helped give rise to
, mob bosses and gangs, which proved that
do more harm than good.
was created as a political
who were against the
. "By getting the public to associate the hippies with
marijuana and blacks with heroin
, and then
criminalizing both heavily
, we could disrupt
those communities. We
could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and
vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were
lying about the drugs? Of course we did" - As quoted by
in "Legalize it all" Harper's Magazine, April 2016.
(In 1970, marijuana was classified as a schedule 1 drug in the United
States). Wars are a Racket
Prison System is a Racket
"Penalties against possession of a drug should not be more damaging to an individual than the
use of the drug itself."
are laws that are excessively harsh and severe.
"Some laws of state aimed at curbing crime are
even more criminal
people is not
people. The Justice
System is for protecting people. The Justice System is not supposed to be
used by criminals to attack people. So why are we allowing these as*holes
to exploit our justice system at the peoples expense. WTF? These
should not be
happening anymore, this behavior
was supposed to die with hitler.
are still one of the
worlds most deadliest wars
since the opium wars
, which was perpetrated by corrupt
and the justice system.
Our supposedly public servants were bought and manipulated by wealthy
, and American citizens were
to this crime, with most
people being unaware and unknowingly contributing to the deaths and the abuse of
millions of people. We were fed a false belief. And American tax dollars paid for it. America is now
suffering because of these heinous acts, while many other countries in the
world our now living healthier and more quality lives than ever before.
America has been raped by abusive unjust laws, and your
are still walking around
freely and continuing to rape Americans at will
. Time to end this war on
people, and stop pretending that this was a war on drugs. You lying
scumbags need to wake up. We have a country to save, we have a planet to
Drug Enforcement Administration
is tasked with combating drug
trafficking and distribution within the United States.
WHO Recommends Rescheduling
Cannabis in International Law for First Time in History in 2019. Cannabis
should be downgraded from a schedule IV to a
schedule I drug
under international law. Alcohol
CorruptionIt's cheaper to treat people than to
incarcerate them. People want to feel better
, did you ever think of
asking them why? And what kind of moron would attack someone who is trying
to make themselves feel better? It's more productive, logical and moral to
help people find better choices then trying to force your judgment upon
, Drug Use Is Treated As A Medical
Issue, Not A Crime
. Portugal's drug-induced death rate has plummeted to
five times lower than the European Union average. Cabaz's team of 10
counselors handles all of Lisbon's roughly 2,500 drug cases a year. It may
sound like a lot, but it's actually a 75 percent drop from the 1990s.
Drug-related HIV infections in Portugal have dropped 95 percent. But it
was less effective in curtailing consumption, which is an education
problem that can be solved by
(PDF) - Hemp
Municipality Government Symbol will now be a Pot Leaf. (2018)Police Arrested Someone
For Weed Possession Every 51 Seconds In 2014
. Law enforcement
officers made just over 700,000 arrests on marijuana-related
charges in 2014, according to data released by the
on Monday. 2013 saw 609,570 people booked on possession
charges alone. 2007 reached an all-time high of 775,137.
Authorities spend more than $3.6 billion each year enforcing
laws against marijuana possession
, according to a frequently
cited report by the
American Civil Liberties Union
1 in 106 white men have been
compared to 1 in 35 Hispanic men
1 in 15 African
. The number of White Americans in America is around
223,553,265 - 72.4 %. Hispanic or Latinos 50,477,594 - 16.3 %. Black
Americans 38,929,319 - 12.6 %. Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska
Native 2,247,098 - 0.7 %.
Systematic Attack on
Minorities - Profiling
. San Francisco
To Dismiss Thousands Of Marijuana Convictions.
convictions of thousands of residents dating back to 1975. The measure
will give people convicted of crimes the ability to petition to have their
records cleared. Prosecutors will also review up to 4,940 felony
convictions and consider reducing them to misdemeanors. Petitioning to
have a record expunged can be costly and it can require legal help. A
criminal conviction can be a barrier to employment, housing and other
benefits. African-Americans were 7.8 percent of San Francisco's population
but comprised 41 percent of marijuana arrests. By 2010 and 2011,
African-Americans made up about half of marijuana-related arrests, yet
represented 6 percent of the city's population, according to the district
attorney's office.In the UK
, One million
hours of police time a year 'wasted enforcing cannabis prohibition. 87,247
police caseloads relating to the drug were opened in 2015, with the
average cost to the taxpayer per case estimated at £2,256. The estimate
says that in total £31m was spent on 1,044,180 police hours.
In 2015, After 40 years
and a trillion dollars
nation has little to show for its war on drugs. Prisons are
beyond crowded and there's a new outbreak in the heroin
epidemic. 21 million Americans are addicted to drugs or alcohol.
And half of all federal inmates are in for drug crimes. And the
number of opioid prescriptions
has risen from 76 million in 1991
to 207 million today. More than 120 Americans die of drug
overdoses each day, that is more than car wrecks or gun
violence. Addiction is not a brain disease, the disease is the
ineffective and dysfunctional education system that fails to
teach 21st century skills. People are not born addicts, people
are born with vulnerabilities, and if we don't teach our youth
about these vulnerabilities, they too will be victimized,
whether they become drug addicts or not.
was a pro-marijuana campground in Newberg Township, Cass
County, Michigan, that was involved in a fatal police standoff on
September 3, 2001. The campground was run by
Tom Crosslin and his life partner Rolland "Rollie" Rohm
, and was home
to two annual festivals, "HempAid" and "Roach Roast", which ran from 1996
through 2001. The operation ended with the burning down of all the
structures on the property and the deaths of both Tom Crosslin and Rolland
The Drug war needs to
be about education
, and not about making drugs illegal, because
as everyone knows, drugs come in many forms, and kids get high
on all types of stuff, which I would list, but that would be
extremely dangerous to list ways of getting high, especially
when they do more harm then good, and also that kids are not
educated enough or knowledgeable enough. When searching for
you believe will make you feel alive
, will actually be
killing you slowly, mentally and physically. You would be a
moron and a criminal to think that you can stop drug use by
making certain drugs illegal, "a moron and a criminal walk into
a bar...they pass a law to make money, and not to benefit
people." Besides that, most of the damage comes from food, and
you can't make food illegal, but you could ask the FDA to stop
food manufacturers from making food that has very little
nutritional value that does more harm then good. And you can
also ask schools to teach students more about human development
and the reality of the world in which we all live. We can do
that now, and we can also stop criminals in our government from
restriction human rights and freedoms, especially the right to a
high quality education and the freedom to live life without
persecution from criminals in our own government.
Marijuana and Hemp is illegal
in America because our Government is Corrupt and Criminal.
Politicians and Judges are bought
and paid for by Criminals
and Corporations. Pure Ignorance. The
are puppets for corporations and corrupt wealthy people
in power, just like most politicians are. The DEA does not
represent the people of the U.S., they represent ignorance and
the criminal behavior of their puppet masters
American Drug War: The Last White Hope
is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage
in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and
of alcohol including alcoholic beverages
, or a period of time during which
such illegality was enforced. A Big Failure just like now.
is generally a drug or chemical whose
manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as
illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a
Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom. In the United States, the Drug
Enforcement Administration is responsible for suppressing illegal drug use
and distribution by enforcing the Controlled Substances Act, which
regulates both the drugs themselves and certain precursors.
Controlled Substances Act
was passed by the 91st United States
Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and
Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon.
List of Controlled
.Schedule 1 Drugs
a drug that has a high potential for abuse and has no recognized medical
.Schedule 2 Drugs
have a high potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or
physical dependence. Schedule 3 Drugs
may still experience moderate physical dependence or high psychological
dependence, but, in general, Schedule 3 drugs have less potential for
abuse than Schedule 1 or 2 drugs do. Schedule 3 drugs are often prescribed
for medical purposes.Schedule 4 Drugs
are chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low
risk of dependence. Dosage
"What You Should Know About Drug Prohibition" | Learn Liberty
Express "Item 9"
- Students for
Sensible Drug Policy
Schools not Prisons
is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative
social and/or physical consequences
associated with various human
behaviors, both legal and illegal. Harm reduction
policies are used to
manage behaviors such as recreational drug use and sexual activity in
numerous settings that range from services and education.
Anatomy of an American City
58 percent to 30 percent Believe in Legalized Drugs
Legal Marijuana Hasn’t Caused Any Of The Problems Opponents Said It Would
A new report finds that youth use rates and traffic fatalities have
remained stable, marijuana arrests have dropped and revenue is flowing in
by the millions.
Drug testing has tested positive for ignorance
thus disqualifying all drug tests all over the world. The main problem
with drug tests
is that they do not fully explain anything other then they
found a particular element in someone's body.
If we were to have an open and honest public debate
about marijuana, it
would be legal tomorrow.
Five Reasons why Cops want to Legalize Marijuana
UN Office of
Drugs and Crime
International Centre for Science in Drug Policy
Global Commission on Drugs
Open Society Foundations
was first implemented on March 7, 1994. These laws
require both a severe violent felony and two other previous convictions to
serve a mandatory life sentence in prison. The purpose of the laws is to
drastically increase the punishment of those convicted of more than two
serious crimes. The three-strikes law significantly increases the prison
sentences of persons convicted of a felony who have been previously
convicted of two or more violent crimes or serious felonies, and limits
the ability of these offenders to receive a punishment other than a life
sentence. The expression "Three strikes and you are out" is derived from
baseball, where a batter against whom three strikes are recorded strikes
out. Some criticisms of three-strikes laws are that they clog the court
system with defendants taking cases to trial in an attempt to avoid life
sentences, and clog jails with defendants who must be detained while
waiting for these trials because the likelihood of a life sentence makes
them a flight risk. Life imprisonment is also an expensive correctional
option, and potentially inefficient given that many prisoners serving
these sentences are elderly and therefore both costly to provide health
care services to, and statistically at low risk of recidivism. Dependents
of prisoners serving long sentences may also become burdensome on welfare
services. Prosecutors have also sometimes evaded the three-strikes laws by
processing arrests as parole violations rather than new offenses, or by
bringing misdemeanor charges when a felony charge would have been legally
justified. Likewise, there is potential for witnesses to refuse to
testify, and juries to refuse to convict, if they want to keep a defendant
from receiving a life sentence; this can introduce disparities in
punishments, defeating the goal of treating third-time offenders
uniformly. Three-strikes laws have also been criticized for imposing
disproportionate penalties and focusing too much on street crime rather
than white-collar crime.
is not a good teaching method, and
is proof of that.
Commissioner of the Treasury Department's Federal Bureau of Narcotics
Harry J. Anslinger
lied in 1930, which murdered millions.
The War on Drugs is a Failure
The Federal Prison
has increased almost 790 percent since 1980.
Illegal drugs have become cheaper and more concentrated, which suggests
the world supply is actually increasing. According to United Nations
estimates, global consumption of opiates, cocaine and marijuana increased
by 35 percent, 27 percent and 9 percent, respectively, between 1998 and
2008. Amount spent annually in the U.S. on the war on drugs is more than
$51,000,000,000. Drug War
Do people in the US still get
arrested for marijuana?
About 750,000 people are arrested every year for marijuana
offenses in the U.S. About 40,000 inmates of state and federal prison
have a current conviction involving marijuana, and about half of them are
in for marijuana offenses alone; In 2000, a total of 734,497 Americans
were arrested for marijuana offenses, of which 646,042 (40.9%) were for
possession. Although the intent of a 'War on Drugs' may have been to
target drug smugglers and 'King Pins,' according to the FBI's annual
Uniform Crime Reports, of the 1,552,432 arrests for drug law violations in
2012, 82.2% (1,276,099) were for mere possession of a controlled
substance. Only 17.8% (276,333) were for the sale or manufacturing of a
drug. Further, nearly half (48.3%) of drug arrests in 2012 were for
marijuana -- a total of 749,825. Of those, an estimated 658,231 arrests
(42.4% of all drug arrests) were for marijuana possession alone.
Drug War Facts
.Number of people arrested in 2013 in
the U.S. on nonviolent drug charges: 1.5 million
America is the largest importer of
cocaine in the world
. 30 billion dollars go to drug dealers, drug
traffickers and drug
cartels. Trillions are lost annually from lost productivity and
human potential. Authorities confiscate 20 to 50 tons a year coming in, but the flow
and availability of drugs has
steadily increased. Officials are corrupted and people are victims.
Every 18 seconds someone is arrested for drugs. Legalize all drugs, and make
them affordable, high grade and available
from the pharmacist, as long as you have a
medical card and are educated about the drug that you need to use.
China says economic losses from
drug abuse hit $81 billion a year
. China has more than 14
million drug users. As many as 49,000 deaths in 2014. China's
share of synthetic drug users eclipsed heroin users for the
first time in 2014. By the end of 2014, China had about 1.2
million users of methamphetamine, up almost 41 percent from a
year earlier. Drug crimes carry harsh penalties in China, including death or
life imprisonment in serious cases. Punishment does not work,
but improving education will.
According to the ACLU’s original analysis,
marijuana arrests now
account for over half of all drug arrests in the United States
Of the 8.2 million marijuana arrests between 2001 and 2010, 88%
were for simply having marijuana. Nationwide, the arrest data
revealed one consistent trend: significant racial bias. Despite
roughly equal usage rates, Blacks are 3.73 times more likely
than whites to be arrested for marijuana. Number of people killed in Mexico's drug war since 2006: 100,000+
Governments must use science to decide what is illegal and not base it on ignorance
and corruption. You have to look at the environmental damage
caused by the drug, its role in breaking up families and its
economic costs, such as health care, social services, and prison.
Mexico's Drug Violence
has claimed almost 30,000 lives since
President Felipe Calderon took office in late 2006.
So the war on
drugs cannot be fought with laws.
Drug use can only be
effectively controlled by fully educating the public about
addiction and the dangers of drug use, and also by correctly
treating the undereducated victims who have fallen into the trap
of addiction and a perverted distortion of reality that certain drugs create.
In America the prison population is growing 13 times faster than the general
population. We spent $68 billion in 2010 on
, 300 percent more than 25 years ago. Half of the
prisoners released this year are expected to be back in prison
within three years.
More Prison Facts
It seems that
is not being understood. Just like treating
there is no money in the cure
How ignorant can we be? Palliative
is alleviating a problem without dealing with the underlying cause.
(youtube) = Afghan
Opium Poppies Hit Record High Despite $7 Billion US Campaign.
War on Drugs Report
The global war on drugs has failed with
devastating consequences for individuals and societies around
the world. Evidence overwhelmingly demonstrates that repressive
strategies will not solve the drug problem. End criminalization
of drug use and use legal models that would undermine organized
crime syndicates and offer health and treatment services for
drug-users in need, which will lead to better health and promote
economic and social development.
What to say if your Adult Child wants to Smoke Marijuana
I do not indorse drug use or do I condone drug use. I believe that everyone should have a
as long as they are
and follow some
common sense guidelines
and make a
themselves and to the people who care about them. You can smoke marijuana
as long as you do your research
and the different
. This also includes
and other things
that you might
consume. You need to learn
. You need to learn how
monitor your health
accurately. You need to respect other peoples air space.
And you don't use it front of children or use it openly where it might offend
someone. You need to keep educating yourself
and seek out good
. You need to promise
of when it's time to make
changes, especially when things are not having the desired beneficial
effects. You need to promise not to use it when you are operating dangerous
machines or when you are in situations that require your
full awareness and full control of your
. You need to promise
to keep learning about other choices and other options that might be
better for you. And as always, I wish the best for you and that I will
always have faith in you. But please remember that there are no guarantees
in life and that there will always be
I no longer want to punish you
make, as long as you learn from your mistakes and that you explain why the
mistake happened, this way both of us can be aware of this
so that we can both make the necessary efforts needed to avoid repeating this
mistake. And if you like, please feel free to share with me what you have
so that I too can become more educated and
more up to date, and also have a better understanding about you and this
particular drug, for there might be a day when I might need this drug for what ever
the reason. And one more thing, I love
always with all my heart.Everything is
about the Dosage
. So remember that drugs are
not the only danger. Junk Foods
and a bad diet
kill more people
then all drugs combined
. So don't forget
to talk about all the other dangers in life too. Everything should be
scientifically examined. Even micro dosing can not be used everyday. You
have to take a break
and check your baseline
every now and then.
