Energy - Renewable Energy - Clean Energy - Alternative Energy


Energy is any source of usable power or force that produces a change in a physical quantity or physical system to do work. Energy is a transformation, a qualitative change of matter. Around 1.3 billion humans lack regular access to electricity in 2020.

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Physics describes energy as the rate of doing work. A thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work, measured in Watts = joules / second. The units of energy are Joules or Erg. Erg is CGS unit of work or energy; the work done by a force of one dyne acting over a distance of one centimeter. CGS is a system of measurement based on centimeters and grams and seconds. Dyne is a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 cm/sec/sec to a mass of 1 gram. Erg is a unit of work equal to 10−7power joules. Joules is a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second. Joules is defined "mechanically", being the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Newton is a unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram; equal to 100,000 dynes. Energy Harvesting.

Specific Energy is energy per unit mass, like stored heat and other thermodynamic properties of substances such as specific internal energy, specific enthalpy, specific Gibbs free energy, and specific Helmholtz Free Energy. It may also be used for the kinetic energy or potential energy of a body. Specific energy is an intensive property, whereas energy and mass are extensive properties. The SI unit for specific energy is the joule per kilogram (J/kg). Other units still in use in some contexts are the kilocalorie per gram (Cal/g or kcal/g), mostly in food-related topics, watt hours per kilogram in the field of batteries, and the Imperial unit BTU per pound (BTU/lb), in some engineering and applied technical fields. The gray and sievert are specialized measures for specific energy absorbed by body tissues in the form of radiation. The concept of specific energy is related to but distinct from the chemical notion of molar energy, that is energy per mole of a substance, which uses units of energy per mole, such as J/mol, kJ/mol, or the older (but still widely used) kcal/mol.

Power in physics is the rate of doing work or transferring heat, the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. Having no direction, it is a scalar quantity. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt in honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine condenser. Another common and traditional measure is horsepower (comparing to the power of a horse). Being the rate of work, the equation for power can be written, power equals work over time, or power is energy over time.

Energy Level. A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy. This contrasts with classical particles, which can have any energy. These discrete values are called energy levels. The term is commonly used for the energy levels of electrons in atoms, ions, or molecules, which are bound by the electric field of the nucleus, but can also refer to energy levels of nuclei or vibrational or rotational energy levels in molecules. The energy spectrum of a system with such discrete energy levels is said to be quantized.

Activation Energy describes the minimum energy which must be available to a chemical system with potential reactants to result in a chemical reaction.

Conservation of Energy - Fusion - Monitoring Energy - Heat

Energy Transformation is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another. In physics, energy is a quantity that provides the capacity to perform many actions—some as simple as lifting or warming an object. In addition to being convertible, energy is transferable to a different location or object, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Energy in many of its forms may be used in natural processes, or to provide some service to society such as heating, refrigeration, lighting, or performing mechanical work to operate machines. For example, in order to heat your home, your furnace can burn fuel, whose chemical potential energy is thus converted into thermal energy, which is then transferred to your home's air in order to raise its temperature. In another example, an internal combustion engine burns gasoline to cause pressure that pushes the pistons, thus performing work in order to accelerate your vehicle, ultimately converting the fuel's chemical energy to your vehicle's additional kinetic energy corresponding to its increase in speed. Cells (Signal transduction).

Transformers - Transducer - Transform - Power Supply (test equipment)

Transduction in biophysics is the conveyance of energy from one electron (a donor) to another (a receptor), at the same time that the class of energy changes. Photonic energy, the kinetic energy of a photon, may follow the following paths: Be released again as a photon of less energy; Be transferred to a recipient with no change in class; Be dissipated as heat; or Be transduced.

Outline of Energy in physics, this is an indirectly observed quantity often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert force (a pull or a push) against an object that is moving along a definite path of certain length.


Energy Types


Energy Types Solar Energy - Solar Heat - Portable - Light Tubes

Wind Energy - Renewable - Batteries - Fuel Cells

Grids - Smart Grids (power lines) - Wireless Electricity

Energy from Waste - Bio-Gas - Steam Power

Thermal Electric Energy - Geo-Thermal-Energy

Hydro-Power - Dams - Ocean Wave Energy

Nuclear Power (Thorium) - Radiation

Electric Cars - Electric Motors - Generators - Regenerative Braking

Engines - Fuel Systems - Bio-Fuels - Bio-Plastics (composites)

Perpetual - Zero-Point Energy - Gravity - Elastic

Lasers (plasma) - LED - Efficient Lighting - Sound

Hydrogen - Fusion - Fission - Electrolysis - Physics - Chemistry

Kinetic Energy (piezo electricity from pressure or movement )

Human Energy - Food Energy - Natural Gas - Forms of Energy (wiki)

Mechanical Energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object. The principle of conservation of mechanical energy states that in an isolated system that is only subject to conservative forces, the mechanical energy is constant. If an object moves in the opposite direction of a conservative net force, the potential energy will increase; and if the speed (not the velocity) of the object changes, the kinetic energy of the object also changes. In all real systems, however, nonconservative forces, such as frictional forces, will be present, but if they are of negligible magnitude, the mechanical energy changes little and its conservation is a useful approximation. In elastic collisions, the mechanical energy is conserved, but in inelastic collisions some mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy.

Thermodynamic Free Energy is a concept useful in the thermodynamics of chemical or thermal processes in engineering and science. The change in the free energy is the maximum amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform in a process at constant temperature, and its sign indicates whether a process is thermodynamically favorable or forbidden. Since free energy usually contains potential energy, it is not absolute but depends on the choice of a zero point. Therefore, only relative free energy values, or changes in free energy, are physically meaningful. The free energy is a thermodynamic state function, like the internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy.

Internal Energy of a thermodynamic system is the energy contained within it. It is the energy necessary to create or prepare the system in any given internal state. It does not include the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole, nor the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields, including the energy of displacement of the surroundings of the system. It keeps account of the gains and losses of energy of the system that are due to changes in its internal state. The internal energy is measured as a difference from a reference zero defined by a standard state. The difference is determined by thermodynamic processes that carry the system between the reference state and the current state of interest. Zero-Point Energy.



Renewable Clean Energy


Plug and Wall Electrical Outlet Renewable Energy is defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.

Renewable Resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. A positive life cycle assessment is a key indicator of a resource's sustainability.

Solar Energy - Wind Energy - Geo-Thermal-Energy - Hydro-Power - Ocean Wave Energy - Waste Energy

Renewable Energy World - Smart Grids

Public Utilities Commission is a governing body that regulates the rates and services of a public utility, such as an electric utility. In some cases, government bodies with the title "public service commission" may be civil service oversight bodies, rather than utilities regulators. (utility regulatory commission (URC), or public service commission (PSC)).

139 countries could be powered by 100 percent wind, water, and solar energy by 2050 (image)

We can get 100 Percent of our Energy from Renewable Sources?

Zero Point Energy - Energy-Plus-House

Energy Harvesting is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.

Kardashev Scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy a civilization is able to use. A Type I civilization—also called a planetary civilization—can use and store all of the energy available on its planet. A Type II civilization—also called a stellar civilization—can harness the total energy of its planet's parent star. A Type III civilization—also called a galactic civilization—can control energy on the scale of its entire host galaxy. The scale is hypothetical, and regards energy consumption on a cosmic scale. Various extensions of the scale have since been proposed, including a wider range of power levels (types 0, IV and V) and the use of metrics other than pure power.

Ground State of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the Zero-Point Energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.

Energy Development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of energy that would otherwise be wasted. Energy conservation and efficiency measures reduce the demand for energy development, and can have benefits to society with improvements to environmental issues.

Renewable Clean Energy should be Self Replicating and Perpetual. Example: If you build wind turbines then the the energy that those wind turbines produce should be used to produce more wind turbines, then so on and so on until you have enough energy for all your needs, the same with solar energy. Sustainable.

Self-Replicating Machines is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.

Self-Replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself. Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce by Cell Division. During cell division, DNA is replicated and can be transmitted to offspring during reproduction.

National Renewable Energy - Renewable Incentives

GE Energy Financial Services. Renewable energy is our fastest growing business segment and represents half of our business. We have committed $12 billion for our portfolio of renewable energy projects.

Renewable Energy Counsel - Sustainable Power Institute

New Energy Fund - Renewable Clean Fuel - New Energy Technologies

Renewable Energy - Renewable Energy - Renewable Energy Efficiency

Websites Powered by Renewable Energy - Hosting Powered by Renewable Energy

Energy Academy is a sustainable energy system bringing together projects, partners and networks to work on the energy transition, based on three pillars: education, research and innovation. Energy Academy Europe is located at Zernike Campus Groningen in The Netherlands. Markets, technology, policies, laws & regulations and society at large are part of the energy system. Our energy future depends on the integration of the system-elements. Through our projects we aim to move towards system integration with the ultimate goal of transitioning to a sustainable energy system.

Turning every Home and Building into Power Generators instead of being energy slaves and dependent.

Electrical Generators

75 Percent of our Power comes from some form of Combustion. Natural Resources Defense Council.

Soft Energy Path is an alternative future where energy efficiency and appropriate renewable energy sources steadily replace a centralized energy system based on fossil and nuclear fuels.

Micro Generation is the small-scale generation of heat and electric power by individuals, small businesses and communities to meet their own needs, as alternatives or supplements to traditional centralized grid-connected power.

Roadmap to renewables unites climate and sustainability goals. Are clean energy plans missing the forest for the GHGs? A new study presents a roadmap to renewables that unites climate change and biodiversity goals.


Renewable Energy Milestones and Statistics - Energy Independent Places


Burlington Vermont is running on 100 Percent Renewables. (2015).

Babcock Ranch Florida generates more energy than the city consumes. The town is approximately 17,000-acre (68.80 km2; 26.56 sq mi). A planned community under development in Southwest Florida that was approved as part of a public-private partnership strategy with the State of Florida and local governments. The deal established the neighboring Babcock Ranch Preserve. An on-site 75-megawatt solar photovoltaic array broke ground in 2016 by Florida Power & Light Company, which will combine with a network of solar rooftop arrays on commercial buildings to generate more energy than the city consumes, making Babcock Ranch the first solar-powered city in the United States. According to Florida Power & Light chief development officer Eric Silagy, the photovoltaic solar plant to be built at Babcock Ranch will occupy rooftops throughout the city plus 400 acres (1.62 km2; 0.63 sq mi) of land. Babcock Ranch's solar power plant will connect to the main grid so a consistent energy supply can be maintained by importing power on overcast days and exporting it on sunny days. The objective in using a solar generator to power the city is a reduction in carbon emissions and dependence on oil, and to lower energy bills for residents, aided by proposed "smart home" energy efficiency technology. Residents and businesses will utilize smart grid technology to monitor and control their energy consumption. Approximately ninety percent of Babcock Ranch's total land will remain undeveloped.

Long Island Solar Farm is the largest photovoltaic array in the eastern U.S  (200 Acres) made up of 164,312 solar panels from BP Solar which provide enough electricity for roughly 4,500 households. Depends on Efficiency.

California. Starting in 2020, virtually all new homes in California will be required to incorporate advanced efficiency measures and rooftop solar — in an historic development for clean energy in the state. “There are 100,000 customers annually that will see the acquisition of solar as a normal part of their home transaction.” The California Energy Commission (CEC) voted unanimously to adopt the policy today as part of the state’s Building Energy Efficiency Standards, following more than two years of work with a wide range of stakeholders to develop the technical requirements. Updates to the Title 24 standards are projected to reduce home energy use by 53 percent compared to the current code, saving Californians $1.7 billion in energy costs over the next 30 years. This calculation, conducted by the CEC, does not take into account increased energy demands or a reductions in technology costs, which could result in even greater savings over time. Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards are designed to ensure new and existing buildings achieve energy efficiency and preserve outdoor and indoor environmental quality. These measures (Title 24, Part 6) are listed in the California Code of Regulations. The California Energy Commission is responsible for adopting, implementing and updating building energy efficiency. Local city and county enforcement agencies have the authority to verify compliance with applicable building codes, including energy efficiency. The new rules apply specifically to all new residences and major home renovations on buildings under three stories, starting on January 1, 2020. In the event a building isn’t suitable for a rooftop array, the standards require homes have access to community solar or offset energy usage through additional efficiency gains, while some homes may be exempt. Around 15,000 new homes are built each year that include solar panels, according to the CEC. When the new standards take effect, that number is expected to jump to around 100,000 new solar homes per year. “This is an undeniably historic decision for the state,” said Abigail Ross Hopper, president and CEO of the Solar Energy Industries Association. According to SEIA, the change will amount to an additional 200 megawatts of solar deployed in the state annually, which is a conservative estimate given some homes will be able to comply with solar systems under 3 kilowatts. For comparison, California added 858 megawatts of residential solar last year from 127,000 new residential solar systems, with an average size of 7 kilowatts.

Connecticut has 50 acres of solar panels spread over about 90 acres of land at Pleasant View Farms. Somers Solar Center 23,150 Kyocera Solar Panels that will generate roughly 5 megawatt (MW) of alternating current. On average, it produces enough power for 1,500 to 5,000 homes per year?  In 2015, 313,000 Connecticut households still cannot afford their monthly energy needs.  Foreclosures

Arizona, The U.S. Navy has invested an undisclosed amount in the Mesquite solar farm in the sun-rich state, allowing for an expansion of the facility that is anticipated to make it the world’s largest solar farm. Located about 40 miles west of Phoenix, will provide 210 megawatts of direct power.

Portugal Made More Than Enough Renewable Energy To Power The Whole Country in March 2018.

Grid Alternatives providing solar power for low-income families across the United States while providing volunteers and job trainees with hands-on solar installation experience. California's Single Family Affordable Solar Homes program (SASH).

Community Choice Aggregation (wiki) - The Future of Energy

Costa Rica’s energy utility hasn’t burned any fossil fuel in 2015. 80 percent is from hydroelectric plants.

Chile has so much solar energy that the price of solar frequently drops to zero. Since 2013, Chile has quadrupled its solar capacity in the central grid to 770 megawatts. Solar Power By Country

Nicaragua's Renewable Energy Revolution Picks Up Steam.

Germany As of May 1, 2012, was producing 50% of their energy via renewables. German Village Produces More Energy than it Needs.

India is creating the world’s largest solar farm. The country announced that it will build a 750-megawatt plant on 1,500 acres of barren, government-owned land in the northeastern Madhya Pradesh state. Expected to be in operation until 2017.

Morocco is working on world’s largest concentrated solar power plant. Ouarzazate Solar Power Station is a 160 MW power plant that will have a final capacity of around 500 MW, enough to power a million homes.
Public Private Partnership - Noor I

Iceland's energy needs are amply met by hydro and geothermal power.

China: Builds 4,000 new wind turbines a year. Produces more wind turbines and has more wind turbines in operation then all of the top ten countries combined. China has the largest wind farm in the world. (10 Gigawatt) Plans to build 7 more just like it.
China plans to build 100 million electric car charging stations by 2020. Other China Info. China already produces more solar electricity than any other country, with an installed base of over 30 gigawatts and plans to reach 43 gigawatts by the end of 2016. China will invest 2.5 trillion yuan ($361 billion) into renewable power generation by 2020.

Australia (2010 - 2015), solar photovoltaic capacity grew from 130 megawatts to 4.7 gigawatts, an annual growth rate of 96%.

The community solar farm at Majura in Canberra's east is now powering around 260 homes. 5,000 solar modules on 3 hectares or 7.41316 acres generating 1.8 GWh of electricity each year. 1MW solar. The solar farm is co-owned by more than 550 Canberra investors, who have chipped in more than $2.4 million, is expected to yield a 5 per cent return.

The Federal Energy Information Agency is forecasting a 9.5 percent increase in green energy in 2016.

Scotland uses Tidal Energy to create 1.2GW of green energy - enough to power up to 750,000 homes. The same amount of power as a nuclear power station. One-third of the UK's total electricity needs could be met by Tidal Power alone. Scotland is poised to generate more than 50 percent of its electricity from onshore wind power and other renewable sources this year 2016.

Eigg generates virtually 100% of its electricity using renewable energy. The Small Island in the Scottish Inner Hebrides lies to the south of the Skye and to the north of the Ardnamurchan peninsula. Eigg is 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) long from north to south, and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east to west. With an area of 12 square miles (31 km2), it is the second largest of the Small Isles after Rùm.

Bankruptcy Looms for Spain's Clean Energy Giant Abengoa

Climate Change

Community Choice Aggregation. Enables local governments to aggregate electricity demand within their jurisdictions in order to procure alternative energy supplies while maintaining the existing electricity provider for transmission and distribution services.

PS62: Net Zero Energy School
How do different types of Renewable Energy work? (youtube)
Amory Lovins: A 50 year plan for Energy (video)
Reinventing Fire
BIG 5

Energy Generation Under the Obama Administration - Data Visualizing Tools

Energy Use by Country Energy Conservation Resources and Information
Ecological Society of America
Energy Awareness Videos

Zero-Point Energy
Energy Independence Act (wiki)
Rational Middle

Department of Energy
Department of Energy
Energy Efficiency
International Energy Agency
International Energy Assoc.
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Energy Information Administration
Synapse Energy

Energy Research, Maryland

Global Electricity Sources Nuclear Fusion
Nano Technology
Clean Energy Technologies
Center for Energy Efficiency
Global Energy Network Institute
Get Energy Active
Native Energy
Energy Savers
North American Power
Energy Deregulation
Utility Credit  
Toupe Phone App check prices what you are being charged for Electricity
Clean Tech Companies
Science Fairs
Human Energy

Akon Lighting Africa 600 million lack electricity access. 15 countries of operation 480 communities covered. 100,000 solar street lamps. 1,200 solar micro-grids. 102,000 solar domestic kits. 75,000$ per village on average, 5,500 indirect jobs created.

