it goes away. In reality, you
your problem or trash to someone else. And what they do with that
waste may do more damage then it needs to. So your waste will
eventually come back to haunt you and cause a disease that you will die
from. So don't transfer
problems, learn how to solve problems so that you or anyone else has
to deal with that problem ever again. The U.S. produces more than 250
million tons of waste per year—30 percent of the world’s waste, though it
makes up only 4 percent of the Earth’s population
- Water Waste
E04: Los Angeles (youtube)
Hazardous Waste is waste that has
substantial or potential
threats to public health or the environment. Characteristic hazardous
wastes are materials that are known or tested to exhibit one or more of
the following hazardous traits: Ignitability, Reactivity, Corrosivity and
Toxicity. Listed hazardous wastes are materials specifically listed by
regulatory authorities as hazardous wastes which are from non-specific
sources, specific sources, or discarded chemical products. Hazardous
wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids,
or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot
be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday
lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and
solidification processes might be required.
Municipal Solid Waste commonly known as Trash
or Garbage in the United States and
in Britain, is a
waste type consisting of everyday items that are
discarded by the public. "Garbage" can also refer specifically to food
waste, as in a garbage disposal; the two are sometimes collected
separately. In the European Union, the semantic definition is 'mixed
municipal waste,' given waste code 20 03 01 in the European Waste Catalog.
Although the waste may originate from a number of sources that has nothing
to do with a municipality, the traditional role of municipalities in
collecting and managing these kinds of waste have produced the particular
By-Product is a secondary product derived from a production process,
manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is not the primary product
or service being produced.
Joint Product is a product that results jointly with other products
from processing a common input. A joint product can be the output of a
process with fixed or variable proportions.
Waste Management are the activities and actions required to manage
waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the
collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with
monitoring and regulation of the waste management process. Waste can be
solid, liquid, or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal
and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including
industrial, biological and household. In some cases, waste can pose a
threat to human health. Waste is produced by human activity, for example,
the extraction and processing of raw materials. Waste management is
intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the
environment or aesthetics. Waste management practices are not uniform
among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and
rural areas), and residential and industrial sectors can all take
different approaches. A large portion of waste management practices deal
with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is
created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.
Waste Hierarchy The evaluation of processes that protect the
environment alongside resource and energy consumption to most favorable
to least favorable actions. The hierarchy establishes preferred program
priorities based on sustainability. To be sustainable, waste management
cannot be solved only with technical end-of-pipe solutions and an
integrated approach is necessary. The waste management hierarchy indicates
an order of preference for action to reduce and manage waste, and is
usually presented diagrammatically in the form of a pyramid. The hierarchy
captures the progression of a material or product through successive
stages of waste management, and represents the latter part of the
life-cycle for each product. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract
the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum
amount of waste. The proper application of the waste hierarchy can have
several benefits. It can help prevent emissions of greenhouse gases,
reduces pollutants, save energy, conserves resources, create jobs and
stimulate the development of green technologies.
Max-AI Waste Sorting Robot
Safe and Sustainable Recycling -
is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic
substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other
high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal
treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash,
flue gas and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents
of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried
by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate
pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases,
the heat generated by incineration can be used to
generate electric power.
Nations Generate 1.3 Billion Tons of Waste. That’s expected to
soar to 4 billion tons by 2100.
Seventy percent of U.S. municipal solid waste gets buried in
108,234 tons of waste per day is
Landfills continue to dwindle in number. In 1979, there were an
estimated 18,500 landfills in the nation. In 1988, there were
8000 landfills, in 2005 there were 1,654. (EPA figures)
3 million working refrigerators are thrown away annually in the U.S.
1.5 computers are thrown away annually, with
90% still working. Electronics Recycling.
1.5 Million Tires are Dumped Every Year.
residents are charged for the collection of municipal solid waste—ordinary
household trash—based on the amount they throw away. This creates a direct
economic incentive to recycle more and to generate less waste. residents
pay for waste collection through property taxes or a fixed fee, regardless
of how much—or how little—trash they generate. Pay-As-You-throw (PAYT)
breaks with tradition by treating trash services just like electricity,
gas, and other utilities. Households pay a variable rate depending on the
amount of service they use. (Pay-As-You-Throw is also known as unit
pricing or variable-rate pricing). So wealthy people will still be abusive
because they ignorantly believe they can afford to be wasteful morons,
poor people will be taxed even more
Instead of educating people, we just regulate their
ignorance that is caused by an
ignorant school system.
Destructive Distillation is the chemical process involving the
decomposition of feedstock by heating it to a high temperature; the term
generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air
or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents,
catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols. It is an application of
pyrolysis. The process breaks up or 'cracks' large molecules. Coke, coal
gas, gas carbon, coal tar, Buckminsterfullerene, ammonia liquor, and "coal
oil" historically, are examples of commercial products of the destructive
distillation of coal.
plant India - waste plastic and used tires to fuel (youtube)
Is Trashing Italy (video)
Dioxin are compounds that are highly
toxic environmental persistent
organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly by-products of various
industrial processes - or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part of
intentionally produced mixtures.
Each American exerts three times as much pressure on the
natural environment as the global average.
America is home to 5% of the world's population, yet it
consumes 1/3 of the Earth's timber and paper; making paper the
largest part of the waste stream at 37.5% of the total waste
Packaging adds 29 million tons of non-biodegradable waste to
landfills every year. 11.8% of all US annual municipal solid
waste is plastic.
American Creates 4.5 pounds of Trash per Day.
Activist Wears A
Month's Worth Of Trash To Visualize Our Wasteful Habits (youtube)
Trash Me with Rob Greenfield.
Air Council - Waste to Energy
- Plastic Waste
The Crayon Initiative
Every year, up to 75,000 pounds of crayons get thrown away by
restaurants and schools.
We are Swimming in Garbage, a tsunami of waste that is
poisoning the land, the air, the water and the animals we eat.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)—more commonly known as trash or
garbage—consists of everyday items we use and then throw away,
such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing,
bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and
batteries. This comes from our homes, schools, hospitals, and
Pollution (toxins - poison)
Landfill Diversion is the process of diverting waste from
landfills. The success of landfill diversion can be measured by comparison
of the size of the landfill from one year to the next. If the landfill
grows minimally or remains the same, then policies covering landfill
diversion are successful. For example, currently in the United States
there are 3000 landfills. A measure of the success of landfill diversion
would be if that number remains the same or is reduced. In 2009, it was
recorded that the national average of landfill diversion in the United
States was 33.8%, while San Francisco had implemented the most effective
policies and had recorded a landfill diversion rate of 77%. By diverting
landfills we can preserve our natural resources.
