Copyrights - Patents - Trademarks - Plagiarism
We don't want to stop people from being rewarded for their efforts.
But we also don't want people's greed and ignorance to stop
, that the world desperately needs. No one should have the
right to impede progress
. We need to come up with rules
that protects the health
of everyone, and not
just have rules that can be exploited
by criminals with money. If someone
has a better idea
, an idea that is better for people and the planet, then
that idea should be used, and not be impeded by criminals, which is what
is happening today at the expense of every living thing on this planet.
And no one should have the right to waste resources, time, money and
people just to build
that do more harm the good. It's not a victimless crime
, or stops improvements and hinders important advancements in
technology, then those particular patents and copyrights must be
given to the
Compensation shouldn't be just about money.
Yes we need to
things. Though people have the same name, they don't always
share the same ideas or values. But
is a survival mechanism
So to impede diversity is to reduce our chances of survival.
are works that intellectual property rights have
expired, so now these works can be used for individual creative expression
and be building blocks for the creation of new knowledge
, which could help
promote education, through the spread of information, ideas, and
scientific principles. Public Documents
- Pass the Baton
one can take full credit for anything they do, everyone is a
created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an
original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is
usually only for a limited time.
Copyright protection arises automatically
a work is created. A work is "created" when it is fixed in
a copy or
for the first time. No publication or
registration or other action in the
to secure the copyright. There are, however, certain definite
advantages to registration.
is to promote the Progress of
Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and
Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and
Section 107 of the Copyright Law
- World Intellectual Property Organization
American Society of Media Photographers
- Editorial Photo
Retail Compliance Network
Digital Due Process
- Creators Vault
- PRS Collects Royalties
What is a Copy?
. A thing
made to be
or identical to another thing
is a process by which an object, person, place or idea may be copied
is to make a copy or
is a copy or
especially of an expensive or designer product.
is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or
other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as
is a very typical
of a certain person or
thing. Something that serves as a
or a basis for making copies
. An original that has been
is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor
or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public
disclosure of an invention. Trolls
the extent or the scope of the protection conferred by a patent, or the
protection sought in a patent application. In other words, the purpose of
the claims is to define which subject-matter is protected by the patent
(or sought to be protected by the patent application). This is termed as
the "notice function" of a patent claim—to warn others of what they must
not do if they are to avoid infringement liability.
is a patent that claims an invention that
must be used to comply with a technical standard.
is an invention is "Useful
if it provides some identifiable benefit and is capable of use. The
majority of inventions are usually not challenged as lacking utility. The
patent examiners guidelines require that a patent application expresses a
specific, credible, and substantial utility. The requirement of
for patents, there are three main
factors to review: Operability
invention, a Beneficial Use
invention, and Practical Use
is an employee, usually a civil
servant with a scientific or engineering background, working at a patent
is an early sample, model, of a product
built to test a concept or process
or to act as a thing to be replicated
or learned from.
refers to creations of the intellect for which a
assigned to designated owners by law. Intellectual property
rights (IPRs) are the protections granted to the creators of IP,
and include trademarks, copyright, patents, industrial design
rights, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. Artistic works
including music and literature, as well as discoveries,
, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be
protected as intellectual property. (IP Holder).
Intellectual Property Rights
is the right of an individual
control the commercial use of his or her name, image, likeness, or other
unequivocal aspects of one's identity. Intellectual
rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law
jurisdictions and, to a lesser extent, in some common law
. They include the right
of attribution, the right to have a work published anonymously or
pseudonymously, and the right to the integrity of the work. The preserving
of the integrity of the work allows the author to object to alteration,
distortion, or mutilation of the work that is "prejudicial to the author's
honor or reputation
Anything else that may detract from the artist's relationship with the
work even after it leaves the artist's possession or ownership may bring
these moral rights into play. Moral rights are distinct from any economic
rights tied to copyrights. Even if an Artist
assigned his or her copyright rights to a work to a third party, he or she
still maintains the moral rights to the work.
Visual Artists Rights Act
Digital Rights Management
tools or technological protection measures
are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of
proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. DRM technologies try to
control the use, modification, and distribution of copyrighted works (such
as software and multimedia content), as well as systems within devices
that enforce these policies.
formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial
method, or compilation of information which is not generally known or
reasonably ascertainable by others, and by which a business can obtain an
economic advantage over competitors
is a form of
conducted for commercial
purposes instead of purely national security.
is the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that
are legal but unintended by the original manufacturer. Grey market
products are products sold by a manufacturer or their authorized agent
outside the terms of the agreement between the reseller and the
manufacturer. Black Market
is a non-counterfeit product imported from another
country without the permission of the intellectual property owner.
Parallel imports are often referred to as grey product and are implicated
in issues of international trade, and intellectual property.
is you only pay once for the right to use the Photo or Video
Once the license fee has been paid, you may continue to use
licensed material in future projects without
the need to pay for additional license fees.