Remember that pot is
like most drugs
, they are not a cure for
. A temporary fix is
just temporary, and can sometimes do more harm then good. Learning how to
be happy and learning to understanding what
is, will be the most
successful way to control your
. It's not a good idea to
to a drug.
Don't fly to high to quickly and
peak to soon
, because you will crash hard, like an hour after drinking a
. It's better to
gradually get high and then slowly come down. And always take breaks and
take days off to reconnect with your
and to do
a complete systems check
It's more than being responsible
, it's about being
You can easily lose
and lose touch
with reality. So please
keep educating yourself
and learn as much as you can. Knowledge and information is where the real
high comes from, not the drug, or any other chemicals that your brain can
not produce on its own.
is to approve of. Judge to be right or commendable; think
well of. Support with evidence
or authority or make more certain or
confirm. Health Benefits from Weed may not be the same
is to excuse, overlook,
or make allowances for; be lenient with. Passive
from the chemical compounds in the Cannabis plant, including
400 different cannabinoids
such as tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC), allow its drug to have various
psychological and physiological effects
on the human body. Different
plants of the genus Cannabis contain different and often
and other cannabinoids and hundreds of other molecules that have a
pharmacological effect, so that the final net effect cannot reliably be
foreseen. Acute effects while under the influence can include
. Although some assert
that Cannabidiol (CBD), another cannabinoid found in cannabis in varying
amounts, may alleviate the adverse effects of THC that some users
experience, little is known about CBD's effects on humans. The
well-controlled studies with humans have a hard time showing that CBD can
be distinguished from a placebo, or that it has any systematic effect on
the adverse effects of cannabis. When ingested orally, THC can produce
stronger psychotropic effects than when inhaled. At doses exceeding the
psychotropic threshold, users may experience adverse side effects such as
anxiety and panic attacks that can result in increased heart rate and
changes in blood pressure.
Why does certain social gatherings make you
want to drink more, eat more and do more drugs
then you would
normally do on your own? You just can't say that you're celebrating. If
you have more self control on your own, then you need to be more aware of
where you are and what you're doing. You don't need a lot of something in
order to maximize your experience. You need to do the right amount at the
right time of day. Anything else is a waste. So don't waste yourself on
social events. When you learn how to be good at something, you definitely
want to be good at something around other people.
Recreational Drug Use
is the use of a psychoactive drug to alter one's
mental state in a way that modifies emotions, perceptions, and feelings
for recreational purposes. When a substance enters the user's body, it
brings on an intoxicating effect, often referred to as a "high".
Generally, people use recreational drugs that fall into three categories:
depressants (these drugs produce a feeling of relaxation and calmness);
stimulants (these drugs give the user a sense of energy and alertness);
and psychedelic drugs (these cause hallucinations and perceptual
distortions that some users find appealing). In popular usage, it is
generally considered to be a tolerated social behaviour rather than a
serious medical condition such as self-medication.
a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of
socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other
commemoration of a special occasion. A party will typically feature food
and beverages, and often music and dancing or other forms of
entertainment. In many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are
associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine or distilled spirits.
is a retail
business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer,
wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and
soft drinks and often sell snack foods such as crisps (potato chips) or
peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs,
may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" also refers to
the countertop and area where drinks are served. (also known as a saloon
or a tavern or sometimes a pub or club, referring to the actual
establishment, as in pub bar or savage club etc.).
Conservative estimates show that 20% of crashes in the US are caused by
. This translates into about 6,761
deaths, 440,000 injuries and $59.9 billion in costs each year.
is a human behavior in which an individual uses a
substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for
physical or psychological ailments.
Let the facts
speak for themselves
. And for everyone else, let there be an
explanation. To call any one drug a “Gateway
” is just an ignorant statement that only confuses the
truth. There are hundreds of legal drugs, and other things in our
world, that can easily be considered gateways to more deviant
behavior. So what we are really talking about is our
. So what came first, the addiction or the
Drugs are not the problem. The problem is our
that never teaches students about addictions.
This is why so many people have
. Whether it would be
an addiction to money, an addiction to sex, an addiction to
food, an addiction to TV, an addiction to fame or an addiction
to power. And any one of those addictions can create much more
damage then any drug could ever do. Yes marijuana opens
New Pathways of Thought
and yes it
Temporally Changes Your Perspective
and yes it's like waking up twice in the same day, except that
you only went to sleep once. But it's not for everyone or is it the same
for everyone. Just like everything else in this world, people
like different things. And you still have to consider the
amount, the type, and the correct time to take it, just like any
other drug or food. And the fact that marijuana has
qualities and also makes 100's different products,
and is Sustainable
, that is what you call "The Icing on the Cake"
and a "Double Bonus". You would be stupid not to grow hemp. That
of course being if hemp were the most logical crop for your area
for that particular time of year. After all we are only talking
about legalizing a drug and not about legalizing stupidity,
which seems to be legal already if you just take a look at our
government. Shaking my head in disgust or SMHID.
Marijuana Research - Wisdom Weed
History of Medical Cannabis
. Cannabis, called má (meaning "hemp;
cannabis; numbness") or dàmá (with "big; great") in Chinese, was used in
Taiwan for fiber starting about 10,000 years ago.
. The history of cannabis and its usage by humans dates back
to at least the third millennium BCE
written history, and possibly far further back by archaeological evidence.
For millennia, the plant has been valued for its use for fiber and rope,
as food and medicine, and for its psychoactive properties for religious
and recreational use.
is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their
Cannabis as a drug
is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant
intended for medical or recreational use. The main
part of cannabis is
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); one of 483 known compounds in the plant,
including at least 65 other cannabinoids. Cannabis can be used by smoking,
vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.
is a term of Sanskrit origin for cannabis (drug), also called
edible preparation of cannabis. It was used in food and drink as early as
in the South Asia. Bhang is
traditionally distributed during the spring festival of
is a slang term for Marijuana.
China the word 'ma
' means Hemp.
name compounds two common Chinese words: ma "cannabis; hemp" and gu "aunt; maid".
Cannabis interferes with the full range of conscious awareness.
Certain sensory processing channels in the brain are temporally muted. So
you don't have full access to high level thinking, which is not all bad,
because new ways of thinking can be utilized, and it can also be good
because it will also quiet the mind to a certain degree. But this is all
relative, because there is so many variables that would depend on the
person, the dosage
and the particular type of substance that was consumed.
Studies on Marijuana - Active Ingredients
Marijuana acts on the body’s cannabinoid system
, which has
receptors all over the brain and body. Molecules native to the body,
called endocannabinoids, also act on these receptors. We don’t totally
understand the cannabinoid system, but it has one feature that provides a
big clue to its function. Most neurotransmitters travel from one neuron to
the next through a synapse to propagate a message. But endocannabinoids
travel in the opposite direction. When a message passes from the one
neuron to the next, the receiving neuron releases endocannabinoids. Those
endocannabinoids travel backward to influence the sending neuron—
essentially giving it feedback from the receiving neuron. This leads
scientists to believe that the endocannabinoid system serves primarily to
modulate other kinds of signals— amplifying some and diminishing others.
Feedback from endocannabinoids slows down rates of neural signaling. That
doesn’t necessarily mean it slows down behavior or perception, though. For
example, slowing down a signal that inhibits smell could actually make
smells more intense. Marijuana contains two main active compounds,
tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, and cannabidiol, or CBD. THC is thought to be
primarily responsible for marijuana’s psychoactive effects on behavior,
cognition, and perception, while CBD is responsible for the
non-psychoactive effects. Like endocannabinoids, THC slows down signaling
by binding to cannabinoid receptors. But it binds to receptors all over
this sprawling, diffuse system at once, whereas endocannabinoids are
released in a specific place in response to a specific stimulus. This
widespread activity coupled with the fact that the cannabinoid system
indirectly affects many other systems means that each person’s particular
brain chemistry, genetics, and previous life experience largely determine
how they experience the drug. That’s true much more so with marijuana than
with other drugs that produce their effects through one or a few specific
pathways. So the harmful effects, if any, vary considerably from person to
person. And while we don’t know how exactly how marijuana produces
specific harmful effects, there are clear risk factors that can increase
peoples’ likelihood of experiencing them. The clearest risk factor is age.
In people younger than 25, cannabinoid receptors are more concentrated in
the white matter than in people over 25. The white matter is involved in
communication, learning, memory, and emotions. Frequent marijuana use can
disrupt the development of white matter tracts, and also affect the
brain’s ability to grow new connections. This may damage long-term
learning ability and problem solving. For now, it’s unclear how severe
this damage can be or whether it’s reversible. And even among young
people, the risk is higher the younger someone is— much higher for a 15
year old than a 22 year old, for instance. Marijuana can also cause
hallucinations or paranoid delusions. Known as marijuana-induced
psychosis, these symptoms usually subside when a person stops using
marijuana. But in rare cases, psychosis doesn’t subside, instead unmasking
a persistent psychotic disorder. A family history of psychotic disorders
like schizophrenia is the clearest, though not the only, risk factor for
this effect. Marijuana-induced psychosis is also more common among young
adults, though it’s worth noting that psychotic disorders usually surface
in this age range anyway. What’s unclear in these cases is whether the
psychotic disorder would have appeared without marijuana use— whether
marijuana use triggers it early, is a catalyst for a tipping point that
wouldn’t have been crossed otherwise, or whether the reaction to marijuana
is merely an indication of an underlying disorder. In all likelihood,
marijuana’s role varies from person to person. At any age, as with many
other drugs, the brain and body become less sensitive to marijuana after
repeated uses, meaning it takes more to achieve the same effects.
Fortunately, unlike many other drugs, there’s no risk of fatal overdose
from marijuana, and even heavy use doesn’t lead to debilitating or
life-threatening withdrawal symptoms if use stops. There are more subtle
forms of marijuana withdrawal, though, including sleep disturbances,
irritability, and depressed mood, which pass within a few weeks of
stopping use. So is marijuana bad for your brain? It depends who you are.
But while some risk factors are easy to identify, others aren’t well
understood— which means there’s still some possibility of experiencing
negative effects, even if you don’t have any of the known risk factors.
Is marijuana bad for your brain? Anees Bahji/TED-Ed
(video and text).
Why Cannabis Smells Skunky
? Researchers have discovered a new family
of prenylated volatile sulfur compounds or VSCs that give cannabis its
characteristic skunky aroma. The plant produces a pungent, skunk-like odor
that is pleasing to some but repulsive to others. The findings open up
opportunities to investigate the molecules for medicinal benefits, the
researchers say. Cannabis sativa L. produces more than
200 known aroma compounds
. Prior studies
have focused mainly on terpenoids -- molecules that range in odor from
fuel-like to woody, citrusy or floral. Different cannabis cultivars have
diverse mixtures of these compounds that contribute to their unique
aromas. However, although terpenoids are the most abundant aroma compounds
in cannabis, there is little evidence that they provide the underlying
skunk-like smell of many cultivars. Skunks use several VSCs in their
smelly defense sprays, so Iain Oswald and colleagues suspected that there
could be similar molecules in cannabis. The team decided to use sensitive
analytical techniques to find out. The researchers analyzed flowers from
13 cannabis cultivars using a custom-built 2D gas chromatography system
with three different types of detectors. Then, a four-person panel ranked
the pungency of the cultivars on a scale from 0 to 10. The most pungent
one, called Bacio Gelato, had the highest concentration of VSCs. The team
identified seven VSCs in this cultivar, some of which were also present in
other cultivars. Five of the VSCs contained the prenyl functional group
and had skunk-like or sulfuric aromas. One compound in particular,
3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol, referred to as VSC3, was the most abundant VSC
in the cultivars that the panel reported to be most pungent. This compound
has previously been implicated in the flavor and aroma of "skunked beer"
-- beer that goes bad after being exposed to UV light. To confirm that
VSC3 was the main source of the skunk-like aroma, the team added it to a
mixture of 10 other major aroma compounds from cannabis, producing a
combined odor very similar to the characteristic scent of cannabis. They
also detected VSC3 in cannabis concentrates, such as those used for vaping.
Finally, in greenhouse experiments, the researchers determined that the
prenylated VSCs increased significantly toward the end of the flowering
stage of cannabis growth, reached a maximum during curing and then dropped
substantially after 10 days of storage. Because the molecular structures
of the VSCs resemble compounds from garlic that have anti-cancer and
cardioprotective effects, the new family of prenylated odor molecules
should be investigated for medicinal properties, the researchers say.
GW Pharmaceuticals has already produced a cannabinoid drug called
Sativex, an oromucosal spray for relieving cancer pain and
treating symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain.
Investigators now announce they have discovered two
substances--cannabidiol and THCV-- in marijuana leaves that can
increase the amount of calories the body burns.
Test results show that these two substances can treat type 2 diabetes
in animals, will hopefully lead to drugs that treat people who
have metabolic syndrome--the combination of diabetes, obesity,
and high blood pressure that significantly increase a person's
chances of having a stroke or heart disease. "WEED" -
CNN, Dr. Sanjay Gupta
A recent study at Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry,
Plymouth University, found that a component of marijuana called
tetrahydrocannabinol or THC
had a mixed effect on patients with multiple sclerosis. Patients reported
up to a 50 percent reduction in pain and an improvement in range of
At the University of Haifa, investigators working with animals
have suggested cannabinoids may be helpful in treating patients
who have post-traumatic stress disorder
, a condition that has
become of increasing concern as many veterans returning from
Iraq and Afghanistan have been diagnosed with the disorder.
the world’s most experienced producer of legal medicinal cannabis. We are
currently the only company in the world producing standardized medicinal
cannabis flos (the whole, dried flower) with a constant composition of
cannabinoids and terpenes. Because of its pharmaceutical quality, the
variety of products we offer, and the possibility to export these
products, many governments, scientists and pharmaceutical companies have
chosen to work with Bedrocan.
Cancer Cure - Cannabis & Cannabinoids
A Doctor's case for Medical Marijuana: David Casarett
(video and interactive text)
is a chemical substance that encourages a
to commence cell
division, triggering mitosis. A mitogen is usually some form of a protein.
Mitogenesis is the induction (triggering) of mitosis, typically via a
mitogen. Mitogens trigger signal transduction pathways in which
mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved, leading to mitosis.
is a substance that inhibits the
growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Some angiogenesis inhibitors
are endogenous and a normal part of the body's control and others are
obtained exogenously through pharmaceutical drugs or diet.
is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from
pre-existing vessels. In precise usage this is distinct from
vasculogenesis, which is the de novo formation of endothelial cells from
mesoderm cell precursors, and from neovascularization, although
discussions are not always precise (especially in older texts). The first
vessels in the developing embryo form through vasculogenesis, after which
angiogenesis is responsible for most, if not all, blood vessel growth
during development and in disease.Antiproliferative
relates to a substance used to prevent or retard the spread of cells,
especially malignant cells, into surrounding tissues.
Run From the Cure - The Rick Simpson Story
Low Doses of THC (cannabis) can halt Brain Damage, study
May also reduce brain damage after a stroke
Reverses Ageing Processes in the Brain
is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors
located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and
, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors.
Known as "the body’s own cannabinoid system", the ECS is involved in a
variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation,
mood, and memory, and in mediating the psychoactive effects of cannabis.
The ECS is also involved in voluntary exercise and may be related to the
evolution of the runner's high in human beings and related aspects of
motivation or reward for locomotor activity in other animals.
is one of at least 113 active cannabinoids
identified in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up
to 40% of the plant's extract. CBD modulates the transcription of over
1,000 genes that reduce
of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid
receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release
in the brain.
Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced
naturally in the body by animals), the
(found in cannabis and some other plants), and
synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable
cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the
primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol or CBD is another
major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different
cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects.
is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the
, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as
hormones. It is also concerned with the integration of developmental
events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological
or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth and development, tissue
function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress,
lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by
hormones. Specializations include behavioral endocrinology and comparative
endocrinology. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in
different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood
rather than into a duct system. Therefore, endocrine glands are regarded
as ductless glands. Hormones have many different functions and modes of
action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs,
and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one
hormone. Thyroid disease is a general term for a medical condition that
keeps your thyroid from making the right amount of hormones. Your thyroid
typically makes hormones that keep your body functioning normally. When
the thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone, your body uses energy too
quickly. This is called hyperthyroidism.