Americans Generated about 251 Million
Tons of Trash in 2012.
The average person generates 4.3 pounds of waste per day.
Approximately 55% of 220 million tons of waste generated each
year in the United States ends up in one of the over 3,500
Global MSW generation levels are approximately 1.3 billion
tonnes per year, and are expected to increase to
approximately 2.2 billion tonnes per year by 2025. Waste by Country
Municipal Solid Waste (PDF)
town Kamikatsu will be Zero waste by 2020,
No Trash. At the moment they have 34 categories of recycling.
80% of there waste gets reused, recycled and composted, and only
20% goes to landfill.
Use recyclable paper
products and if you have to use
Paper Towels buy the ones that can give smaller pieces.
I never but paper towels anymore. I
use a dish towel,
hanky or cotton dinner napkins
instead of paper towels.
EPA studies indicate the average American
generates about 1,600 pounds of trash per year more than half
goes to a Landfill.
Forest Preservation -
Green Field Paper
Turn your beer bottles into glass cups 5 easy steps
China — more than 520,000 tons of Garbage a day. Incinerators
burning the garbage are well below EU standards, and our technology is
ahead of incinerators in the U.S..The heat from burning garbage at more
than 1,000 degrees Celsius produces enough electricity to power more than
China's pledge to burn 40 percent of its garbage by 2020, because most
incinerators in China are operated by private companies burning garbage at
the equivalent of $3 a ton.
World Bank report, in eight years, the Chinese will throw away nearly
1.4 million tons of garbage per day — twice as much as garbage as
Americans are expected to generate.
Zero Waste Sending nothing to landfill is a foreseeable future.
No Impact Man
No Impact Project
No Impact Film
Neutral Lifestyle with Doug Fine (youtube)
Low Impact Living
Living Trash Free
The average American produces more than four pounds of trash and
recyclables per day, about 1,500 pounds per year.
My first year
of living trash-and recycling-free, I produced a little more
than seven and a half pounds of waste.
Sweden sends less
than 1% of household trash ends up in landfills. This is in part
due to the 32
waste-to-energy (WTE) plants that have been set up across
A cow's flatulence could fill a 55-gallon (250-litre) bag with methane in one day.
Textiles. We’re buying more than
80 billion new items of clothing each year, and
we’re tossing nearly as much to make room for them.
We purchase 400 percent more clothing today than we did 20 years
ago. An estimated 14.3 million tons of textiles were generated
in 2012. The average American tosses 82 pounds of textile waste
each year, which adds up to 11 million tons of the stuff from
our country alone. Textiles aren’t biodegradable, which means
they sit in landfills for at least 200 years. As a result, they
release harmful gases into the air. Clothes
- Sustainable Clothing
is the process of recovering fiber
, yarn or fabric
and reprocessing the textile
into useful products. Textile waste products are gathered from different
sources and are then sorted and processed depending on their condition,
composition, and resale value. The end result of this processing can vary,
from the production of energy and chemicals to new articles of clothing.
Due to a recent trend of over consumption and waste generation in global
fashion culture, textile recycling has become a key focus of worldwide
sustainability efforts. Globalization has led to a "fast
" trend where clothes are considered by many consumers to be
disposable due to their increasingly lower prices. The development of
recycled technology has allowed the textile industry to produce vast
amounts of products that deplete natural resources. Textile recycling
techniques have been developed to cope with this increase of textile waste
and new solutions are still being researched. Recently, certain
have embraced this recycling effort and now publicly advertise products
that are made of recycled textile material in accordance with shifting
Wear Donate Recycle
True Cost Movie
Mountains of Paper Waste could lead to new U.S. Manufacturing Jobs
About 50 million tons of
-- or structural part of a plant -- piles up each year as waste from the
U.S. paper and pulping industry, only about 2 percent of the lignin waste
is currently recycled into new products making carbon fiber material.
Through fractionation, we separated lignin into different parts, and then
we found that certain parts of lignin are very good for high quality
carbon fiber manufacturing "And the entire supply chain is in the United
States, which means the jobs would be here. The biomass is grown,
harvested and transported here.
Plastic Waste Pollution
In the 1960s,
were just becoming popular. Polyethylene, which today is one of the
world's most ubiquitous plastics, had been created in 1898, and then again
in 1933. Since the 1960's, more than half of all that plastic made was
produced after 2005. Plastic production is estimated to triple by 2050.
I never buy
, I use a
reusable water bottle
the water if needed. But if I do have to buy bottled water, I
buy Just Water
is spring water sourced locally that comes in a plant-based carton.
Recycle Your Brita Water Filter Cartridges and Plastic Pitchers
Gimme 5 Locations
People spend 90 billion dollars a year on bottled water
buying bottled water.
If having a party or sport function try having an advertiser
supply reusable water bottles.
Sports Bottle World
are two companies that will print
anything on a reusable water bottle. Americans thrown away 30
billion plastic bottles every year and 30 million everyday.
when food shopping and buying food.
Reuse this Bag
Custom Grocery Bag
Tasini is a foldable reusable bag inside and attached to a keychain
Swap out plastic for reusable and biodegradable straws and cutlery
Europe produces 25 million tons of plastic waste annually with less than
30 percent of it recycled. 2014, Americans wasted about 33.6 million tons
of plastic, approximately only 9 percent of which was recycled
20 Companies Are Behind Half Of The World's Single-Use Plastic Waste,
. In 2019, more than 130 million metric tons of single-use
plastics were thrown away, with most of that waste burned, buried in a
landfill or dumped directly into the ocean or onto land.
Named The World’s Most Polluting Brand … Again
secrets | DW Documentary
Evil Partnerships with
(collusion - sellout).
Americans toss 185 pounds of plastic per person each year while also going
through 13 billion pounds of paper towels as a nation.
US Geological Survey Finds It's Raining Plastic in The Rocky Mountains
It is Raining Plastic
natural alternative to
for food storage. Bee's Wrap is made of GOTS-certified
organic cotton, sustainably sourced beeswax, organic jojoba oil, and tree
resin. This combination of ingredients creates a malleable food wrap that
can be used again and again. Wash your Bee's Wrap in cool water with a
mild dish soap. Beer bottles made of paper
could be a reality soon.
No Plastic Waste
is a polymer discovered in 2019 that
recycled over and over without loss of performance
. Researchers at
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory studied PDK and published the
results of the study in Nature Chemistry in April 2019. Submersion in an
acidic solution breaks down the polymer to its original monomers and
separates the monomers from additives. Replaced static covalent bond with
a dynamic covalent bond
infinitely recyclable material
. Literally 100%
of it can be reclaimed and reshaped
into a new plastic item as many
times as a company could want. The average American generates 220 pounds
of plastic waste each year. A vast majority of it is not recycled, even if
you send it to a recycling facility. Most plastic ends up in a dump.
polyesters produced in nature by numerous microorganisms
through bacterial fermentation
of sugars or
lipids. When produced by bacteria they serve as both a source of energy
and as a carbon store. More than 150 different monomers can be combined
within this family to give materials with extremely different properties.