You cannot resell it, only use it
Smithsonian has released more than 2.8 million images you can use
Do Patent Wars Stifle Innovation
Do Patents Encourage or Stifle Innovation
A Case for Abolishing Patents
Share Alike 3.0
Case against Patents
is a person or company that attempts to
enforce patent rights against accused infringers far
beyond the patent's
actual value or contribution
to the prior art.
is a bill that would change the rules and regulations
surrounding patent infringement lawsuits in an attempt to reduce patent
is a collection of federal and state
government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business
corporations, generally to promote fair
competition for the benefit of
is a law that promotes or seeks to
maintain market competition
by regulating anti-competitive conduct by
practices that prevent or reduce
competition in a market.
is a form of non-compete clause used in the live music
industry, in which a tour promoter stipulates that a performer, for a
certain length of time prior to or following an appearance at a concert or
festival, must not hold concerts at other locations within a certain
radius of the city where they are to perform
. In essence, it gives the
promoter a form of territorial exclusivity, ensuring that the performer
does not book concerts with
promoters and venues in nearby areas, which can undermine
ticket sales for their main event. The clause effectively discourages
major acts from performing in smaller cities, and are influenced by a
in the live events industry.
Copyright Infringement - Counterfeiting
are efforts to fight against copyright infringement
counterfeiting, and other violations of intellectual property laws.
is the commission of a prohibited act
with respect to a patented
from the patent holder.
is a person who copies another's
behavior, dress, or ideas. Copycat can also mean a crime that is carried
out to imitate another crime.
is a product made in exact
valuable or important with the intention to deceive or
. A fraudulent imitation of
something else; a forgery.
without the legal sanction of the state or government, usually in a
deliberate attempt to imitate that currency and so as to deceive its
recipient. Producing or using counterfeit money is a form of fraud or
forgery, and is illegal.
is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or
documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public
perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item. Copies, studio
replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may
later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations.
Forging money or currency is more often called counterfeiting.
Supply Chain Traceability
Rules - Restrictions
involves a set of rules or a promise
that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
means to give permission as well as to the
document recording that permission.Trademark
is a recognizable sign, design, or expression
which identifies products or services of a particular source from those
of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually
called service marks.
Patents and Trademark Office
Extended Collective Licensing
are collective copyright
and related rights laws and licensing agreements.
is a body created by copyright
law or private agreement which engages in collective rights management.
Peer to Patent
is an initiative that seeks to assist patent
offices in improving patent quality by gathering public input in a
structured, productive manner. Peer to Patent
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Leahy-Smith America Invents Act
U. S. Department
United States Copyright Office
Choral Public Domain Library
Protect your Copyrights, Online and for Free
YouTube's Copyright System Isn't Broken. The World's Is
Content ID System
is a digital fingerprinting system developed by
Google which is used to easily identify and manage copyrighted content on
. Videos uploaded to YouTube are compared against audio and video
files registered with Content ID by content owners, looking for any
matches. Content owners have the choice to have matching content taken
down or to monetize it. The system began to be implemented around 2007. By
2016, it had cost $60 million to develop and led to around $2 billion in
payments to copyright holders. By 2018, Google had invested at least $100
million into the system.
is a proposed United States law that would provide a new means for
copyright owners to file infringement claims
; for copyright users to
adjudicate declarations of non-infringement; for owners and users to
submit claims related to Section 512(f) of the Digital Millennium
Copyright Act; and for would-be defendants to submit counterclaims and
legal defenses, such as fair use. The bill would establish a Copyright
Claims Board within the Copyright Office to hear these claims. The
Librarian of Congress would appoint three Copyright Claims Officers to
preside over the tribunal. The bill limits damages to US$15,000 per work,
and $30,000 total per claim. If copyright owners do not register the work
in accordance with Section 412 of the Copyright Act, "statutory damages
may not exceed $7,500 per work infringed, or a total of $15,000 in any one
proceeding." The measure was introduced in the United States House of
Representatives on May 1, 2019, and was passed on October 22, 2019. An
identical version was introduced in the United States Senate on May 1,
2019. The bill has a laudable goal: reducing barriers to copyright
enforcement for those with limited financial resources by providing a
faster and cheaper avenue to remedies. For many independent authors,
creators, and users of copyrighted content, copyright litigation in
federal court is not worth the candle; the high cost of litigation keeps
many independent authors and creators from enforcing their copyrights. A
well-designed copyright small claims process could fix this but,
unfortunately, the deeply flawed CASE Act isn’t that. While failing to
limit the tribunal’s scope to the types of claims and claimants that it’s
best suited to and allowing recovery of excessive damages, the small
claims process as set out in the CASE Act would also cause harm to many
legitimate users of copyrighted works, including authors, educators, and
other creators. We’ve already seen how copyright trolls and big content
companies have sometimes abused the federal court system to raise
questionable infringement accusations and threaten those accused with high statutory damages.
is a US legal doctrine that permits limited use of copyrighted material
without acquiring permission from the rights holders. It is similar to the
fair dealing doctrines used in some countries outside the United States.