Body and Mind Connections
Cannabidiol - CBD
Research and Real Facts about the Cannabinoids in Cannabis
Cannabinoid Pharmacology: the first 66 years
Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents
(youtube - 1:02:15)
There is a difference Between CBD Oil (Cannabidiol)
and Hemp Seed Oil
. Hemp seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the
hemp plant typically using a cold-press process. This type of oil can
actually be extracted from all plants in the cannabis genus, but only
industrial hemp is used in production. Industrial hemp is used primarily
because they have been specifically bred for seed and stalk. Common usages
of hemp seed oil include: Substitute for olive oil and other cooking oils
in various recipes and in salad dressings. Natural moisturizer to use on
your skin after a shower. Base for various forms of plastic as an
alternative to petroleum. Bio-diesel fuel source (similar to other
vegetable oils). Production of eco-friendly paints. Lotions, soaps and
other skin products. CBD oil is an oil rich in phytocannabinoids that has
a high content of cannabidiol (CBD), a natural component of hemp and other
cannabis plants. Rather than being made from the
seeds of the plant
, it is made from the flowers, stalks and leaves.
CBD has become an extremely popular product in the health and nutritional
products industries, as well as in the medical marijuana industry, as it
can be helpful in treating certain conditions without having to worry
about the psychoactive or intoxicating effects associated with using
marijuana. The types of conditions that can be treated with CBD oil are
many and varied. For example, the product has been shown to help in the
treatment of epilepsy, various inflammatory disorders, depression, cancer,
neurological disorders, seizures and much more. So the primary difference
is the amount of CBD that each contains. Hemp seed oil, although rich in
omega acids, contains very low levels of CBD (typically less than 25 parts
per million or none at all), while CBD oil can range anywhere from 2% to
99.9% CBD depending on product, purity and source.
also known as corticotropin-releasing
factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone involved in the stress
response. It is a releasing hormone that belongs to corticotropin-releasing
factor family. In humans, it is encoded by the CRH gene. Its main function
is the stimulation of the pituitary synthesis of ACTH, as part of the HPA
Cannabinoid Research Society
is the principal psychoactive constituent
(or cannabinoid) of cannabis. It can be a clear, amber or gold colored
glassy solid when cold, which becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. Like
most pharmacologically-active secondary metabolites of plants, THC in
Cannabis is assumed to be involved in self-defense, perhaps against
herbivores. THC also possesses high UV-B (280–315 nm) absorption
properties, which, it has been speculated, could protect the plant from
harmful UV radiation exposure. THC, along with its double bond isomers and
their stereoisomers, is one of only three cannabinoids scheduled by the UN
Convention on Psychotropic Substances (the other two are
dimethylheptylpyran and parahexyl). It was listed under Schedule I in
1971, but reclassified to Schedule II in 1991 following a recommendation
from the WHO. Based on subsequent studies, the WHO has recommended the
reclassification to the less-stringent Schedule III. Cannabis as a plant
is scheduled by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and
IV). It is specifically still listed under Schedule I by US federal law
under the Controlled Substances Act signed by the US Congress in 1970. A
pharmaceutical formulation is available by prescription in the U.S. and
Canada under the brand name Marinol.
fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of
eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential
one of more than 120 identified cannabinoid compounds found in the plant
genus Cannabis. Cannabigerol is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic
acid, the parent molecule from which other cannabinoids are synthesized.
Cannabigerol is a minor constituent of cannabis. During growth, most of
the cannabigerol is converted into other cannabinoids, primarily
tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol, usually leaving somewhere below 1%
cannabigerol in the plant. As of 2017, cannabigerol was under laboratory
research to determine its pharmacological properties. In vitro studies
indicate it has high affinity as a α2-adrenergic receptor agonist,
moderate affinity as a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, and low affinity as a
CB1 receptor antagonist. Other in vitro research shows it has low-affinity
binding at CB2 receptors.
Know the difference between
Make Cannabis Oil
How to make Medical Marijuana Oil
that there are different
and types of
types have high
and others with low THC and higher amounts
You should know the differences between
. You don't need to get high, you can just
take it for medicinal purposes. So you
have to be very aware of how much you actually need based on
your current health and
your current drug tolerance
. If you are
under the age of 18 years you should not take
unless medically needed. Not that occasional use
of small amounts can cause damage, but repeated use of large
amounts of high potency weed can have adverse effects on the
teenage brain because the
, which controls focus, planning,
and efficient action, takes almost 20 years to mature. Be Wise
The Brain Matters
. More Research
Dosage - Micro-Dose - Small Amounts - Big Effects
or microdispensing refers to
precise dispensing of small amounts
drug substance for therapeutic effects. Microdose is around 10% of a normal
, which depends on your
, your past experiences,
your diet, an empty stomach, or any other combination of influences that
could have an effect on your particular reaction. Small doses of a
particular substance may help improve your mood, increase creativity, increase your awareness
and widen your perspective.
It could also help increase motivation, reduce cravings, and make it
easier to meditate or to relax, and it may also
that are happening in the
body, or, it may increase anxiety or not
give you the desired effects you were searching for, because everyone can react a little
differently. So you need to do your own research, and don't expect any miracles. Try once and then try again a
couple of days later. The right amounts at the right times can have benefits,
but wrong amounts at the wrong times can do more harm than good, just like
learning the wrong things at the wrong times can do more harm than good.
So it's not just about
, it's also about the
guidance if needed
. And don't forget to
. Microdosing is also a technique for
studying the behavior of
in humans through the administration of
they are unlikely to produce whole-body effects, but
high enough to allow the cellular response to be studied. This allows the
observation of a drug's pharmacokinetics with a low risk of
. This is called a "Phase 0 study
" and is usually
conducted before clinical Phase I to predict whether a drug is viable for
the next phase of testing
. Human Microdosing aims to reduce the resources
spent on non-viable drugs and the amount of testing done on animals.
Sub-therapeutic is a dose or concentration of a drug lower than that
usually prescribed to treat a disease effectively. Side Effects
amounts, big effects) - Food Chemistry
Vitamins This is why medicine has a
because being able to
is extremely important.
Drugs Buildup in the Body
is to make something less active or
intense and become less in amount.
Adverse effects of cannabis disrupting the formation of neuronal circuits
in the cerebral cortex
- Mental Health
- Know Thyself
is believed to have used marijuana, both to relax and
to focus better for meditation.
Weed Cookbook - Medical Marijuana Recipes and Cannabis Cooking Tips
Marijuana and Alzheimer's
cannabis ingredient could help addicts stay clean. Preclinical
study using rats shows that Cannabidiol
reduce the risk of relapse. So the cannabis sativa plant can
reduce the risk of relapse among recovering drug and alcohol
Cannabis is more of an Exit Drug
for Major Addictions then
it is a Gateway drug to more dangerous drug abuse. Patients can
curb their use of anti-depressants, anti-anxiety drugs and sleep
aids after initiating cannabis use.
Having several versions of the same drug has
. One being that doing different versions of the
same drug can train a person not to need the drug at all. So ask
yourself "What is getting high
?" Once you define what getting
high really means you'll find that getting high has many
versions. But why keep doing the same version over and over
Is the experience that much different each time? Is the high
enhancing your abilities? Or is it lowering your potential and
making you're awareness cloudy and vulnerable? Is the high
delaying you from finding answers? Or is it helping you find
answers? What if you could do the drug just for the medicinal
qualities? Only when needed.
Scans found that daily users of
High-Potency Skunk Cannabis
had a 2% greater
This means that the white matter becomes less efficient in
transferring information. So don't over do it. Drug Scope
improves your memory then maybe you can
cross breed Hemp with Cannabis to make a special Kind.
But besides that, there are numerous combinations of different
types of Cannabis that can eventually be grown
custom just for you, and for what ever the physical or mental need you
may have. So it doesn't have to be about getting high. Brain Food
Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among
sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users
Individuals using cannabis to manage
preferred sativa to indica.
users were less likely than
users to endorse
cannabis dependence. Insomnia
and greater sleep latency are associated with using
higher CBD cannabis. Weekly hypnotic medication use is associated with using cannabis with lower THC.
differently and feeling things differently is a form a learning
But there are
many ways to learn
, so don't limit yourself. Like all things, you
have to do the right amount based on the quality of the product
and your know response to it, meaning you have to experience
something several times and have calculated the correct amounts.
When I smoke weed life becomes fascinating.
You become aware of
things that you are normally not aware of
, your mind wakes up to
expose thousands of other possibilities. In mathematical terms,
normal brains have a well-ordered correlation state. There’s not
much cross-linking between networks. That changes after you get
high. Suddenly the networks are
like crazy, but
not in random ways. New types of order emerge. But you can't do
a drug all the time or do to much. In order to enjoy life you
have to have balance.
wonder how can I repeat these feelings without doing the drug
How can I have the best of both worlds? Before you get high,
examine your state of mind and take a close look at the things
that you're thinking about. Then when you do get high, ask these
questions. What are you thinking about now? And what are the
differences from what you were thinking before? Not just the
thoughts change, but also the emotions and feelings change.
So how much do your emotions effect your thinking
? Can you
think with out any emotion? Try being emotionless and see how it
effects your thoughts. Do it in the morning hours and evening
hours, because there's a difference. Start working on something
before you get high, and then write about the differences
between being high and not being high. Are you more distracted?
Do you have trouble focusing? Do you spend more time repeating
the same action? Weed does not stop you from learning, but
it can slow down learning, which might not be so bad for people
, but that depends of the type and the
amount of weed that would work the best.
is an ignorant phrase
. I'm just doing it for fun because I'm an
idiot with no purpose or reasoning.
A Story about one Persons Experience with Drug use over 40 years
The main problem with
is that there may be no second opinion, no
oversight and no accurate observation that is free from
which could lead to waste, abuse, unneeded suffering, a lack of
control, and possibly death.
I would never say that weed is harmless. Example, weed increases
your appetite, so if you have a problem with
, or have a problem with eating too much junk
food, then weed will make your food addiction a lot harder to
control. So the bad eating habits will do the damage, and not
the weed, but the weed is part of the problem. There's nothing
in this world that is totally free of
. There's always this one scenario where cause and
effect will be more negative then positive. So again, this is something
that we can easily teach and educate people about.
Chasing the High
is when you try to
experience the same feelings that you had previously felt, and you want to
feel good and euphoric like you did before. Sometimes consuming more drugs
than you need or doing more drugs than your body and mind can handle.
Taking more unnecessary risks just to feel good or to feel alive is not a
good plan. Be a scientist and be a researcher, just don't be a fool. You
don't need to burn in order to learn, or to enjoy yourself.
Heroin Overdose Deaths in U.S. Have Tripled Since 2010
than 8,200 Americans—an average of 23 people each day—died of
overdoses in 2013. The RAND Corp. in 2010 estimated that
America’s heroin market was worth $27 billion. That's more than
what is spent in the U.S. at hardware stores ($22 billion) or
specialty food retailers ($21 billion), according to Census
Bureau data. 2016 Heroin epidemic that
kills two hundred people a week.
The Anointed One
is to administer an oil or ointment to someone.
is a semisolid
preparation containing a medicine that is applied externally as a remedy
or for soothing an irritation.
ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body. By
extension, the term is also applied to related acts of sprinkling,
dousing, or smearing a person or object with any perfumed oil, milk,
butter, or other fat. Scented oils are used as perfumes and sharing them
is an act of hospitality. Their use to introduce a divine influence or
presence is recorded from the earliest times; anointing was thus used as a
form of medicine, thought to rid persons and things of dangerous spirits
and demons which were believed to cause disease.
a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the
tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants
Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea,
or simply as the oil of the plant from which they were extracted, such as
oil of clove. An oil is "essential" in the sense that it contains the
"essence of" the plant's fragrance—the characteristic fragrance of the
plant from which it is derived. The term essential used here does not mean
indispensable as with the terms
essential amino acid
essential fatty acid
which are so called since they are nutritionally required by a given
living organism. In contrast to fatty oils, essential oils evaporate
completely without leaving a stain (residue) when dabbed onto filter
paper. Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation, often by
using steam. Other processes include expression, solvent extraction,
absolute oil extraction, resin tapping, and cold pressing. They are used
in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and
drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
CBD Oil (Cannabidiol) and Hemp Seed Oil
also known as aroma oils
, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended
synthetic aroma compounds
natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene
glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil. To allergic or otherwise sensitive
people, synthetic fragrance oils are often less desirable than
plant-derived essential oils as components of perfume. Aromatic oils are
used in perfumery, cosmetics, flavoring of food. Some include (out of a
very diverse range): Ylang ylang, Vanilla, Sandalwood, Cedar wood,
Mandarin orange, Cinnamon, Lemongrass, Rosehip, Peppermint.
How safe is
? You should definitely know who's growing
your weed, just like you should
where your food comes from
, and who your farmer is. I don't trust
, especially when someone says that they tested
Medical Marijuana in Ct. and discovered that the weed is
being sprayed with pharmaceutical drugs. Need to verify.
TOP Golden Buzzer
America's Got Talent
(youtube) - The Bong Hit that changed the world.
"What's that Smell?
That's the smell of
someone's consciousness being altered"
Uruguay Legalizes Marijuana:
A country of
3.3 million (Finally a Country with Brains) - 12/12/2013. -
Cannabis consumers will be able to buy a maximum of 40 grams
(1.4 ounces) each month from licensed pharmacies as long as they
are Uruguayan residents over the age of 18 and registered on a
government database that will monitor their monthly purchases.
When the law is implemented in 120 days, Uruguayans will be able
to grow six marijuana plants in their homes a year, or as much
as 480 grams (about 17 ounces), and form smoking clubs of 15 to
45 members that can grow up to 99 plants per year. Registered
drug users should be able to start buying marijuana over the
counter from licensed pharmacies in April. The legislation is
expected to fuel momentum for wider legalization of marijuana
elsewhere, including the United States and in Europe.
Decriminalization of all drug possession by Portugal in 2001 is
held up as a success for reducing drug violence while not
increasing drug use.
Growing Your Own
Legalizing will free up money, time and resources to help
educate people instead of incarcerating people. Legalizing will
also keep drug money out of the criminals hands who use money to
undermine society instead of helping society, the same thing
most politicians do
. Plus you can't
allow legal drugs that are known to kill and ruin lives while
making other drugs illegal that might offer a better
alternative. Of course no drugs will always be the best choice
but if you have to make a choice let it be without corrupt,
biased and ignorant interference. Legalizing marijuana will not
be popular, but at the least, Legalizing marijuana will not be
corrupt, biased, ignorant, unfair or unjust.
If you are against the legalization of marijuana your are either
a liar, corrupt or completely ignorant. Why is our Government
? Fear and Greed are not reasons to act like
, just because
you believe you have the right. Your prejudice and
discrimination makes you look really
. Maybe you need to smoke some weed because
what ever medication you're on, it's not working. So please see
another Doctor, one who isn't corrupt like you, good luck.
Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Prescription Medication Use
Marijuana Could Replace These 5 Prescription Drugs
Vicodin (painkillers) -
Xanax (anti-anxiety medication) -
Adderall (stimulants) -
Ambien (sleep aids) -
Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other
substances among medical cannabis patients:
The impact of contextual factors
More than 300 economists, including three
, have signed a petition calling
attention to the findings of a paper by Harvard economist
Jeffrey Miron, which suggests that if the government legalized
marijuana it would save $7.7 billion annually by not having to
enforce the current prohibition on the drug. The report added
that legalization would save an additional $6 billion per year
if the government taxed marijuana at rates similar to alcohol
and tobacco. That's as much as $13.7 billion per year. Eatson
guesses that legalizing the drug could bring in $45 to $100
billion per year. This of course does not include growing
which could ultimately save America over a trillion dollars.