These plastics are biodegradable
and are used in
the production of bioplastics
. They can be
materials, with melting points ranging from 40 to 180 °C. The mechanical
properties and biocompatibility of PHA can also be changed by blending,
modifying the surface or combining PHA with other polymers, enzymes and
inorganic materials, making it possible for a wider range of applications.
commonly abbreviated PET
, PETE, or the
obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of
the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for
liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination
with glass fibre for engineering resins. It may also be referred to by the brand names Terylene in the UK, Lavsan
in Russia and the former Soviet Union, and Dacron in the US
Bio-PET is the bio-based counterpart of PET.
The majority of the world's PET production is for synthetic fibres (in
excess of 60%), with bottle production accounting for about 30% of global
demand. In the context of textile applications, PET is referred to by its
common name, polyester, whereas the acronym PET is generally used in
relation to packaging. Polyester makes up about 18% of world polymer
production and is the fourth-most-produced polymer after polyethylene
(PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PET consists of polymerized units of the monomer ethylene terephthalate,
with repeating (C10H8O4) units. PET is commonly recycled, and has the
number "1" as its resin identification code (RIC). Depending on its processing and thermal history, polyethylene
terephthalate may exist both as an amorphous (transparent) and as a
semi-crystalline polymer. The semicrystalline material might appear
transparent (particle size less than 500 nm) or opaque and white (particle
size up to a few micrometers) depending on its crystal structure and
particle size. The monomer bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate can be synthesized by the
esterification reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with
water as a byproduct (this is also known as a condensation reaction), or
by transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl
terephthalate (DMT) with methanol as a byproduct. Polymerization is
through a polycondensation reaction of the monomers (done immediately
after esterification/transesterification) with water as the byproduct.
Polyethylene terephthalate (or PET)
New way of Recycling Plant-Based Plastics instead of letting them rot in
Scientists have developed new way to break down plant-based plastics into
their original building blocks, potentially allowing products to be
recycled repeatedly without a loss in the quality of the plastic.
type of bioplastic that is created from agricultural scraps, often from
corn, sugarcane, wheat or food waste. The term 'plant-based' refers to the
source of the material itself, not how the resulting plastic will behave
after it's been thrown away.
are plastic materials produced from renewable biomass
sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips,
sawdust, recycled food waste, etc.
can be made from
agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other
containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel
plastics (also called petrobased polymers) are derived from petroleum or
natural gas. Not all bioplastics are biodegradable nor
than commodity fossil-fuel derived plastics. Bioplastics are
usually derived from sugar derivatives, including starch, cellulose, and
lactic acid. As of 2014, bioplastics represented approximately 0.2% of the
global polymer market (300 million tons).
or Golden Bag or
or Eco-friendly Poly Bag is a
alternative to plastic bags, particularly polythene bags, developed in
Bangladesh by Mubarak Ahmad Khan. The cellulose used in Sonali Bags is
extracted from jute, a major vegetable
grown across the globe.
Made in America
Environmentally-friendly' tableware harms marine animals
also reveals that bioplastics do not degrade rapidly in a marine
It takes 12 Million Barrels of Oil to make 88.5
Half the amount of plastic made since 1950 was manufactured in
the last 13 years.
- War Waste
Hazardous chemicals such as bromine, antimony and lead
their way into food-contact items and other everyday products because
manufacturers are using recycled electrical equipment as a source of black
plastic, according to a new study.
for food storage.
Bulk is Green
Biodegradable Compostable 13 Gallon Tall Kitchen Bags
Biodegradable’ Plastics Are A Big Fat Lie
New Biomaterial could replace Plastic Laminates, greatly Reduce Pollution
Paperboard coated with the biomaterial exhibited strong oil and water
barrier properties. The coating also resisted toluene, heptane and salt
solutions and exhibited improved wet and dry mechanical and water vapor
Scientists have made a next-generation plastic that can be recycled again
and again into new materials of any color, shape, or form
have designed a recyclable plastic that can be disassembled into its
constituent parts at the molecular level, and then reassembled into a
different shape, texture, and color again and again without loss of
performance or quality.
If I could get
and pick up my food in
cut down on trash. -
.There's more than enough plastic on the planet already to make all of our
products for the next century
. We just need to recycle, just like
life does already.
is the process of recovering scrap or
waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products. Since
plastic is non-biodegradable, recycling is a part of global efforts to
reduce plastic in the waste stream, especially the approximately
8 Million Metric Tonnes of waste plastic that
enter the Earth's ocean every year
. This helps to reduce the high
rates of plastic pollution. People around the world use more than a
Trillion Plastic Bags every year
made of a notoriously resilient kind of plastic called
that can take decades to break down. Only 2
the 78 Million Tons of Manufactured Plastics are currently Recycled
into similar products because polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP),
which account for two-thirds of the world's plastics, have different
chemical structures and cannot be efficiently repurposed together. 40
percent of plastics winds up in landfills.
Humans have created
8.3 Billion Metric Tons of Plastics
large-scale production of the synthetic materials began in the early 1950s,
and most of it now resides in landfill and the natural environment. Global
production of plastics increased from 2 million metric tons in 1950 to
over 400 million metric tons in 2015. If current trends continue, roughly
12 billion metric tons of plastic waste will be in landfills or the
natural environment by 2050. 42 percent of plastic goes for packaging.
that strips plastic strings from plastic
bottles that reuses plastic bottles of all kinds, turning them into
convenient universal handy ropes.
down plastic into pellets that can make products and polystyrene into oil.
(mixing recycled plastic when making new roads helps them last
longer with no potholes)
Polymer Additive could Revolutionize Plastics Recycling
Plastic Bottles into Polyester Yarn on "How It's Made"
Neri Oxman: Design at the intersection of technology and biology
(video and text)
is a long-chain polymer of an N-acetylglucosamine, a
derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural
world. It is a characteristic component of the cell walls of fungi, the
exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and
shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, and the beaks and internal
shells of cephalopods, including squid and octopuses and on the scales and
other soft tissues of fish and lissamphibians. The structure of chitin is
comparable to the polysaccharide cellulose, forming crystalline
nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the
protein keratin. Chitin has proved versatile for several medicinal,
industrial and biotechnological purposes.
is a replacement for plastics that is 100 percent recyclable.