Portugal kept its lights on with renewable energy alone for four consecutive days. Electricity consumption in the country was fully covered by solar, wind and hydro power in an extraordinary 107-hour run.

New analysis shows potential for 'solar canals' in California. Researchers published a new study that suggests covering California's 6,350 km network of public water delivery canals with solar panels could be an economically feasible means of advancing both renewable energy and water conservation by reducing evaporation. Every megawatt of solar energy produced by solar canals in California's Central Valley has the potential to replace 15-20 diesel-powered irrigation pumps, helping to reduce pollution in a region with some of the nation's worst air quality.


Energy Conservation - Efficiency


Conservation is the prevention of wasteful use of a resource.

Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources will not be effective alone. We need to learn how to Conserve Energy and Use Our Energy Wisely and Effectively without waste, while at the same time, use our Advanced Technologies to manufacture products that consume less energy. Clean energy is just one step forward in helping us fully understand how we see and use our energy. We have to learn not to waste energy, we have to learn not to abuse energy or misuse energy. Because in reality, energy is power, literally. And we all know about the Corrupted influences of Power and how power destroys the goodness in people and distorts our understanding of the world. So energy is just another form of power that we need to be fully educated about, otherwise power will continue to hurt us more then it benefits us, and power will also continue to destroy our environment, since it has from the beginning. If an Energy Policy does not address these facts then the policy is a lie, a scam and a waste of precious time, again. Efficiency - Financial Management - Frugal.

Learning to Conserve Energy and not Waste it - Productive

Efficient Energy Use is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing LED lighting, fluorescent lighting, or natural skylight windows reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses. There are many motivations to improve energy efficiency. Reducing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy-efficient technology. Reducing energy use is also seen as a solution to the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, improved energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases. Another important solution is to remove government-led energy subsidies that promote high energy consumption and inefficient energy use in more than half of the countries in the world. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to be the twin pillars of sustainable energy policy[6] and are high priorities in the sustainable energy hierarchy. In many countries energy efficiency is also seen to have a national security benefit because it can be used to reduce the level of energy imports from foreign countries and may slow down the rate of energy at which domestic energy resources are depleted.

Energy Saving Tools and Methods - Energy Kids

Energy Saving Methods - Energy Use Assessments

Grids - Smart Grid - Green Building - Protection

Rebound Effect is the reduction in expected gains from new technologies that increase the efficiency of resource use, because of behavioral or other systemic responses. These responses usually tend to offset the beneficial effects of the new technology or other measures taken. While the literature on the rebound effect generally focuses on the effect of technological improvements on energy consumption, the theory can also be applied to the use of any natural resource or other input, such as labor. The rebound effect is generally expressed as a ratio of the lost benefit compared to the expected environmental benefit when holding consumption constant. For instance, if a 5% improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency results in only a 2% drop in fuel use, there is a 60% rebound effect (since ?(5-2)/5 = 60%). The 'missing' 3% might have been consumed by driving faster or further than before. The existence of the rebound effect is uncontroversial. However, debate continues as to the magnitude and impact of the effect in real world situations. Depending on the magnitude of the rebound effect, there are five different rebound effect (RE) types. Risk Assessment.

Energy Slave is that quantity of energy (ability to do work) which, when used to construct and drive non-human infrastructure (machines, roads, power grids, fuel, draft animals, wind-driven pumps, etc.) replaces a unit of human labor (actual work). An energy slave does the work of a person, through the consumption of energy in the non-human infrastructure.

Energy Poverty is lack of access to modern energy services. It refers to the situation of large numbers of people in developing countries whose well-being is negatively affected by very low consumption of energy, use of dirty or polluting fuels, and excessive time spent collecting fuel to meet basic needs. Electricity.

Reserves to Production Ratio is the remaining amount of a non-renewable resource, expressed in time. While applicable to all natural resources, the RPR is most commonly applied to fossil fuels, particularly petroleum and natural gas.

Energy Returned on Energy Invested is the ratio of the amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy used to obtain that energy resource. It is a distinct measure from energy efficiency as it does not measure the primary energy inputs to the system, only usable energy.

Bennett Acceptance Ratio is an algorithm for estimating the difference in free energy between two systems (usually the systems will be simulated on the computer).



Efficient Lighting - Light-Emitting Diode - LED


LED Diagram LED Lamp is a light-emitting diode product which is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps, and are significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 300 lumens per watt (as claimed by Cree and some other LED manufacturers). The first LEDs were developed in the early 1960s.

Solid-State Lighting refers to a type of lighting that uses semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma (used in arc lamps such as fluorescent lamps), or gas. The term "solid state" refers commonly to light emitted by solid-state electroluminescence, as opposed to incandescent bulbs (which use thermal radiation) or fluorescent tubes. Compared to incandescent lighting, SSL creates visible light with reduced heat generation and less energy dissipation. Most common "white" LEDs convert blue light from a solid-state device to an (approximate) white light spectrum using photoluminescence, the same principle used in conventional fluorescent tubes. The typically small mass of a solid-state electronic lighting device provides for greater resistance to shock and vibration compared to brittle glass tubes/bulbs and long, thin filament wires. They also eliminate filament evaporation, potentially increasing the life span of the illumination device. Solid-state lighting is often used in traffic lights and is also used frequently in modern vehicle lights, street and parking lot lights, train marker lights, building exteriors, remote controls etc. Controlling the light emission of LEDs may be done most effectively by using the principles of nonimaging optics. Solid-state lighting has made significant advances in industry. In the entertainment lighting industry, standard incandescent tungsten-halogen lamps are being replaced by solid-state light lighting fixtures.

Light-Emitting Diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence. The color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photons) is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device.

OLED is a light-emitting diode in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. This organic layer is situated between two electrodes; typically, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as smartphones, handheld game consoles and PDAs. A major area of research is the development of white OLED devices for use in solid-state lighting applications.

Scientists find a cheaper way to light up OLED screens using new copper-based LEDs instead of iridium.

Physicists use nanostructures to free photons for highly efficient white OLEDs. Since light-emitting diodes only produce monochrome light, manufacturers use various additive colour-mixing processes to produce white light.

Brown Outs don't affect LED bulbs because they are most likely fitted to use a wide-range of power. LED's usually only require a few volts (sometimes <5V) therefore as long as that much voltage makes it through, they stay on. If it has the right amount electronics it could convert almost any voltage to its needs.

Lighting is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants. Indoor lighting is usually accomplished using light fixtures, and is a key part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscape projects.

Luminescence - How Light Effects the Brain - Solar Light Tubes - Indoor Growing

Color Rendering index is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. Light sources with a high CRI are desirable in color-critical applications such as neonatal care, photography and cinematography. It is defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) as follows: Color rendering: Effect of an illuminant on the color appearance of objects by conscious or subconscious comparison with their color appearance under a reference illuminant.

Materials Research Team Lights the Way for More Efficient LEDs. Nanocrystals made of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3), is the first discovered material which the ground exciton state is "bright,” making it an attractive candidate for more efficient solid-state lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs).

Lighting Prize - Energy Saving LED Street Light Design (PDF)

Engineered Light to Improve Health and Food. Intentionally controlled light can help regulate human health and productivity by eliciting various hormonal responses. Tailored LED wavelengths and intensities also can efficiently stimulate plant growth, alter their shapes and increase their nutritional value, opening a new world of scientific and technological possibilities for indoor farming. Light Therapy.

Quantum Dot Display is a display device that uses quantum dots (QD), semiconductor nanocrystals which can produce pure monochromatic red, green, and blue light. Photo-emissive quantum dot particles are used in LED-backlit LCDs, where a QD layer converts the backlight to emit pure basic colors; this improves display brightness and color gamut by reducing light losses and color crosstalk in RGB color filters.

Quantum Dot are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. They are a central theme in nanotechnology. Many types of quantum dot will emit light of specific frequencies if electricity or light is applied to them, and these frequencies can be precisely tuned by changing the dots' size, shape and material, giving rise to many applications.

AMOLED is a display technology used in smartwatches, mobile devices, laptops, and televisions. OLED describes a specific type of thin-film-display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescent material, and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels.

UV LEDs are more environmentally friendly as they do not contain harmful mercury, do not produce ozone, and consume less energy. Use of UV-C LEDs is rapidly growing in applications such as germicidal (UVGI) for air, surface and water purification

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (ultraviolet C or UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions. UVGI is used in a variety of applications, such as food, air, and water purification. UV-C light is weak at the Earth's surface since the ozone layer of the atmosphere blocks it. UVGI devices can produce strong enough UV-C light in circulating air or water systems to make them inhospitable environments to microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, molds, and other pathogens. UVGI can be coupled with a filtration system to sanitize air and water. The application of UVGI to disinfection has been an accepted practice since the mid-20th century. It has been used primarily in medical sanitation and sterile work facilities. Increasingly, it has been employed to sterilize drinking and wastewater since the holding facilities are enclosed and can be circulated to ensure a higher exposure to the UV. UVGI has found renewed application in air purifiers.

Energy Efficient Appliances - Energy Monitoring

Bioluminescence - Biology - Lasers - Li-Fi (information transfer)

Gratify Light (vimeo)
Gravitylight 2 made in Africa
Free Electricity from Gravity and Perpetual Motion by Daniel Bentea! (video)
M Powerd Luci Solar Lights
Gravity Light 360 Degree Magnetic LED
LED Lamp Powered by Water 
NowLight: Renewable Energy on Demand

Wireless Lighting System: verve

ZOBO: Brilliant Full-Color LED Spot-Lighting

Ellum Solar - Light Different

U.S. Lighting Energy Policy (wiki) - Saving Electricity

Brighten up a Dark Room - Choose the Perfect Light Bulb for Your Lighting Fixture - Architectural Lighting Design.

Wi-Fi Smart Bulb - ilumi Bluetooth Control LED

SmartCharge 2.0 LED light bulb integrated with a rechargeable lithium ion battery, works even during a power outage.

LitraTorch versatile adventure LED light - photo, video, underwater, bike, camp, drone & fun.

Artificial Skylight (youtube) - Coelux

LED Resources - Light Emitting Diodes - LED Lights - LED Lighting Types - Nano-Leaf - LED 60W Bulb Replacement (amazon) - Motion-Sensitive LED Light (amazon) - RV Sensor & Receiver (amazon) - Energy Monitoring - Lumiette - Luminaid - Lemnis Lighting - LED Lights - UK - Luminoodle - Lights for Growing Food - Kichler Lighting Experts - Lightology - Osram - Lutron - CFL's.

Electric Light is a device that produces visible light from electric current. It is the most common form of artificial lighting and is essential to modern society, providing interior lighting for buildings and exterior light for evening and nighttime activities. In technical usage, a replaceable component that produces light from electricity is called a lamp. Lamps are commonly called light bulbs; for example, the incandescent light bulb. Lamps usually have a base made of ceramic, metal, glass, or plastic, which secures the lamp in the socket of a light fixture. The electrical connection to the socket may be made with a screw-thread base, two metal pins, two metal caps or a bayonet cap. The three main categories of electric lights are incandescent lamps, which produce light by a filament heated white-hot by electric current, gas-discharge lamps, which produce light by means of an electric arc through a gas, and LED lamps, which produce light by a flow of electrons across a band gap in a semiconductor. Before electric lighting became common in the early 20th century, people used candles, gas lights, oil lamps, and fires. English chemist Humphry Davy developed the first incandescent light in 1802, followed by the first practical electric arc light in 1806. By the 1870s, Davy's arc lamp had been successfully commercialized, and was used to light many public spaces. Efforts by Swan and Edison led to commercial incandescent light bulbs becoming widely available in the 1880s, and by the early twentieth century these had completely replaced arc lamps. The energy efficiency of electric lighting has increased radically since the first demonstration of arc lamps and the incandescent light bulb of the 19th century. Modern electric light sources come in a profusion of types and sizes adapted to many applications. Most modern electric lighting is powered by centrally generated electric power, but lighting may also be powered by mobile or standby electric generators or battery systems. Battery-powered light is often reserved for when and where stationary lights fail, often in the form of flashlights or electric lanterns, as well as in vehicles. How Light Effects the Brain.

Incandescent Light Bulb is an electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows. The filament is enclosed in a bulb to protect the filament from oxidation. Current is supplied to the filament by terminals or wires embedded in the glass. A bulb socket provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment, have low manufacturing costs, and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent bulb became widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting. Incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than other types of electric lighting, converting less than 5% of the energy they use into visible light. The remaining energy is lost as heat. The luminous efficacy of a typical incandescent bulb for 120 V operation is 16 lumens per watt, compared with 60 lm/W for a compact fluorescent bulb or 150 lm/W for some white LED lamps. Some applications use the heat generated by the filament. Heat lamps are made for uses such as incubators, lava lamps, and the Easy-Bake Oven toy. Quartz tube lamps are used for industrial processes such as paint curing or for space heating. Incandescent bulbs typically have short lifetimes compared with other types of lighting; around 1,000 hours for home light bulbs versus typically 10,000 hours for compact fluorescents and 20,000–30,000 hours for lighting LEDs. Incandescent bulbs can be replaced by fluorescent lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps, and light-emitting diode lamps (LED). Some areas have implemented phasing out the use of incandescent light bulbs to reduce energy consumption.

Dimmer are devices connected to a light fixture and used to lower the brightness of light. By changing the voltage waveform applied to the lamp, it is possible to lower the intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage devices are used for various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved for those intended to control light output from resistive incandescent, halogen, and (more recently) compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). More specialized equipment is needed to dim fluorescent, mercury vapor, solid-state, and other arc lighting. When solid-state dimmers came into use, analog remote control systems (such as 0-10 V lighting control systems) became feasible. The wire for the control systems was much smaller (with low current and lower danger) than the heavy power cables of previous lighting systems. Each dimmer had its own control wires, resulting in many wires leaving the lighting control location. Semiconductor dimmers switch on at an adjustable time (phase angle) after the start of each alternating current half-cycle, thereby altering the voltage waveform applied to lamps and so changing its RMS effective value. Because they switch instead of absorbing part of the voltage supplied, there is very little wasted power. Dimming can be almost instantaneous and is easily controlled by remote electronics. This development also made it possible to make dimmers small enough to be used in place (within the pattress) of normal domestic light switches. dimmer switch rapidly turns a light circuit on and off to reduce the energy flowing to a light switch. The central element in this switching circuit is a triode alternating current switch, or triac. A triac is a small semiconductor device, similar to a diode or transistor.



Smart Grid - Electric Power Transmission - Power Distribution


Smart Grid Diagram Smart Grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources. Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the Smart Grid.

Electrical Grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers. (Looped not Linear). Infrastructure.

Microgrid is a local, independent power grid that can run without electricity from the main network. Micro-Grid Knowledge.

Nano-Grid - Pico-Grid - Micro-Grid - Micro-Hydro - Smart Inverters - Off-Grid.

Synchronous Grid of Continental Europe is the largest synchronous electrical grid by connected power in the world. It is interconnected as a single phase-locked 50 Hz mains frequency electricity grid that supplies over 400 million customers in 24 countries, including most of the European Union. In 2009, 667 GW of production capacity was connected to the grid, providing approximately 80 GW of operating reserve margin. The transmission system operators operating this grid formed the Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), now part of the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E). Wide Area Synchronous Grid is a three-phase electric power grid that has regional scale or greater that operates at a synchronized utility frequency and is electrically tied together during normal system conditions.

North American Power Transmission Grid is divided into multiple wide area synchronous grids. Western Interconnection is a wide area synchronous grid and one of the two major alternating current power grids in the continental U.S. power transmission grid. The other major wide area synchronous grid is the Eastern Interconnection. The three minor interconnections are the Québec Interconnection, the Texas Interconnection, and the Alaska Interconnection.

Super Grid is a wide-area transmission network that is intended to make possible the trade of high volumes of electricity across great distances. It is sometimes also referred to as a "mega grid". Super grids can support a global energy transition by smoothing local fluctuations of wind energy and solar energy. In this context they are considered as a key technology to mitigate global warming. Super grids typically use High-voltage direct current (HVDC) to transmit electricity long distances. The latest generation of HVDC power lines can transmit energy with losses of only 1.6% per 1000 km.

Unified Smart Grid is a proposal for a United States wide area grid that is a national interconnected network relying on a high capacity backbone of electric power transmission lines linking all the nation's local electrical networks that have been upgraded to smart grids. Europe's analogous project is sometimes referred to as the SuperSmart Grid, a term that also appears in the literature describing the Unified Smart Grid. Super Smart Grid is a hypothetical wide area electricity network connecting Europe with northern Africa, the Middle East, Turkey and the IPS/UPS system of CIS countries. The system would unify super grid and smart grid capabilities into a comprehensive network. There are no planned locations for infrastructure or schedule explicitly for the SSG; the name is used to discuss the economic and technological feasibility of such a network and ways that it might gain political support. The ambitious upgrade and unification of current transmission and/or distribution grids finds support among advocates of large scale utilization of alternative energy, and as well as advocates of enhanced energy security for Europe. The SSG proposal was initiated by the European Climate Forum and at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research by Antonella Battaglini and colleagues.

Demand Response is a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to better match the demand for power with the supply.

Curtailment is when the output of renewable energy like wind power is curtailed or reduced at certain times because it's making more power then people can use. But when batteries become more available then the extra energy produced can be saved an stored for a later time when people need more energy.

Decentralized Networks - Self Managing

Frequency Containment Reserve in the European Union Internal Electricity Balancing Market means operating reserves necessary for constant containment of frequency deviations or fluctuations from nominal value in order to constantly maintain the power balance in the whole synchronously interconnected system. Energy Storage.


Where Does the Electrical Power Start From?

Power Station is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power stations contain one or more generators, a rotating machine that converts mechanical power into electrical power. The relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor creates an electrical current. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas to generate electricity. Others use nuclear power, but there is an increasing use of cleaner renewable sources such as solar, wind, wave and hydroelectric. (power station is also known as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant).