Adaptation in Arts
Fair use for Education
(columbia edu) -
Copyright and Educational Fair Use
(stanford edu) -
Fair Use on the Internet
- Open Curriculum
General Public License
is a widely used free software license, which
guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the
software.Freed From Copyright
. A large body of films, music, and
books from that year entered the
on Jan. 1 2019, the
first time that's happened in 20 years. And that means they can be
used according to the will of new creators who wish to adopt or
or free information, is any kind of functional work, work of
art, or other creative content that meets the definition of a free
cultural work for someone to use the content and benefit from using it, or
study the content and apply what is learned, or make and distribute copies
of the content, or change and improve the content and distribute these
Duke Public Domain Day 2019
Cornell Public Domain
Public Domain Review
for fans to provide access to
and preserve the history of fanworks and fan cultures.
consists of all the
creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights
apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or
may be inapplicable.
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Protect the Internet
(data and personal information)
- Court Information
- Legal Help
is a legal instrument that acts to terminate any legal
liability between the releasor and the releasee(s), signed by the releasor.
A release may also be made orally in some circumstances. Releases are
routinely used by photographers, in film production, by documentary
filmmakers, or by radio and music producers when they photograph, film,
video or record the voice or performance of individuals to be sure that
the person consents or will not later object to the material being used
for whatever purpose the release (or anyone they may assign the release
rights to) wishes, i.e. that the release wishes to use the images,
sounds or any other rendering that is a result of the recording made of
the releasor (or property owned by the releasor for which the releasor may
claim some other right such as industrial design rights, trademark or
trade dress rights). This will help in insuring the copyright owner has a
clean chain of title for any work if it is later published, broadcast,
shown in a public cinema or otherwise made public
Reservation of Rights
is a statement that one is intentionally
retaining his full legal rights to warn others of those rights. The notice
avoids later claims that one waived legal rights that were held under a
contract, copyright law, or any other applicable law. The term “all rights
reserved" is used in connection with copyright law. The term "reservation
of rights" (particularly a "reservation of rights letter”).
Remix - Remixing
is a piece of media which has been altered or contorted from its original
state by adding, improving, removing, and changing pieces of the item. A
song, piece of artwork, books, video, poem, or photograph can all be
remixes. The only characteristic of a remix is that it appropriates and
changes other materials to create something new. Most commonly, remixes
are a subset of audio mixing in music and song recordings. Songs may be
remixed for a variety of reasons: to adapt or revise a song for radio or
nightclub play, to create a stereo or surround sound version of a song
where none was previously available, to improve the fidelity of an older
song for which the original master has been lost or degraded, to alter a
song to suit a specific music genre
radio format, to use some of the same materials, allowing the song to
reach a different audience, to alter a song for artistic purposes, to
provide additional versions of a song for use as bonus tracks or for a
B-side, for example, in times when a CD single might carry a total of 4
tracks, to create a connection between a smaller artist and a more
successful one, as was the case with Fatboy Slim's remix of "Brimful of
Asha" by Cornershop, to improve the first or demo mix of the song,
generally to ensure a professional product, to provide an
a song, to improve a song from its original state. Remixes should not be
usually involve shortening a final stereo master for marketing or
broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should be made between a remix,
which recombines audio pieces from a recording to create an altered
version of a song, and a cover: a re-recording of someone else's song.
While audio mixing is one of the most popular and recognized forms of
remixing, this is not the only media form which is remixed in numerous
examples. Literature, film, technology, and social systems can all be
argued as a form of remix.
is a Remix
Passes the Baton
(everyone stands on the shoulders of giants)
is a society that allows and encourages derivative works
existing materials to produce a new creative work
or product. A remix culture would be, by default, permissive of efforts to
improve upon, change
, integrate, or otherwise remix the work of copyright
holders. While a common practice of artists
of all domains throughout
human history, the growth of exclusive copyright restrictions in the last
several decades limits this practice more and more by the legal chilling
(the power of RE) - Not all replication is bad, after all,
life is a replication
Kirby Ferguson: Embrace the Remix
Open Source Cinema
is a limitation and exception to the exclusive right granted by copyright
law to the author of a creative work
. Fair dealing is found in many of the
common law jurisdictions of the Commonwealth of Nations.
is constituted by all information that has been made available to
in any form before a given date that might be relevant to a
patent's claims of originality. If an invention has been described in the
prior art, a patent on that invention is not valid. Information kept
secret, for instance, as a trade secret, is not usually prior art,
provided that employees and others with access to the information are
under a non-disclosure obligation. With such an obligation, the
information is typically not regarded as prior art. Therefore, a patent
may be granted on an invention, even though someone else already knew of
the invention. A person who used an invention in secret may in some
jurisdictions be able to claim "prior user rights" and thereby gain the
right to continue using the invention. As a special exception,
earlier-filed and unpublished patent applications do qualify as prior art
as of their filing date in certain circumstances.
refers to the use of both inflows and outflows of knowledge to improve
and expand the markets for external exploitation of
is when theorists of new media examine how emerging kinds
of media, such as websites, blogs, wiki pages, and digital video, both
delimit the ways people can use them, and provide new avenues for the
production of social relations and meanings.