Scientists at NUS have developed the world’s first Aerogel made from
. Constructed from old soft-drink bottles, the
aerogel could find useful applications in everything from sound proofing
to oil spills, and could also be a novel way to combat the global plastic
is the transformation of goods, services,
ideas and people into commodities, or objects of trade.
2 Million Die Every Year
around the world from Polluted and Contaminated Water.
estimates that it would take 30 billion dollars
to bring safe
clean drinking water for everyone on the planet.
Tapped the FilmThe Story of Bottled Water
Only 7 Percent of Plastic Waste in the United States is Recycled each Year
Plastic 2 Oil
Bioplastic Created from Shrimp Shells
California Bans Plastic Bags
2011 (video on hulu
- 1 hr. 18 min
Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Our campaign to ban plastic bags in Bali
(video and text).
Oil from Plastic
Transforms Plastic Containers Back Into Oil
Fuel From Plastic Waste
(youtube) - Cynar Plastic Energy Limited.
Roads Made of Recycled Plastic
Billions of pounds of plastic waste are
littering the world's oceans. Now, a Ph.D. organic chemist and a sailboat
captain report that they are developing a process to reuse certain
plastics, transforming them from worthless trash into a valuable diesel
fuel with a small mobile reactor. They envision the technology could
someday be implemented globally on land and possibly placed on boats to
ocean waste plastic into fuel to power the vessels
Millions of tons of plastic waste could be turned into clean fuels, other
. Chemical conversion process could transform
Nineteen National Parks
– from the Grand Canyon to Zion –
have banned the sale of plastic water bottles, replacing them
with refillable bottles and free tap water. In Zion National,
they're eliminating 60,000 bottles a year.
Has Created Six-Pack Holders That Can Be
Eaten By Marine Life.
Plastic Made Annually
30 million tons in the USA, 5 million tons in the UK and 1.5
million tons in Australia.
"Pollution Starts at your Front Door"
Great Pacific Garbage Patch
, has been growing since 1950.
Floating toxic plastic garbage, twice the size of Texas, is
growing in the pacific between California and Hawaii. Garbage Island
OVER 5 TRILLION PIECES OF PLASTIC CURRENTLY LITTER THE OCEAN.
Trash accumulates in 5 ocean garbage patches, the largest one is between
Hawaii and California.
Plastic Paradise: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (2014)
in 90 percent of Seabirds Guts.
Countries that Pollute the Oceans the most
The Trash Stew is 80 Percent Plastic and
Weighs more than 3.5 Million Tons.
Plastic Rain Is the New Acid Rain
. Researchers find that over 1,000
metric tons of microplastic fall on 11 protected areas in the US annually,
equivalent to over 120 million plastic water bottles. Invisible menace is
actually blowing through the air and falling via raindrops: Microplastic
particles, tiny chunks (by definition, less than 5 millimeters long) of
fragmented plastic bottles and microfibers that fray from clothes, all
pollutants that get caught up in Earth’s atmospheric systems and deposited
in the wilderness. After collecting rainwater and air samples for 14
months, they calculated that over 1,000 metric tons of microplastic
particles fall into 11 protected areas in the western US each year. That’s
the equivalent of over 120 million plastic water bottles.
The majority of the plastic in the oceans are micro-plastics, which are consumed by small fish
who are then eaten by the fish that people will eat.
5 Trillion Plastic Pieces
Brain Damage in Fish affected by Plastic Nanoparticles
Microplastics in Rivers
- War Waste
- Synthetic Fibers
Plastic waste Disintegrates into Nano-Sized Particles known as
. The sun's UV rays contribute to the degradation, as do
waves, which cause plastic waste to grind against stones on the water's
edge, against the sea floor or against other debris. Plastic
are a few
millionths of a millimetre, i.e. extremely small particles, so small that
they have been shown to reach far into living organisms' bodies and can
enter the brains of fish and that this causes brain damage which probably
disturbs fish behavior.
are small plastic particles in the
environment. While there is some contention over their size, the U.S.
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration classifies microplastics as
less than 5 mm in diameter. They come from a variety of sources, including
cosmetics, clothing, and industrial processes.
Infants have more microplastics in their feces than adults
Microplastics are tiny plastic pieces less than 5 mm in size, and are
everywhere, from indoor dust to food to bottled water. So it's not
surprising that scientists have detected these particles in the feces of
people and pets. Now, in a small pilot study, researchers have discovered
that infants have higher amounts of one type of microplastic in their
stool than adults. Health effects, if any, are uncertain. Infants ingest
15 times more microplastics than adults, a recent study published in the
American Chemical Society found. Researchers collected data from six
infants and 10 adults and found that the infants had much more
microplastics in their feces as opposed to the adults.
Simulated sunlight reveals how 98% of plastics at sea go missing each year
They found that simulated sunlight increased the amount of dissolved
carbon in the water, making those tiny plastic particles tinier. Trillions
of plastic fragments are afloat at sea, which cause large "garbage
patches" to form in rotating ocean currents called subtropical gyres. As a
result, impacts on ocean life are increasing and affecting organisms from
large mammals to bacteria at the base of the ocean food web. Despite this
immense accumulation of plastics at sea, it only accounts for 1 to 2
percent of plastic debris inputs to the ocean. The fate of this missing
plastic and its impact on marine life remains largely unknown.
Sunlight can break down marine plastic into tens of thousands of chemical
compounds, study finds
. Sunlight was once thought to only fragment
plastics in the marine environment into smaller particles that chemically
resemble the original material and persist forever. However, scientists
more recently have learned that sunlight also chemically transforms
plastic into a suite of polymer-, dissolved-, and gas-phased products.
Marine Scientists find Toxic Bacteria on Microplastics retrieved from
. When these tiny pieces of plastics are ingested by
marine organisms, they may accumulate and be transferred up the food
Scientists find Highest ever Level of Microplastics on Seafloor
Researchers have found the highest levels of microplastic ever recorded on
the seafloor, with up to 1.9 million pieces in a thin layer covering just
one square meter. We discovered that microplastics are not uniformly
distributed across the study area; instead they are distributed by
powerful seafloor currents which concentrate them in certain areas.
Micro-Plastic Particles threaten Fish
. Researchers have found that larval fish exposed
during development displayed changed
behaviors and stunted growth which lead to greatly increased
mortality rates. The researchers discovered that larval perch
that had access to microplastic particles only ate plastic and
ignored their natural food source of free-swimming
Mussels, oysters and scallops have the highest levels of microplastic
contamination among seafood, a new study reveals
. The research -- led
by researchers at Hull York Medical School and the University of Hull --
looked at more than 50 studies between 2014 and 2020 to investigate the
levels of microplastic contamination globally in fish and shellfish.