Base Load on a grid is the minimum level of demand on an electrical grid over 24 hours. Base load power sources are power stations which can consistently generate the electrical power needed to satisfy this minimum demand. Historically, large power grids have used base load power plants exclusively. However, there is no specific technical requirement for this to be so. The base load requirement can equally well be met by the appropriate mix of intermittent power sources, peaking power plants, hydroelectric power and other sources.

Peaking Power Plant are power plants that generally run only when there is a high demand, known as peak demand, for electricity. Because they supply power only occasionally, the power supplied commands a much higher price per kilowatt hour than base load power. Peak load power plants are dispatched in combination with base load power plants, which supply a dependable and consistent amount of electricity, to meet the minimum demand.

Engineers Develop Tools to Share Power from Renewable Energy Sources During Outages. The algorithms allow homes to draw on power from renewable energy sources while they're disconnected from the grid. Grid Wise - Beacon Power.

Overhead Power Line is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy across large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (commonly multiples of three) suspended by towers or poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are generally the lowest-cost method of power transmission for large quantities of electric energy. Warning: Parallel running power lines can induce voltages in nearby lines that are disconnected.

High-Voltage Direct Current electric power transmission system that uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current systems. (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway). Most HVDC links use voltages between 100 kV and 800 kV. A 1,100 kV link in China was completed in 2019 over a distance of 3,300 km with a power of 12 GW. With this dimension, intercontinental connections become possible which could help to deal with the fluctuations of wind power and photovoltaics. HVDC allows power transmission between unsynchronized AC transmission systems. Since the power flow through an HVDC link can be controlled independently of the phase angle between source and load, it can stabilize a network against disturbances due to rapid changes in power. HVDC also allows transfer of power between grid systems running at different frequencies, such as 50 Hz and 60 Hz. This improves the stability and economy of each grid, by allowing exchange of power between incompatible networks. The modern form of HVDC transmission uses technology developed extensively in the 1930s in Sweden (ASEA) and in Germany. Early commercial installations included one in the Soviet Union in 1951 between Moscow and Kashira, and a 100 kV, 20 MW system between Gotland and mainland Sweden in 1954. Before the Chinese project of 2019, the longest HVDC link in the world was the Rio Madeira link in Brazil, which consists of two bipoles of ±600 kV, 3150 MW each, connecting Porto Velho in the state of Rondônia to the São Paulo area. The length of the DC line is 2,375 km (1,476 mi).

Electric Power Transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia and New Zealand, the network is known as the "National Grid". Transmission Loss from 7% - 30%. The transmission over long distances creates power losses. The major part of the energy losses comes from Joule effect in transformers and power lines. The energy is lost as heat in the conductors. The overall losses between the power plant and consumers is then in the range between 8 and 15%. "Lost in Transmission": How much energy we lose from plant to plug (youtube).

How is the Electricity used by the Consumer?

Pole-mounted distribution transformer Step-Up Transformer is a transformer that increases voltage from primary to secondary. There are more secondary winding turns than primary winding turns. Step-Down Transformer is a transformer that decreases voltage from primary to secondary, like a Pole-mounted distribution transformer with center-tapped secondary winding used to provide "split-phase" power for residential and light commercial service, which in North America is typically rated 120/240 V. Transformer Saturation is a condition where a transformer's core is fully magnetized and is producing maximum magnetic flux. This typically happens when the transformer is not large enough for the application. Core saturation can also increase the temperature of the transformer.

Transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or "voltage" in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coils, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's Law of Induction discovered in 1831 described this effect. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of alternating current electrical energy. A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications. Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in volume to units interconnecting the power grid weighing hundreds of tons.

Energy Transformation - Converters - Power Supply - Voltage Regulation

Autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding. In an autotransformer, portions of the same winding act as both the primary winding and secondary winding sides of the transformer. In contrast, an ordinary transformer has separate primary and secondary windings which are not connected to each other. The autotransformer winding has at least three taps where electrical connections are made. Since part of the winding does "double duty", autotransformers have the advantages of often being smaller, lighter, and cheaper than typical dual-winding transformers, but the disadvantage of not providing electrical isolation between primary and secondary circuits. Other advantages of autotransformers include lower leakage reactance, lower losses, lower excitation current, and increased VA rating for a given size and mass.

Sub-Station Electrical Substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages. Voltages are generally in the range 100–240 V (always expressed as root-mean-square voltage). The two commonly used frequencies are 50 Hz and 60 Hz. Single-phase or three-phase power is most commonly used today, although two-phase systems were used early in the 20th century. Foreign enclaves, such as large industrial plants or overseas military bases, may have a different standard voltage or frequency from the surrounding areas. Some city areas may use standards different from that of the surrounding countryside (e.g. in Libya). Regions in an effective state of anarchy may have no central electrical authority, with electric power provided by incompatible private sources. Many other combinations of voltage and utility frequency were formerly used, with frequencies between 25 Hz and 133 Hz and voltages from 100 V to 250 V. Direct current (DC) has been almost completely displaced by alternating current (AC) in public power systems, but DC was used especially in some city areas to the end of the 20th century. The modern combinations of 230 V/50 Hz and 120 V/60 Hz, listed in IEC 60038, did not apply in the first few decades of the 20th century and are still not universal. Industrial plants with three-phase power will have different, higher voltages installed for large equipment (and different sockets and plugs), but the common voltages listed here would still be found for lighting and portable equipment.

Fault Current Limiter is a device which limits the prospective fault current when a fault occurs (e.g. in a power transmission network) without complete disconnection. The term includes superconducting, solid-state and inductive devices.

Electromechanical Relays are switches that typically are used to control high power electrical devices. Electromechanical relays are used in many of today's electrical machines when it is vital to control a circuit, either with a low power signal or when multiple circuits must be controlled by one single signal.

Relay consists of a set of input terminals for a single or multiple control signals, and a set of operating contact terminals. The switch may have any number of contacts in multiple contact forms, such as make contacts, break contacts, or combinations thereof.

DC Block are coaxial components that prevent the flow of audio and direct current (DC) frequencies while offering minimum interference to RF signals. There are three basic forms of DC blocks. “Inner only” models have a capacitor in series with the center conductor, “outer only” models have a capacitor in series with the outer conductor, and “inner/outer” models have capacitors in series with both the inner and outer conductors. The insulation material on the outer models is non-conductive. Applications include ground loop elimination, signal source modulation leakage suppression, system signal-to-noise ratio improvement, test setup isolation and other situations where undesired DC or audio current flows in the system. The Capacitor connected between two stages of a Cascaded Amplifier is called a Blocking Capacitor or a Coupling Capacitor as it blocks DC and allows only AC signal to pass from the First Stage to the next stage.

Choke is an inductor used to block higher-frequency while passing direct current (DC) and lower-frequencies of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit. A choke usually consists of a coil of insulated wire often wound on a magnetic core, although some consist of a doughnut-shaped "bead" of ferrite material strung on a wire. The choke's impedance increases with frequency. Its low electrical resistance passes both AC and DC with little power loss, but its reactance limits the amount of AC passed. The name comes from blocking—"choking"—high frequencies while passing low frequencies. It is a functional name; the name "choke" is used if an inductor is used for blocking or decoupling higher frequencies, but the component is simply called an "inductor" if used in electronic filters or tuned circuits. Inductors designed for use as chokes are usually distinguished by not having the low-loss construction (high Q factor) required in inductors used in tuned circuits and filtering applications.

Distributed Generation is generated or stored by a variety of small, grid-connected devices referred to as distributed energy resources (DER) or distributed energy resource systems.

Solar Panels work at Night because the Sun is always shining some where in the world. So one side of the planet shares some of its energy during the day for the other side of the planet that is in the dark, and vise versa. Wind Blows at Night.

Solar Grid Storage - Solar Power

Analytic Research Foundations workshop for the Next Generation Electric Grid
Peer-to-Peer Energy Transaction & Distributed Energy Resource Control
LO3 Energy and ConsenSys
Brooklyn Micro-Grid

Harmonics in electrical power are the voltages and currents in an electric power system that are a result of non-linear electric loads. Harmonic frequencies in the power grid are a frequent cause of power quality problems. Harmonics in power systems result in increased heating in the equipment and conductors, misfiring in variable speed drives, and torque pulsations in motors. Reduction of harmonics is considered desirable.

Principles of Grid Generation is a small-sized geometrical shape that covers the physical domain, whose objective is to identify the discrete volumes or elements where conservation laws can be applied. Grid generation is the first process involved in computing numerical solutions to the equations that describe a physical process. The result of the solution depends upon the quality of grid. A well-constructed grid can improve the quality of solution whereas, deviations from the numerical solution can be observed with poorly constructed grid. Techniques for creating the cell forms the basis of grid generation. Various methods to generate grids are discussed below.

Ancillary Services Electric Power defines the ancillary services as: "those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system."

Man-Shaped Electrical Towers Titled "The Land of Giants," these polygon shapes are both eerie and functional Grid Parity occurs when an alternative energy source can generate power at a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that is less than or equal to the price of purchasing power from the electricity grid.

Service Drop is an overhead electrical line running from a utility pole, to a customer's building or other premises. It is the point where electric utilities provide power to their customers. The customer connection to an underground distribution system is usually called a "service lateral". Conductors of a service drop or lateral are usually owned and maintained by the utility company, but some industrial drops are installed and owned by the customer. At the customer's premises, the wires usually enter the building through a weatherhead that protects against entry of rain and snow, and drop down through conduit to an electric meter which measures and records the power used for billing purposes, then enters the main service panel. The utility's portion of the system ends, and the customer's wiring begins, at the output socket of the electric meter. The service panel will contain a "main" fuse or circuit breaker, which controls all of the electric current entering the building at once, and a number of smaller fuses/breakers, which protect individual branch circuits. There is always provision for all power to be cut off by operating either a single switch or small number of switches (maximum of six in the United States, for example); when circuit breakers are used this is provided by the main circuit breaker.

Incoming Service Wire. A homeowner’s responsibility for the incoming electric service usually starts where the utility companies wires are attached to the home. In the case where your meter is on a pole away from the building, your responsibility will usually start where the service wires are attached at the top of the pole. The position of your electric meter has nothing to do with where your responsibility starts.

Short Circuits occur when a live wire comes into direct contact with a neutral wire. If this happens, a fuse generally blows, cutting the electrical supply before an electrical connection melts. However, if the fuse does not blow and electricity continues to flow, the wires will get hot. The heat will then melt the outer plastic coating, which may cause it to catch on fire. When you turn on an electrical appliance, current is drawn through the wires and connections. The more energy the appliance requires, the more current that flows. If the flow of current exceeds the wire's specifications, the internal wire starts to heat up. Continued use of the appliance exacerbates the situation and may eventually cause the outer plastic coating and connections to melt. Electricity flowing through a wire creates a magnetic electric field current. You generally cannot see, hear or feel it. However, you may have noticed a buzzing sound that comes from the large overhead electricity cables. The electrical field current makes this sound. A coil of wire, such as an extension lead, increases the magnetic electrical field current. The result is the production of heat. The wire then gets hotter, making the outer plastic coating soft (and therefore weaker), which strengthens the electrical field, eventually causing the coating to melt. The NFPA notes that electrical fires often occur due to one small incident leading to another, which results in a combination of things that cause electrical connection melting. Overheating of wire caused by one or more of the previous examples can start the process. Once a wire gets hot, the heat can travel along the wire until it gets to an electrical connection, such as a plug in a wall socket. Once the connections in the plug get too hot, they melt and expose bare wires. These ultimately cause a short circuit, which produces more heat and melts the plug connection.

The National Electrical Code in partnership with the National Fire Protection Association or NFPA, monitors the safety of electrical wiring in the United States. Electricity is essential to everyday life, but wiring faults can cause wires to melt, resulting in fires.



Hydro Water Energy - Dams


Hydroelectric Generating Station Hydro Electricity the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.  In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. Hydro Power.

Dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Geotechnical Engineering.

Weir is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level. There are many designs of weir, but commonly water flows freely over the top of the weir crest before cascading down to a lower level. What is a Weir? - Practical Engineering  Video Feb 25, 2019.

Diversion Dam is a dam that diverts all or a portion of the flow of a river from its natural course. Diversion dams do not generally impound water in a reservoir; instead, the water is diverted into an artificial water course or canal, which may be used for irrigation or return to the river after passing through hydroelectric generators, flow into a different river or be itself dammed forming an onground or groundwater reservoir or a storm drain.

Dam Nation (2014) (film)

America has 75,000 Dams or 87,000? Nearly 3,000 dams across the U.S. predate the 20th century. 65% of dams in the country are privately owned.

AI helps reduce Amazon Hydropower Dams' carbon footprint. A team of scientists has developed a computational model that uses artificial intelligence to find sites for hydropower dams in order to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. When areas are flooded to build dams, decomposing plant matter produces methane, a more destructive greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Depending on the location and other factors, the carbon emissions from dam construction can vary from lowest to highest by more than two orders of magnitude. The analysis found that dams built at high elevations tend to lower greenhouse gas emissions per unit of power output than dams in the lowlands -- partly because less land needs to be flooded in steeper environments. There are currently around 150 hydropower dams and another 350 proposed for the Amazon basin, which encompasses parts of Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.

Dam Safety - PDF - Water Management

After Largest Dam Removal in U.S. History on Washington's Elwha River in 2011, This River Is Now Thriving Again | National Geographic. (youtube).

Micro Hydro is a type of hydroelectric power that typically produces from 5 kW to 100 kW of electricity using the natural flow of water. Installations below 5 kW are called pico hydro. These installations can provide power to an isolated home or small community, or are sometimes connected to electric power networks, particularly where net metering is offered. There are many of these installations around the world, particularly in developing nations as they can provide an economical source of energy without the purchase of fuel. Micro hydro systems complement solar PV power systems because in many areas, water flow, and thus available hydro power, is highest in the winter when solar energy is at a minimum. Micro hydro is frequently accomplished with a pelton wheel for high head, low flow water supply. The installation is often just a small dammed pool, at the top of a waterfall, with several hundred feet of pipe leading to a small generator housing. In low head sites, generally water wheels and Archimedes screws are used. The Micro-Hydro Plant - Power Spout Hydro Generator.

Micro Hydro Diversion Screens - Coanoa Screen

Transforming modern power production through Micro-Scale Hydropower.

Turbulent Hydro Power high level of efficiency on rivers and canals with a low height difference thanks to a new technology based on the vortex principle. It generates electricity in the form of a single turbine or a network of multiple turbines. Fish friendly, Long operating life, No flood risk, Low maintenance, Turn key and mobile Remote monitoring.

Small Hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale suitable for local community and industry, or to contribute to distributed generation in a regional electricity grid. The definition of a small hydro project varies, but a generating capacity of 1 to 20 megawatts (MW) is common. In contrast many hydroelectric projects are of enormous size, such as the generating plant at the Three Gorges Dam at 22,500 megawatts or the vast multiple projects of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Small hydro projects may be built in isolated areas that would be uneconomic to serve from a national electricity grid, or in areas where a national grid does not exist. Micro-Grid (smart grids).

Plastic bottle water wheel generator experiment (youtube)

Moriah Hydro Corp. to develop the unique, 260-MW Mineville pumped-storage project to be located completely underground in an abandoned mine complex in New York, west of Lake Champlain. Engineers would drain roughly half of the water from the shafts and pump the remainder into an upper chamber. The water would then be released into a lower chamber, powering turbines and creating electricity. The turbines would be reversed to pump the water back up to repeat the process. the pumped water is considered stored energy, to be released strategically when power is needed.

Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing. The method stores energy in the form of gravitational potential energy of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost surplus off-peak electric power is typically used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines to produce electric power. Although the losses of the pumping process makes the plant a net consumer of energy overall, the system increases revenue by selling more electricity during periods of peak demand. Unsustainable unless it's a natural process.

Time Shift Energy
involves storing energy during low price times, and discharging during high price times. Energy Storage.

Water Turbine Generators - Water Turbine

A single PowerSpout at a site good enough to generate 1 kW can produce enough electricity for a typical house for a year (8,000 kWh/yr).

Low Head Hydro Power applications use tidal flows or rivers with a head of 20 metres (66 ft) or less to produce energy. These applications may not need to dam or retain water to create hydraulic head. Using the drop in a river or tidal flows to create electricity may provide a renewable energy source that will have a minimal impact on the environment.

Turgo Turbine is an impulse water turbine designed for medium head applications. Operational Turgo Turbines achieve efficiencies of about 87%. In factory and lab tests Turgo Turbines perform with efficiencies of up to 90%. It works with net heads between 15 and 300 m.

Hydraulic Head is a measurement of the total mechanical energy per weight of the groundwater flow system. In other words, it is the fluid potential for flow through porous media. It is predominantly comprised of pressure and elevation heads.

Piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum. It is usually measured as a liquid surface elevation, expressed in units of length, at the entrance (or bottom) of a piezometer. In an aquifer, it can be calculated from the depth to water in a piezometric well (a specialized water well), and given information of the piezometer's elevation and screen depth. Hydraulic head can similarly be measured in a column of water using a standpipe piezometer by measuring the height of the water surface in the tube relative to a common datum. The hydraulic head can be used to determine a hydraulic gradient between two or more points.

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.

Pressure Measurement are instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure. Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device which both measures and indicates, and is probably the best known type of gauge. A vacuum gauge is an absolute pressure gauge used to measure the pressures lower than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Other methods of pressure measurement involve sensors which can transmit the pressure reading to a remote indicator or control system like telemetry, which is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.

Energy Harvested from Evaporation could Power much of US. US lakes and reservoirs could generate 325 gigawatts of power, nearly 70 percent of what the United States currently produces. About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth’s surface drives Evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower.