Web of Trust
is a concept used in PGP, GnuPG, and other
OpenPGP-compatible systems to establish the authenticity of the binding
between a public key and its owner. Its decentralized trust model is an
alternative to the centralized trust model of a public key infrastructure
(PKI), which relies exclusively on a certificate authority (or a hierarchy
of such). As with computer networks, there are many independent webs of
trust, and any user (through their identity certificate) can be a part of,
and a link between, multiple webs.
"Just because you make
that it belongs to everyone on the planet, this does not
guarantee that the people will understand the importance of this
knowledge, or will it guarantee that people will know how to
preserve this knowledge and share it with future generations.
But this is a good start. So in the process of preserving there
has to be instructions."
is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute
and modify the creative works of others in the form of free content or
open content without compensation to, or the consent of, the work's
original creators, by using the Internet and other forms of media. The
movement objects to what they consider over-restrictive copyright laws.
Many members of the movement argue that such laws hinder creativity. They
call this system "permission culture." Creative Commons is an organization
started by Lawrence Lessig which provides licenses that permit sharing and
remixing under various conditions, and also offers an online search of
various Creative Commons-licensed works. The free-culture movement, with
its ethos of free exchange of ideas, is aligned with the free and
open-source-software movement. Today, the term stands for many other
movements, including open access (OA), the remix culture, the hacker
culture, the access to knowledge movement, the Open Source Learning, the
copyleft movement and the public domain movement.
is a drawing based on a character,
costume, or location that is made without permission by the original
creator. Fan art can be considered a derivative work, therefore most fan
art is an infringement of DC’s copyright. BUT, copyright law has a
doctrine called “fair use” that (in the name of free speech) protects
certain uses that would otherwise be an infringement. To find protection
in fair use, a second work must be an artistically transformative use of
the first, not have a great economic impact on the first, and not take too
much of the first. A good piece of fan art is very transformative, giving
us a new vision of a familiar character, so that factor could benefit the
artist. The amount taken would probably not favor the artist, because one
of the considerations is if the “core” elements are copied, which most fan
art does. Economic impact would also not favor the artist, as DC could
argue that the $60 the fan put down on the fan art could have instead gone
towards the purchase of a licensed poster. The factors are not merely
added up, however, so artist’s don’t lose 2-1. A truly transformative work
may be protected. Fair use is a vague doctrine, giving courts great
freedom in application. A good lawyer can make or break a free speech
argument. Even if the “core” elements are copied and the economic value of
the original is harmed, a parody is still protected. The irony is that fan
art which seeks to honor the original work enjoys less protection than a work that insults it.
are those that add something new, with a further
purpose or different character, and do not substitute for the original use
of the work. Nature of the copyrighted work: This factor analyzes the
degree to which the work that was used relates to copyright's purpose of
encouraging creative expressionReaction
Videos and Fair Use.
Reaction videos are those which depict the
emotional responses, facial expressions, comments, or criticisms that a
content creator directs to a featured video, commonly while simultaneously
playing the featured video, are often used to gain this exact result.
Further, these videos are attractive to content creators because they
consistently net views and generally require minimal effort to make. The
copyrights to the original works featured in reaction videos, however,
usually belong to someone other than the content creator. As such,
reaction videos may violate the authorship rights provided in the
Copyright Act. That said, because reaction videos often critique, alter,
or parody the featured video, a fair use defense may apply.
and presenting it as your own work.
is the deliberate act of acquisition of something
without the permission of the owner. The wrongful appropriation or
stealing and then the publication of another author's language, thoughts,
ideas, or expressions and the representation of them as one's own original
work. The idea remains problematic with unclear definitions and unclear
The problems with regurgitating
is that you could be repeating
. One of the biggest
problems with plagiarism is when someone copies someone else's work that
was wrong or inaccurate
If you just regurgitate what someone else wrote, then you might be passing
on ignorance, like people do in
the news everyday
. Do your own
and don't believe everything you read.
learn how to be original
and learn the importance of creating new
literature and improving old literature.
must learn how to
teach originality and learn how to teach the importance of
creating new literature and the importance improving old
literature. Teachers have to stop blaming the internet for their
and students have to
stop blaming teachers for their failures in learning even if
it's true. Punishing students or the threat of punishment for
plagiarism is not teaching.
If a teacher finds plagiarism then the teacher should highlight
it and ask the student to
Cite the Source
and also comment on
why it is correct or incorrect.
- Fair Use
is the moral code or ethical policy of academia. This
includes values such as avoidance of cheating or plagiarism; maintenance
of academic standards; honesty and rigor in research and academic
Thesis an Essay Tips
Academic Honor Code
or honor system is a set of rules or ethical
principles governing an academic community based on ideals that define
what constitutes honorable behaviour within that community. The use of an
honor code depends on the notion that people (at least within the
community) can be trusted to act honorably. Those who are in violation of
the honor code can be subject to various sanctions, including expulsion
from the institution. Honor codes are used to deter academic dishonesty.