Plastic is blowing in the wind
. The discovery of microplastics in the
air above the ocean reveals the spread of this hazardous pollution. As the
plastic in our oceans breaks up into smaller and smaller bits without
breaking down chemically, the resulting microplastics are becoming a
serious ecological problem. The researchers detected high levels of common
plastics -- polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene and more.
Food Quality Effects on Zooplankton Growth and Energy Transfer
in Pelagic Freshwater Food Webs
Natural environmental conditions facilitate the uptake of microplastics
into living cells
. The environment is polluted by microplastics
worldwide. A research team has now discovered that microplastic particles
find their way into living cells more easily if they were exposed to
natural aquatic environments, i.e. fresh water and seawater. Biomolecules
occurring in the water are deposited on the microplastic surfaces, which
promote the internalization of the particles into cells.
An estimated 24,000 tons of plastics are
Ingested by Fish in the
North Pacific alone each year.
is consumed as food in virtually all regions
around the world. Fish has been an important source of protein and other
nutrients for humans from time immemorial. In culinary and fishery
contexts, fish may include shellfish, such as molluscs, crustaceans and
echinoderms. English does not distinguish between fish as an animal and
the food prepared from it, as it does with pig vs. pork or cow vs. beef.
Some other languages do, as in the Spanish peces versus pescado. The
modern English word for fish comes from the Old English word fisc (plural:
fiscas) which was pronounced as it is today. English also has the term
seafood, which covers fish found in the seas and oceans as well as other
marine life used as food.
is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Seafood prominently includes fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various
species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Historically, sea
mammals such as whales and dolphins have been consumed as food, though
that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants, such
as some seaweeds and microalgae, are widely eaten as seafood around the
world, especially in Asia (see the category of sea vegetables). In North
America, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood"
is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible
aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. For the sake of completeness,
this article includes all edible aquatic life.
Fisheries and aquaculture support the livelihoods of an
estimated 540 million people
and is the most-traded of food
commodities, worth a record $102 billion in 2008. world
production of fish and fish products rose from 140 million tonnes in 2007 to 145 million tonnes in 2009. Fish contributes
to at least 50 percent of total animal protein intake in some
small island developing states.
15 trillion and 51 trillions pieces of plastic
litters the world’s oceans
, that’s three to 10 times more
plastic than scientists had previously estimated.
Humans leak a staggering 8 million metric tons of plastic into
the ocean each year
, according to research published in Science
Magazine. If our behavior doesn’t change, Ocean Conservancy
says, we’ll double that rate in just 10 years.
China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam are
spewing out as much as 60 percent of the plastic waste that
enters the world’s seas
Wheel Garbage Skimmer
(youtube) - Since May 2014, it has
removed 40 tons of trash from the harbor.
Drone Eats Garbage
Waste Shark Aquadrones in the port of Rotterdam.
scientists Break Down Plastic with Bacteria
, commonly known as a
transformed the plastic into ethylene glycol
, which is commonly used
in antifreeze. The process of biodegrading both beeswax and polyethylene
involves breaking strong carbon bonds bacteria in its gut.
How the oceans can clean themselves: Boyan Slat at TEDxDelft
Robotic Ocean Vacuum
Floating Boom Cleans Ocean
Cerritos Wetlands Stewardship Program
Cleaning the Oceans one Marina at a Time
volunteers cleared nearly five tons of trash from San Diego
beaches this year, nearly a ton
more than last year, organizers said. In 82 cleanups, 6,489
volunteers cleaned 9,544 pounds of trash in 2013, the
organizations stated in a year-end report. That’s 1,950 more
pounds than they collected in 2012.
What if you could turn plastic trash into cash?: David Katz
is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released
in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway. Floating oceanic debris tends to
accumulate at the center of gyres and on coastlines, frequently washing
aground, when it is known as beach litter or tidewrack. Deliberate
disposal of wastes at sea is called ocean dumping. Naturally occurring
debris, such as driftwood, are also present. With the increasing use of
plastic, human influence has become an issue as many types of plastics do
not biodegrade. Waterborne plastic poses a serious threat to fish,
seabirds, marine reptiles, and marine mammals, as well as to boats and
coasts. Dumping, container spillages, litter washed into storm drains and
waterways and wind-blown landfill waste all contribute to this problem. In
efforts to prevent and mediate marine debris and pollutants, laws and
policies have been adopted internationally. Depending on relevance to the
issues and various levels of contribution, some countries have introduced
more specified protection policies.
Beach buoys deployed to detect water contamination
Whale Shaped Floating Garden Cleans the Worlds Rivers
The Ocean Cleanup
Plastic Waste Solutions
Steading Floating Cities
Enzyme that Eats Plastic
. A bacterium that naturally evolved to eat
plastic. About 1m plastic bottles are sold each minute around the globe
and, with just 14% recycled, many end up in the oceans where they have
polluted even the remotest parts, harming marine life and potentially
people who eat seafood.
Plastic-Eating Enzyme PETase can digest plastic up to six times faster
PETase breaks down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) back into its building
blocks, creating an opportunity to recycle plastic infinitely and reduce
plastic pollution and the greenhouse gases driving climate change.
Man-Made Pollutants found in Earth's Deepest Ocean Trenches
- Air Pollution
Structural and functional studies of a Fusarium oxysporum cutinase with
polyethylene terephthalate modification potential
8: Death - Die with Dignity - Ashes to Ashes, Dust to Dust
Dispose of my body with respect to me and
respect to my family and with respect to my friends, and with respect to the
planet and future generations. And when I die, of course I will not
stop being Eco-friendly. I will be buried in an biodegradable
casket in a
year Americans bury enough steal from caskets to build the
golden gate bridge.
The U.S. buries about 90,272 tons of steel caskets, 1.64 million
tons of reinforced concrete vaults and 827,060 gallons of
embalming fluid, talk about waste and abuse, poising the land
and wasting resources is not a good way to honor the dead.
Each year, 2.6 million people die in the United
, and most are buried in a cemetery or cremated, impacting
land use and contributing to climate change. By 2030, estimates say that
70 percent of dead bodies will be cremated nationwide. Some choose it for
the lower cost, while others choose cremation for environmental reasons.
I thought of being
, but why waste
the energy and cause pollution when the worms need to eat too. In India each traditional cremation consumes nearly 900 pounds
of wood. CO2
End of Life
Dissolving the Body:
A Scottish company called
is offering a new way to cremate: using
, also known as water cremation
In the process, a body is placed in a silk bag and loaded into a machine
filled with a mixture of water and potassium hydroxide, set to 356 degrees
Fahrenheit. The chemicals and temperature break down the body into its
chemical components. In 3-4 hours, a family gets back bone ash (similar to
traditional cremation using fire) — and the company says the machine uses
only 1/8 of the energy required for cremation and doesn't emit mercury
into the air.