Drug Trials and Research
- Prescription Drugs Warnings
recently awarded grants, using marijuana tax revenue
, to help
school districts hire nurses, psychologists, counselors and
social workers — but they did not use any of the money to
improve education, what a bunch of morons. Hey, if you improve
education then you won't need so many nurses, psychologists,
counselors and social workers. That's because people will be
intelligent enough to solve their own problems. You weren't
supposed to use weed profits on stupidity, that defeats the
whole purpose of not wasting money on a stupid drug war. We need
to make stupidity illegal. So put that in your pipe and smoke it.
has been compromised, They can no longer justify the process or explain
their lack of Reasoning
A law without Science
is not a law, it is
only a Menace to the State
ignorant moron would give more power to
human being? Criminals in robes, that's who.
Move to Amend
Another reason why improving education
is so extremely important
is drugs. Pot is great if used correctly, but people to
often abuse drugs, making them more harmful instead of helpful.
If you were to analyze pot for it's chemical compounds and
quantity of those chemicals
, and then do a full physical
examination on your body, you can then find the perfect weed for
your particular body needs as well as the perfect amount to
consume. And you don't have to smoke it, for there are many other
healthier ways to consume pot. That would also apply for cocaine
and heroine. The only problem with these drugs is that people
abuse them and consume way to much, just like some people do
with food, and
of bad foods kills more people then all drugs
combined, and you don't see laws making food illegal.
Cannabis use can be prevented, reduced or delayed
The Cannabis Evolution ProjectThe Research
High-Times Cannabis Cookbook
Yeast produce low-cost, high-quality Cannabinoids
biologists have created an enzymatic network in yeast that turns
sugar into cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol and
cannabidiol, but also novel cannabinoids not found in the
marijuana plant itself. The yeast factories would be more
environmentally friendly and less energy intensive than growing
the plant and separating out the psychoactive and
non-psychoactive ingredients. They may also yield cannabinoid
derivatives with unexpected medical uses. To produce
cannabinoids in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), UC Berkeley
synthetic biologists first engineered yeast's native mevalonate
pathway to provide a high flux of geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP)
and introduced a hexanoyl-CoA biosynthetic pathway combining
genes from five different bacteria. They then introduced
Cannabis genes encoding the enzymes involved in olivetolic acid
(OA) biosynthesis, a previously undiscovered prenyl transferase
enzyme (CsPT4) and cannabinoid synthases. The synthases
converted cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to the cannabinoid acids
THCA and CBDA, which, upon exposure to heat, decarboxylate to
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), respectively.
"Being competent in one area of knowledge does not make you intelligent"
Then there's the
Gateway Drug Theory
. If there is such a thing as a Gateway
Drug it's probably
, or just a bad education.
Weed Information Resources
Just Say NowStudents for Sensible
Global Marijuana March
Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome
is characterized by recurrent nausea,
vomiting and crampy abdominal pain. These symptoms have been reported to
be improved temporarily by taking a hot shower or bath or more fully by
stopping the use of cannabis.
Videos about Marijuana
WHEN WE GROW...This is what we can do
The Union: The Business Behind
Ethan Nadelmann: Why we need to End the War on Drugs
High: The True Tale of American
the Smoke: The Science of Cannabis
Hempsters: Plant the Seed
(Hulu) - Website
Hemp Revolution (1995
Geographic- Effects of Marijuana
Family Feud "Name something that gets passed around"
Anonymous #Op Cannabis April 20th
House I Live In
Canada's War on Weed - Vice
Marijuana Commercial - Weedino
Seed FinderSeed Knowledge
Indoor Growing Kits
grow system fabricator.Outdoor Growing Tips
High Times Presents Jorge
Cervantes: Grow Film
(youtube) everything you need to
know to grow your own
- The grower
would give the plant just plain ph-adjusted water for days or
weeks before harvest time. This lets the plant use up the
nutrients in the soil/coco, and then - theoretically - start
leaching extra nutrients from the buds. They consume the
nutrients they have stores in their leaves.....this process also
contributes to the flavor and smoothness of the final product.
Forum Grass City
plant that hadn't been flushed burn poorly and crackled, formed
a black ash, and tasted like absolute sh*t, a definite chemical
taste. I can't even smoke the stuff and I've saves it for making
some hash oil. The plant flushed for a week was better, but did
not compare to the plants flushed for 2 weeks. These plants
burned smoothly to a fine white ash, and tasted absolutely amazing.
Flushing is free and easy technique
that may improve the
quality and smoothness of your cannabis buds before harvest.
Sounds good, right? Of course it does! But growers must also be
careful with flushing before harvest because if you do it
too early you can actually hurt your quality (and reduce your
yields)! The process of flushing involves giving your plants
just plain water with no nutrients for a period of time before
harvest. For growers who normally give water to their plants
with nutrients in it, you would water your plants as normal with
the same type of water you normally use, but you don't add any
nutrients. Depending on the setup, growers usually flush their
plants this way for a few days up to about 2 weeks. Note: You
still need to pH the water during the flush, because too high or
too low pH can cause your plant to absorb extra aluminum and
salt out of the water! (flowering time, feeding schedule).
Cannabis Festival. Founded in 1987
. Discover the Best Cannabis at brtside.com (youtube)
provisions allow for the exchange
of small amounts of marijuana, so long as it's given away or "gifted" from
one adult to another. (Craigslist ad offering plastic sandwich bags
costing up to $325 apiece, but the marijuana inside the bag was free).
- Cannabis Training Institute
How to know when a pot plant is Male or Female?
Let the plants grow for roughly six weeks before sexing them. You
can purchase "feminized" seeds as well, which usually create close to 100%
female plants. Female cannabis pre-flowers grow as tiny bracts with
hair-like stigma peeking out. Male plants produce small, round balls at
the nodes. Cannabis plants show their sex by what grows in between their
nodes (where leaves and branches extend from the stalk). What starts as a
pollen sac on a male plant or a stigma on a female will become what either
spreads or catches pollen, respectively. Luckily, we can see these
differences weeks before they actually start serving their purposes in the
reproduction cycle. These are known as “pre-flowers.” Pre-flowers begin to
develop four weeks into growth, but they may take a little longer
depending on how quickly the sprouting phase occurred. By the sixth week,
you should be able to find the pre-flowers and confidently determine the
sex of your plant. Pre-flowers can initially be extremely small and hard
to identify with the naked eye, but you can use a small jeweler’s
magnifying glass to get a better look. Examine the nodes of the plant and
look for either the early growth of small sacs (male) or two bracts
(female), which will eventually produce the hair-like stigma. Though there
are other methods to determine what sex the plant is, examining pre-flower
formation is the most reliable. Removing males early on is important for
two reasons: it frees up space in your garden so females grow bigger and
stronger, and it prevents males from pollinating female. When a female
plant develops both male and female sex organs, it is considered
. This means your
cannabis plant is now capable of producing pollen that can pollinate your
entire garden. “Herming out,” as some call it, is something that generally
happens when a plant becomes excessively stressed.
- Marijuana Strain Reviews.
- Wiki Leaf
- Marijuana Strain Reviews.
There are currently over 1,420
Image of some of
A hybrid cross of
Blueberry and Haze, provides a sweet smoke and pleasant high. Pace
yourself with this one, overdoing it can send you to dreamland.
CascadeHigh's Blueberry Haze offers a floral arrangement of terpenes while
delivering soothing and relaxing effects. Crossing Blueberry and Haze,
this strain's killer genetics give Blueberry Haze a dreamy floral smell
and blueberry flavors. On the first hit, relaxation flows through the body
and all bad moods effortlessly melt away. Happy 100% | Uplifted 70% |
Relax 60% | Euphoric 60% | Creative 50%. Relieves
, Side Effect:
Dry Mouth.Sour Kush:
This cross between Sour Diesel and OG Kush from DNA Genetics
is a winning combination. For those looking for daytime pain relief, Sour
Kush might be one of the best choices out there. Providing consumers with
an uplifting experience without overwhelming sedative effects, this hybrid
is great for day-to-day consumption. Sour Kush is slightly
sativa-dominant, igniting a giggly and euphoric feeling. The indica
effects, however, present themselves a few minutes after consumption. This
strain is extremely pungent, so it’s best stored in tightly sealed
containers. Relax 100% | Uplifted 80% | Happy 60% | Energetic and Focus
50%. Relieves Depression. Side Effect: Dry Mouth
An indica-leaning hybrid
with intoxicatingly potent effects. Sunset Sherbet exhibits powerful
full-body effects elevated by a jolt of cerebral energy. A complex aroma
colors Sunset Sherbet with notes of skunky citrus, sweet berry, and that candy-like smell redolent of its Girl Scout Cookies parent. Stress,
tension, and sour moods melt away with the carefree mindset and physical
relaxation that comes with this rich hybrid. Sunset Sherbet inherits the
genetic lineage of its Girl Scout Cookies parent, whose ancestors include
the famed OG Kush, Cherry Pie, and Durban Poison. Crossed with an indica
known as Pink Panties, Heir to the Girl Scout Cookies throne is Sunset
Sherbet (or Sunset Sherbert). Relax 100% | Happy 65% | Euphoric 60% |
Uplifted 50% | Creative 40%. Relieves Stress
is a sativa-dominant hybrid
that balances full-body relaxation with gentle cerebral invigoration that
eases you gently into a calm euphoria. Happy 100% | Relaxed 95% |
Euphoric 75% | Uplifted 70% | Creative 50% | Stress 100% | Depression 80%
| Pain 70% | Headaches 40% | Fatigue 35% | Dry mouth.
also called Purple Jones, is
a hybrid strain that expresses itself in vibrant hues of purple and green.
Its Purple Urkle parent passes on more than just its colorful display and
dense bud structure; deep relaxation typical of indica varieties comes
through, coupled with dreamy cerebral euphoria inherited from its hybrid
parent, Casey Jones. Relaxed 100% | Happy 60% | Euphoric 40% | Creative
40% | Uplifted 40% | Stress 100% | Depression 90% | Pain 50% | Insomnia
35% | Lack of Appetite 25% | Dry mouth 100% | Dry eyes 70% | Anxious 25% |
Paranoid 15% | Dizzy 10%.
Marijuana Breeding Pioneers
Weed's Favorite Strains
The top five strains
average prices 4/1/2014: Diesel ($281),
Kush ($296), Purps ($277), Jack Herer ($360), Haze ($347).
Know what type of weed is good for
Indica is good for
Insomnia and pain relief. The plant is shorter and bushier, born
in the mountains and has high
resin production and a shorter flowering time.
Sativa is good for depression and fatigue.
The plants are taller, prefer equatorial climates and a longer time
Hybrid Marijuana is the combination of Indica vs. Sativa strains
Indica vs. Sativa Medical Marijuana Strain Differences
101: What's the difference between Indica, Sativa & Hybrid?
Know the Grower
Growing Green should be Green
Clean Green Certified
Cannabis Safety Institute
illicit Marijuana Cultivation Cost
should get their strains genetically sequenced and put their
strain data in the public domain
This will help monopoly criminals
like Monsanto from controlling the quality and the availability of Marijuana.
is a type of cannabis concentrate that is manufactured
using a technique that takes freshly harvested cannabis and freezes it to
subcritical temperatures prior to and throughout the extraction process.
Where these methods differ from other extraction processes is in the
amount of time harvested cannabis plants are allowed to dry and cure
before the extraction. The drying and curing process that a cannabis plant
typically undergoes can have a devastating impact on terpenes, the
flavorful factory molecules present within the trichomes that line
virtually every corner of a mature cannabis flower and its surrounding
foliage. With cured concentrates, the cannabis plant is allowed a certain
amount of time to wick itself of moisture and chlorophyll before the
extraction occurs. During this time, trichomes are subjected to conditions
not conducive to terpene preservation. Interactions such as increased
exposure to heat, oxygen, physical agitation, and light all play a role in
degrading terpenes. However with live resin, the plant is flash frozen
immediately following harvest and kept at freezing temperatures throughout
the extraction process.. By doing this, the cannabis plant retains its
valuable terpene profile, thus retaining the plant’s original flavor and
fragrance that can then be carried over into the final product. The
distinguishing factor that separates live resins from other concentrate
products is the elevated terpene content that these extracts tend to
contain. Live resins, on average, carry a more robust terpene
concentration than traditional cured BHO extracts. In addition to
producing a more pungent aroma, higher and more complex terpene profiles
can also deliver an elevated psychoactive experience because terpenes can
interact with cannabinoids such as THC and CBD. Both of these factors have influenced why
have risen to the top of cannabis concentrate market. Fans
of cannabis extracts tend to place a high value on flavor and aroma as
well as effect. Typically, concentrates bearing the name “live resin” sell
for higher premium in the recreational market as a result of this.A live
resin doesn’t necessarily contains a higher concentration of cannabinoids
or terpenes than an extract made using a cured flower. Due to the plethora
of strain types and extraction techniques used to make live resins, a
spectrum of varieties exists today. Products that are labeled as live
resins can often differ in viscosity, ranging anywhere between saps to
sugars, jellies, butters, and even more solid shatters. While terpene
concentration can play an effect on viscosity, oftentimes products are
mechanically altered post-extraction, such as when viscous saps are
“whipped” into butters. There are over 100 identifiable terpenes found in
cannabis plants, all ranging in molecular weight and structure. Many live
resins only contain blowouts of certain lighter monoterpenes such as as
pinene and myrcene compared to their flower counterpart.
are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety
of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects. They often have a
strong odor and may protect the plants that produce them by deterring
herbivores and by attracting predators and parasites of herbivores.
Although sometimes used interchangeably with "terpenes", terpenoids (or
isoprenoids) are modified terpenes as they contain additional functional
groups, usually oxygen-containing. Terpenes are hydrocarbons. Terpenes are
the major components of rosin and of turpentine produced from resin. The
name "terpene" is derived from the word "terpentine", an obsolete spelling
of the word "turpentine". Terpenes are also major biosynthetic building
blocks. Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene.
Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils
of many types of plants and flowers. Essential oils are used widely as
fragrances in perfumery and traditional medicine, such as aromatherapy.
Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids
also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors
used in food additives. Vitamin A is a terpenoid.
is a highly potent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC
and/or Cannabidiol (CBD
) concentrated mass. Marijuana
concentrates contain extraordinarily high THC levels that could once range
from 40 to 80%, up to four times stronger in THC content than high grade
or top shelf marijuana, which normally measures around 20% THC levels. By
2017, distilled concentrate was reportedly available at 99.58% THC
content. Volatile solvents such as ethanol, butane, propane and hexane are
often used to prepare extracts, leading to fire and explosion hazards in
uncontrolled environments. Super-critical fluid extraction using carbon
dioxide alleviates concerns of fire and explosion and results in a high
quality product. Legally produced concentrates for retail sale in
legalized states are often packaged in small lip-balm sized containers. In
states like Colorado, because the legality of the cannabis concentrates
there are heavy regulations on the containers that hold the concentrate.
They must be child- resistant, opaque, and have a multitude of legal text
warning the consumer of the risks of consumption. Along with the
regulation on the containers that hold the concentrate, the Marijuana
Enforcement Division (MED) regulates almost every facet of the cannabis
seed to sale process. This of course encompasses the creation or
extraction of cannabis extract.
You don't have to smoke weed to get the benefits, you can use a
. But it's not without risk. Certain types of vaporizers can be harmful.
- Vaporizer Depot
Best Torch for Dabs
Scientists Lay the Groundwork for a Reliable Marijuana
Heating in vaping device as cause for lung injury, study shows
Nicotine, THC or Vitamin E oil may not be the primary factor in e-cig or
vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Early results of an
experimental vaping study have shown significant lung injury from
e-cigarette devices with nickel-chromium alloy heating elements. Vaping
Study implicates flavored e-cigs in the teen Vaping Epidemic
and fruity e-cigs associated with heavier use.
Illness Main Factors
: The type of vaporizer used? The quality of the
drug that was used? The dosage that was used? How often was it used daily?
And what was the persons health history and other behavioral factors that
may have contributed to any negative side effects from using the product?
Hemp - Biomass Plants - Fiber Crops
What's the difference between
Hemp could build a house and make thousands of products.