, academic misconduct or academic fraud is any type of
cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. It can
The adoption or
reproduction of original creations of another author (person, collective,
organization, community or other type of author, including anonymous
authors) without due acknowledgment.
The falsification of data, information, or citations
in any formal academic exercise. Deception:
Providing false information to an instructor concerning a formal academic
exercise—e.g., giving a false excuse for missing a deadline or falsely
claiming to have submitted work. Cheating:
Any attempt to obtain assistance in a formal academic exercise (like an
examination) without due acknowledgment (including the use of cheat
sheets). Bribery or paid services:
assignment answers or test answers for money.
Acting to prevent others from completing their work. This
includes cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting
the experiments of others. Professorial
Professorial acts that are academically fraudulent
equate to academic fraud and/or grade fraud.
assuming a student's identity with intent to provide
an advantage for the student. Academic dishonesty has been
documented in every type of educational setting from elementary school to
graduate school. Throughout history this type of dishonesty has been met
with varying degrees of approbation.
Search for Copies of your Page on the
Turn it In
Paradigms Plagiarism Detection in Research
(Copy & Paste) - If you find a uniquely-phrased section of text of at least
ten words, then
copy and paste the entire into the Google
search bar to find
A new study by the Society of
Critical Care Medicine has found that 82% of
and 74% of attendings
copy and paste
more than 20% of their EHR patient progress notes from
one session to the next. Copying and pasting notes from one patient visit
to the next, known as “cloning”, can perpetuate outdated or
is widely seen as a poor practice, even if it appears to save time.
78% of shares are made via Copy & Paste.
of students cut-and paste for homework from the internet.
Cut and Paste
is to move text or data from
one place in an electronic document or computer system to another via the
cut and paste functions.
a combination of the functions ‘cut’ and
‘paste’, by which text or data is moved from one place in an electronic
document or computer system to another.
Cut, Copy, and Paste
are related commands that offer an interprocess
communication technique for transferring data through a computer's user
interface. The cut command removes the selected data from its original
position, while the copy command creates a duplicate; in both cases the
selected data is kept in temporary storage (the clipboard). The data from
the clipboard is later inserted wherever a paste command is issued. The
data remains available to any application supporting the feature, thus
allowing easy data transfer between applications.
Citations - References
is a reference to a published or unpublished source
(not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an
abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an
intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references
section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the
works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation
in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to
connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation
is said to refer to the second object. The second object, the one to which
the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object.
is a measure of how many times an academic journal article or
book or author is cited by other articles, books or authors. Citation
counts are interpreted as measures of the impact or influence of academic
work and have given rise to the field of bibliometrics or scientometrics,
specializing in the study of patterns of academic impact through citation
analysis. The journal impact factor, the two-year average ratio of
citations to articles published, is a measure of the importance of
journals. It is used by academic institutions in decisions about academic
tenure, promotion and hiring, and hence also used by authors in deciding
which journal to publish in. Citation-like measures are also used in other
fields that do ranking, such as Google's PageRank algorithm, software
metrics, college and university rankings, and business performance
is the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of
citations in documents. It uses the directed graph of citations — links
from one document to another document — to reveal properties of the
documents. A typical aim would be to identify the most important documents
in a collection. A classic example is that of the citations between
and books. For another example, judges of law support their judgements by
referring back to judgements made in earlier
(see citation analysis in a legal context). An additional
example is provided by patents which contain prior art, citation of
earlier patents relevant to the current claim.
Citing Guide for Electronic
is the process of evaluating an
information source, i.e. a document, a person, a speech, a fingerprint, a
photo, an observation or anything used in order to obtain knowledge. In
relation to a given purpose, a given information source may be more or
less valid, reliable or relevant. Broadly, "source criticism" is the
interdisciplinary study of how information sources are evaluated for given
tasks (cf. next sections). Journalism
in creative arts and sciences is an expression of
assistance in creating an original work. Receiving credit by way of
acknowledgment rather than authorship indicates that the person or
organization did not have a direct
hand in producing the work in question
, but may have contributed
funding, criticism, or encouragement to the author(s). Various schemes
exist for classifying acknowledgments; give the following six categories:
moral support, financial support, editorial support, presentational
support, instrumental/technical support, conceptual support, or peer
interactive communication (PIC). Apart from citation, which is not usually
considered to be an acknowledgment, acknowledgment of conceptual support
is widely considered to be the most important for identifying intellectual
debt. Some acknowledgments of financial support, on the other hand, may
simply be legal formalities imposed by the granting institution.
Occasionally, bits of science humor can also be found in acknowledgments.