I want my dead body to become Compost
Urban Death Project
, my final resting
place, recycled, just like life does naturally. Recomposition
Core that will return human nutrients to the ground. Designer Katrina
Spade created the idea for a several-storied building, within city limits,
in which a collective pile of bodies can compost
over time and ultimately
be used as fertilizer. "The living carry loved ones up a ramp, and lay
them into the wood chips," she says. "As the body is transformed, it moves
downward into the core. The living take their energy to start the bodies
of the dead to give new energy through the composted soil." Weeks or
months later, a family could return to take home some of the composted
soil. Urban Death
Project Kickstarter Video
turns Loved ones into
Compost. The decomposition process takes four weeks. The 10-bay recomposition center accommodates one memorial service at a time; allowing
only two services a day, to ensure families won’t feel rushed. Once the
compost is finished, families can pick up some of the soil to take
home—but there’s no guarantee it comes exclusively from their loved one. (Decompiculture).
Could this process keep up with the Death Rate
Composting Livestock Farm Animals
is the community of
with a decaying corpse. The process of decomposition is complex, and aside
from microorganisms such as bacteria, other organisms help to decompose
the cadaver including
, nematodes, and insects as well as larger scavenger animals. The
process of decomposition is fundamental to the cycle of life. As death
ensues, the microbial ecosystem
lived off the living organism collapses and, nourished by the
decomposition, a new and changing microbial ecosystem establishes itself.
It has been noted that there is first a shift from aerobic to anaerobic
bacteria leading to putrefaction and bloating. A shift back to aerobic
occurs in the
abdominal cavity when it gets opened. Bacteria come from the body as well
as the environment. It has been difficult to study the necrobiome as the
vast majority of its bacteria do not grow well in the laboratory
environment. Our understanding of naturally occurring necrobiomes is
further complicated by the fact that different portions of a corpse may be
in different stages of decomposition. However, the ability to apply
advanced sequencing has helped researchers to investigate and monitor the
necrobiome. The composition of the necrobiome appears to change in a
predictable way representing “a microbial clock” —apparently regardless of
season, species, or soil type. The speed of the decomposition is, however,
temperature dependent. It has been suggested that the predictability of
the sequence of changes of the necrobiome may be useful in forensics to
help determine the time of death
I would like to Combine a Natural Burial
or Composting with a Tree.
Poetree Burial Planter
. Maybe a fruit tree?
A fully biodegradable urn designed to convert you into a tree
is the world´s first system designed to help
grow the remains of your
loved ones into trees
Infinity Burial Suit
returns your body to the earth without harming
the environment. Jae Rhim
Lee: Mushroom Burial Suit
is a living product, grown from
the underground fungal network
Everyone should have a mock funeral done by
family and friends, and vise versa. This way everyone can get a glimpse of
how they will be remembered, and also understand all the responsibilities
of a funeral, a memorial and burying a loved one.
Preparing yourself for Death
(how I wish to die)
Home Funeral Alliance
is the practice of burying deceased remains directly
into the soil without the use of contaminating materials such as embalming
chemicals, metal, plastic, and concrete. It currently occurs in small
country cemeteries or church cemeteries across Tennessee. Currently
the average funeral and burial costs about $13,000
with many exceeding $15,000
. In the United States today, more than
800,000 gallons of embalming fluid containing toxic chemicals are buried
in the earth every year—along with 100,000 tons of steel and copper and
1.6 million tons of reinforced concrete vaults. The use of embalming
fluids and concrete vaults that hold coffins are creating permanent damage
to Tennessee’s environment. Natural burial is the palatable alternative–
and even gives those families considering cremating the remains a viable
inexpensive burial solution.
Ramsey Creek preserve in 1998, the first
“green cemetery” in the United States.
Burial at Sea
is the disposal of human remains in the ocean, normally
from a ship or boat. Must be 3 miles from shore and wrapped in a sheet and
tied down with weights like a concrete block that can help form an
artificial reef such as the
Burial Council Steelman Town
is a non-porous bag designed to contain a human body, used for the storage
and transportation of corpses. Body bags can also be used for the storage
of corpses within morgues. Before purpose-made body bags were available,
cotton mattress covers were sometimes used, particularly in combat zones
during the Second World War. If not available, other materials were used
such as bed sheets, blankets, shelter halves, ponchos, sleeping bag
covers, tablecloths, curtains, parachute canopies, tarpaulins, or
discarded canvas—“sealed in a blanket”—slang. However, the subsequent
rubber (and now plastic) body bag designs are much superior, not least
because they prevent leakage of body fluids, which often occurs after
death. The dimensions of a body bag are generally around 36 inches by 90
inches (91 cm by 229 cm). Most have some form of carrying handles, usually
webbing, at each corner and along the edges. In modern warfare, body bags
have been used to contain the bodies of dead soldiers. Disaster agencies
typically have reserves of body bags, both for anticipated wars and
natural disasters. During the Cold War, vast reserves of body bags were
built up in anticipation of millions of fatalities from nuclear war. This
was the subject of Adrian Mitchell's protest poem "Fifteen Million Plastic
Bags". (a body bag is also known as a cadaver pouch or human remains
Bacterial Toxic Remediation
Infinity Burial Project
Order of the Good Death
combines a cremation urn, ash scattering, and burial at sea into
one meaningful, permanent environmental tribute to life. An
Eternal Reef is a designed reef made of environmentally-safe
turns ashes into diamonds and hair into diamonds, a full line of
cremation jewelry, rings, and pendants.
symbolic portion of cremated remains into Earth orbit
Living Headstones with QR Codes
Having a memorial website for your decease doesn't need a
is the combustion, vaporization and oxidation of cadavers to
basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments
retaining the appearance of dry bone. Cremation may serve as a funeral or
post-funeral rite as an alternative to the interment of an intact dead
body in a coffin, casket or shroud. Cremated remains (aka "cremains" or
simply, "ashes"), which do not constitute a health risk, may be buried or
interred in memorial sites or cemeteries, or they may be retained by
relatives and dispersed in various ways. Cremation is not an alternative
to a funeral, but rather an alternative to burial or other forms of
disposal. Some families prefer to have the deceased present at the funeral
with cremation to follow; others prefer that the cremation occur prior to
the funeral or memorial service. In many countries, cremation is usually
done in a crematorium. Some countries, such as India and Nepal, prefer
different methods, such as open-air cremation
Earth Friendly Cremations
"My body? — Oh! — If I could choose, I would to ashes it reduce, And
let the merry breezes blow my dust to where some flowers grow."