Besides food and clothing
50,000 products can be produced from Hemp in the United States
is one of the faster growing
makes better clothing without the hazardous waste that
produces, plus Hemp uses a lot less water then the
cotton process. Clothing made from hemp is naturally UV
protective, Anti-bacterial, 3 times stronger then cotton, 4
times warmer then cotton, 7 times more durable then cotton
And when you use hemp to make paper it last longer and doesn't
yellow like paper made from
. One acre of
can produce more paper then 4-10 acres of trees over a 10 year
cycle. Hemp can take only 4 months to mature while trees can
take up to 80 years to mature.
has also been explored as an eco-friendly
alternative to cotton. Though more difficult to cultivate than cotton, it
produces a silky and soft fabric that is even more pleasant than hemp. Health Benefits
Hemp Legalization in America 2018
Congress just quietly passed a law. The US Farm Bill passed on Wednesday
December 12th that legalizes hemp. The bill defines hemp as an
agricultural product for the first time and amends a major drug law that
hadn't been altered in 50 years. Thanks to the US Farm Bill, which the
House passed on Wednesday in a 369 to 47 vote, American farmers will be
able to plant and harvest hemp, a strain of the same plant species from
which marijuana originates. The bill passed the Senate Tuesday in an 87 to
13 vote, and President Donald Trump has indicated his support.
Hemp farming exploded after the
2018 Farm Bill
passed last December. The bill decriminalized the plant
at the federal level, opening the door for many U.S. farmers to grow and
sell hemp. Over the past year, licensed hemp acreage increased more than
445%, according to the advocacy and research group
. More than 510,000 acres of hemp were licensed in 2019,
versus about 112,000 acres in 2018. CBD
are field crops grown for their fibers, which are traditionally
used to make paper, cloth, or rope. Fiber crops are generally harvestable
after a single growing season, as distinct from trees.
is plant fibre collected from the phloem (the "inner bark",
sometimes called "skin") or bast surrounding the stem of certain
dicotyledonous plants. It supports the conductive cells of the phloem and
provides strength to the stem. Some of the economically important bast
fibres are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance
flax, hemp, or ramie, but also bast fibres from wild plants, as stinging
nettle, and trees such as lime or linden, wisteria, and mulberry have been
used in the past. Bast fibres are classified as soft fibres, and are
flexible. Fibres from monocotyledonous plants, called "leaf fibre", are
classified as hard fibres and are stiff.
is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown
specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of
the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into
usable fiber 10,000 years ago
. It can be
refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles,
clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and
(wiki) - Kudzu
(wiki) - Kenaf
Hardy: Magical Houses made of Bamboo
How is Bamboo Flooring made?
BAMBOO - The industry of the future, now
Bamboo Trading Company
Click System Wood Flooring Explained
(male, female boards
No glue or nails needed, fast and efficient)
Supercomputing Improves Biomass Fuel Conversion
. Pretreating plant
biomass with THF-water causes lignin globules on the cellulose surface to
expand and break away from one another and the cellulose fibers. The
expanded lignin is also more exposed to catalytic fragmentation by dilute
acid. As a result, lignin can be more efficiently depolymerized,
solubilized, and transported out of the cell wall at milder treatment
conditions. Co-solvents allow easier recovery of both lignin and sugars,
making renewable fuel production easier and more cost-effective. Waste Energy
refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so
called lignocellulosic biomass. It is the most abundantly available raw
material on the Earth for the production of biofuels, mainly bio-ethanol.
It is composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose), and an
aromatic polymer (lignin). These carbohydrate polymers contain different
sugar monomers (six and five carbon sugars) and they are tightly bound to
lignin. Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin
biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes all
naturally occurring terrestrial plants such as trees, bushes and grass.
Waste biomass is produced as a low value byproduct of various industrial
sectors such as agriculture (corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw etc.)
and forestry (saw mill and paper mill discards). Energy crops are crops
with high yield of lignocellulosic biomass produced to serve as a raw
material for production of second generation biofuel; examples include
switch grass(Panicum virgatum) and Elephant grass.
is known commonly as intermediate wheatgrass, is a
sod-forming perennial grass in the Triticeae tribe of Pooideae. It is part
of a group of plants commonly called
because of the
similarity of their seed heads or 'ears' to common wheat. However the
wheatgrasses in general are perennial, while wheat is an annual. The grass
is native to Europe and Western Asia. Trials with intermediate wheatgrass,
the product of which is trademarked by the Land Institute as "Kernza
show that it can be grown as a “multi-functional” crop, yielding various
commodities as well as ecosystem
. Whereas annuals such as corn tend to deplete
soil organic matter
and require inputs, a
perennial grain such as intermediate wheatgrass can yield crops while
building soil organic matter.
harvested 47 million acres of wheat and 3.1 million acres of barley in 2015
Hemp Building Material
Houses built with hemp use less
energy, create less waste, and cost less money to heat or cool.
Hemp can be fashioned into fiberboard, lightweight cement
roofing tiles, wallboard and other wood-like materials.
is better then concrete.
Benefits from using Hemp Building
Thermal Mass Insulation,
High Thermal Resistance
High Thermal Inertia, Vapour Permeable (breathable
Negative Carbon, Low Density,
Clean Air, Design Flexibility (adjustable thickness),
Fire and Pest Resistant (NO Termites
Significantly Reduce Co2 Emissions, Inherently Airtight,
No Waste, No Mold
No Dry Rot, Natural Substrates for Plasters, Renders
Low Air Infiltration,
ZERO LAND FILL
S.134 - Industrial Hemp Farming Act of 2015
Industrial Hemp Farming Act
Food Bytes Summit
grows in hot, dry tropical climates around
the globe, and is prized for its high level of nutrients, especially protein.
Alcohol - Liquor - Intoxication
is a drink that contains a substantial
amount of ethanol (informally called alcohol), a depressant which in low
doses causes euphoria, reduced anxiety, and sociability and in higher
doses causes intoxication (drunkenness), stupor and unconsciousness.
Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, and
Harmful use of alcohol
causes more than 5 per cent of the world’s
Alcohol can weaken the immune system
Drinking linked to a decline in brain health from cradle to grave
evidence for the harmful effects of alcohol on brain health is compelling,
but now experts have pinpointed three key time periods in life when the
effects of alcohol are likely to be at their greatest. Researchers in
Australia and the UK say evidence suggests three periods of dynamic brain
changes that may be particularly sensitive to the harmful effects of
alcohol: gestation (from conception to birth), later adolescence (15-19
years), and older adulthood (over 65 years). Globally, around 10% of
pregnant women consume alcohol, with the rates considerably higher in
European countries than the global average. Heavy alcohol use during
pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, associated with
widespread reductions in brain volume and cognitive impairment. But data
suggest that even low or moderate alcohol consumption during
significantly associated with poorer psychological and behavioural outcomes in offspring.
is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl
functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term
alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl
alcohol), the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking
alcohol, is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It
is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic
odor. Its chemical formula is C2H6O, which can be written also as CH3-CH2-OH
or C2H5-OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often
abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol is mostly produced by the
of sugars by
yeasts, or by petrochemical processes. It is an addictive psychoactive
drug (indeed one of the oldest and most common recreational drugs),
causing a characteristic intoxication ("drunkenness") and neurotoxicity
when consumed in sufficient quantities. It is widely used as a solvent, as
fuel, and as a feedstock for synthesis of other chemicals; as well as in
many other minor uses.
Drugs that are legal cause at least as much damage, if not more, than drugs that are
illegal. Alcohol can damage nearly all organ systems
. It is also
connected to higher death rates and is involved in a greater
percentage of crime than most other drugs, including heroin.
The World Health
causes nearly 4 percent of deaths worldwide, more
than AIDS, tuberculosis or violence. Approximately
people die each year from alcohol related causes
causal factor in 60 types of diseases and injuries linked to
cirrhosis of the liver, epilepsy, poisonings, road traffic
accidents, violence, and several types of cancer, including
cancers of the colorectum, breast, larynx and liver.
Alcoholism in the Family Info-Graphic
Cost of Alcohol Abuse Info-Graph
Alcohol kills 40,000 people every year in the U.S
., and Cannabis
has no evidence of directly causing the death of anyone.
Alcohol-related deaths have doubled in recent decades as of
In 2016, more than 3 million people died from the
harmful use of alcohol
, according a World Health Organization
report. The harmful use of alcohol also caused 5.1 percent of the
worldwide toll of disease and injuries.
is estimated to be around 88,0006 people,
approximately 62,000 men and 26,000 women die from alcohol-related causes
annually, making alcohol the third leading preventable cause of death
the United States. The first is tobacco, and the second is poor diet and
is the minimum age at which a person can legally consume alcohol
beverages. The most commonly known reason for the law behind the legal
drinking age is the effect on the brain in adolescents.
Since the brain is
, alcohol can have a negative effect on the memory
. Alongside that, it can cause
, and create
a hormone imbalance
in teens due to the constant changes and maturing of
hormones during puberty. Young people are also especially at increased
risk of injury when drinking alcohol. The minimum age alcohol can be
legally consumed can be different from the age when it can be purchased in
some countries. These laws vary between different countries and many laws
have exemptions or special circumstances. Most laws apply only to drinking
alcohol in public places with alcohol consumption in the home being mostly
unregulated (an exception being the UK, which has a minimum legal age of
five for supervised consumption in private places). Some countries also
have different age limits for different types of alcohol drinks.
Hangovers Cost The Economy $224 Billion in 2006
the U.S kill 17,000 people
in alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents each
year. A small increase in the blood alcohol content increases the relative
risk of a motor vehicle crash. people driving under the influence of
alcohol are referred to as drunk drivers or drink-drivers.
is the act of operating a motor vehicle with the
operator's ability to do so impaired as a result of alcohol consumption,
or with a blood alcohol level in excess of the legal limit. For drivers
years or olde
r, driving with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%
or higher is illegal. For drivers under 21 years old, the legal limit is
lower, with state limits ranging from 0.00 to 0.02. Lower BAC limits apply
when operating boats, airplanes, or commercial vehicles. Among other
names, the criminal offense of drunk driving may be called driving under
the influence (DUI
), driving while intoxicated or impaired (DWI
operating [a] vehicle under the influence of alcohol (OVI
), or operating
while impaired (OWI
Driving Under the Influence
/ Driving while Intoxicated (DWI), Drunk Driving,
Operating while Intoxicated (OWI), operating a vehicle
under the influence
alcohol or drugs (OVI) in Ohio, drink-driving (UK), or impaired driving
(Canada) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a
alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed
by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating
a motor vehicle safely.
Only a fraction of the costs of excessive drinking are paid for by alcohol
. The total harm caused by excessive alcohol consumption is a
staggering $2.05 per drink in the United States, and, of this, the
government ends up paying about $0.80 per drink. However, the federal
government and states only bring in about $0.21 per drink on average in
alcohol taxes, according to new research. This leaves the majority of the
cost of alcohol's harms borne by those who don't drink excessively or who
don't drink at all.
Minimum Unit Price
for alcohol sets a level below which a 'unit' (10
ml or 8 g of pure alcohol) cannot be sold, and the level set by the
Scottish Parliament in 2012 was 50p.Sobriety Checkpoints:
only reduce alcohol related accidents
by 10%. Any moron would know that is an ineffective method for
deterring people from drinking and driving. Only improved
education and a more informed public can stop this drug abuse.
Blood Alcohol Content
also called blood
, blood ethanol concentration, or
blood alcohol level
, is most commonly used
as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes. Blood
alcohol concentration is usually expressed as a percentage of ethanol in
the blood in units of mass of alcohol per volume of blood or mass of
alcohol per mass of blood, depending on the country. For instance, in
North America a BAC of 0.1 (0.1% or one tenth of one percent) means that
there are 0.10 g of alcohol for every 100 mL of blood.
Breathalyzer to check yourself
is the act or practice of forbidding something by law;
more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture,
storage (whether in barrels or in bottles), transportation, sale,
possession, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The word is also used
to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced.
is a physiological state (that may also include
psychological alterations of consciousness
) induced by the ingestion of ethanol (alcohol).
is when you
consume too much
chemical substance, like alcohol, and become
or overly excited with
high spirits and optimism
sometimes depression. Narcotic substances
become poisonous and damaging, especially at
. Too much of a good
thing can be bad.
is the negative behavior and physical effects due to the
recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
at lower doses may include mild sedation and
. At higher
doses, there may be slurred speech, trouble walking, and vomiting. Extreme
doses may result in a decreased effort to breathe (respiratory
depression), coma, or death. Complications may include seizures,
aspiration pneumonia, injuries including suicide, and low blood sugar.
Three Sheets to the Wind
figure of speech
. It's a twist on a nautical term. The sheet is the
line that controls the sails on a ship. If the line is not secured, the
sail flops in the wind, and the ship loses headway and control. If all
three sails are loose, the ship is out of control.
Three Sheets to the Wind
is when the 'sheet' in the
nautical meaning, of a rope controlling the trim of sail. A sail (usually
a jib sail) is said to be sheeted to the wind, when it is set to backfill
(set to the opposite side of the ship from normal use). A jib sail is not
normally kept in backfill position. But in a major storm when a ship must
be kept “hove-to” (kept as much as possible in a standstill position and
not being blown forward) the helm or wheel is lashed to windward, and the
jib(s) are sheeted to the windward side of the ship (sheeted to the wind).
This causes the ship to hold sideways to the wind and waves to minimize
the distance the ship is blown off course during a storm. While hove-to,
the ship is at the mercy of the wind and waves it is being held against,
and the crew has no control of the ship, other than to hold it in place
while it is rolled by waves. As a storm gets stronger, more backfill
counterbalancing is required to hold the ship in position and additional
jibs are sheeted to the wind to maintain the ship at a standstill. When a
ship has three jibs sheeted to the wind, it is being held sideways to wind
and waves in strong storm conditions with very high waves, causing it to
roll wildly from side to side with each wave, in continuous danger of
rolling over or capsizing. Hence 'three sheets to the wind' has been used
to describe a highly inebriated person who is no longer in control, and is
in danger of upending and falling over. (Sheets to the wind, should not be
confused with the idea of sheets in the wind, the latter which refers
simply to sheets that have come loose from their moorings and are flapping
in the wind like a flag - a condition which does not cause a ship to
dangerously roll from side to side, as when one or more of its sheets are
being held in a backfill windward position in a storm.)
Slang Words for being Drunk
Shitfaced, Hammered, Wrecked, Wasted, Plastered, Loaded, Blasted, Totaled,
Toasted, Fried, Pie-eyed, Cockeyed, Oiled, Embalmed, Skunked, Steamed,
Canned, Juiced-up, Jarred, Tanked, Buzzed, Sloshed, three sheets to the
wind, Basted means high and drunk at the same time.
Brain regions responsible for intoxicating effects of alcohol
Research could pave way for future treatments for alcohol use disorder.
The slurred speech, poor coordination, and sedative effects of drinking
too much alcohol may actually be caused by the breakdown of alcohol
products produced in the brain, not in the liver as scientists currently
think. It is well known that the liver is the major organ that metabolizes
alcohol, using the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to convert alcohol into a
compound called acetaldehyde.
, which has toxic effects, is quickly broken down into a
more benign substance called acetate. This occurs through a different
2 (ALDH2). Until now, alcohol and
acetaldehyde, produced by the liver, have been considered important
players in triggering the cognitive impairment associated with imbibing.
Acetate, on the other hand, was considered relatively unimportant in
producing effects like motor impairment, confusion, and slurred speech.
Researchers also did not know which brain region or particular brain cells
were most important for alcohol metabolism. To learn more about the role
played by the brain in alcohol metabolism, the researchers measured the
distribution of ALDH2 enzyme in the cerebellum, using magnetic resonance
(MR) scanners in both mice and in human tissue. They observed that ALDH2
was expressed in the cerebellum, in a type of nerve cell called an
astrocyte, in both human brain tissue and in living mice. The researchers
found that this enzyme controlled the conversion of acetaldehyde into
acetate in the brain. They also found alcohol-induced cellular and
behavioral effects in specific regions of the brain where this enzyme was
expressed. Acetate was found to interact with the brain messenger chemical
called GABA, which is known to decrease activity in the nervous system.