There have been some attempts to extract bibliometric indices from the
acknowledgments section (also called "acknowledgments paratext") of
research papers in order to evaluate the impact of the acknowledged
individuals, sponsors and funding agencies.
is a method for indexing and analyzing
acknowledgments in the scientific literature and, thus, quantifies the
impact of acknowledgments.
is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of
citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish
which later documents cite which earlier documents.
Writing Styles and Guides
- Writing Tips
Modern Language Association
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"No one owns words, we just borrow and use words. I didn't
create language or did I create words, all I do is borrow words
and assemble them in a way that I can understand what they mean.
I'm always learning so how I assemble the words today may not be
the same way I assemble them tomorrow."
"I myself don't feel it is stealing, because I put all the
material into a completely different and unique context
and from the outset consistently promoted the fact that none of that is actually by
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Incorporating the Image, must be for your own use, or for the
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You may not sell, rent, loan, give, sublicense, or otherwise
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purchased by a user, allows the one-time use of the photo as specified by
the license. If the user wants to use the photo for other uses an
additional license needs to be purchased. RM licences can be given on a
non-exclusive or exclusive basis.
Royalty Free Photos
refers to the right to use copyright material
or intellectual property without the need to pay royalties or license fees
for each use or per volume sold, or some time period of use or sales.
Not to be used
without prior written consent.
is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the
creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.
This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not
absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law,
including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright
protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying
to search the internet's
Digital Signatures of Images
to see if your photo is being
used without permission.
digital identity that computers and other digital devices can
see, hear, understand and react to.
a contract or license agreement covering access
to or use of materials on a web site or downloadable product.
common type of agreement often used in connection with software licenses.
(also known as clickthrough agreement or clickwrap license).
Shrink Wrap Contracts
are boilerplate contracts packaged
with products; usage of the product is deemed acceptance of the contract.
It's hard to be an original these
it seems that there's always someone else who came up with the
already, but maybe yours is just a little different, and that's fine, because
all stand on the shoulders of giants
. Everyone has the
ability to add to life and make a little change, a little
improvement, or another variation that we may learn something
from. We do not want to stifle
, but you don't want to
encourage waste either. And just because someone else is being
paid to waste, this does not make it right or good. Again
influencing ignorant actions
, not all bad, it's just most of
these actions are not good or right. If you're wasting time that
causes other people to waste even more time, that's just crazy,
because that sure isn't life.
Wasted Time + Wasted Time = No Time - No Life. That is the
Formula For Death.
So it seems that you think that your work is so special that it
demands a certain price. I assume that you've done your
calculations and that you have included reality in your numbers.
Once we start the conversation about priorities, money will not
be accurate when measuring value. You have to use this Formula For
Life; (People + Time + Resources = Something That Is Needed). And
this need is based on priorities and the amount of People + Time +
Resources. And hopefully this need is either eatable,
drinkable, recyclable, reusable, repurposed, biodegradable, and
something that will benefit people without causing others to
suffer because of this benefit. Because that is something that
is not a benefit, so it could only be a crime.
Should you be able to patent a Human Gene?
(video and text)
Yes we want everyone to be paid fairly for their services, so
this is not about copyright, this is about
, and that's the
cause of the problem, but it's not the root of the problem,
because the root of the problem is education. And once we
improve education, then this page can then be filed in our
history, and we can occasionally look back at this and laugh
about how stupid we were then. Capitalism is corrupted and
flawed, and of course that abuse spreads through society like a
disease. Causing more corruption and more abuses like
. We want to share but we don't want
our sharing to cause more harm then good. If you are stealing
for the money then you are as criminal as the people at the top.
The only thing that trickles down from
Almost No Patented Discoveries Ever Get Used
Just because you found something
doesn't make it yours
. Even if
someone gives you something that doesn't make it yours either,
and it may not even be theirs to give in the first place.
is a fallacy and an illusion, we all live on
borrowed time. So where did
come from? Be thankful, be
grateful, but don't be blind. You don't own your life, life was
never yours to begin with.
Even your thoughts
are not really yours, because
you didn't create the language that you use.
to you. Language was built by the combined efforts of millions
of people over thousands of years. Everyone alive today is a
product of the 100 billion humans
that struggled to survive for 10's of thousands of years, all before you were even born. And
just because you assembled this language in a certain way you
now want to take ownership? To say "This
" is a lie and a distortion of reality
. Not to say
that you shouldn't have things, it's just saying that you
shouldn't hold on so tightly to the wrong things for the wrong
reasons. You can be an individual, you just can't pretend that
you are disconnected
from everything and everyone around you. We
know for a fact that
has many more benefits then not
sharing, so why are we doing this to ourselves?
I Think for myself is a lie, because to think for yourself without
any outside influences is impossible. You did not create
language, you did not create the words in that language, you did
not learn the definitions of those words by yourself because
someone already defined them for you. Everything that created
your intellect has been given to you. And some how you claim
ownership of things that came out of your mind when your mind is
not totally yours. A million people are involved in your
creation, and you turn around and lay claim and pretend that
your particular idea
is taking advantage of opportunities
without regard for the
consequences for others
. A lack of generosity; a general unwillingness
to part with money, resulting from a concern for your own welfare and a
disregard of others. An excessive desire for wealth (usually in large
Me, Me, Me
"If you want everything you must be
willing to give up everything."