1879 – November 19, 1915).Donate your Body
. Whole-body donation allows for an individual to donate
their body to science at end-of-life, for medical advancements. There are
more than 100 body donation programs operated by state agencies or medical
schools. Whole-body donations must be authorized by the donor prior to
death or, after death, by relatives donate to a university, to a state
agency or to a non-transplant tissue bank, which includes brokers who sell
the bodies. The brokers make money by providing bodies and dissected parts
to companies and institutions that use them for training, education and
In almost every state, it’s legal to sell the human remains of adults.
dead human body
that is used by
medical students, physicians and other scientists to study anatomy,
identify disease sites, determine causes of death, and provide tissue to
repair a defect in a living human being. Students in medical school study
and dissect cadavers as a part of their education. Others who study
cadavers include archaeologists and artists. The term cadaver is used in
courts of law to refer to a dead body, as well as by recovery teams
searching for bodies in natural disasters. The word comes from the Latin
word cadere ("to fall"). Related terms include cadaverous (resembling a
cadaver) and cadaveric spasm (a muscle spasm causing a dead body to twitch
or jerk). A cadaver graft (also called “postmortem graft”) is the grafting
of tissue from a dead body onto a living human to repair a defect or
disfigurement. Cadavers can be observed for their stages of decomposition,
helping to determine how long a body has been dead. Cadavers have been
used in art to depict the human body in paintings and drawings more
Humans have been burying their dead for 30,000 thousand years. The
in America is a $15 billion a year industry that includes
, and cemeteries, but excludes related costs
The average cost of a funeral is $7,323
2.5 million people died in the United States
in 2008, and
1.8 million of these
bodies were placed into
. Some 55 million people are reckoned to pass away
each year. Most of the 19,500 funeral homes
are controlled by Ten Companies. There is an estimated
is a place where the remains of dead people are
buried or otherwise interred.
Lists of Cemeteries
List of Cemeteries in America
List of Burial Mounds in the U.S.
Family Search Cemeteries
United States Cemetery Records
Old Graves Photos
is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be
found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones
built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.
is a grave containing multiple human corpses,
which may or may not be identified prior to burial. Although mass graves
can be used during major conflicts, in modern times they are more usually
seen after events such as a major famine, epidemic, or natural disaster.
Mass Graves in Iraq
Indigent Unclaimed Dead
. Protocols From Around The Country For
Disposing Of Unclaimed Dead Bodies. The number of unclaimed dead bodies is
rising, and every city has a different way of dealing with the problem.
2,000 for a funeral home to bury the body.
is a short text honouring a deceased person. Strictly speaking,
it refers to text that is inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, but it may
also be used in a figurative sense. Some epitaphs are specified by the
person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those
responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in prose or in poem
verse; poets have been known to compose their own epitaphs prior to their
death, as did William Shakespeare.
is one of several participants that help carry the casket at a funeral.
is the secret removal of corpses from burial sites. A
common purpose of body snatching, especially in the 19th century, was to
sell the corpses for dissection or anatomy lectures in medical schools.
Those who practiced body snatching were often called "resurrectionists" or
"resurrection-men". A related act is grave robbery, uncovering a tomb or
crypt to steal artifacts or personal effects that had been buried with the
deceased; however, grave robbery differs from body snatching in that grave
robbing does not involve stealing the corpse itself.
"As I approach old age, it seems that most of my social life is the result of
funerals. Why do people sometimes come together more in death, then they do in life?"
Autopsy - Cause of Death
is a highly specialized surgical procedure
consists of a thorough examination
of a corpse to determine the
cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury
that may be present. It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a
which is concerned mainly with the causal study of
caused by pathogens
or non-infectious physiological disorder.
is an official trained in pathology that
deaths that occur
or suspicious circumstances
, to perform post-mortem
examinations, and in some jurisdictions to initiate inquests.
The coroner is not necessarily a medical doctor
but a lawyer, or even a layperson
types of death reportable to the system are determined by federal, state
or local laws. Commonly, these include violent, suspicious, sudden, and
unexpected deaths, death when no physician or practitioner treated
recently, inmates in public institutions, in custody of law enforcement,
during or immediately following therapeutic or
deaths due to neglect
is the study of the
is determining the cause of death by examining a
or Cadaver, which is a deceased
. When a human dies it
may take hours or a day before all the
in the body
die. Forensic investigators use this information when determining the
cause and time of death.
is an examination
of a dead body to find out the cause of death. An examination
of a dead body to determine cause of death or the
changes produced by disease. A discussion or analysis of
something (such as an event) after it has ended.
is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its
anatomical structure. Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine
to determine the cause of death in humans. Less extensive dissection of
plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is
typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science
classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of
cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out
by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in
subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine. Consequently,
dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab.
Dissection has been used for centuries to explore anatomy. Objections to
the use of cadavers have led to the use of alternatives including virtual
dissection of computer models.
Cause of Death
is an official determination of conditions resulting in
a human's death, which may be recorded on a death certificate. A cause of
death is determined by a medical examiner. The cause of death is a
specific disease or injury, in contrast to the manner of death which is a
small number of categories like "natural
"accident", and "homicide
", which have different legal implications.
International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes are often used to
record manner and cause of death in a systematic way that makes it easy to
compile statistics and more feasible to compare events across
and 2017, there were nearly 35.2 Million Natural Deaths in the United
. What is
Manner of Death
is a determination, typically made by the coroner,
medical examiner, police, or similar officials, and recorded as a vital
statistic. Within the United States and the United Kingdom, a distinction
is made between the cause of death (sometimes referred to as the
"mechanism of death"), which is a specific disease or injury, versus
manner of death, which is primarily a legal determination. Different
categories are used in different jurisdictions, but manner of death
determinations include everything from very broad categories like
"natural" and "homicide" to specific manners like "traffic accident" or
"attempted or self-induced abortion". In some cases an autopsy is
performed, either due to general legal requirements, because the medical
cause of death is uncertain, upon the request of family members or
guardians, or because the circumstances of death were suspicious.
International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes can be used to record
manner and cause of death in a systematic way that makes it easy to
compile statistics and more feasible to compare events across
refers either to a document issued by a medical
practitioner certifying the deceased state of a person or, popularly, to a
document issued by a person such as a registrar of vital statistics that
declares the date, location and cause of a person's death as later entered
in an official register of deaths.
End of Life Care
Without a name; an unseen face
and knowing not your time nor place
Tomorrow’s Child, though yet unborn,
I met you first last Tuesday morn.