This decreased activity can lead to drowsiness, impair coordination, and
lower normal feelings of inhibition. We found ALDH2 was expressed in cells
known as astrocytes in the cerebellum, a brain region that controls
balance and motor coordination, we also found that when ALDH2 was removed
from these cells, the mice were resistant to motor impairment inducted by
alcohol consumption. Su Xu, PhDHe and his team also found the enzyme ALDH2
in other brain regions responsible for emotional regulation and
decision-making (both impaired by excess alcohol consumption), including
in the hippocampus, amydala, and prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest
that certain brain regions are important for alcohol metabolism and that
abnormalities in the enzyme production in these brain regions can lead to
detrimental effects associated with alcohol misuse. They also suggest that
acetate produced in the brain and in the liver differ in their ability to
affect motor and cognitive function.
Research Society on
serves as a meeting ground for scientists in the broad
areas of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. The Society promotes
research and the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge.
Even Light Drinking increases Risk of Death
. At any age, daily
drinkers 20 percent more likely to die prematurely than less frequent
drinkers. Consuming one to two drinks four or more times per week — an
amount deemed healthy by current guidelines — increases the risk of
premature death by 20 percent, compared with drinking three times a week
or less. The increased risk of death was consistent across age groups.
Just a Few Drinks of Alcohol can change how Memories are formed
Researchers have found that alcohol hijacks a conserved memory pathway in
the brain and changes which versions of genes are made, forming the
cravings that fuel addiction. Alcohol changes the proteins expressed in
the neurons, forming cravings. Just a few drinks in an evening changes how
memories are formed at the fundamental, molecular level.
- Drug Abuse
Heavy drinking may change DNA
-- Leading to increased craving for alcohol.
Scientists discover key neural circuit regulating alcohol consumption
Scientists have known that a region of the brain called the central
nucleus of the amygdala
plays a role in behaviors related to alcohol use and consumption in
general. It's been less known which precise populations of brain cells and
their projections to other brain regions mediate these behaviors. Now, UNC
School of Medicine scientists discovered that specific neurons in the CeA
contribute to reward-like behaviors, alcohol consumption in particular.
Brake Mechanism that helps to Modulate Overdrinking
. A mechanism in a
small brain structure called the bed
nucleus of the stria terminalis
(BNST) that helps sense alcohol’s
negative effects and modulates the urge to drink. When it doesn’t function
properly, however, we lose the ability to perceive when we’ve had enough
in the amygdala the increased glutamate signaling is going to possibly
generate negative emotions, and maybe you start feeling depressed or
anxious, and then that will translate to a higher motivation to drink
coming out of the nucleus accumbens.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
(ERK, for short) is another of
the usual suspects in the realm of addictive disorders. In a mouse model
that carried a mutation in its mGlu5 receptors resulting in their
inability to be activated by ERK, the researchers found that the mutation
had an unexpectedly significant impact on alcohol preference and
characterized by immediate unpleasant reactions after drinking alcohol
The most common signs and symptoms of alcohol intolerance are stuffy nose
and skin flushing. Alcohol intolerance is caused by a genetic condition in
which the body is unable to break down alcohol efficiently.
is due to a genetic polymorphism of the enzyme
alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that metabolises ingested alcohol. This
polymorphism is most often reported in Asian patients. It can also be an
effect or side effect associated with certain drugs such as disulfiram,
metronidazole, or nilutamide. Stuffy nose and skin flushing are the most
common symptoms when ingesting alcohol. It may also be characterized as
intolerance causing hangover symptoms similar to the "disulfiram-like
reaction" of aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency or chronic fatigue
syndrome. Severe pain after drinking alcohol may indicate a more serious
condition. If people are intolerant, some nearly non-alcoholic beverages
may be a problem, similar to alcohol-containing medications, vinegar,
inhalation of alcohol or the vapour of alcohol-containing cleaning agents.
Drinking alcohol first or afterwards together with Calcium cyanamide, an
inorganic compound used as a fertilizer, can cause permanent or long
lasting intolerance (nitrolime disease), contributing together with other
substances to the accumulation of harmful Acetaldehyde by inhibiting the
enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.
Journal of Preventive Medicine
, found that excessive
drinking cost the U.S. $249 billion in 2010, a significant
increase from the $223.5 billion reported in 2006. Over $100
billion of these costs were paid by the government, or us.
is an alkyl derived from methane, containing
one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the
group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many
organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the
methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its
own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight
valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms
are highly reactive and rarely observed.
is any part of a molecule that consists of
two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the
remainder of the molecule by a double bond. The group may be written =CH2,
where the '=' denotes the double bond. This structural element is also
is the entity with the formula OH. It contains
oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry, alcohol and carboxylic
acids contain hydroxy groups. The anion [OH−], called hydroxide, consists
of a hydroxy group.
also known as neutral spirits, rectified alcohol, or
ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin is highly concentrated ethanol which
has been purified by means of repeated
, a process that is
called rectification. In some countries (e.g. India), denatured alcohol or
denatured rectified spirit may commonly be available as "rectified
spirit", but it is poisonous and ingestion can be fatal.
also called methylated spirits or denatured
rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad
tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational
consumption. In some cases it is also dyed. Pyridine, methanol, or both
can be added to make denatured alcohol poisonous, and denatonium can be added to make it bitter.
Beer Effects Info Graph
Alcohol Attributable Deaths (AAD) 2006-2010
The World Health Organization’s Global Monitoring System on
Alcohol and Health
reports that about six people die from
each day in the United States. The
findings are based on data from 2010 through 2012. During that
period, there was an annual average of 2,221 alcohol poisoning
deaths among people older than 15.
Alcohol Drinking can Cause Cancer
Emotions related to alcohol consumption differ by alcohol type.
international survey has revealed that spirits are often associated with
feelings of energy, confidence and sexiness – but on the flip-side anger
and tearfulness – while red wine is the drink most commonly linked to
relaxation, but also tiredness. Almost 30,000 participants who had
reported consuming both red and white wine as well as beer and spirits in
the past year, reveal that certain types of alcoholic drink appear to be
linked to particular emotions. Almost 53% of participants said drinking
red wine made them feel relaxed – an emotion that was also linked to beer
by nearly 50% of participants, and white wine by nearly 33%. By contrast,
spirits were linked to feelings of confidence by just over 59% of
participants, energy by more than 58% and sexiness by just over 42%.
However, spirits were also more likely to be linked to negative feelings
including tearfulness, with almost 48% of participants linking such
tipples to feeling ill and nearly 30% to aggression. Meanwhile, more than
60% of participants said they linked red wine to feeling tired. White wine
was the tipple least often linked to tearfulness, with only 10% saying
they associated it with becoming weepy. Further analysis, taking into
account age and other factors, revealed that women were generally more
likely to report feeling the various emotions on drinking alcohol, with
men more likely to report feelings of aggression. The proportion of
participants reporting the various emotions, both positive and negative,
generally increased with overall heaviness of drinking. Further
differences were found for the various drinks when participants’ age,
educational background and sex were considered. Drinking was found more
likely to be linked to feelings of relaxation and tiredness when done at
home; confidence, sexiness, energy – and feeling ill or aggressive – were
more likely when out. However, the study had limitations, not least that
it drew on a self-selecting group of participants, meaning it might have
appealed to those more likely to take drugs and drink. It also did not
take into account how much participants drank on any one occasion or
whether they mixed drinks, and relied on participants thinking back to how
they felt at the time. What’s more, it is not clear whether the alcohol
itself triggered the emotions, or whether the social situation also played
a role, while the concentration of the alcohol, presence of other
ingredients, and people’s expectations of the drinks could also be important factors.
condition in which the liver
not function properly
due to long-term damage. This damage is
characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue.
Typically, the disease develops slowly over months or years. Early on,
there are often no symptoms. As the disease worsens, a person may
, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin,
bruise easily, have fluid build up in the abdomen, or develop
blood vessels on the skin
. The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become
spontaneously infected. Other complications include hepatic
encephalopathy, bleeding from dilated veins in the esophagus or dilated
stomach veins, and liver cancer. Hepatic encephalopathy results in
confusion and may lead to unconsciousness.
Alcohol-Related Cirrhosis Deaths skyrocket in young adults
Gene could decrease likelihood of developing alcoholic cirrhosis
key finding is a gene called Fas Associated Factor Family Member 2, or
FAF2. There's this convergence of findings now that are pointing to the
genes involved in lipid droplet organization pathway, and that seems to be
one of the biological reasoning's of why certain people get liver disease
and why certain people do not.High Altitude and Alcohol:
alcohol is present in the blood
, it interferes with hemoglobin's
absorption of oxygen
. Because higher altitudes
have less oxygen in the air to begin with, it is thought that the effect
is magnified, so you get even less oxygen to your
amounts of alcohol
can cause dehydration
to your body in a number of ways. Alcohol decreases the bodies ability to
produce anti-diuretic hormones, which is used by the body to reabsorb
water. Drinking too much can also cause an imbalance of cells that
can lead to cramps
muscle pulls. A severe reaction to sulfites can cause pain in the chest,
along with chest. An allergic reaction may also cause pain in various
parts of the body shortly after someone drinks the beverage. If you have a
painful reaction, avoid drinking red wine until you consult your doctor.
experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects
usually following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer, and
distilled spirits. Hangovers can last for several hours or for more than
24 hours. Typical symptoms of a hangover may include headache, drowsiness,
concentration problems, dry mouth,
distress (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea), absence of hunger, light sensitivity,
depression, sweating, nausea, hyper-excitability, irritability, and
anxiety. While the causes of a hangover are still poorly understood,
several factors are known to be involved including acetaldehyde
accumulation, changes in the immune system and glucose metabolism,
dehydration, metabolic acidosis, disturbed prostaglandin synthesis,
increased cardiac output, vasodilation, sleep deprivation and
malnutrition. Beverage-specific effects of additives or by-products such
as congeners in alcoholic beverages also play an important role. The
symptoms usually occur after the intoxicating effect of the alcohol begins
to wear off, generally the morning after a night of heavy drinking. Though
many possible remedies and folk cures have been suggested, there is no
compelling evidence to suggest that any are effective for preventing or
treating hangovers. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation are the
most effective ways to avoid a hangover. The socioeconomic consequences of
hangovers include workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced
productivity and poor academic achievement. A hangover may also impair
performance during potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving
a car or operating heavy machinery.
Histamine is a
naturally occurring hormone in the body that helps to protect against
infections, but it can cause problems throughout the body when produced in
excess. Some foods containing histamine can trigger allergy-like symptoms.
Red wine and beer are considered high-histamine beverages by the British
Allergy Association. If you’re histamine intolerant, drinking red wine may
cause pain in your head, abdomen, skin, eyes, throat and chest. When you
drink red wine, the extra histamine can cause your blood vessels to
dilate, which leads to swelling and inflammation in soft tissues.
Sulfites are commonly
found in red wine. This can cause pain throughout the body if you have
sulfite sensitivity. Sulfites are chemicals used in some foods and
beverages as a preservative. They were banned from use in fruits and
vegetables in 1986, but are still permitted in alcoholic beverages. A
severe reaction to sulfites can cause pain in the chest, along with chest
tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing.
All of these conditions could possibly trigger
anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction that affects the entire
body. If anaphylaxis is not treated, it can lead to serious complications
or be fatal. During anaphylaxis, your blood vessels dilate to an unhealthy
size, causing a drop in blood pressure, increased heart rate and shock.
Call 911 if you suspect that you’re developing signs of anaphylaxis.
Another prime suspect when it comes to a red wine hangover is
(bonus points if you can type
it with the spellchecker off). Acetaldehyde is a noxious compound
accumulates as a by-product when our bodies process alcohol, and it is
believed to be more harmful than alcohol by several orders of magnitude.
Alcohol affects the production of a broad spectrum of small proteins
called cytokines in our bodies. It’s exactly these proteins that help us
fight off inflammation and infections (among other things) by enabling
communication among neighboring cells. And here’s where we come to our
last suspect (but certainly not the least nasty) –
. This is an umbrella term for all sorts of chemical
compounds often mentioned when discussing alcohol. Unlike acetaldehyde
(which is a byproduct of your body’s deconstructing alcohol), congeners
are already present in your booze (Sorry!). There are two ways congeners
get there – either during the process of fermentation (alcohol production)
or they get added later on in the process. In any case, they’re in your
red wine when you drink it. Scientists believe that congeners contribute
to the intoxicating effects of wine (woohoo!), but they also contribute
(if not outright cause) to your most severe red wine hangovers. The more
congeners in your red wine, the stronger the hangover contribution. In
other words, it would appear that the severity of your hangover very much
depends on the poison you pick. Congeners
are what scientists call biologically active compounds, meaning they
affect (drumroll, please) your body or brain, or both. The key ingredient
of every alcoholic beverage is, of course, ethanol, whereas congeners are
found only in trace elements. They are produced as the wine ferments
and/or ages, or they can be added artificially after the fact (to change
the flavor, among other uses). The most common congeners are: acetaldehyde
– the percentage is insignificant until your metabolism starts breaking
down the ethanol from your drink; furfural – often added during
fermentation, serves to inhibit yeast growth; fusel oil – produced during
distillation, contributes to the flavor in small amounts; methanol –
literal poison, metabolizes into formic acid and formaldehyde, both
natural in our bodies, but dangerous in high concentrations; Researchers
have posited a correlation between libations rich in congeners and the
severity of hangover symptoms, and red wines, along with dark spirits such
as bourbon, brandy, tequila, and whiskey, have the highest content of
congeners. Fizzy reds are probably even more dangerous, as carbonation
speeds up the absorption of alcohol. tannins
– textural elements in wine which contain powerful antioxidants, suspected
to have a connection to migraines (the jury is still out on this one).
When alcohol enters the brain
, it causes neurons in a specialized
region called the ventral tegmental area, or VTA -- also known as the
"pleasure center" -- to release
, a neurotransmitter that produces those feel-good sensations,
and tells the brain that whatever it just experienced is worth getting more of.
Alcohol By Volume
Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol)
is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a
given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent). It
is defined as the number of millilitres (mL) of pure ethanol present in
100 mL (3.4 fl. oz) of solution at 20 °C (68 °F). The number of
millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its
density at 20 °C, which is 0.78924 g/mL (105.3 fl oz/gallon). The ABV
standard is used worldwide. The International Organization of Legal
Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different
concentrations and temperatures.
International Bittering Units
. Bitterness scales attempt to rate the relative
bitterness of beer. The bitterness of beer is provided by compounds such
as humulones, or alpha acids from hops used during brewing. During the
brewing process, humulone undergoes isomerization to form both cis- and
trans- isohumulone which are responsible for the bitter taste of the beer.
Likewise, hops contain lupulones, or beta acids.
International Bittering Units scale
, or simply IBU scale, is used to
approximately quantify the bitterness of beer. This scale is not measured
on the perceived bitterness of the beer, but rather the amount of iso-alpha
acids. There are several methods to measure IBU. The most common and
widely used way is through spectrophotometry. In this process, hops are
boiled in wort to promote isomerization. Since the iso-alpha acids are
slightly hydrophobic, a reduction of the pH by adding acid increases the
hydrophobicity of the iso-alpha acids. At this point, an organic solution
is added and the iso-alpha acids shift to the organic layer out of the
aqueous wort. This new solution is then placed in a spectrophotometer and
the absorbance is read at 275 nm. At this wavelength, the iso-alpha acids
have their highest absorbance which allows for the calculation of the
concentration of these bittering molecules. This technique was adopted at
the same time as another method based on measuring the concentration (in
milligrams per litre; parts per million w/v) of isomerized α acids (IAA)
in a beer, causing some confusion among small-scale brewers. The American
Society of Brewing Chemists, in the introduction to its methods on
measuring bitterness, points out some differences between the results of
the two methods: While the results of the IAA methods are practically
identical to those obtained by the [I]BU method for beer brewed with fresh
hops, the IAAs of beer brewed with old or poorly stored hops, and with
certain special hop extracts, can be significantly lower than the [I]BU
figure. Additionally, HPLC, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence
spectroscopy can be employed to measure the amount of iso-alpha acids in a
beer. A beer's bitterness is gauged by its International Bittering Units
(IBU). Your standard Budweiser has 7 IBU, while Avery's IPA has 70 and the
Maharaja, an imperial IPA, has right around 100. Bittering hops get added early on in the boil.