It's funny how Apple can use
other peoples ideas and technology, but as
soon as some one else uses their ideas and technology, they sue
them for millions. This is not even the worst of this type of insane
thinking. The most damaging part of technology abuse is, who
actually has the right to use people, time and resources to make
an inferior product based on
, the answer is no one. If the
only benefit is that a few people are profiting from this
technology, while at the same time causing more damage to the
earth then their product alleviates, then this is the real
crime, not the Patent
does not determine the
something, money only determines the
We need companies to work together to make the best product
possible that would benefit everyone on the planet. Otherwise we are just
fighting over who gets to poison people and the planet the most. For now
Corporations are people, but they are sick people who belong in a mental
institution where they can get the help they need, hopefully before they
kill us all with their insanity and ignorant greed.
US Patent 8,086,604
is the legal determination of a court
that resolves legal uncertainty for the litigants.
Schools or any Social Improvements should be
exempt from royalties and patent laws as long as they do not
waste the technology, people, time, and resources, or impede any
other improvements or advancements."
is a bill that would change the rules and regulations
surrounding patent infringement lawsuits in an attempt to reduce patent lawsuits.
Trolls - Predators
is someone who
especially on the
. Trolling is a form a
. Other definitions
that is mixed
with frivolous lawsuits
Patent Troll is a categorical or pejorative term applied to
person or company that attempts to enforce patent rights against accused
infringers far beyond the patent's actual value or contribution to the
prior art, often through hardball legal tactics (frivolous litigation,
vexatious litigation, SLAPP, chilling effects, and the like) usually
backed by a large war chest, sometimes to the extreme of what critics
regard as legally sanctioned extortion.
- Invalid Arguments
Internet Troll Bullies
Tonight with John Oliver: Patents
Drew Curtis: How I Beat a Patent Troll
"Giving Proprietary Rights is like giving a
the right to Rape. And that is exactly what
corporations are doing."
is an a predator that kills and eats
Reverse Payment Patent Settlement
are a kind of agreement that settles
patent infringement litigation, in which the company that has brought the
suit agrees to pay the company it sued. That is, the patentee pays the
alleged infringer to end the lawsuit and stop challenging the validity of
the disputed patent. These agreements are distinct from most patent
settlements, which usually involve the alleged infringer paying the patent
is to acquire a benefit and to permit or deny others
the right to perform the same action or to acquire the same benefit. A
"prerogative" is in effect an exclusive right. The term is restricted for
use for official state or sovereign (i.e., constitutional) powers.
Exclusive rights are a form of monopoly
Exclusive rights can be established by law or by contractual obligation,
but the scope of enforceability will depend upon the extent to which
others are bound by the instrument establishing the exclusive right; thus
in the case of contractual rights, only persons that are parties to a
contract will be affected by the exclusivity. Exclusive rights may be
granted in property law, copyright law, patent law, in relation to public
utilities, or, in some jurisdictions, in other sui generis legislation.
Many scholars argue that such rights form the basis for the concepts of
property and ownership. Privately granted rights, created by contract,
may occasionally appear very similar to exclusive rights, but are only
enforceable against the grantee, and not the world at large.
$20 billion was spent on patent
litigation and patent purchases in the last two years
. What a
waste of time, people and resources.
Patent Analysis by M-CAM
Patent applications has increased by
more than 50 percent over the last decade to more than 540,000
in 2011. Google has received 2,700 patents
since 2000 and Microsoft has received 21,000. Patents should
only be about documenting ideas, mainly so that people don't
waste time, resources and effort pursuing bad ideas. But the way
it is now the patent system is painfully wasting time, resources
and efforts because it is manipulated and corrupted by money,
and all this at the expense of the public and the environment.
. If actions cannot
, then our actions become based on
, which makes all Civilizations very
, as seen throughout human history.
Victimless Crime ?
You're right, it isn't a
, after all, you created the victims in the
first place, so I guess you want all the victims to yourself. Don't victimize my
victims, yes you are
. We have a screwed up system of
that encourages people to steal. We need people to prove necessity
and the true value
, and we
need to stop corporations from exploiting laws that were
ignorantly and corruptly written, for they do not confirm or
calculate accuracy or truth. So you see, after you have done
your math correctly, you are right in your creation, but you are
undeniably wrong in your estimated value, so please stop asking
to be compensated for your greed, ignorance and abuse, you're just wasting more
time, people and resources then was originally needed. So you
actually owe us, so pay-up morons! If I steal something
that doesn't really benefit me, then who's benefiting? No one.
Our education system needs to start educating people more thoroughly, more
effectively and more accurately.
the cause of all our problems, but when we improve education, it will be
the solution to all our problems.