A wise friend introduced us two,
and through his sobering point of view
I saw a day that you would see;
a day for you, but not for me
Knowing you has changed my thinking,
for I never had an inkling
That perhaps the things I do
might someday, somehow, threaten you
Tomorrow’s Child, my daughter-son
I’m afraid I’ve just begun
To think of you and of your good,
Though always having known I should.
Begin I will to weigh the cost
of what I squander; what is lost
If ever I forget that you
will someday come to live here too.
© Poem by Glenn Thomas
- (Looking ahead 140 years)
I have come to terms with the future.
From this day onward I will walk easy on the earth.
Plant trees. Kill no living things.
Live in harmony with all creatures.
I will restore the earth where I am.
Use no more of its resources than I need.
And listen, listen to what it is telling me.
-- M.J. Slim Hooey
"People do not look outside the paradigms they are operating in and thus fail to see the long term consequences."
"Let us sacrifice our today so that our children can
have a better tomorrow."
A. P. J. Abdul KalamThis Is Our Dream
Crowd Sourced Poetry
I dream a
world that sounds like a gentle "good morning,"
like "sleep tight" at
the end of the day,
like Ella scatting,
a world filled with a
A hallelujah of joyous rejoicing, in this moment's gift
I dream a world in color,
Where nature's artist takes
Clear, blue oceans and vibrant reefs,
and all creatures
thrive with what they need.
Where peace floats from every
Where it's not too late to change the people who hate.
Where race and color are not what the scales weigh.
Where the root of
all evil is pulled up,
and the rain pours down until the ground swells
with fertile soil.
Where potential is the currency of the day,
you can be able to see what's next
without being scared.
of that world
The one that lifts the silenced souls from shackles.
Where vision cannot be smothered beneath my eyes beyond my reach
what lies waiting aches to teach.
I dream a world where a bridge is
arching over troubled waters, built on a foundation of truth.
children grow up learning only one kind of division, the long kind.
world where Sharing kindness is commonplace;
Where deeds are done with
heart and zest
Where doing right should be the quest
I Dream A
Where every day is Earth Day
and pollution is not a thing.
Where we take care of the ocean and the world.
Where masks are only
for the ball
A new beginning for us all.
Where we can see every person smile.
Where the coronavirus goes away so
we can go to school.
Where people can hug their family and friends
whenever they want
Where all have the luxury simply to sit and build a
I dream of seeing foxes walking in a field. I would like to
walk with them.
That is my wish.
I dream a world where native
fish fly free,
Unfettered, many miles to reach the sea.
whose sacred presence
On our shores predates
The ships galore that
Conquerors, colonists, and slaves in chains.
monarchs butterflies are the only concern we have about migration.
hunger for that world!
a safe world
for children whose skin is
darker than mine.
A beautiful sunrise after the night,
kindness, color and light.
For my daughter's daughters; for my son's
I dream of a world
Where the problems are the problem, not
the people debating them.
Where we lay down our arms so we can reach
out our arms
Where we know each other's joys and sorrows
days and all the 'morrows
Where The News Brings A Smile
a world straight; crooked paths are only for walking
A world drunk with
self-esteem, fearless and ready
A world where you hold onto your
dreams, and I'll hold the door
Pass right through, 'cause the world is
I dream a world where that world is not a dream,
Community gardens on every corner
No more social
media advertisements for body armor
People with mental health issues,
accepted as whole
A mosaic of humans not separated by color, opinion,
empty and unlocked, doors swung open,
guards long since gone home.
Where facts matter.
A world as simple
as a poem
Written in pencil, full of mistakes and erasures
relentless path to its honest truth.
Where, as soldiers of
democracy nurturing us,
teachers are publicly thanked for their
I dream of a world transparent.
Walls and floors, built of
some durable crystalline material.
Where we know which student is
really watching a TikTok video
when we leave the room for a moment.
I dream a world
Where there is quiet
Enough to hear
The young care for the old,
And the earth is cared for by
Where nations' boundaries blur
by a bridge of millions of
reaching across to embrace in oneness.
Where people are as
as the poet's meter.
And inclusion is real
Not mandated by
law, but embraced with zeal
Where I can be black and woman, and be
I dream a world where white folks see
All non-white folks in
the land of the free
As true heirs to the founders' liberty
oppression and powerful tyranny;
I dream the world, king dreamed
That the paved gold that America promises prospers
playing field is level, the same,
for anyone willing and able.
where we anchor to hope and all it brings
Do you not see it is time
to finish what has begun?
A world that we want to live in.
is a world I dream of!
- Paradox of Our Time
- You Can't Do Everything
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Example of how Rants and
Profanity are Ineffective and Ignorant when trying to Explain a Problem...
Why is the price lower to do something bad, and the price is higher to
do something good? Why is that corporations and
governments make it easy for people to be a scumbags, while making it
harder to be a logical thoughtful person? How is it when I want to
make a better choice , people want to f*cking charge you more, just
because I care about life, well go f*ck yourself you f*cking scumbag, who
the f*ck are you trying to profit off other peoples good decisions? Is it
that you don't want life to improve? How about educating yourself and stop
being an as*hole!
- This text was supplied by a Super Ranter Algorithm ™, Ai really does
is a thunderous verbal attack. Why this type
of speech is ineffective
It's more logical to limit your own
mistakes then to spend your life exploiting the mistakes of others.
Limiting your own mistakes leads to
, exploiting the mistakes of others leads to
. Which is where we are
right now in 2017.
deGrasse Tyson said at starmus
, If you can
mars and make it
livable, then you can also make Earth livable again and repair the damage
that we have done in the last 100 years, which would be a lot easier then
trying to make mars livable. So I choose earth. Let the scumbags who mass
murdered people and poisoned the earth go to mars. They already portrayed
this in a few movies so this idea is not that unusual. A working
on mars for corporate executives and politicians who have committed
mass murder and environmental crimes. We are going to need a lot of
spaceships. But of course we would be idiots to waste resources like that.
We are better off educating
, besides that,
might survive on another planet and then comeback to kill us.
Chronic Wasting Disease
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy
are a group of progressive,
invariably fatal, conditions that affect the brain (encephalopathies) and
nervous system of many animals, including humans. The first signs are
difficulties in movement. The most obvious and consistent clinical sign of
CWD is weight loss over time. Behavioral changes also occur in the
majority of cases, including decreased interactions with other animals,
listlessness, lowering of the head, tremors, repetitive walking in set
patterns, and nervousness. Excessive salivation and grinding of the teeth
also are observed. Most deer show increased drinking and urination; the
increased drinking and salivation may contribute to the spread of the
are a generalization of ordinary algorithms
that are more powerful, that is, compute more than
. So Ai found an answer, but it's still
looking for more possible answers, just incase the first answer was not
good enough..which is freaking brilliant, just like a human. What goes
around comes around.