River Engineering is the process of planned human intervention in the course, characteristics, or flow of a river with the intention of producing some defined benefit. People have intervened in the natural course and behaviour of rivers since before recorded history—to manage the water resources, to protect against flooding, or to make passage along or across rivers easier. From Roman times, rivers have been used as a source of hydropower. From the late 20th century, river engineering has had environmental concerns broader than immediate human benefit and some river engineering projects have been concerned exclusively with the restoration or protection of natural characteristics and habitats. Hydromodification encompasses the systematic response to alterations to riverine and non-riverine water bodies such as coastal waters (estuaries and bays) and lakes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined hydromodification as the "alteration of the hydrologic characteristics of coastal and non-coastal waters, which in turn could cause degradation of water resources." River engineering has often resulted in unintended systematic responses. The river engineering discipline now strives to repair hydromodified degradations and account for potential systematic response to planned alterations by considering fluvial geomorphology. Fluvial geomorphology is the study of how rivers change their form over time. Fluvial geomorphology is the cumulation of a number of sciences including open channel hydraulics, sediment transport, hydrology, physical geology, and riparian ecology. River engineering attempts to understand fluvial geomorphology, implement a physical alteration, and maintain public safety. Infrastructure.

Unintended Consequences of Dams and Reservoirs. An international team of drought scientists show that while many dams and reservoirs are built, or expanded, to alleviate droughts and water shortages, they can paradoxically contribute to making them worse. The supply-demand cycle describes cases where increasing water supply leads to higher water demand, which can quickly offset the initial benefits of reservoirs. These cycles can be seen as a rebound effect, also known in environmental economics as Jevon's paradox: as more water is available, water consumption tends to increase. This can result in a vicious cycle: a new water shortage can be addressed by further expansion of reservoir storage to increase (again) water availability, which enables more water consumption, until the next shortage... As such, the supply-demand cycle can trigger an accelerating spiral towards unsustainable exploitation of water resources and environmental degradation. The reservoir effect describes cases where over-reliance on reservoirs increases the potential damage caused by drought and water shortage. The expansion of reservoirs often reduces incentives for preparedness and adaptive actions, thus increasing the negative impacts of water shortage. Moreover, extended periods of abundant water supply, supported by reservoirs, can generate higher dependence on water resources, which in turn increases social vulnerability and economic damage when water shortage eventually occurs.



Ocean Wave Current Energy


Tidal Energy GraphicWave Power is the transport of energy by wind waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). A machine able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC). Wave power is distinct from the diurnal flux of tidal power and the steady gyre of ocean currents. Wave-power generation is not currently a widely employed commercial technology, although there have been attempts to use it since at least 1890. In 2008, the first experimental wave farm was opened in Portugal, at the Aguçadoura Wave Park.

Tidal Stream Generator is a machine that extracts energy from moving masses of water, in particular tides, although the term is often used in reference to machines designed to extract energy from run of river or tidal estuarine sites. Certain types of these machines function very much like underwater wind turbines, and are thus often referred to as tidal turbines. They were first conceived in the 1970s during the oil crisis. Tidal stream generators are the cheapest and the least ecologically damaging among the three main forms of tidal power generation.

Oscillating Water Column are a type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC)  that harness energy from the oscillation of the seawater inside a chamber or hollow caused by the action of waves. OWCs have shown promise as a renewable energy source with low environmental impact. Because of this, multiple companies have been working to design increasingly efficient OWC models.

Underwater Turbines
Tidal Lagoon Power Plant
Wind and Current Combo 
Sea Generation
Open Hydro

CETO Wave-Energy & Desalinates Water
Carnegie Wave
Perth Project
Bombora Wavepower
Bunbury Wave Energy Trial
Unique Hydropower System uses
Gravity Fed Water Pipes to
Produce Low Cost Electricity

Kymogen
OWC Generator (image)
Wave Research Laboratory
Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Ocean Renewable Wave Energy
Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology energy-harvesting turbines near tetrapods, which are concrete structures placed along the shore to weaken the force of incoming waves and prevent erosion.

 Robotics principles help Sandia wave energy converters better absorb power of ocean waves.

Between Eb and Flow is 20 minutes. Ebb is the outgoing phase, when the tide drains away from the shore; and the flow is the incoming phase when water rises again.

Sustainable Future Powered by Sea. Five-blade turbine are made of a soft material and they rotate on their axis when influenced by ocean waves. The axis is attached to a permanent magnet electric generator, which is the part of the turbine that transforms the ocean wave energy into usable electricity. The ceramic mechanical seal protects the electrical components inside of the body from any saltwater leakage. This design allows the turbine to function for ten years before it need replacing. Submerged turbines anchored to the sea floor through mooring cables that convert the kinetic energy of sustained natural currents in the Kuroshio into usable electricity, which is then delivered by cables to the land. 1% of the seashore of mainland japan can [generate] about 10 gigawats [of energy], which is equivalent to 10 nuclear power plants.

The Wave Energy Converter (WEC) System.

New technology could generate 40% of the world’s electricity where seawater and freshwater meet. Researchers at Penn State University have developed a new technology that they believe will be capable of producing large amounts of energy – possibly more than one-third the amount needed to meet global energy demands – in coastal areas where seawater and freshwater meet. “The goal of this technology,” assistant environmental engineering professor Christopher Gorski explained earlier this month in a statement, “is to generate electricity from where the rivers meet the ocean. It's based on the difference in the salt concentrations between the two water sources.” According to Gorski and his colleagues, that difference in salinity levels could potentially create enough energy to meet nearly 40 percent of the world’s electricity needs. However, methods that experts currently use to harness that power have failed to fully capitalize on that potential.



Geothermal Energy


Geothermal Energy Diagram Geothermal Energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal Energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter.
Geothermal Energy - Thermal Electric Energy.

Geothermal Electricity is power generated by geothermal energy. Technologies in use include dry steam power stations, flash steam power stations and binary cycle power stations. Geothermal electricity generation is currently used in 24 countries, while geothermal heating is in use in 70 countries. Geothermal.

Geophysics is the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

Enhanced Geothermal System generates geothermal electricity without the need for natural convective hydrothermal resources.

Binary Cycle is a type of geothermal power plant that allows cooler geothermal reservoirs to be used than is necessary for dry steam and flash steam plants.

Flash Steam Plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.

Flash Evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations. If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum.

CTR’s Hell’s Kitchen Lithium and Power project is situated within heart of the largest known geothermal resource in the world. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field in Imperial Valley, California represents a proven and defined geothermal power and mineralized brine resource. Utilizing proven direct lithium extraction technology, this immense lithium resource can now be fully realized.

Geothermal Heating & Cooling

Geothermal energy utilizes the relatively stable temperature of the earth that is buried and stored a few feet under its surface. Regardless of the season or the degree of the outside temperature, the temperature of the earth a few feet underground remains constant. Trenches are normally 6 to 10 feet deep (depending where you live) to have a constant 50 °F temperature) and up to 400 feet long, depending on how many pipes are in a trench. One of the advantages of a horizontal loop system is being able to lay the trenches according to the shape of the land. As a rule of thumb, 500-600 feet of pipe is required per ton of system capacity. When it's 0 °F, but the temperature of the ground 10 feet down can a balmy 50 °F. By putting pipes in the ground, we can exchange the heat from the ground to the house. When it's 90 °F outside, the ground is a cool 50 °F. So you can now move heat from the house into the ground. Most of the geothermal loop systems installed are closed loops. Soil Properties Temperature Experiment - PSU.edu

Geothermal Heating & Cooling (youtube) - Payback time for this investment is about 6 years. It's like buying your energy needs upfront for 6 years, and then you get to live the rest of your life with a very low energy bill that you control.

Passive Heating - Air Conditioning (passive)

Geothermal Heat Pump is a central heating and/or cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems, and may be combined with solar heating to form a geosolar system with even greater efficiency. They are also known by other names, including geoexchange, earth-coupled, earth energy systems. Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems

Heat Pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to a destination called a "heat sink". Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses a small amount of external power to accomplish the work of transferring energy from the heat source to the heat sink.

Geothermal Heating even cold ground contains heat, below 6 metres (20 ft) the undisturbed ground temperature is consistently at the Mean Annual Air Temperature and it may be extracted with a heat pump. Depending on latitude, the temperature beneath the upper 6 metres (20 ft) of Earth's surface maintains a nearly constant temperature between 10 and 16 °C (50 and 60 °F), if the temperature is undisturbed by the presence of a heat pump.

Desuperheater is a secondary heat exchanger that transfers heat from the earth in the winter, and from your home in the summer, into your domestic hot water tank. The desuperheater is part of the geothermal heat pump's domestic hot water generating system (HWG).

Thermal Efficiency is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example. For a heat engine, thermal efficiency is the fraction of the energy added by heat (primary energy) that is converted to net work output (secondary energy). In the case of a refrigeration or heat pump cycle, thermal efficiency is the ratio of net heat output for heating, or removal for cooling, to energy input (the coefficient of performance).

Thermal Battery is a physical structure used for the purpose of storing and releasing thermal energy—see also thermal energy storage. Such a thermal battery (a.k.a. TBat) allows energy available at one time to be temporarily stored and then released at another time. The basic principles involved in a thermal battery occur at the atomic level of matter, with energy being added to or taken from either a solid mass or a liquid volume which causes the substance's temperature to change. Some thermal batteries also involve causing a substance to transition thermally through a phase transition which causes even more energy to be stored and released due to the delta enthalpy of fusion or delta enthalpy of vaporization.

A new way to store thermal energy a kind of thermal battery

Phase-Change Material is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy. Heat is absorbed or released when the material changes from solid to liquid and vice versa; thus, PCMs are classified as latent heat storage (LHS) units.

GeoExchange Heating and Cooling System (open loop and closed loop) (youtube)
Geothermal Heating (youtube)
What is Geothermal? (youtube)
Geoexchange
Water Furnace
Smart Energy Now

Hellisheidi is now a zero-emissions plant that turns a greenhouse gas to stone. Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Plant, Iceland’s largest, just outside the capital Reykjavik. Since 2014, the plant has been extracting heat from underground, capturing the carbon dioxide released in the process, mixing it with water, and injecting it back down beneath the earth, about 700 meters (2,300 ft) deep. The carbon dioxide in the water reacts with the minerals at that depth to form rock, where it stays trapped.

Thermal Banking

Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage is the storage of heat or cold for periods of up to several months. The thermal energy can be collected whenever it is available and be used whenever needed, such as in the opposing season. For example, heat from solar collectors or waste heat from air conditioning equipment can be gathered in hot months for space heating use when needed, including during winter months. Waste heat from industrial process can similarly be stored and be used much later. Or the natural cold of winter air can be stored for summertime air conditioning.

Renewable Solar Fuel

Ocean Thermal

Electric Conversion (youtube)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity. OTEC is a base load electricity generation system.

Engineering Geology is the study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human activities.
Geo Engineering (wiki)

Geotechnical Engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction. Geo-Professions (wiki).

Energy from Solar Heat

Storing compressed air in sealed tunnels and mines could be a way of storing energy in the future. Compress air, which is stored in caverns in solid bedrock. When air is compressed, it heats up, so a separate underground heat store stockpiles the heat generated by the compression process. When the energy is needed, the air is released through a gas turbine, which generates electricity.



Thorium Reactor Nuclear Energy


Improved Safer Method of Nuclear Power. There is an Improved Method for Nuclear Energy that does not create bombs or Radio Active waste. This method was introduced years ago but was abandoned because criminals and war mongers wanted to make nuclear bombs.

Integral Fast Reactor is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor). IFR is distinguished by a nuclear fuel cycle that uses reprocessing via electrorefining at the reactor site.

S-PRISM is the name of a nuclear power plant design by GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH). The S-PRISM represents GEH's Generation IV reactor solution to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and is also part of its Advanced Recycling Center (ARC) proposition to U.S. Congress to deal with nuclear waste. S-PRISM is a commercial implementation of the Integral Fast Reactor developed by Argonne National Laboratory between 1984 and 1994. It is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, based on the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) design, scaled up by a factor of ten. The design utilizes reactor modules, each having a power output of 311 MWe, to enable factory fabrication at low cost. In an identical fashion to the EBR-II that it is based on, the reactor would transition to a much lower power level whenever temperatures rise significantly, moreover the reactor vessel modules are pool type, as opposed to loop type, with the pool conferring substantial thermal inertia and the final key safety feature includes a "RVACS", which is a passive reactor vessel air cooling system to remove decay heat. These safety systems are passive and therefore always operate and are to prevent core damage when no other means of heat removal are available.

Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor is a type of molten salt reactor. LFTRs use the thorium fuel cycle with a fluoride-based, molten, liquid salt for fuel. Molten-salt-fueled reactors (MSRs) supply the nuclear fuel in the form of a molten salt mixture. They should not be confused with molten salt-cooled high temperature reactors (fluoride high-temperature reactors, FHRs) that use a solid fuel. Molten salt reactors, as a class, include both burners and breeders in fast or thermal spectra, using fluoride or chloride salt-based fuels and a range of fissile or fertile consumables. LFTRs are defined by the use of fluoride fuel salts and the breeding of thorium into uranium-233 in the thermal spectrum.

Kirk Sorensen Nuclear Fuel (video) - Thorium Remix 2011 (youtube)

"NASA" - THORIUM REMIX 2016 (2 Hrs. 9 Mins.) - Taylor's Nuke Site - Video

Molten Salt Reactor is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture. MSRs can run at higher temperatures than water-cooled reactors for a higher thermodynamic efficiency, while staying at low vapour pressure. The nuclear fuel may be solid or dissolved in the coolant. In many designs the nuclear fuel dissolved in the coolant is uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). The fluid becomes critical in a graphite core that serves as the moderator. Some solid-fuel designs propose ceramic fuel dispersed in a graphite matrix, with the molten salt providing low pressure, high temperature cooling. The salts are much more efficient than compressed helium (another potential coolant in Generation IV reactor designs) at removing heat from the core, reducing the need for pumping and piping and reducing the core size. The concept was established in the 1950s. The early Aircraft Reactor Experiment (1954) was primarily motivated by the small size that the design could provide, while the Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (1965–1969) was a prototype for a thorium fuel cycle breeder reactor nuclear power plant. The increased research into Generation IV reactor designs included a renewed interest in the technology.

Thorium Fuel Cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium, 232Th, as the fertile material. In the reactor, 232Th is transmuted into the fissile artificial uranium isotope 233U which is the nuclear fuel. Unlike natural uranium, natural thorium contains only trace amounts of fissile material (such as 231Th), which are insufficient to initiate a nuclear chain reaction. Additional fissile material or another neutron source is necessary to initiate the fuel cycle. In a thorium-fuelled reactor, 232Th absorbs neutrons to produce 233U. This parallels the process in uranium breeder reactors whereby fertile 238U absorbs neutrons to form fissile 239Pu. Depending on the design of the reactor and fuel cycle, the generated 233U either fissions in situ or is chemically separated from the used nuclear fuel and formed into new nuclear fuel. The thorium fuel cycle has several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle, including thorium's greater abundance, superior physical and nuclear properties, reduced plutonium and actinide production, and better resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation when used in a traditional light water reactor though not in a molten salt reactor.

Breeder Reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes. These devices achieve this because their neutron economy is high enough to breed more fissile fuel than they use from fertile material, such as uranium-238 or thorium-232. Breeders were at first found attractive because their fuel economy was better than light water reactors, but interest declined after the 1960s as more uranium reserves were found, and new methods of uranium enrichment reduced fuel costs.

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide, whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive, prone to ignition on air when properly divided.

Rare Earth Elements - Deuterium (wiki) -  Energy from Thorium.

One pound of Thorium produces as much power as 300 lbs. of Uranium or 3.5 million lbs. of Coal.

Megatons to Megawatts Program (completed in December 2013).

Micro Nuclear Reactor - Travelling Wave Reactor

Small Modular Reactor are a type of nuclear fission reactor which are smaller than conventional reactors, and manufactured at a plant and brought to a site to be fully constructed. Modular reactors allow for less on-site construction, increased containment efficiency, and heightened nuclear materials security. SMRs have been considered to be less expensive than traditional nuclear reactors, although critics have questioned the cost benefits when compared to solar energy, wind energy, and natural gas. Small reactors are defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency as those with an electricity output of less than 300 MW, although general opinion is that anything with an output of less than 500 MWe counts as a small reactor.

Modular Nuclear -Terra Power - Loop Reactor Design

Nuclear Association - Nuclear Power - Radiation

Nuclear Submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor. The performance advantages of nuclear submarines over "conventional" (typically diesel-electric) submarines are considerable. Nuclear propulsion, being completely independent of air, frees the submarine from the need to surface frequently, as is necessary for conventional submarines. The large amount of power generated by a nuclear reactor allows nuclear submarines to operate at high speed for long periods of time; and the long interval between refuelings grants a range virtually unlimited, making the only limits on voyage times being imposed by such factors as the need to restock food or other consumables. Current generations of nuclear submarines never need to be refueled throughout their 25-year lifespans. Conversely, the limited power stored in electric batteries means that even the most advanced conventional submarine can only remain submerged for a few days at slow speed, and only a few hours at top speed, though recent advances in air-independent propulsion have somewhat ameliorated this disadvantage. The high cost of nuclear technology means that relatively few states have fielded nuclear submarines. Some of the most serious nuclear and radiation accidents ever to occur have involved Soviet nuclear submarine mishaps.



Steam Power


Water Steam Circuit diagram Steam is the vapor into which water is converted when heated, forming a white mist of minute water droplets in the air. Steam is water at boiling temperature diffused in the atmosphere as vapor or mist.

Steam Engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back into the boiler.

Boiler is a device that heats water by burning fuel for use in a heating system. Sealed vessel where water is converted to steam.

Steam Turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

PurePower GTF (image) - Geothermal

Turbines is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator or producing thrust, as in the case of jet engines. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels.