Using Copyright Laws to Attack the
Not Invented Here
is a stance adopted by social, corporate,
or institutional cultures that avoid using or buying already existing
products, research, standards, or knowledge because of their external
origins and costs.
is a dense web of overlapping intellectual
property rights that a company must hack its way through in order to
actually commercialize new technology," or, in other words, "an
overlapping set of patent rights” which requires innovators to reach
licensing deals for multiple patents from multiple sources.
help patent holders realize their
responsibilities towards humanity.Ellen 't
Hoen: Medical Patents
Don Tapscott: Four Principles for the Open World
constitutes one of the limits of
intellectual property (IP) rights. Once a given product has been sold
under the authorization of the IP owner, the reselling, rental, lending
and other third party commercial uses of IP-protected goods in domestic
and international markets is governed by the principle.
an alternative to a patented
invention that does not infringe the patent’s claims. The phrase can also
refer to the invention itself.
The Pirate Party
formed to reform laws regarding
copyright and patents.
"One of the main reasons why humans have survived so long on
this earth is by the sharing of information and knowledge. But
for some reason there are ignorant people who want to put a price on
this life preserving action that we call "sharing".
Pass it on
Choices should only be
about fitting a particular purpose or need.
The world does
not need a thousand different types of cell phones. We should
only have cell phones that provide a particular
purpose or need
And all the other manufactures should just get together and
combine their technology and efforts into only a handful of cell
phones so that the cost and waste is low. With violating
Technology is Just a ToolThe Human
Brain will always be King
Anything that you create could never be totally all yours
would have had to use some tool or information and knowledge
given to you by other people to make what you did. Like when I
take a photo, I didn't make the camera, I didn't make the
technology that prints the image or the technology that displays
the image electronically. I also learned photography techniques
from other photographers and received knowledge and information
from other people that helped me become a good photographer. All
I did is put myself in the right place at the right time and
then push a button, a button that may or may not capture the
image correctly. That is my work, but it was work that was only
made possible by the efforts and the knowledge of hundreds and
thousands of other people. So I can't take all the credit, so
how could I ask for credit? What is the true value of my work?
Can I quantify the positives against the negatives? In order to
effectively measure value you have to use science and an open
consensus of well informed citizens who are capable of choosing
wisely? Then what is the proper compensation? What other forms
of compensation should be considered besides money? This should
be about funding good ideas and not about impeding new ideas.
Every Person Alive Stands on the
Shoulders of Giants
, so don't forget to
Pass your Baton
Most of the time People are not really discovering anything new
or creating something new, they're mostly just realizing
something that was already there, and usually they're not the
first to realize it
. And on top of that they're not even fully
aware of all the positives and the negatives that will come from
didn't discover America, all he did was
realize that people and land were on the other side of the
ocean. You can't discover something when people are already
there, the Indians must have thought that he was nuts. And the
worst part is when Columbus shared this
people in his country that's when this realization turned into a
nightmare and caused the deaths of millions of Indians and the
destruction of land on a monumental scale. So some realizations
are not thought through enough in order to fully understand all
the implications that will come from this realization. Like
split an atom
. So you think you discovered something new but
all you did was cause the death of millions of people and the poisoning of
millions of acres of land, and you want a patent for that? You are
mentally ill. The same thing with people discovering oil. The only reason
that you were able to realize something was that 100 billion people lived
and died before you were even born, giving you the chance to realize
something and hopefully learn something from it, hopefully something that
will benefit people and the earth that provides us with life. You can't
take credit for the work of billions of people, all you can do is honor
them by making the most out of your life by making a positive difference in the world.
"Next time, try not to
destroy what you have discovered
Indigenous People's Day
The Seattle City Council introduced a resolution on Monday to
recognize Indigenous Peoples’ Day on the same day as the federal
holiday Columbus Day
. Thank You! (October 08, 2014).
Sandusky, Ohio, Makes Election Day A Paid Holiday — By Swapping Out Columbus Day.
No one really discovers anything
can only realize
something that was already there. No one discovered math because math was
already there. Math became known when someone realized that certain
can be measured by counting them using numbers. Then someone else realized
that you can make equations from numbers. Math is a
. And no one discovered Language
because you are born with language. Every human
is born with instincts to make sounds to communicate information, like
crying and screaming. Then from there we began making more sounds, which
gave us the ability to communicate even more information. We even realized
that we don't even have to speak to communicate, we can use hand gestures,
and even use math symbols. Humans have 6
Senses to Receive Information
because information is everywhere. And now that we have thousands of
advanced technology tools, humans can now receive more information then
ever before. And we just got started.
Born of bloodlines drawn
from the earth, oceans and skies,
Soft yet powerful whaakaro
Warming wairua transcending,
Our why willing,
Connections to be built,
Between stories, struggles and strength,
Communities woven together,
by our wee pan Pacific-Arctic-Navajo del.The
next big discovery will be when humans finally realize their full
. That realization will be the biggest discovery of all
time. It will be like finally realizing that you're alive and that you
were never fully awake. So hold on, this ride is going to be amazing.