: While the masses are
buying more alcohol from grocers and liquor stores to drink at home, that
hasn't been enough to fill the gaping hole created by declines in
shipments to restaurants, bars and sporting venues that were closed to
slow spread of the virus.
is a person who never drinks alcohol.
is the practice or promotion of complete personal
abstinence from alcoholic beverages.
More young adults are abstaining from alcohol
. Fewer college-age
Americans drink alcohol, compared to nearly 20 years ago, according to a
new study. Between 2002 and 2018, the number of adults aged 18-22 in the
U.S. who abstained from alcohol increased from 20% to 28% for those in
college and from about 24% to 30% for those not in school, say researchers
at the University of Michigan and Texas State University. And alcohol
abuse among both groups decreased by roughly half. However, the study
found that the number of young adults using
, as well as co-using alcohol and marijuana, has increased.
Tobacco - Smoking Cigarettes
Then of course there's
. The biggest killer of them all. Why are
cigarettes legal? Is there any health benefits from smoking? You are
either very ignorant or a criminal. Smoke
Smoking and Mortality
Smoking kills 7 million people a year
and scars the planet through deforestation, pollution and
littering. More than five
million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use
while more than 600,000 are the result of non-smokers being
exposed to second-hand smoke. And the smokers who don't die from
smoking cost the healthcare system billions of dollars. And lost
productivity from smokers cost countries billions of dollars. Wasting
people, resources, energy, time and money.
Unless urgent action is taken, the
annual death toll could rise to more than eight million by 2030.
Nearly 80% of the world's one billion smokers live in low- and
. Consumption of tobacco products is
increasing globally, though it is decreasing in some high-income
and upper middle-income countries. So education does work, no kidding.
When poisoning yourself feels good
then have a serious problem. This is more than an
, more than a disease or
sickness, and it's more than a process of
, this is a clear example
of what ignorance
people. And it's not just our
Schools and Universities
that are under-educating people and
them, it's also our
media tools, our books, our news outlets, and our movies and shows, all of
them guilty of misinformation in the most destructive and in the most
abusive way. And most people are totally unaware that they are being poisoned in their
minds as well as in their bodies.
The Tobacco Conspiracy
of Tobacco - Malawi's shocking plantation exploitation
John Oliver: Tobacco (HBO)
Smoking killed 4.4 million Men and 1.4 million Women worldwide in 2013.
Dangers of Cigarette Smoking
Health Effects of Tobacco
130,000 cases of lung cancer
diagnosed each year are attributed to smoking.
Smoking Changes Your DNA and Increases Your Risk of Disease
DNA Methylation Affects Development of Cancers and Chronic
is a process by which methyl groups are added to
DNA. Methylation modifies the function of the DNA. When located
in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress
gene transcription. DNA methylation is essential for normal
development and is associated with a number of key processes
including genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation,
repression of repetitive elements, aging and carcinogenesis.
Some Academics Quietly Take Side Jobs Helping
Tobacco Companies In Court
. Individual smokers continued to sue and
to this day the tobacco industry remains tied up in hundreds of court
fights with sickened smokers, with family members who lost a loved one to
cancer, heart disease, or other smoking-related illness.
Common Knowledge Defense
the argument that nearly everyone was aware of the dangers, even back in
the 1950s, so people should
. Many of the industry's witnesses lean heavily on the
same Gallup poll from 1954 that indicates 90% of Americans had heard
smoking could cause lung cancer. But Hearing and Learning are two
different things, especially when the
Media and Marketing scumbags
want you to ignore the dangers. And most schools don't seem to care about
educating students about dangers, so common knowledge does not yet
exist. How would you test for that? Just getting the right answer does not
prove understanding. Why do so many
politicians end up working for criminal corporations
after they leave
office?They were supposed to help defend Americans from criminals, not
work for them?
Effect of Nicotine Use
results when exhaled smoke gets on surfaces
-- clothing, hair, etc. THS has been shown, in mice, to damage
the liver and lungs, complicate wound-healing and cause
hyperactivity. Add to this list type 2 diabetes.
is the inhalation of smoke, called secondhand
, or environmental tobacco smoke, by persons other than the
intended "active" smoker. It occurs when tobacco smoke enters an
environment, causing its inhalation by people within that environment.
Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke causes disease, disability, and
. The health risks of secondhand smoke are a matter of scientific
consensus. These risks have been a major motivation for smoke-free laws in
workplaces and indoor public places, including restaurants, bars and night
clubs, as well as some open public spaces. Concerns around secondhand
smoke have played a central role in the debate over the harms and
regulation of tobacco products. Since the early 1970s, the tobacco
industry has viewed public concern over secondhand smoke as a serious
threat to its business interests. Harm to bystanders was perceived as a
motivator for stricter regulation of tobacco products. Despite the
industry's awareness of the harms of secondhand smoke as early as the
1980s, the tobacco industry coordinated a scientific controversy with the
purpose of stopping regulation of their products.
is the process of discontinuing
tobacco smoking. Smoking is the leading
preventable cause of death worldwide. Within 20 minutes after quitting
, blood pressure
and heart rate decrease. Within 12 hours
, carbon monoxide
levels in the blood decrease to normal. Within 48 hours
nerve endings and sense of smell and taste both start
recovering. Within 3 months
, circulation and lung function
improve. Within 9 months
, there are decreases in cough and
shortness of breath. Within 1 year
, the risk of coronary
heart disease is cut in half. Within 5 years
, the risk of
stroke falls to the same as a non-smoker, and the risks of many
cancers (mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, cervix) decrease
significantly. Within 10 years
the risk of dying from lung cancer is cut in half, and the risks of larynx and pancreas
cancers decrease. Within 15 years
, the risk of coronary heart
disease drops to the level of a non-smoker; lowered risk for
developing COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
Tobacco Crop Insurance Scams
. Between the years of 1997 and 2003,
tobacco farmers swindled the government and insurance companies out of
more than $9 million in bogus insurance claims. The farmer reports to the
insurance company that they planted 10 or even 100 acres of tobacco. Then
the farmer does a really bad job of farming on purpose so they don’t incur
very many costs, they put in half the seed and put in half the fertilizer.
They sometimes even just throw some seeds onto the hillside with half a
stand. Then, sometime in the summer, the farmer reports that the weather
was bad and tells the insurance company that there was a hailstorm or the
climate was too dry, or too wet, or the field was too flooded, and the
crops were destroyed.
100 Reasons to Quit Tobacco
1. Smokers have a greater risk of
developing a severe case and dying from COVID-19.
Tobacco affects your looks almost immediately
2. Everything stinks! From your skin, to your whole house, your clothes,
and your fingers and breath.
3. Tobacco causes teeth to yellow and
creates excess dental plaque.
4. Smoking tobacco and the use of
smokeless tobacco cause bad breath.
5. Tobacco makes your skin wrinkly,
making you look older faster. Smoking prematurely ages the skin by wearing
away proteins that give the skin elasticity, depleting it of vitamin A and
restricting blood flow.
6. These wrinkles are more apparent around the
lips and eyes and tobacco also makes skin leathery and dry.
smoking increases the risk of developing psoriasis, a noncontagious
inflammatory skin condition that leaves itchy, oozing red patches all over
the body. Tobacco threatens the health of your
friends and family – not just you
8. Over 1 million people die
every year from exposure to second-hand smoke.
9. Non-smokers exposed
to second-hand smoke are at risk of developing lung cancer.
Cigarettes remain an important cause of accidental fires and resulting
11. E-cigarettes also expose non-smokers and bystanders to
nicotine and other harmful chemicals.
12. Being exposed to second-hand
smoke may increase the risk of progression from tuberculosis infection to
13. Being exposed to second-hand smoke is associated
with type 2 diabetes.
Smoking or using e-cigarettes around children
compromises their health and safety
14. Smokers’ children suffer
reduced lung function, which continues to affect them in the form of
chronic respiratory disorders in adulthood.
15. Exposure of children
to e-cigarette liquid continues to pose serious risks. There is a risk of
the devices leaking, or of children swallowing the liquid.
E-cigarettes have been known to cause serious injuries, including burns,
through fires and explosions.
17. School-aged children exposed to the
harmful effects of second-hand smoke are also at risk for asthma through
inflammation of the airways to the lungs.
18. Children under 2 years of
age who are exposed to second-hand smoke in the home could get middle-ear
disease possibly leading to hearing loss and deafness.
smoking decreases the risk of many diseases related to second-hand smoke
in children, such as respiratory diseases (e.g., asthma) and ear
infections.Tobacco use has negative social
20. You want to be a good example for your kids,
friends, and loved ones.
21. Tobacco use can affect social
interactions and relationships negatively.
22. Quitting means there are
no restrictions on where you can go – you can mingle socially, without
feeling isolated or having to go outside to smoke.
23. Quitting can
make you more productive – you won’t have to stop what you are doing to
have a smoke all the time.
It’s expensive - you could be spending your
money on more important things
24. One study found that smokers burn
through an average of $1.4 million in personal costs, includes spending on
cigarettes, medical costs and lower wages brought on by smoking and
exposure to secondhand smoke.
25. Tobacco use affects the health and
productivity of workers making them prone to missed days at work.
Tobacco use contributes to poverty by diverting household spending from
basic needs such as food and shelter to tobacco.
27. Tobacco use
burdens the global economy with an estimated US$ 1.4 trillion in
healthcare costs for treating the diseases caused by tobacco and lost
human capital from tobacco-attributable sickness and death.
All forms of tobacco are deadly.
Every year, over 8 million people die from tobacco.
32. Tobacco kills
half of its users. Use of tobacco in any form robs you of your health and
causes debilitating diseases.
33. Smoking shisha is just as harmful as
other forms of tobacco use.
34. Chewing tobacco can cause mouth cancer,
tooth loss, brown teeth, white patches and gum disease.
nicotine in smokeless tobacco is more easily absorbed than by smoking
cigarettes enhancing its addictiveness.
When you buy tobacco, you are
financially supporting an industry that exploits farmers and children and
pedals sickness and death.
36. Tobacco growers are exposed to ill
health by nicotine that is absorbed through the skin, as well as exposure
to heavy pesticides and exposure to tobacco dust.
37. In some
countries, children are employed in tobacco farming, which impacts not
only their health, but also their ability to attend school.
use can worsen poverty since tobacco users are at much higher risk of
falling ill and dying prematurely of cancers, heart attacks, respiratory
diseases or other tobacco-related diseases, depriving families of
much-needed income and imposing additional costs for health care.
The vast majority employed in the overall tobacco sector earn very little,
while the big tobacco companies reap enormous profits.
Heated tobacco products are harmful to health.
40. Heated tobacco products (HTPs) expose users to toxic emissions many of
which can cause cancer.
41. Heated tobacco products are themselves
tobacco products, therefore, switching from conventional tobacco products
to HTPs does not equal quitting.
42. There is insufficient evidence to
support the claim that heated tobacco products (HTPs) are less harmful
relative to conventional cigarettes
E-cigarettes are harmful to health
and not safe
43. Children and adolescents who use e-cigarettes at least
double their chance of smoking cigarettes later in life.
E-cigarette use increases your risk of heart disease and lung disorders.
45. Nicotine in e-cigarettes is a highly addictive drug that can damage
children’s developing brains.
46. Tobacco use is responsible for 25% of
all cancer deaths globally.
47. Smokers are up to 22 times more likely
to develop lung cancer in their lifetime than non-smokers. Tobacco smoking
is the primary cause of lung cancer, causing over two thirds of lung
cancer deaths globally.
48. One in five tobacco smokers will develop
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in their lifetime, especially
people who start smoking during their childhood and teenage years, since
tobacco smoke significantly slows lung growth and development.
Smoking can exacerbate asthma in adults, restricting their activity,
contributing to disability and increasing the risk of severe asthma
attacks requiring emergency care.
50. Tobacco smoking more than doubles
the risk of transforming tuberculosis from a latent state to an active
state, and is also known to worsen the natural progression of the disease.
About one quarter of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis.
51. Just a few cigarettes a day, occasional smoking, or exposure to
second-hand smoke increase the risk of heart disease.
smokers have up to twice the risk of stroke and a fourfold increased risk
of heart disease.
53. Tobacco smoke damages the arteries of the heart,
causing the build-up of plaque and development of blood clots, thereby
restricting blood flow and eventually leading to heart attacks and
54. Use of nicotine and tobacco products increases the risk of
cardiovascular disease.Tobacco causes over 20
types of cancer.
55. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use cause
oral cancer, cancers of the lips, throat (pharynx and larynx) and
56. Surgical removal of the cancerous larynx can lead to
the need for tracheostomy, the creation of a hole in the neck and windpipe
that allows the patient to breathe.
57. Smokers are at a significantly
higher risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia; cancer of the nasal and
paranasal sinus cavities; colorectal, kidney, liver, pancreatic, stomach
or ovarian cancer; and cancer of the lower urinary tract (including the
bladder, ureter and renal pelvis).
58. Some studies have also
demonstrated a link between tobacco smoking and an increased risk of
breast cancer, particularly among heavy smokers and women who start
smoking before their first pregnancy.
59. Smoking is also known to
increase the risk of cervical cancer in women infected with human
Smokers are more likely to lose their vision and
60. Smoking causes many eye diseases which, if left untreated,
can lead to permanent vision loss.
61. Smokers are more likely than
non-smokers to develop age-related macular degeneration, a condition that
results in irreversible vision loss.
62. Smokers also have a higher
risk of cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens that blocks light.
Cataracts cause vision impairment, and surgery is the only option to
63. Some evidence suggests that smoking also causes
glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure in the eye and can damage
64. Adult smokers are more likely to suffer hearing loss.
Tobacco harms almost every organ of the body.
65. Lifelong tobacco smokers lose at least 10 years of life on average.
66. With every puff of a cigarette, toxins and carcinogens are
delivered to the body, at least 70 of the chemicals are known to cause
67. The risk of developing diabetes is higher in smokers.
68. Smoking is a risk factor for dementia, a group of disorders that
result in mental decline.
69. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common
form of dementia, and an estimated 14% of Alzheimer’s cases globally can
be attributed to smoking.
70. Women who smoke are more likely to
experience painful menstruation and more severe menopausal symptoms.
71. Menopause occurs 1–4 years earlier in female smokers because smoking
reduces the production of eggs in the ovaries, resulting in a loss of
reproductive function and subsequent low estrogen levels.
smoke reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body’s tissues.
Tobacco use restricts blood flow which, if left untreated, can lead to
gangrene (death of body tissue) and amputation of affected areas.
Tobacco use increases the risk of periodontal disease, a chronic
inflammatory disease that wears away at the gums and destroys the jawbone,
leading to tooth loss.
75. Tobacco smokers are at significantly higher
risk than non-smokers for post-surgical complications.
smokers are harder to wean off mechanical ventilation. This often
lengthens their intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital stay,
potentially exposing them to other infection.
77. Smokers are likely to
experience gastrointestinal disorders, such as stomach ulcers,
inflammatory bowel disease, associated with abdominal cramps, persistent
diarrhea, fever and rectal bleeding, and cancers of the gastrointestinal
78. Smokers are more likely to lose bone density, fracture more
easily and experience serious complications, such as delayed healing or
failure to heal.
79. Components of tobacco smoke weaken the immune
system, putting smokers at risk of pulmonary infections.
with a genetic predisposition to autoimmune disorders are at an increased
risk of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease,
bacterial meningitis, postsurgical infection, and cancers.
also puts immune-compromised individuals, such as those living with cystic
fibrosis, multiple sclerosis or cancer, at a higher risk of
disease-related comorbidities and premature death.
immunosuppressive effects of tobacco put people living with HIV at an
increased risk of developing AIDS. Among HIV-positive smokers, the average
length of life lost is 12.3 years, more than double the number of years
lost by HIV-positive non-smokers.Tobacco and
nicotine use harm your baby.
83. Tobacco use and exposure to
tobacco smoke during pregnancy increase the risk for fetal death.