Steam Engine - How Does It Work (video)
STEAM ENGINE made of GLASS
Built My Model Vertical Steam Engine

Combined Gas and Steam is the name given to marine compound powerplants comprising gas and steam turbines, the latter being driven by steam generated using the heat from the exhaust of the gas turbines. In this way, some of the otherwise lost energy can be reclaimed and the specific fuel consumption of the plant can be decreased. Large (land-based) electric powerplants built using this combined cycle can reach conversion efficiencies of over 60%.

Combined Cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators. The principle is that after completing its cycle (in the first engine), the working fluid of the first heat engine is still low enough in its entropy that a second subsequent heat engine may extract energy from the waste heat (energy) of the working fluid of the first engine. By combining these multiple streams of work upon a single mechanical shaft turning an electric generator, the overall net efficiency of the system may be increased by 50–60%. That is, from an overall efficiency of say 34% (in a single cycle) to possibly an overall efficiency of 51% (in a mechanical combination of two cycles) in net Carnot thermodynamic efficiency. This can be done because heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than 50%). In an ordinary (non combined cycle) heat engine the remaining heat (e.g., hot exhaust fumes) from combustion is generally wasted. Photo (image).

Cooling Tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.

Engine Efficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work.

Animated Engines - Combustion Engine Power Generation - Engines

Otto Cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine. It is the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines.

Aeolipile also known as a Hero's Engine, is a simple, bladeless radial steam turbine which spins when the central water container is heated. Torque is produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, much like a tip jet or rocket engine. In the 1st century AD, Hero of Alexandria described the device in Roman Egypt, and many sources give him the credit for its invention. The aeolipile which Hero described is considered to be the first recorded steam engine or reaction steam turbine. Predating Hero's writings, a device called an aeolipile was described in the 1st century BC by Vitruvius in his treatise De architectura; however, it is unclear if it is the same device or a predecessor, as he does not mention rotating parts.

Flash Evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations. If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum. If the saturated liquid is a single-component liquid (for example, propane or liquid ammonia), a part of the liquid immediately "flashes" into vapor. Both the vapor and the residual liquid are cooled to the saturation temperature of the liquid at the reduced pressure. This is often referred to as "auto-refrigeration" and is the basis of most conventional vapor compression refrigeration systems. If the saturated liquid is a multi-component liquid (for example, a mixture of propane, isobutane and normal butane), the flashed vapor is richer in the more volatile components than is the remaining liquid. Uncontrolled flash evaporation can result in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).



Thermoelectric


Thermoelectric Generator Diagram Thermoelectric Effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side. Solar Thermal Energy - Perpetual.

Thermoelectric Cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials. Refrigeration.

Peltier Effect is the presence of heating or cooling at an electrified junction of two different conductors.

Seebeck Coefficient of a material is a measure of the magnitude of an induced thermoelectric voltage in response to a temperature difference across that material, as induced by the Seebeck effect. The SI unit of the Seebeck coefficient is volts per kelvin (V/K), although it is more often given in microvolts per kelvin (μV/K).

Thermoelectric Material

Thermoelectric Generator is a solid state device that converts Heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect phenomenon in which a temperature difference between two dissimilar electrical conductors or semiconductors produces a voltage difference between the two substances).

Thermo-Magnetic Motor converts heat into kinetic energy using the thermomagnetic effect.

Thermomagnetic Generators converts waste heat into electrical power even at small temperature differences. Alloy film thickness and footprint influence electrical power. Use of waste heat contributes largely to sustainable energy supply. Scientists have now come much closer to their goal of converting waste heat into electrical power at small temperature differences. Electrical power per footprint of thermomagnetic generators based on Heusler alloy films has been increased by a factor of 3.4.

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect. This generator has no moving parts. RTGs have been used as power sources in satellites, space probes, and unmanned remote facilities such as a series of lighthouses built by the former Soviet Union inside the Arctic Circle. RTGs are usually the most desirable power source for unmaintained situations that need a few hundred watts (or less) of power for durations too long for fuel cells, batteries, or generators to provide economically, and in places where solar cells are not practical. Safe use of RTGs requires containment of the radioisotopes long after the productive life of the unit.

Plutonium-238 is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years. Plutonium-238 is a very powerful alpha emitter. This makes the plutonium-238 isotope suitable for usage in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units. The density of plutonium-238 is 19.329 g/cm3.

Teg mart - Wood Burning Stoves

Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Converter or JTEC is a type of solid-state heat engine that uses the photodecomposition and recombination of hydrogen in a fuel cell via an approximate Ericsson cycle. It is under investigation as a viable alternative to conventional photovoltaic cells. Lonnie Johnson invented it and claims the converter exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of as much as 60% compared to the 30% efficiency typical of the best photovoltaic cells; however, this claim is at a theoretical level based on comparison with a Carnot cycle and assumes a temperature gradient of 600C. It was originally proposed for funding to the Office of Naval Research but was refused. Johnson obtained later funding by framing the engine as a hydrogen fuel cell. Johnson is collaborating with PARC on development of the engine.

System draws Power from daily Temperature Swings. Technology can harness temperature fluctuations of many kinds to produce electricity. A new device can draw power out of the daily cycle of temperature swings to power remote sensors or communications systems.

Researchers Report New Thermoelectric Material with High Power Factor. The majority of industrial energy input is lost as Waste Heat," the researchers wrote. "Converting some of the waste heat into useful electrical power will lead to the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission."

New understanding of Thermoelectric Materials. Discovery leads to promising new materials for converting waste heat to power. The researchers already knew thermoelectric efficiency depends on the performance of the material in both forms, known as "p-type" and "n-type" for carrying a positive and negative charge, respectively. But most materials either don't exist in both formulations or one type is more efficient than the other. It is possible to build effective thermoelectric devices using just a p-type or n-type compound, but it is easier to design a device that contains both types; Ren said the best performance would come when both types exhibit similar properties. The researchers synthesized one of the predicted materials, a zirconium-cobalt-bismuth compound, and reported a measured heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 10.6% at both the cold side, about 303 Kelvin, or about 86 degrees Fahrenheit, and the hot side, about 983 Kelvin (1,310 Fahrenheit) for both the p-type and the n-type.

Fine-tuning thermoelectric materials for cheaper renewable energy. Materials known as halide perovskites and caesium tin iodide have been proposed as affordable alternatives to existing thermoelectric materials.

Metal with Law-Breaking Property lets Electricity Flow But Not the Heat, Vanadium Dioxide that could lead to applications in thermoelectrics, window coatings.

Solid-State Devices that Convert Heat into Electricity Composite material yields 10 times—or higher—voltage output.

MATRIX PowerWatch Advanced thermoelectric technology Smartwatch Powered by You - You Never Have to Charge.

Wearable Solar Thermoelectric Generator Created.

Small generator captures heat given off by skin to power wearable devices. Scientists have developed a small, flexible device that can convert heat emitted from human skin to electrical power. In their research the team showed that the device could power an LED light in real time when worn on a wristband. The findings suggest that body temperature could someday power wearable electronics such as fitness trackers.

Novel Circuit Design Boosts Wearable Thermoelectric Generators.

Thermoelectric Power Generation at Room Temperature. The ideal TE material combines high electrical conductivity, allowing the current to flow, with low thermal conductivity, which prevents the temperature gradient from evening out. The power generation performance mainly depends on the “power factor,” which is proportional to both electrical conductivity and a term called the Seebeck coefficient. we combined silicon – which is common in TE materials – with ytterbium, to create ytterbium silicide [YbSi2].

Wood-based Technology Creates Electricity from Heat.

Heat Sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the Heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool central processing units or graphics processors. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs), where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself is insufficient to moderate its temperature.

Thermal Conductivity is the property of a material to conduct heat. Heat transfer occurs at a lower rate across materials of low thermal conductivity than across materials of high thermal conductivity. Correspondingly, materials of high thermal conductivity are widely used in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of a material may depend on temperature. The reciprocal of thermal conductivity is called thermal resistivity. Thermal conductivity is actually a tensor, which means it is possible to have different values in different directions. List of thermal conductivities (wiki).

Cooling mechanism increases solar energy harvesting for self-powered outdoor sensors. With the use of a wavelength-selective emitter to create constant radiative cooling, thermoelectric devices can generate voltage continuously. Thermoelectric devices, which use the temperature difference between the top and bottom of the device to generate power, offer some promise for harnessing naturally occurring energy. Authors tested one made up of a wavelength-selective emitter that constantly cools the device during the day using radiative cooling. As a result, the top of the device is cooler than the bottom, causing a temperature difference that creates constant voltage through day and night.

Heat Capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change. Thermodynamics.

Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is defined as the interaction of one or more photons with one target molecule. Photodissociation is not limited to visible light. Any photon with sufficient energy can affect the chemical bonds of a chemical compound. Since a photon's energy is inversely proportional to its wavelength, electromagnetic waves with the energy of visible light or higher, such as ultraviolet light, x-rays and gamma rays are usually involved in such reactions.
Ericsson Cycle (wiki)

Heat Engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work. it does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A Heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the "working body" of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink" until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used. In general an engine converts energy to mechanical work. Heat engines distinguish themselves from other types of engines by the fact that their efficiency is fundamentally limited by Carnot's theorem. Although this efficiency limitation can be a drawback, an advantage of heat engines is that most forms of energy can be easily converted to heat by processes like exothermic reactions (such as combustion), absorption of light or energetic particles, friction, dissipation and resistance. Since the heat source that supplies thermal energy to the engine can thus be powered by virtually any kind of energy, heat engines are very versatile and have a wide range of applicability.

Closed Brayton Cycle is driven in reverse, via net work input, and when air is the working fluid, is the gas refrigeration cycle or Bell Coleman cycle. Its purpose is to move heat, rather than produce work. This air cooling technique is used widely in jet aircraft for air conditioning systems utilizing air tapped from the engine compressors. It is also used in the LNG industry where the largest reverse brayton cycle is for subcooling LNG using 86 MW of power from a gas turbine driven compressor and nitrogen refrigerant.

Thermal Metamaterial innovation could help bring waste-heat harvesting technology to power plants, factories
to recapture a portion of the energy wasted as heat. Solar Heat.

Thermal Radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. When the temperature of a body is greater than absolute zero, inter-atomic collisions cause the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules to change. This results in charge-acceleration and/or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic radiation, and the wide spectrum of radiation reflects the wide spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even at a single temperature.

Thermophotovoltaic is a direct conversion process from heat to electricity via photons. A basic thermophotovoltaic system consists of a thermal emitter and a photovoltaic diode cell.

Geo-Thermal - Thermodynamics

Lumen - Eternal Flashlight That Doesn't Need Batteries.

The Hollow Thermoelectric Flashlight Using four Peltier tiles and the temperature difference between the palm of the hand and ambient air, only needs a five degree temperature difference to work and produce up to 5.4 mW at 5 foot candles of brightness.

Outgoing Longwave Radiation is the energy radiating from the Earth as infrared radiation at low energy to Space.

Thermoelectric Wood Stove Generator (youtube)
Stower Energy

Thermal Energy refers to the internal energy present in a system due to its temperature.

Thermodynamic magic enables cooling without energy consumption. Physicists have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. Intriguingly, the process initially appears to contradict the fundamental laws of physics.



Kinetic - Piezoelectric


Kinetic Energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest. Ek = Kinetic energy, m = mass, v = velocity. Kinetic Energy Formula Ek = 1/2 mv2 - Ek, is the energy of a mass, m, in motion, v2.

Kinetic relates to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith.

Static Electricity - Hot and Cold - Rotational Energy.

Threshold Energy for production of a particle is the minimum kinetic energy a pair of traveling particles must have when they collide. The threshold energy is always greater than or equal to the Rest Energy of the desired particle. In most cases, since momentum is also conserved, the threshold energy is significantly greater than the rest energy of the desired particle - and thus there will still be considerable kinetic energy in the final particles.

Threshold Displacement Energy is the minimum kinetic energy that an atom in a solid needs to be permanently displaced from its lattice site to a defect position. It is also known as "displacement threshold energy" or just "displacement energy".

Kinetic Theory of Gases describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container. Kinetic theory explains macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. The theory posits that gas pressure is due to the impacts, on the walls of a container, of molecules or atoms moving at different velocities. Kinetic theory defines temperature in its own way, in contrast with the thermodynamic definition. Under a microscope, the molecules making up a liquid are too small to be visible, but the jittery motion of pollen grains or dust particles can be seen. Known as Brownian motion, it results directly from collisions between the grains or particles and liquid molecules. As analyzed by Albert Einstein in 1907, this experimental evidence for kinetic theory is generally seen as having confirmed the concrete material existence of atoms and molecules.

Regenerative Braking - Potential Energy

Torsion Spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted. When it is twisted, it exerts a force (actually torque) in the opposite direction, proportional to the amount (angle) it is twisted. Mousetrap (wiki).

Elastic Energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape. Elastic energy occurs when objects are compressed and stretched, or generally deformed in any manner. Elasticity theory primarily develops formalisms for the mechanics of solid bodies and materials. (Note however, the work done by a stretched rubber band is not an example of elastic energy. It is an example of entropic elasticity.) The elastic potential energy equation is used in calculations of positions of mechanical equilibrium. The energy is potential as it will be converted into the second form of energy, such as kinetic.

Electric Textile Lights a Lamp when Stretched. Researchers have developed a fabric that converts kinetic energy into electric power. The greater the load applied to the textile and the wetter it becomes the more electricity it generates.

Energy-Harvesting Yarns Generate Electricity. Coiled carbon nanotube yarns generate electrical energy when stretched or twisted.

Pavegen generates electricity from footsteps and captures data within the urban environment.

Human Energy

Vibration-Powered Generator is a type of electric generator that converts the kinetic energy from vibration into electrical energy. The vibration may be from sound pressure waves or other ambient sources. Vibration powered generators usually consist of a resonator which is used to amplify the vibration source, and a transducer mechanism which converts the energy from the vibrations into electrical energy. The transducer usually consists of a magnet and coil or a piezoelectric crystal.

Piezo Effect is electricity produced by mechanical pressure on certain crystals, where electrostatic stress produces a change in the linear dimensions of the crystal.

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure.

London's Bird Street is the World's first 'Smart Street' that generate electricity from people just walking.
Pavegen Energy Generating Walkways

Walking and Pedestrian Infrastructure. City Walking Scores.

Ultrathin device harvests electricity from human motion. Ultralow Frequency Electrochemical Mechanical Strain Energy Harvester using 2D Black Phosphorus Nanosheets.

3-D Printed Piezoelectric Materials (youtube) - New printing technique and materials could be used to develop intelligent materials and self-adaptive infrastructures and transducers.

Piezo Electric Materials
Shoe Charges Phone when Walking
New Fabric Uses Sun and Wind to Power Devices

Electricity generated from low-cost biomaterial biomolecule glycine amino acid, when tapped or squeezed, can generate enough electricity to power electrical devices. It can be produced at less than one per cent of the cost of currently used piezoelectric materials.

Quantum Mechanical/Effective Fragment Potential-Molecular Dynamics (QM/EFP–MD) Simulation: A Smart Sampling Technique in Condensed Phase.

Nanogenerator is a type of technology that converts mechanical/thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change into electricity. Nano-Generator has three typical approaches: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric nanogenerators. Both the piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators can convert the mechanical energy into electricity. However, the pyroelectric nanogenerators can be used to harvest thermal energy from a time-dependent temperature fluctuation.

Micro-Generation - Electric Generator

Triboelectric Effect is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.

Triboelectric Nanogenerator is an energy harvesting device that converts the external mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction.

Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Power-Boards from Cellulose Nanofibrils and Recycled Materials The technology could be incorporated into flooring and convert footsteps on the flooring into usable electricity.

Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain materials to generate a temporary voltage when they are heated or cooled.

Dark Matter

Energy from Evaporating Water (youtube)

Liquid metal synthesis for better piezoelectrics: Atomically-thin tin-monosulfide. Potential materials for future wearable electronics and other motion-powered, energy-harvesting devices. Scientists have applied liquid-metal synthesis to piezoelectrics, advancing future flexible, wearable electronics, and biosensors drawing their power from the body's movements. Piezoelectric materials such as atomically-thin tin-monosulfide (SnS) convert mechanical forces or movement into electrical energy. Along with their inherent flexibility, this makes them candidates for flexible nanogenerators in wearable electronics or internal, self-powered biosensors.



Perpetual


Perpetual Motion gif Perpetual Motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely.

Zero-Point Energy (free energy)

Atoms are perpetual motion, they seem to spin forever. The sun is perpetual motion, it's a controlled chain reaction that lasts billions of years. Perpetual motion is useless if it doesn't produce more energy than what goes in. People trying to create perpetual motion machines can help people design more efficient machines or machines with less friction.

Conservation of Energy - Entropy

Potential Well - Feedback Loops

Thermodynamic Laws - Nano Machines

Action Physics - Gyroscopes

Justin Hall (youtube) - Perpetual Motion Machines (youtube)

Fuel Saving System

Energy Digital - Thermal Electric Energy

Infinite Energy Mag is a bi-monthly magazine published in New Hampshire that details theories and experiments concerning alternative energy, new science and new physics.

Carnot Cycle is an efficient heat engine cycle consisting of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic processes. The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient heat engine cycle allowed by physical laws. It provides an upper limit on the efficiency that any classical thermodynamic engine can achieve during the conversion of heat into work, or conversely, the efficiency of a refrigeration system in creating a temperature difference by the application of work to the system. It is not an actual thermodynamic cycle but is a theoretical construct. Every single thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. When a system is taken through a series of different states and finally returned to its initial state, a thermodynamic cycle is said to have occurred. In the process of going through this cycle, the system may perform work on its surroundings, for example by moving a piston, thereby acting as a heat engine. A system undergoing a Carnot cycle is called a Carnot heat engine, although such a "perfect" engine is only a theoretical construct and cannot be built in practice. However, a microscopic Carnot heat engine has been designed and run. Essentially, there are two "heat reservoirs" forming part of the heat engine at temperatures Th and Tc (hot and cold respectively). They have such large thermal capacity that their temperatures are practically unaffected by a single cycle. Since the cycle is theoretically reversible, there is no generation of entropy during the cycle; entropy is conserved. During the cycle, an arbitrary amount of entropy ΔS is extracted from the hot reservoir, and deposited in the cold reservoir. Since there is no volume change in either reservoir, they do no work, and during the cycle, an amount of energy ThΔS is extracted from the hot reservoir and a smaller amount of energy TcΔS is deposited in the cold reservoir. The difference in the two energies (Th-Tc)ΔS is equal to the work done by the engine.

Maxwell's Demon is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might hypothetically be violate.

Supreme Skills! Miracle Tops: May They Spin Forever! (youtube)
See-Saw Balance. Perpetual Motion Machine (youtube)
Energy by Motion EBM Magnetic Self Perpetuating Power Plant (youtube)

How to Assemble a HHO Generator and why it works The Brown gas generator uses electrolysis to split water (H2O) into it´s base molecules, 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen molecule. This is why it is often referred to as an HHO gas generator.

Hydro Water Power - Bhāskara's Wheel (wiki)

What are the differences between H2O and HHO (youtube)
The Hutchison Effect & Free Energy - LightworksAV Documentary (Part 2 of 2) (youtube) - Light Works AV
DePalma N-machine 11/18 (youtube) - Depalma

Sterling Engine - Engines

Steorn is a small, private technology development company based in Dublin, Ireland. It announced in August 2006 it had developed a technology which provides "free, clean, and constant energy".



Wireless Electricity


wireless electricity Contactless Energy Transfer is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete human-made conductors. Wireless Communication.

Wireless Power is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load, such as an electrical power grid or a consuming device, without the use of discrete human-made conductors.

Converting Wi-Fi Signals to Electricity with new 2D Materials. Device made from flexible, inexpensive materials could power large-area electronics, wearables, medical devices, and more. All rectennas rely on a component known as a "rectifier," which converts the AC input signal into DC power. Power over Wi-Fi System.

Rectenna a special type of receiving antenna that is used for converting electromagnetic energy into direct current (DC) electricity. They are used in wireless power transmission systems that transmit power by radio waves. A simple rectenna element consists of a Dipole Antenna with an RF diode connected across the dipole elements. The diode rectifies the AC induced in the antenna by the microwaves, to produce DC power, which powers a load connected across the diode. Schottky diodes are usually used because they have the lowest voltage drop and highest speed and therefore have the lowest power losses due to conduction and switching. Large rectennas consist of an array of many such dipole elements.

Resonant Inductive Coupling is the near field wireless transmission of electrical energy between two magnetically coupled coils that are part of resonant circuits tuned to resonate at the same frequency. This process occurs in a resonant transformer, an electrical component which consists of two high Q coils wound on the same core with capacitors connected across the windings to make two coupled LC circuits.

First Battery-Free Cellphone makes calls by Harvesting Ambient Power. Engineers have designed the first battery-free cellphone that can send and receive calls using only a few microwatts of power, which it harvests from ambient radio signals or light. Battery-Free Cellphone (youtube) 

Ambient
is the surrounding area or environment that is close by.

Electromagnetic Induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field. Magnetics.

Linear induction Motor asynchronous linear motor that works by the same general principles as other induction motors but is typically designed to directly produce motion in a straight line. Characteristically, linear induction motors have a finite primary or secondary length, which generates end-effects, whereas a conventional induction motor is arranged in an endless loop.

Induction Motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding. An induction motor can therefore be made without electrical connections to the rotor as are found in universal, DC and synchronous motors. An asynchronous motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type.

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that deals with the phenomena and properties of stationary or slow-moving electric charges.

Electrostatic induction is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges. In the presence of a charged body, an insulated conductor develops a positive charge on one end and a negative charge on the other end.

OLV Technology
Charging of jumping droplets
Free Electricity (youtube)

Tesla's Wireless Energy "Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other fuels." - Nikola Tesla believed there could be a global network of wireless Electricity that would use an electromagnetic wave that reverberated between the ionosphere (a layer of the Earth’s atmosphere filled with ions and free electrons) and the ground.

Nikola Tesla (youtube)
Tesla's Little Secret (Original) (youtube)
Atmospheric electricity. Free energy (youtube)

Atmospheric Electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet). The movement of charge between the Earth's surface, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere is known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. Atmospheric electricity is an interdisciplinary topic, involving concepts from electrostatics, atmospheric physics, meteorology and Earth science. Electricity.

Radiant Energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation. The SI unit of radiant energy is the joule (J). The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time.

13 year old Invents Free Energy Device for 14 bucks! (youtube)

Electromagnetic Harvester conducts radio waves, thermal and static energy, and turns into electricity.

Wireless Charging - Chargers

Physics of Wireless Charging

Galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument used for detecting and indicating an electric current. A galvanometer works as an actuator, by producing a rotary deflection (of a "pointer"), in response to electric current flowing through a coil in a constant magnetic field. Early galvanometers were not calibrated, but their later developments were used as measuring instruments, called ammeters, to measure the current flowing through an electric circuit.

WitriCity

Qi inductive Power Standard is an open interface standard that defines wireless power transfer using inductive charging over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches), and is developed by the Wireless Power Consortium. The system uses a charging pad and a compatible device, which is placed on top of the pad, charging via resonant inductive coupling.

Wireless Data (Li-Fi)

Quasistatic Cavity Resonance for Ubiquitous Wireless Power Transfer Wireless power delivery has the potential to seamlessly power our electrical devices as easily as data is transmitted through the air. Generate quasistatic magnetic fields that safely deliver kilowatts of power to mobile receivers contained nearly anywhere within a short distance. Safety analysis shows that up to 1900 watts can be transmitted to a coil receiver enabling safe and ubiquitous wireless power.

Tiny chip powers itself from radio waves. Dutch specialists have developed a minor sensor that measures temperature, light, and air, without needing a battery. The sensor contains a receiving wire that gets commands from a remote switch.

Wireless Communication.

Frequency Splitting is a key characteristic of wireless power transfer system. With the increases of coupling coefficient, the power transferred to load drops sharply. The resonant frequency splits from one into two within splitting region. With impedance analysis, the even and odd splitting frequencies were derived. Frequency Adding is adding waves of different frequencies together.



Engines


Engine is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat, which then creates a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion.

Steam Engine - Rockets - Fire - Chemical Reaction - Lightning - Electric Motors (motors)

External Combustion Engine is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger.

Internal Combustion Engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.

Combustion is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion in a fire produces a flame, and the heat produced can make combustion self-sustaining. Combustion is often a complicated sequence of elementary radical reactions. Solid fuels, such as wood and coal, first undergo endothermic pyrolysis to produce gaseous fuels whose combustion then supplies the heat required to produce more of them. Combustion is often hot enough that incandescent light in the form of either glowing or a flame is produced. A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen into water vapor, a reaction commonly used to fuel rocket engines. This reaction releases 242 kJ/mol of heat and reduces the enthalpy accordingly (at constant temperature and pressure): 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) → 2H 2O(g). Combustion of an organic fuel in air is always exothermic because the double bond in O2 is much weaker than other double bonds or pairs of single bonds, and therefore the formation of the stronger bonds in the combustion products CO2 and H2O results in the release of energy. The bond energies in the fuel play only a minor role, since they are similar to those in the combustion products; e.g., the sum of the bond energies of CH4 is nearly the same as that of CO2. The heat of combustion is approximately -418 kJ per mole of O2 used up in the combustion reaction, and can be estimated from the elemental composition of the fuel. Uncatalyzed combustion in air requires fairly high temperatures. Complete combustion is stoichiometric with respect to the fuel, where there is no remaining fuel, and ideally, no remaining oxidant. Thermodynamically, the chemical equilibrium of combustion in air is overwhelmingly on the side of the products. However, complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve, since the chemical equilibrium is not necessarily reached, or may contain unburnt products such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen and even carbon (soot or ash). Thus, the produced smoke is usually toxic and contains unburned or partially oxidized products. Any combustion at high temperatures in atmospheric air, which is 78 percent nitrogen, will also create small amounts of several nitrogen oxides, commonly referred to as NOx , since the combustion of nitrogen is thermodynamically favored at high, but not low temperatures. Since combustion is rarely clean, flue gas cleaning or catalytic converters may be required by law. Fires occur naturally, ignited by lightning strikes or by volcanic products. Combustion (fire) was the first controlled chemical reaction discovered by humans, in the form of campfires and bonfires, and continues to be the main method to produce energy for humanity. Usually, the fuel is carbon, hydrocarbons or more complicated mixtures such as wood that contains partially oxidized hydrocarbons. The thermal energy produced from combustion of either fossil fuels such as coal or oil, or from renewable fuels such as firewood, is harvested for diverse uses such as cooking, production of electricity or industrial or domestic heating. Combustion is also currently the only reaction used to power rockets. Combustion is also used to destroy (incinerate) waste, both nonhazardous and hazardous. Oxidants for combustion have high oxidation potential and include atmospheric or pure oxygen, chlorine, fluorine, chlorine trifluoride, nitrous oxide and nitric acid. For instance, hydrogen burns in chlorine to form hydrogen chloride with the liberation of heat and light characteristic of combustion. Although usually not catalyzed, combustion can be catalyzed by platinum or vanadium, as in the contact process. Combust is to cause burning to start burning or burst into flames.

Ignition System generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines, oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc. The widest application for spark ignition internal combustion engines is in petrol (gasoline) road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Compression ignition Diesel engines ignite the fuel-air mixture by the heat of compression and do not need a spark. They usually have glowplugs that preheat the combustion chamber to allow starting in cold weather. Other engines may use a flame, or a heated tube, for ignition. While this was common for very early engines it is now rare. The first electric spark ignition was probably Alessandro Volta's toy electric pistol from the 1780s.

Ignition is the action of setting something on fire or starting to burn. the process of starting the combustion of fuel in the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. the mechanism for bringing about ignition in an internal combustion engine, typically activated by a key or switch.

Ignite is to cause burning to start burning or burst into flames; subject to fire or great heat. Arouse or excite feelings and passions.

Spark Plug is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine. A spark plug has a metal threaded shell, electrically isolated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator. The central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected by a heavily insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto. The spark plug's metal shell is screwed into the engine's cylinder head and thus electrically grounded. The central electrode protrudes through the porcelain insulator into the combustion chamber, forming one or more spark gaps between the inner end of the central electrode and usually one or more protuberances or structures attached to the inner end of the threaded shell and designated the side, earth, or ground electrode(s).Spark plugs may also be used for other purposes; in Saab Direct Ignition when they are not firing, spark plugs are used to measure ionization in the cylinders – this ionic current measurement is used to replace the ordinary cam phase sensor, knock sensor and misfire measurement function. Spark plugs may also be used in other applications such as furnaces wherein a combustible fuel/air mixture must be ignited. In this case, they are sometimes referred to as flame igniters.

Electric Spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures. Michael Faraday described this phenomenon as "the beautiful flash of light attending the discharge of common electricity". The rapid transition from a non-conducting to a conductive state produces a brief emission of light and a sharp crack or snapping sound. A spark is created when the applied electric field exceeds the dielectric breakdown strength of the intervening medium. For air, the breakdown strength is about 30 kV/cm at sea level. Experimentally, this figure tends to differ depending upon humidity, atmospheric pressure, shape of electrodes (needle and ground-plane, hemispherical etc.) and the corresponding spacing between them and even the type of waveform, whether sinusoidal or cosine-rectangular. At the beginning stages, free electrons in the gap (from cosmic rays or background radiation) are accelerated by the electrical field. As they collide with air molecules, they create additional ions and newly freed electrons which are also accelerated. At some point, thermal energy will provide a much greater source of ions. The exponentially-increasing electrons and ions rapidly cause regions of the air in the gap to become electrically conductive in a process called dielectric breakdown. Once the gap breaks down, current flow is limited by the available charge (for an electrostatic discharge) or by the impedance of the external power supply. If the power supply continues to supply current, the spark will evolve into a continuous discharge called an electric arc. An electric spark can also occur within insulating liquids or solids, but with different breakdown mechanisms from sparks in gases. Sometimes, sparks can be dangerous. They can cause fires and burn skin. Lightning is an example of an electric spark in nature, while electric sparks, large or small, occur in or near many man-made objects, both by design and sometimes by accident.

Spark is a small fiery particle thrown off from a fire, alight in ashes, or produced by striking together two hard surfaces such as stone or metal. A small fragment of a burning substance thrown out by burning material or by friction Electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field. A momentary flash of light.

Flint is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tools and start fires. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. The nodules can often be found along streams and beaches. Flint breaks and chips into sharp-edged pieces, making it useful for knife blades and other cutting tools. The use of flint to make stone tools dates back millions of years, and flint's extreme durability has made it possible to accurately date its use over this time. Flint is one of the primary materials used to define the Stone Age. During the Stone Age, access to flint was so important for survival that people would travel or trade to obtain flint. Flint Ridge in Ohio was an important source of flint and Native Americans extracted the flint from hundreds of quarries along the ridge. This "Ohio Flint" was traded across the eastern United States and has been found as far west as the Rocky Mountains and south around the Gulf of Mexico. When struck against steel, flint will produce enough sparks to ignite a fire with the correct tinder, or gunpowder used in weapons. Although it has been superseded in these uses by different processes (the percussion cap), or materials, (ferrocerium), "flint" has lent its name as generic term for a fire starter.
Fire Striker is a piece of carbon steel from which sparks are struck by the sharp edge of flint, chert or similar rock. It is a specific tool used in firemaking. Upon contact with oxygen in the air, the surfaces of the iron particles spontaneously ignite and give off heat as they oxidize (rust). Because the surface area of the iron particles is so large compared to their volume, the particles quickly heat up and glow red hot. They become sparks.

Fire Making is the process of starting a fire artificially. It requires completing the fire triangle, usually by heating tinder above its autoignition temperature.

Fire Piston uses the principle of the heating of a gas or air by rapid and adiabatic compression to ignite a piece of tinder, which is then used to set light to kindling.

Back-fire is combustion or an explosion produced by a running internal combustion engine that occurs in the air intake system rather than inside the combustion chamber. Unburnt fuel that is ignited in the exhaust system can produce loud sounds even if flames are not present at the tailpipe. This is called an after-fire since a backfire occurs through the intake system. A visible flame may momentarily shoot out of the exhaust pipe under some conditions. Either condition may cause a loud popping noise and usually indicates an improperly tuned engine. A common cause of after-fire is from running rich (too much fuel going into cylinders), or faulty ignition possibly a fouled (dirty) spark plug, coil, or plug wire. A backfire (inlet manifold, carburetor/throttle body, or air cleaner) of an internal combustion engine can occur when the valves are not shutting correctly. The term derives from parallel experiences with early unreliable firearms or ammunition, in which the explosive force was directed out at the breech instead of the muzzle. From this came the use of the word "backfire" as a verb to indicate something that produces an unintended, unexpected, and undesired result.

Turbocharger is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure (and for that matter, ram air intakes) alone.

Turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels. Fans.

Compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor. Refrigeration.

Air Compressor is a device that converts power (using an electric motor, diesel or gasoline engine, etc.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air (i.e., compressed air). By one of several methods, an air compressor forces more and more air into a storage tank, increasing the pressure. When tank pressure reaches its engineered upper limit, the air compressor shuts off. The compressed air, then, is held in the tank until called into use. The energy contained in the compressed air can be used for a variety of applications, utilizing the kinetic energy of the air as it is released and the tank depressurizes. When tank pressure reaches its lower limit, the air compressor turns on again and re-pressurizes the tank. An air compressor must be differentiated from a pump because it works for any gas/air, while pumps work on a liquid.

Heat Engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work. It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the "working body" of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink" until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity, but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used. Stirling.

Reciprocating Engine also often known as a piston engine, is a heat engine (usually, although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.

Small revving single-cylinder engine from paper (youtube)

Motive Power is a natural agent, such as water or steam, wind or electricity, used to impart motion to machinery such as an engine. Motive power may also be a locomotive or a motor, which provides motive power to a system. Motive power may be thought of as a synonym for either "work", i.e. force times distance [J], or "power" [J/s].


Biodiesel Fuels


Biodiesel Advancements
Biodiesel
Biodiesel Research
WVO Designs
Waste Vegetable Oil Fuel (wiki)
Largest Populus single nucleotide polymorphism SNP dataset holds promise for biofuels, materials, metabolites
Bio Fuels
Bio Diesel
Bio-Based Motor Oil
EZ Biodiesel
Biodiesel Alliance
Biochemical Engineering (wiki)
Grease Recycling
Mobile Biofuel
Diesel Cycle (wiki)
Bio Energy
Cerium Oxide 
‘Super yeast’ has the power to improve economics of Biofuels

Turning biofuel waste into wealth in a single step adding formaldehyde to Lignin could convert up to 80% of it into valuable molecules for biofuel and plastics.

Synthetic Fuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas. Common methods for manufacturing synthetic fuels include the Fischer Tropsch conversion, methanol to gasoline conversion, or direct coal liquefaction.

A better view of synthetic fuel production

Dual-purpose biofuel crops could produce both ethanol and biodiesel for nine months of the year

Diesel HPR is refined from recycled fats & oils, but does not contain biodiesel.