Women who smoke or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy are
at an increased risk of miscarriage.
85. Stillbirths (the delivery of
fetuses that have died in the womb) are also more common owing to fetal
oxygen deprivation and placental abnormalities induced by carbon monoxide
in tobacco smoke and by nicotine in tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco.
86. Smokers are at higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, a potentially
fatal complication for the mother in which the fertilized egg attaches
outside the uterus.
87. Smoking cessation and protection from exposure
to second-hand smoke are especially important for women of reproductive
age planning to become pregnant and during pregnancy.
pose significant risks to pregnant women who use them, as they can damage
the growing fetus.
89. Infants born to women who smoke, use smokeless
tobacco, or are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy have a
higher risk of preterm birth and low birth weight.
Tobacco pollutes the environment
Governments and local authorities pay to clean up tobacco waste, not the
tobacco companies themselves. Quit tobacco to protect the environment.
91. Cigarette butts are among the most commonly discarded piece of waste
globally and are the most frequent item of litter picked up on beaches and
water edges worldwide.
92. Hazardous substances have been identified
in cigarette butts – including arsenic, lead, nicotine and formaldehyde.
These substances are leached from discarded butts into aquatic
environments and soil.
93. Tobacco smoke can measurably contribute to
air pollution levels in a city.
94. A single tobacco smoker could
contribute over 24,000 metric tons of methane or 5 million metric tons of
carbon dioxide to the planet per year.
95. Most cigarettes are lit
using matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for example, one wooden match is
used to light two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes smoked globally
each year would require the destruction of about nine million trees to
produce three trillion matches.
96. E-cigarettes and heated tobacco
products may contain batteries that require special disposal as well as
chemicals, packaging and other non-biodegradable materials.
Currently, the majority of plastic e-cigarette liquid cartridges are not
reusable or recyclable – transnational companies tend to sell disposable
ones, presumably to boost sales via repeat customers.
production emissions are estimated to equate 3 million transatlantic
99. Tobacco smoke contains three kinds of greenhouse gases:
carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides and pollutes indoor and outdoor
100. Worldwide, approximately 200 000 hectares are for
tobacco agriculture and curing each year.
101. Deforestation for
tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – including
loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water pollution and
increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
102. Tobacco growing usually
involves substantial use of chemicals – including pesticides, fertilizers
and growth regulators. These chemicals may affect drinking water sources
as a result of run-off from tobacco growing areas.
103. For every 300
cigarettes produced (roughly 1.5 cartons), one tree is required to cure
the tobacco leaf alone.
104. With 6 trillion cigarettes manufactured
annually, about 300 billion packages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) are
made for tobacco products. Assuming each empty pack weighs about six
grams, this amounts to about 1 800 000 tonnes of packaging waste, composed
of paper, ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste from cartons and boxes
used for distribution and packing brings the total annual solid
post-consumption waste to at least 2 000 000 tonnes.
smoking is still the single greatest cause of lung
, which is why screening recommendations apply only to
current and former smokers and why 84% of U.S. women and 90% of U.S. men
with a new diagnosis of lung cancer have ever smoked, according to a study
published in December in JAMA Oncology. Still, 12% of U.S. lung cancer
patients are never-smokers.Tobacco causes 8 million deaths every year
The benefits of quitting tobacco are almost immediate. After just 20
minutes of quitting smoking, your heart rate drops. Within 12 hours, the
carbon monoxide level in your blood drops to normal. Within 2-12 weeks,
your circulation improves and lung function increases. Within 1-9 months,
coughing and shortness of breath decrease. Within 5-15 years, your stroke
risk is reduced to that of a non-smoker. Within 10 years, your lung cancer
death rate is about half that of a smoker. Within 15 years, your risk of
heart disease is that of a non-smoker. If that’s not enough here are a few
more reasons! New Gadget to help you Quit Smoking
- The Whitest Kids
U' Know - Nic-O-Dick
Prescription Drugs - Pills - Opioids
We have an Epidemic of Prescription Drug Abuse and Deaths
Prescription overdoses kill
more people than heroin and cocaine
. Teen Drug Overdoses
Doubled From 1999 to 2015, CDC Reveals.
70K opioid-related deaths likely went unreported due to incomplete death
. Several states are likely dramatically underestimating
the effect of opioid-related deaths because of
incomplete death certificate
, with Pennsylvania leading the pack, according to a new
In Your Face Illegal Activity.
Too Many Meds
.The Foster Care System
Is flooded with children of the opioid epidemic. So this is not just about
all the deaths from pharmaceuticals.81,000
drug overdose deaths occurred in the United States in the 12 months ending
in May 2020
highest number of overdose deaths ever recorded in a 12-month period
according to recent provisional data from the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC). Synthetic opioids, primarily illicitly manufactured
fentanyl, appear to be the primary driver of the increases in overdose
deaths, increasing 38.4 percent from the 12-month period leading up to
June 2019 compared with the 12-month period leading up to May 2020. U.S. Sees Deadly
Drug Overdose Spike During Pandemic
. Because the U.S. government
doesn't collect comprehensive overdose data, the
Overdose Detection Mapping
reports — based on information submitted by more
than 1,200 agencies nationwide — offer the best snapshot of how the
affecting Americans at risk of drug overdose. Nationally, in 2018, there
were over 67,000 drug overdose deaths with opioids representing nearly 70%
of all overdose deaths. 67% of all opioid-involved overdose deaths
involved synthetic opioids.
Overdose Opioid Help
deaths) - 70,000 overdoses in 2017
Drug Overdose Deaths
Manufactured Opioid Crisis - The Hidden History of The Heroin Pushers
The Real Cost Of The Opioid Epidemic: An Estimated $179 Billion In Just 1
Scumbags in the justice system are holding families
for drug over doses
but not the the pharm companies
made the pain drugs extremely addictive. Pharm companies didn't have to
make pain medicine extremely addictive, they only did it for the money,
like most criminals do.
DEA attacks pharmacies trying to dispense addiction medicine
halves the risk of overdose and doubles people's chances of entering
, a controlled substance sold under the brand names
, is a medication to treat opioid use disorder. Research shows
it halves the risk of overdose and doubles people's chances of entering
long-term recovery. The Drug Enforcement Administration raided Njoku's
pharmacy and accused the facility of contributing to the opioid epidemic
rather than curbing it. The agency revoked the pharmacy's registration to
dispense controlled substances, claiming it posed an "imminent danger to
public health and safety." Although two judges separately ruled in Njoku's
favor, the DEA's actions effectively shuttered his business. "I lost
everything that I worked for." Drug overdose deaths hit record highs last
year, and despite medical experts considering medications like
buprenorphine the gold standard, less than 20% of people with opioid use
disorder typically receive them. The federal government has taken steps to
increase the number of clinicians who prescribe buprenorphine, but many
patients struggle to get those prescriptions filled. A recent study found
that 1 in 5 U.S. pharmacies do not provide buprenorphine.
was named after Rep. Tom Marino, a Pennsylvania Republican
who is now President Trump’s nominee to become the nation’s next drug
czar. The bill weakened the DEA’s ability to go
after drug distributors
, even as opioid-related deaths continue to
rise. In April 2016, at the height of the deadliest drug epidemic in U.S.
history, amid a targeted lobbying effort by drug companies, congress
effectively stripped the Drug Enforcement
Administration of its most potent weapon against large drug companies
suspected of spilling prescription narcotics onto the nation’s streets
By 2016, the opioid war had claimed 200,000 lives, more than three times
the number of U.S. military deaths in the Vietnam War. Overdose deaths
continue to rise. There is no end in sight. A handful of members of
Congress, allied with the nation’s major drug distributors, prevailed upon
the DEA and the Justice Department to agree to a more industry-friendly
law, undermining efforts to stanch the flow of pain pills, according to an
investigation by The Washington Post and “60 Minutes.” The DEA had opposed
the effort for years. The law was the crowning achievement of a
multifaceted campaign by the drug industry to weaken aggressive DEA
enforcement efforts against drug distribution companies that were
supplying corrupt doctors and pharmacists who peddled narcotics to the
black market. The industry worked behind the scenes with lobbyists and key
members of Congress, pouring more than a million dollars into their
election campaigns. The chief advocate of the law that hobbled the DEA was
Rep. Tom Marino, a Pennsylvania Republican who is now President Trump’s
nominee to become the nation’s next drug czar. Marino spent years trying
to move the law through Congress. It passed after Sen. Orrin G. Hatch
(R-Utah) negotiated a final version with the DEA. For years, some drug
distributors were fined for repeatedly ignoring warnings from the DEA to
shut down suspicious sales of hundreds of millions of pills, while they
racked up billions of dollars in sales. The new law makes it virtually
impossible for the DEA to freeze suspicious narcotic shipments from the
companies, according to internal agency and Justice Department documents
and an independent assessment by the DEA’s chief administrative law judge
in a soon-to-be-published law review article. That powerful tool had
allowed the agency to immediately prevent drugs from reaching the street.
Political action committees representing the industry contributed at least
$1.5 million to the 23 lawmakers who sponsored or co-sponsored four
versions of the bill, including nearly $100,000 to Marino and $177,000 to
Hatch. Overall, the drug industry spent $102 million lobbying Congress on
the bill and other legislation between 2014 and 2016, according to
are those intoxicating drugs which are either completely legal
or not commonly prohibited by various drug laws. The most widely consumed
legal intoxicant is alcohol
is the use of pharmaceutical drugs
or in an unapproved
age group, dosage, or route of administration. Both prescription drugs and
(OTCs) can be used in off-label ways, although
most studies of off-label use focus on prescription drugs. Off-label use
is generally legal unless it violates ethical guidelines or safety
regulations. The ability to prescribe drugs for uses beyond the officially
approved indications is commonly used to good effect by healthcare
providers. For example, methotrexate is commonly used off-label because
its immunomodulatory effects relieve various disorders. However, off-label
use can entail health risks and differences in legal liability.
of pharmaceuticals for off-label use is usually prohibited
scumbag pharmaceutical companies think
they are above the law
is an opioid used as a pain medication and together with other medications
for anesthesia. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and
approved for medical use in the United States in 1968. In 2015, 1,600
kilograms (3,500 lb) were used in healthcare globally. As of 2017,
fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. In 2016,
it was the 218th most prescribed medication
in the United States, with
more than 2 million prescriptions. Only 2 milligrams of fentanyl is a
lethal dose for most people. Many overdose deaths were due to illegally
made fentanyl where the person is not aware that they are taking the drug.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
(wiki) - Companies are guilty of overstating or
exaggerating the benefits and while
the risks and
dangers.Transmucosal Immediate Release
(TIRF) Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
program is an FDA-required program designed to ensure informed
before initiating treatment, and while patients are treated to ensure
appropriate use of TIRF medicines. The purpose of the TIRF REMS Access
program is to mitigate the risk of misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose and
serious complications due to medication errors with the use of TIRF
is sold under the brand names
and Sufenta, is a synthetic opioid analgesic drug
approximately 5 to 10 times more potent than its parent drug, fentanyl,
and 500 times as potent as
, which is a
pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number
of plants and animals.Reducing Addiction
In 2012 alone, more than twice as many people died from prescription narcotic overdoses
as died from heroin in certain states. Most people addicted to
prescription painkillers don't move on to heroin, but three out of four
new heroin users began by using narcotic painkillers.
Opioid Prescriptions Decreased In States With
Legalized Marijuana.Doctors Reduced
Opioid Prescriptions After Learning a Patient Overdosed
confronted with information about patient deaths by opioid overdose became
more careful in prescribing the painkillers once they learned the risks
first-hand. A new study shows many clinicians do not know about patient
overdose deaths once they leave their care. Overcoming the disconnect by
sharing news of losing a patient makes the opioid crisis more personal and
leads doctors to reduce.
But despite increased attention to opioid
abuse, prescriptions have remained relatively unchanged for many US
patients.Babies Born Addicted to Drugs
has increased substantially—500 percent—in the last half decade or so.
A child is born
with NAS about every
half hour in the U.S. that one baby is born addicted to some sort of
opiate every hour in the U.S. and that 13,539 babies are born with NAS [Neo-Natal
] each year.
A new study conducted by the University of Michigan
and published in
the Journal of the American Medical Association finds that the number of
babies born with addictions to prescription painkillers has more than
tripled in the past decade.
Two major drug distributors, also known as wholesalers
, have formally
agreed to pay millions of dollars to settle claims that they failed to
report suspicious orders for controlled substances to the Drug Enforcement
Administration, as required by law.
Cardinal Health Agrees to $44 Million Settlement for Alleged Violations of
Controlled Substances Act
The Charleston Gazette-Mail reported
in December how drug companies shipped nearly 9
million hydrocodone pills over two years to one pharmacy in the town of
Kermit, W. Va., population 392
. All told, the newspaper reported,
drug wholesalers distributed 780 million pills of oxycodone and
hydrocodone in the state over six years. "The unfettered shipments amount
to 433 pain pills for every man, woman and child in West Virginia," the
The death toll from drug
overdoses topped 52,000 in 2015
, including 33,000 involving an
opioid, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A Nation of the Walking Dead:
Pharma and Casinos
While Tens of Thousands Die From Addiction. The United States consumes 80
percent of opioids used worldwide.
There are 300 million prescriptions
written and $24 billion spent annually in the U.S. for painkillers.
Americans supplement this mostly legal addiction with over $100 billion a
year in illicit marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin. And nearly
14 million U.S. adults, one in every 13, regularly abuse alcohol.
78 People Die everyday From Opioid
Overdose, now it's 91 a day in 2017:
a privately held pharmaceutical company founded by
physicians and now based in Stamford, Connecticut, known for its highly
addictive and dangerous pain treatment
products, such as MS Contin, OxyContin, hydromorphone, oxycodone,
fentanyl, codeine, and hydrocodone. In May 2007, the company pleaded
guilty to misleading the public about Oxycontin's risk of addiction, and
agreed to pay $600 million in one of the largest pharmaceutical
settlements in U.S. history. On October 4, 2007, Kentucky officials sued
Purdue because of widespread Oxycontin abuse in Appalachia. A lawsuit
filed by Kentucky then-Attorney General Greg Stumbo and Pike County
officials demanded millions in compensation. Eight years later, on
December 23, 2015, Kentucky settled with Purdue for $24 million. No
intervention was made by Purdue to contact the DEA for years despite
knowing of the practice and the overuse and sale of their product.
Communities are seeking reimbursement related to costs of policing,
housing, health care, rehabilitation, criminal justice system, park and
recreations department, as well as to the loss of life or compromised
quality of life of the citizens of the city directly. And since many
people addicted to pain killers end up on Heroin, I'm sure that it was
just another business decision to flood the streets of America with
Heroin. Criminal Scumbags mass murder people everyday just for money. Our
justice system is dysfunctional, just like our schools.
Ohio Sues 5 Major Drug Companies For 'Fueling Opioid Epidemic'
five manufacturers which are listed as defendants include:
, which sold OxyContin, MS
Contin, Dilaudid, Butrans, Hyslingla, and Targiniq.
Endo Health Solutions
, which sold Percocet,
Percodan, Opana, and Zydone. Teva Pharmaceutical
Industries and its subsidiary Cephalon
, which sold Actiq and
Fentora. Johnson & Johnson
subsidiary Janssen Pharmaceuticals, which sold Duragesic and Nucynta.
, which sold Kadian, Norco, and
several generic opioids.
Attorney General DeWine Files Lawsuit Against Opioid Manufacturers for
Fraudulent Marketing; Fueling Opioid Epidemic
Over the Counter Drug
Cause and Effect
The Organization of American States estimates that 2.5 million
hectares of Amazonian forest in Peru have been destroyed to grow coca,
while more than 1 million hectares of forest in Colombia have been culled
to grow illicit drugs, including opium poppies for heroin.
wars in the mid-19th century involving China and the British Empire over
the British trade of opium and China's sovereignty. The clashes included
the First Opium War (1839–1842) and the Second Opium War (1856–1860). The
wars and events between them weakened the Qing dynasty and forced China to
trade with the other parts of the world.
The Organization of American States
is a continental organization
founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and
cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in Washington, United
States, the OAS's members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.