Home Ethanol Fuel - HP 2 G

Waste to Energy

Revolution Green 2.0 (Film) - Fuel (Documentary) - Freedom Fuels (Film)

Diesel Conversion - Diesel to Vegetable Oil

Green Auto Blog - Goin Green
Fuel Economy - NREL
Green Car Congress

Energy Efficiency &Renewable Energy
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Defense

Tree Hugger

Megawatt Motor Works

Learn Car Mechanics (ehow)

Car Racing - List of Fastest Production Cars (wiki)

Yokohama Tire Avid Ascend
Lubri-Check Measures Oil Viscosity
Eco Touch Waterless Carwash

Eco-Modder Fuel Economy Tips

Green Products - Green Building

Green Jobs - Green News - Green Ideas

Science Websites - Engineering - Wireless Energy

It takes 50,000 lbs. of Raw Material to make a 3,000 lb. Car.

Every Gallon of Gas Burned Creates 19 lbs. of CO2.

Gas Engine Inefficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work. There are two classifications of thermal engines-Internal combustion (gasoline, diesel and gas turbine, i.e., Brayton cycle engines) and External combustion engines (steam piston, steam turbine, and the Stirling cycle engine).

Fossil Fuel are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon: hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates.



Generators - Motors


Generator is an engine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction, which is the production of an electromotive force or voltage across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

Electric Motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this would be the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. Electric Motors are about 70% more efficient than combustion engines and electric motors last longer and also require less maintenance. Electric Cars.

Electric Motors are about 70% more efficient than combustion engines and electric motors last longer and also require less maintenance.

Motor is a machine, especially one powered by electricity or internal combustion, that supplies motive power for a vehicle or for some other device with moving parts, giving, imparting, or producing motion or action.

Electric Generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit. The source of mechanical energy may vary widely from a hand crank to an internal combustion engine. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids. Electricity from the Sun - Batteries.

Rotor is the rotating armature of a motor or generator. Rotating mechanism consisting of an assembly of rotating airfoils. Rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields which produces a torque around the rotor's axis.

Stator is the stationary part of a rotary system, found in electric generators, electric motors, sirens, mud motors or biological rotors. Energy flows through a stator to or from the rotating component of the system. In an electric motor, the stator provides a rotating magnetic field that drives the rotating armature; in a generator, the stator converts the rotating magnetic field to electric current. In fluid powered devices, the stator guides the flow of fluid to or from the rotating part of the system.

Coil Winding is the manufacture of electromagnetic coils. Coils are used as components of circuits, and to provide the magnetic field of motors, transformers, and generators, and in the manufacture of loudspeakers and microphones. New energy Motor Stator Winding Machine (youtube) - Small and Medium Stator Winding and Rewinding (youtube).

Rotating Magnetic Field is a magnetic field that has moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Ideally the rotation changes direction at a constant angular rate. This is a key principle in the operation of the alternating-current motor. Rotating magnetic fields are often utilized for electromechanical applications such as induction motors and electric generators. However, they are also used in purely electrical applications such as induction regulators.

SPM Motor and IPM Motor Configuration Interior Permanent Magnet or IPM is a type of motor that has a rotor embedded with permanent magnets. IPM motors produce torque based on two different mechanisms. The first is permanent-magnet torque which is generated by the flux linkage between the PM rotor field and the electro-magnetic field of the stator. It is the same torque produced by SPM motors. IPM designs produce a second force known as reluctance torque. The shape and location of the slots in the rotor laminations are designed to channel magnetic flux so that even if the slots were left as air gaps, the rotor would experience a force to align the magnetic flux lines with those generated by the stator coils. Because those coils are energized in sequence to create a rotating series of alternating north-south magnetic poles, the rotor will follow that progression, generating reluctance torque and causing it to continually turn. Because IPM motor designs augment permanent magnet torque with reluctance torque, the magnets used in the motors can be thinner. That's important in the current market. Although the prices of rare-earth oxides (REOs) have dropped significantly from their peak in August 2011, rare-earth magnets still represent a significant cost source in permanent-magnet motor design, so IPM designs can provide a cost savings. Advantages like near-constant power over a broad speed range and a magnet-retaining design. Winding designs: Two common variants of IPM motors are distributed-winding designs and concentrated-winding designs. A distributed winding design has multiple coils per magnet pole (24 slots to 4 poles, for example) whereas a concentrated winding has only a few (6 slots to 4 poles, for example; see figure 2). Distributed winding designs lend themselves to producing reluctance torque whereas concentrated windings do not. "Strictly speaking, it's an interior magnet machine but it turns out that the magnetics of the motor are designed intentionally to be more like a surface permanent magnet machine, so for that reason you don't get very much reluctance torque out of them.

Surface Permanent Magnet or SPM are synchronous motors with rotating magnetic fields that have a shape formed by embedding magnets in the surface of the rotor. They use the strong magnetism of the magnets for good motor torque linearity and superior control. Optimizing the magnet shapes provides motors with low cogging torque.

Reluctance Motor is a type of electric motor that induces non-permanent magnetic poles on the ferromagnetic rotor. The rotor does not have any windings. It generates torque through magnetic reluctance. Reluctance motor subtypes include synchronous, variable, switched and variable stepping. Reluctance motors can deliver high power density at low cost, making them attractive for many applications. Disadvantages include high torque ripple (the difference between maximum and minimum torque during one revolution) when operated at low speed, and noise due to torque ripple. Until the early twenty-first century, their use was limited by the complexity of designing and controlling them. Advances in theory, computer design tools, and low-cost embedded systems for control overcame these obstacles. Microcontrollers use real-time computing control algorithms to tailor drive waveforms according to rotor position and current/voltage feedback. Before the development of large-scale integrated circuits, the control electronics were prohibitively costly. Synchronous Reluctance Internal Permanent Magnet Assisted Motor.

How Three Phase Electricity works - The basics explained (youtube)

Professor Eric Laithwaite: Motors Big and Small - 1971 (youtube) - Professor Eric Laithwaite (1921-1997) of Imperial College London demonstrates the difference between magnetic and electro-magnetic motors. Examples futuristic - include minute pump that can fit inside human tissue and a huge test rig to help develop high speed vehicles driven by a linear motor.

Dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry, and the foundation upon which many other later electric-power conversion devices were based, including the electric motor, the alternating-current alternator, and the rotary converter, which is a type of electrical machine which acts as a mechanical rectifier, inverter or frequency converter.

An important class of direct-current generators are the dynamos - these are electrical machines with commutators to produce unidrectional (DC) current, and are self excited - their field electromagnets are powered by the machine's own output. Other types of DC generator use a separate source of direct current to energize their field magnets.

Dynamo Theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a Star generates a magnetic field. The dynamo theory describes the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time scales. A dynamo is thought to be the source of the Earth Magnetic Field, as well as the magnetic fields of other planets.

Induction Generator - Human Energy (generator)

DC Motor is any of a class of rotary electrical machines that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor.
Shunt DC Motor connects the armature and field windings in parallel or shunt with a common D.C. power source.
Series DC Motor connects the armature and field windings in series with a common D.C. power source.

Brushless DC Electric Motor are synchronous motors powered by DC electricity via an inverter or switching power supply which produces an AC electric current to drive each phase of the motor via a closed loop controller. The controller provides pulses of current to the motor windings that control the speed and torque of the motor. The construction of a brushless motor system is typically similar to a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), but can also be a switched reluctance motor, or an induction (asynchronous) motor. The advantages of a brushless motor over brushed motors are high power to weight ratio, high speed, and electronic control. Brushless motors find applications in such places as computer peripherals (disk drives, printers), hand-held power tools, and vehicles ranging from model aircraft to automobiles. (also known as Brushless DC electric motor (BLDC motors, BL motors) electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors), or synchronous DC motors). Brushless DC Motor, How it works? (youtube)

Induction AC motors may be used as generators, turning mechanical energy into electric current. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as minihydro power plants, wind turbines, or in reducing high-pressure gas streams to lower pressure, because they can recover energy with relatively simple controls. They do not require an exciter circuit because the rotating magnetic field is provided by induction from the stator circuit. They also do not require speed governor equipment as they inherently operate at the connected grid frequency. To operate, an induction generator must be excited with a leading voltage; this is usually done by connection to an electrical grid, or sometimes they are self-excited by using phase correcting capacitors.

Slip Ring Induction Motor and Squirrel Cage type of Rotor, How it works (youtube) - Slip Ring has high Starting Torque.

Homopolar Motor is a direct current electric motor with two magnetic poles, the conductors of which always cut unidirectional lines of magnetic flux by rotating a conductor around a fixed axis so that the conductor is at right angles to a static magnetic field. The resulting EMF (Electromotive Force) being continuous in one direction, the homopolar motor needs no commutator but still requires slip rings. The name homopolar indicates that the electrical polarity of the conductor and the magnetic field poles do not change (i.e., that it does not require commutation).

Homopolar Generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field. A potential difference is created between the center of the disc and the rim (or ends of the cylinder) with an electrical polarity that depends on the direction of rotation and the orientation of the field. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disc. The voltage is typically low, on the order of a few volts in the case of small demonstration models, but large research generators can produce hundreds of volts, and some systems have multiple generators in series to produce an even larger voltage. They are unusual in that they can source tremendous electric current, some more than a million amperes, because the homopolar generator can be made to have very low internal resistance.

Variable-Frequency Drive is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage. VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to large compressors. About 25% of the world's electrical energy is consumed by electric motors in industrial applications, which can be more efficient when using VFDs in centrifugal load service; however, the global market penetration for all applications of VFDs is relatively small. Over the last four decades, power electronics technology has reduced VFD cost and size and has improved performance through advances in semiconductor switching devices, drive topologies, simulation and control techniques, and control hardware and software. VFDs are made in a number of different low- and medium-voltage AC-AC and DC-AC topologies. Programmable Logic Controller.

Acyclic DC Machine (PDF)

Counter-Electromotive Force is the electromotive force or "voltage" that opposes the change in current which induced it. CEMF is the EMF caused by magnetic induction (see Faraday's law of induction, electromagnetic induction, Lenz's Law). (abbreviated counter EMF or simply CEMF), also known as back electromotive force (or back EMF).

Mechanical Energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object.

Commutator is a moving part of a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit. It consists of a cylinder composed of multiple metal contact segments on the rotating armature of the machine. Two or more electrical contacts called "brushes" made of a soft conductive material like carbon press against the commutator, making sliding contact with successive segments of the commutator as it rotates. The windings (coils of wire) on the armature are connected to the commutator segments.

Magnetic Current a current composed of fictitious moving magnetic monopoles. It has the dimensions of volts.

Electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist of a large number of closely spaced turns of wire that create the magnetic field. The wire turns are often wound around a magnetic core made from a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron; the magnetic core concentrates the magnetic flux and makes a more powerful magnet.

Electric Power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter, which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion, light or heat with high energy efficiency.

Electric Power Industry is the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public. The electrical industry started with introduction of electric lighting in 1882. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, growing economic and safety concerns lead to the regulation of the industry. Once an expensive novelty limited to the most densely populated areas, reliable and economical electric power has become a requirement for normal operation of all elements of developed economies.

Dielectric and Magnetic Discharges in Electrical Windings (complete OCR remake) (PDF)
Magnetic Generator - Magnetic Generator
Magnetics

Nanogenerator is a type of technology that converts mechanical-thermal energy as produced by small-scale physical change into electricity. Nano-generator has three typical approaches: piezoelectric, triboelectric, and pyroelectric nanogenerators.
Grids (transmission)

Stirling Engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. More specifically, the Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid. Closed-cycle, in this context, means a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator. The inclusion of a regenerator differentiates the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines.

Homemade Stirling Engine (youtube) - Kontax Stirling Engine - Youtube

Thermoelectric Generator - Entropy

Centrifugal Switch is an electric switch that operates using the centrifugal force created from a rotating shaft, most commonly that of an electric motor or gasoline engine. The switch is designed to activate or de-activate as a function of the rotational speed of the shaft.

Automation Machines - Water as Fuel - Fuel Systems

Pantone Engine (youtube)
Aluka (youtube channel)
Hydronica Blogspot

EcoMotors is an American company developing and commercializing an opposed-piston opposed-cylinder (OPOC) engine for use in cars, light trucks, commercial vehicles, aerospace, marine, agriculture, auxiliary power units, generators, etc. This engine was promoted to significantly improve fuel efficiency, and substantially reduce production costs when compared to convententional internal combustion engines. Ecomotors.

Maxwell's Equations Maxwell's Equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits. The equations provide a mathematical model for electric, optical, and radio technologies, such as power generation, electric motors, wireless communication, lenses, radar etc. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields. Forces.

Lorentz Force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

Excitation. An electric generator or electric motor consists of a rotor spinning in a magnetic field. The magnetic field may be produced by permanent magnets or by field coils. In the case of a machine with field coils, a current must flow in the coils to generate the field, otherwise no power is transferred to or from the rotor. The process of generating a magnetic field by means of an electric current is called excitation. Field coils yield the most flexible form of magnetic flux regulation and de-regulation, but at the expense of a flow of electric current. Hybrid topologies exist, which incorporate both permanent magnets and field coils in the same configuration. The flexible excitation of a rotating electrical machine is employed by either brushless excitation techniques or by the injection of current by carbon brushes (static excitation).

Field Coil is an electromagnet used to generate a magnetic field in an electro-magnetic machine, typically a rotating electrical machine such as a motor or generator. It consists of a coil of wire through which a current flows. In a rotating machine, the field coils are wound on an iron magnetic core which guides the magnetic field lines. The magnetic core is in two parts; a stator which is stationary, and a rotor, which rotates within it. The magnetic field lines pass in a continuous loop or magnetic circuit from the stator through the rotor and back through the stator again. The field coils may be on the stator or on the rotor. The magnetic path is characterized by poles, locations at equal angles around the rotor at which the magnetic field lines pass from stator to rotor or vice versa. The stator (and rotor) are classified by the number of poles they have. Most arrangements use one field coil per pole. Some older or simpler arrangements use a single field coil with a pole at each end. Although field coils are most commonly found in rotating machines, they are also used, although not always with the same terminology, in many other electromagnetic machines. These include simple electromagnets through to complex lab instruments such as mass spectrometers and NMR machines. Field coils were once widely used in loudspeakers before the general availability of lightweight permanent magnets (see Field coil loudspeaker for more).



Lasers - Amplified Light


Lasers Laser is a machine that makes an amplified, single-colour source of light. It uses special gases or crystals to make the light with only a single color. Laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The gases are energized to make them emit light. Laser is a device that stimulates atoms or molecules to emit light at particular wavelengths and amplifies that light, typically producing a very narrow beam of radiation. A laser is created when the electrons in atoms in special glasses, crystals, or gases absorb energy from an electrical current or another laser and become “excited.” The excited electrons move from a lower-energy orbit to a higher-energy orbit around the atom's nucleus. Then mirrors are used to amplify (make stronger) the light. In many lasers all the light travels in one direction, so it stays as a narrow beam of Collimated light that does not get wider or weaker as most sources of light do. When pointed at something, this narrow beam makes a single point of light. The energy of the light stays in that one narrow beam instead of spreading out like a flashlight (electric torch). Laser light is different from normal light in other ways as well. First, its light contains only one wavelength (one specific color). The particular wavelength of light is determined by the amount of energy released when the excited electron drops to a lower orbit. Second, laser light is directional. Whereas a laser generates a very tight beam, a flashlight produces light that is diffuse. Because laser light is coherent, it stays focused for vast distances, even to the moon and back. These photons are all at the same wavelength and are “coherent,” meaning the crests and troughs of the light waves are all in lockstep. In contrast, ordinary visible light comprises multiple wavelengths and is not coherent.

The word "laser" is an acronym for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". Both the device and its name were developed from the earlier Maser.

Laser Types have many operational wavelengths and applications. Thousands of kinds of laser are known, but most of them are used only for specialized research. Lasers are often described by the kind of lasing medium they use - solid state, gas, excimer, dye, or semiconductor. Solid state lasers have lasing material distributed in a solid matrix, e.g., the ruby or neodymium-YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) lasers. The neodymium-YAG laser emits infrared light at 1.064 micrometers.

Plasma - Light - LED - Laserium (Laser Light Shows)

A Laser is Constructed from three principal parts: An energy source (usually referred to as the pump or pump source), A gain medium or laser medium, and Two or more mirrors that form an optical resonator.

Class 4 Lasers are hazardous for eye exposure. They also can burn skin and materials, especially dark and/or lightweight materials at close range.

Lasers - Most Powerful Laser - The Sharpest Laser in the World

Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory

Plasma Acceleration is a technique for accelerating charged particles, such as electrons, positrons, and ions, using the electric field associated with electron plasma wave or other high-gradient plasma structures (like shock and sheath fields). The plasma acceleration structures are created either using ultra-short laser pulses or energetic particle beams that are matched to the plasma parameters. These techniques offer a way to build high performance particle accelerators of much smaller size than conventional devices.

Homemade 40W Laser Shotgun (youtube)

The Extreme World of Ultra Intense Lasers - with Kate Lancaster - The Royal Institution (youtube)

Stimulated Emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level. The liberated energy transfers to the electromagnetic field, creating a new photon with a phase, frequency, polarization, and direction of travel that are all identical to the photons of the incident wave. This is in contrast to spontaneous emission, which occurs at random intervals without regard to the ambient electromagnetic field. The process is identical in form to atomic absorption in which the energy of an absorbed photon causes an identical but opposite atomic transition: from the lower level to a higher energy level. In normal media at thermal equilibrium, absorption exceeds stimulated emission because there are more electrons in the lower energy states than in the higher energy states. However, when a population inversion is present, the rate of stimulated emission exceeds that of absorption, and a net optical amplification can be achieved. Such a gain medium, along with an optical resonator, is at the heart of a laser or maser. Lacking a feedback mechanism, laser amplifiers and superluminescent sources also function on the basis of stimulated emission. Ionization.

Population Inversion occurs while a system (such as a group of atoms or molecules) exists in a state in which more members of the system are in higher, excited states than in lower, unexcited energy states. It is called an "inversion" because in many familiar and commonly encountered physical systems, this is not possible. The concept is of fundamental importance in laser science because the production of a population inversion is a necessary step in the workings of a standard laser.

Laser Ablation is the process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam. At low laser flux, the material is heated by the absorbed laser energy and evaporates or sublimates. At high laser flux, the material is typically converted to a plasma. Usually, laser ablation refers to removing material with a pulsed laser, but it is possible to ablate material with a continuous wave laser beam if the laser intensity is high enough. Excimer lasers of deep ultra-violet light are mainly used in photoablation; the wavelength of laser used in photoablation is approximately 200 nm.

Fiber Laser is a laser in which the active gain medium is an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such as erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, dysprosium, praseodymium, thulium and holmium. They are related to doped fiber amplifiers, which provide light amplification without lasing. Fiber nonlinearities, such as stimulated Raman scattering or four-wave mixing can also provide gain and thus serve as gain media for a fiber laser.

Natural Resources Defense Council

Petawatt Laser - The Texas Petawatt Laser Facility

Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser is a type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface, contrary to conventional edge-emitting semiconductor lasers (also in-plane lasers) which emit from surfaces formed by cleaving the individual chip out of a wafer.

We Gather Here Today to Join Lasers and Anti-Lasers

Coherent Perfect Absorber is a device which absorbs coherent light and converts it to some form of internal energy such as heat or electrical energy. It is the time reversed counterpart of a laser.

Laser Danger X-Ray Laser is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength. Because of high gain in the lasing medium, short upper-state lifetimes (1–100 ps), and problems associated with construction of mirrors that could reflect X-rays, X-ray lasers usually operate without mirrors; the beam of X-rays is generated by a single pass through the gain medium. The emitted radiation, based on amplified spontaneous emission, has relatively low spatial coherence. The line is mostly Doppler broadened, which depends on the ions' temperature. As the common visible-light laser transitions between electronic or vibrational states correspond to energies up to only about 10 eV, different active media are needed for X-ray lasers. Again, different active media — excited atomic nuclei — must be used if yet higher frequency, gamma ray lasers are to be constructed. Between 1978 and 1988 in Project Excalibur the U.S. military attempted to develop a nuclear explosion-pumped X-ray laser for ballistic missile defense as part of the "Star Wars" Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).

The Laser: A Light Fantastic - 1967 Documentary - WDTVLIVE42 (youtube)

Optical Cavity is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves. Optical cavities are a major component of lasers, surrounding the gain medium and providing feedback of the laser light. They are also used in optical parametric oscillators and some interferometers. Light confined in the cavity reflects multiple times producing standing waves for certain resonance frequencies. The standing wave patterns produced are called modes; longitudinal modes differ only in frequency while transverse modes differ for different frequencies and have different intensity patterns across the cross section of the beam. (also called an resonating cavity or optical resonator).

First Random Laser Made of Paper-based Ceramics

Laser Projector is a device that projects changing laser beams on a screen to create a moving image for entertainment or professional use. It consists of a housing that contains lasers, mirrors, galvanometer scanners, and other optical components. A laser projector can contain one laser light source for single-color projection or three sources for RGB (red, green, and blue) full color projection. Lasers offer potentially brighter projected images, with more and better colors.

Energy Justice Network - Power & Energy Society

Energy Leadership - World Energy Summit

Oak Ridge Laboratory - National Energy Lab

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons, whereas the nucleus of protium (by far the most abundant hydrogen isotope) contains one proton and no neutrons. Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth, where trace amounts are formed by the interaction of the atmosphere with cosmic rays. It can be produced by irradiating lithium metal or lithium-bearing ceramic pebbles in a nuclear reactor. Tritium is used as a radioactive tracer, in radioluminescent light sources for watches and instruments, and, along with deuterium, as a fuel for nuclear fusion reactions with applications in energy generation and weapons. The name of this isotope is derived from Greek, Modern τρίτος (trítos), meaning 'third'.

Deuterium is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1). The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's Oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or, on a mass basis, 0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another.

Electrolaser is a type of electroshock weapon that is also a directed-energy weapon. It uses lasers to form an electrically conductive laser-induced plasma channel (LIPC). A fraction of a second later, a powerful electric current is sent down this plasma channel and delivered to the target, thus functioning overall as a large-scale, high energy, long-distance version of the Taser electroshock gun. Alternating current is sent through a series of step-up transformers, increasing the voltage and decreasing the current. The final voltage may be between 108 and 109 volts. This current is fed into the plasma channel created by the laser beam.



Fuel Cells


Fuel Cell Diagram Fuel Cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction of positively charged hydrogen ions with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen or air to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemicals present in the battery react with each other to generate an electromotive force (emf). Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as these inputs are supplied.

Fuel Cells - Bloom Energy Fuel Cells

Microbial Fuel Cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and a high-energy oxidant such as O2, mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. MFCs can be grouped into two general categories: mediated and unmediated. The first MFCs, demonstrated in the early 20th century, used a mediator: a chemical that transfers electrons from the bacteria in the cell to the anode. Unmediated MFCs emerged in the 1970s; in this type of MFC the bacteria typically have electrochemically active redox proteins such as cytochromes on their outer membrane that can transfer electrons directly to the anode. In the 21st century MFCs have started to find commercial use in wastewater treatment.

Bioelectrogenesis is the generation of electricity by living organisms, a phenomenon that belongs to the science of electrophysiology. In biological cells, electrochemically active transmembrane ion channel and transporter proteins, such as the sodium-potassium pump, make electricity generation possible by maintaining a voltage imbalance from an electrical potential difference between the intracellular and extracellular space. The sodium-potassium pump simultaneously releases three Na ions away from, and influxes two K ions towards, the intracellular space. This generates an electrical potential gradient from the uneven charge separation created. The process consumes metabolic energy in the form of ATP.

New battery is activated by your spit. Saliva-powered battery could be helpful in extreme conditions.

Urine as Fuel (waste energy)

3-D Paper-Based Microbial Fuel Cell

Building a better microbial fuel cell—using paper.

Schematic illustration of a bioelectrochemical cell incorporating carbon paste paper electrodes.

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Horizon Fuel Cell - Fire Activated Fuel Cell

Hybrid material moves next-generation transport fuel cells closer. Protons are the next big thing when it comes to fuel cell technology. The subatomic exchange produces power on a scale that challenges contemporary solid-state fuel cell technology, used to help power space shuttles. To realize the proton-based technology sooner, an international team of researchers have developed a hybrid material that effectively transports protons at high temperatures and humidity -- two major challenges in past attempts.

Thermoelectric - Graphene

OWI's Salt Water Fuel Cell Car - ABC (youtube)

Sun + CO2 + Water = New Liquid Fuel - CO2 to make fuel

Photoelectrochemical Process are processes in photoelectrochemistry; they usually involve transforming light into other forms of energy. These processes apply to photochemistry, optically pumped lasers, sensitized solar cells, luminescence, and photochromism.

Helioculture is a company that produces alternative energy technologies based in Bedford, Massachusetts. The company developed a process to generate hydrocarbon-based fuel by combining non-fresh water, nutrients, cyanobacteria, carbon dioxide, and sunlight. The company planned to break ground in October 2011 on a facility to produce more than 20,000 gallons of fuel per acre per year (19,000 m3/km2·a).
Joule Unlimited

Double Heterostructure is formed when two semiconductor materials are grown into a "sandwich". One material (such as AlGaAs) is used for the outer layers (or cladding), and another of smaller band gap (such as GaAs) is used for the inner layer. In our example, there are two AlGaAs-GaAs junctions (or boundaries), one at each side of the inner layer. There must be two boundaries for the device to be a double heterostructure. If there was only one side of cladding material, the device would be a simple heterostructure.

Towards effective small scale microbial fuel cells for energy generation from urine

Stanley Meyer's Water Fuel Cell The fuel cell purportedly split water into its component elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen gas was then burned to generate energy, a process that reconstituted the water molecules. According to Meyer, the device required less energy to perform electrolysis than the minimum energy requirement predicted or measured by conventional science. The mechanism of action was alleged to involve "Brown's gas", a mixture of oxyhydrogen with a ratio of 2:1, the same composition as liquid water; which would then be mixed with ambient air (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, chloroflourocarbons, free radicals/electrons, radiation, among others. If the device worked as specified, it would violate both the first and second laws of thermodynamics, allowing operation as a perpetual motion machine.

Tiny Probe Could Produce Big Improvements in Batteries and Fuel Cells

Squeezing a Platinum Catalyst a fraction of a nanometer nearly doubles its Catalytic Activity, finding that could lead to better fuel cells and other clean energy technologies.

Nano-Alloys are ten times as effective as pure platinum in fuel cells.

Turbocharging fuel cells with a multifunctional catalyst. A nanoparticle coating turbocharges the processing of oxygen on the cathode end of solid oxide fuel cells, increasing eightfold current best performance.

Cheap and Safe Non-Metal Electro-Catalysts for Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells for a Fraction of the Cost. The development of an inexpensive, efficient catalyst material for a type of fuel cell called a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which turns the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity and is among the most promising fuel cell types to power cars and electronics.

Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell are a type of fuel cell being developed mainly for transport applications, as well as for stationary fuel-cell applications and portable fuel-cell applications. Their distinguishing features include lower temperature/pressure ranges (50 to 100 °C) and a special proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane. PEMFCs generate electricity and operate on the opposite principle to PEM electrolysis, which consumes electricity. They are a leading candidate to replace the aging alkaline fuel-cell technology, which was used in the Space Shuttle.

UTC Power was a fuel cell company based in South Windsor, Connecticut. It was part of United Technologies Corporation; it was purchased by ClearEdge Power in February 2013. The company specialized in fuel cells for buildings, buses and automobiles. It has also developed fuel cells for space and submarine applications in the past.

Nanoparticles with multiple elements. As catalysts for fuel cells, batteries and processes for carbon dioxide reduction, alloy nanoparticles that are made up of five or more elements are shown to be more stable and durable than single-element nanoparticles. The catalysts in this study are alloy nanoparticles, or nanosized particles made up of multiple metallic elements, such as cobalt, nickel, copper and platinum. These nanoparticles could have multiple practical applications, including water-splitting to generate hydrogen in fuel cells; reduction of carbon dioxide by capturing and converting it into useful materials like methanol; more efficient reactions in biosensors to detect substances in the body; and solar cells that produce heat, electricity and fuel more effectively.

Activity of Fuel Cell Catalysts Doubled. Modelling leads to the optimum size for platinum fuel cell catalysts. An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has built platinum nanoparticles for catalysis in fuel cells: The new size-optimized catalysts are twice as good as the best process commercially available today. In fuel cells, hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce water, generating electricity in the process. Sophisticated catalysts at the electrodes are required in order to optimize this conversion. Platinum plays a central role in the oxygen-reduction reaction.

Nano-Technology - Batteries (types) - Energy from Heat

Catalyst advance could lead to economical Fuel Cells. Researchers have developed a new way to make low-cost, single-atom catalysts for fuel cells -- an advance that could make important clean energy technology more economically viable.



Hydrogen


Hydrogen Fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen, often uses electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices. It is also used in the propulsion of spacecraft and might potentially be mass-produced and commercialized for passenger vehicles and aircraft. Hydrogen Future Fuel.

Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The H atom has an infinite number of energy levels spanning a finite energy range. This range is 13.6 eV, the ionisation energy, and is equal to the Rydberg R in energy.

Anti-Hydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. Whereas the common hydrogen atom is composed of  an electron and proton, the antihydrogen atom is made up of a positron and antiproton. Scientists hope studying antihydrogen may shed light on the question of why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe, known as the baryon asymmetry problem.

Hydrogen Ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron. A positively charged hydrogen ion (or proton) can readily combine with other particles and therefore is only seen isolated when it is in a gaseous state or a nearly particle-free space. Due to its extremely high charge density of approximately 2×1010 times that of a sodium ion, the bare hydrogen ion cannot exist freely in solution as it readily hydrates, i.e., bonds quickly. The hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes. Depending on the charge of the ion, two different classes can be distinguished: positively charged ions and negatively charged ions. A hydrogen atom is made up of a nucleus with charge +1, and a single electron. Therefore, the only positively charged ion possible has charge +1. It is noted H+. Potential Hydrogen (pH).

Hydrogen Fuel Enhancement is the process of using a mixture of hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel in an internal combustion engine, typically in a car or truck, in an attempt to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions, or a combination thereof. Methods include hydrogen produced through an electrolysis, storing hydrogen on the vehicle as a second fuel, or reforming conventional fuel into hydrogen with a catalyst.

Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases. This gaseous mixture is used for torches to process refractory materials and was the first gaseous mixture used for welding. Theoretically, a ratio of 2:1 hydrogen: oxygen is enough to achieve maximum efficiency; in practice a ratio 4:1 or 5:1 is needed to avoid an oxidizing flame.

Scientists have just found a way to make Metallic Solid Hydrogen in the lab, by compressing it at ultrahigh pressure between two diamond anvils. Metallic Hydrogen is a kind of degenerate matter, a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor. At high pressure and temperatures, metallic hydrogen might exist as a liquid rather than a solid, and researchers think it is present in large amounts in the hot and gravitationally compressed interiors of Jupiter, Saturn, and in some extrasolar planets.

Hydrogen Production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen. Currently the dominant technology for direct production is steam reforming from hydrocarbons. Many other methods are known including electrolysis and thermolysis. In 2006, the United States was estimated to have a production capacity of 11 million tons of hydrogen. 5 million tons of hydrogen were consumed on-site in oil refining, and in the production of ammonia (Haber process) and methanol (reduction of carbon monoxide). 0.4 million tons were an incidental by-product of the chlor-alkali process. Hydrogen production is an estimated $100 billion industry. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, 53 million metric tons were consumed worldwide in 2004. There are no natural hydrogen deposits, and for this reason the production of hydrogen plays a key role in modern society. As of 1999, the majority of hydrogen (95%) is produced from fossil fuels by steam reforming or partial oxidation of methane and coal gasification with only a small quantity by other routes such as biomass gasification or electrolysis of water. Around 8GW of electrolysis capacity is installed worldwide, accounting for around 4% of global hydrogen production (Decourt et al., 2014). Developing affordable methods for producing hydrogen with less damage to the environment is a goal of the hydrogen economy.

Hydrogen Economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen. Proponents of a hydrogen economy advocate hydrogen as a potential fuel for motive power (including cars and boats) and on-board auxiliary power, stationary power generation (e.g., for the energy needs of buildings), and as an energy storage medium (e.g., for interconversion from excess electric power generated off-peak). Molecular hydrogen of the sort that can be used as a fuel does not occur naturally in convenient reservoirs; nonetheless it can be generated by steam reformation of hydrocarbons, water
electrolysis or by other methods.

Hydrogen and plastic production: New catalyst with a dual function. Plastic production with this catalyst would be sustainable and would also enable the creation of hydrogen as a potential energy source.

A New Strategy for Efficient Hydrogen Production. Hybrid-Solid Electrolysis Cell (Hybrid-SOEC) system with highest reported electrochemical performance in hydrogen production.

New Materials Could Turn Water into the Fuel of the Future Solar fuels are created using only sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2). Researchers are exploring a range of target fuels, from hydrogen gas to liquid hydrocarbons, and producing any of these fuels involves splitting water. Each water molecule is comprised of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms are extracted, and then can be reunited to create highly flammable hydrogen gas or combined with CO2 to create hydrocarbon fuels, creating a plentiful and renewable energy source. The problem, however, is that water molecules do not simply break down when sunlight shines on them—if they did, the oceans would not cover most of the planet. They need a little help from a solar-powered catalyst. 16 Photoanode Materials.

New Technique for turning Sunshine and Water into Hydrogen Fuel. Researchers have developed new photocatalyst synthesis method using Magnesium hydride (MgH2) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2). The result is expected to contribute to hydrogen mass production through the development of photocatalyst that reacts to solar light.

Researcher’s Nanomaterial Can Extract Hydrogen Fuel from Seawater

Researchers create Hydrogen Fuel from Seawater. Stanford researchers have devised a way to generate hydrogen fuel using solar power, electrodes and saltwater from San Francisco Bay. Negatively charged chloride in seawater salt can corrode the positive end.

Radio Frequencies can split Oxygen from Hydrogen in Seawater to make Fuel.
Water as Fuel Unlocked by Frequency Resonance (youtube) - John Kansas.

Photoelectrochemical Cell are solar cells that produce electrical energy or hydrogen in a process similar to the electrolysis of water.

Cold Fusion

Researchers find cheaper way to produce hydrogen from water Electrocatalytic water splitting using a monolayered double hydroxide involving nickel and vanadium.

A public hydrogen filling station opens in London that creates the gas on site from tap water and renewable energy.

The trouble with Hydrogen: it’s expensive to harvest, store, and convert it. About 95 percent of global hydrogen production is done through steam methane reforming (SMR), blasting natural gas with high-temperature, high-pressure steam. This is an energy-intensive process that requires fossil fuel inputs and leaves behind a waste stream of carbon dioxide, so it is of limited use for decarbonizing the energy system. But it is also possible to pry hydrogen directly out of water via electrolysis — that’s the process of zapping water (containing various “electrocatalysts”) with electricity, stimulating a chemical reaction that splits hydrogen and oxygen. If electrolysis is run by zero-carbon renewable electricity, the resulting hydrogen is a zero-carbon fuel. That solves the carbon problem, but there are others. The hydrogen in water doesn’t really want to let go of the oxygen (they are “strongly bonded”), so cracking them apart takes quite a bit of energy. The resulting hydrogen has to be stored, either by compressing it as a gas with big pumps or by (weakly) bonding it to something else and storing it as a liquid. That gas or liquid will require a distribution infrastructure. Finally, the hydrogen has to be extracted from storage and converted back to energy, either by burning it or putting it through a fuel cell. By that time, the amount of energy invested in the process exceeds what can be gotten back out by a wide margin. That’s been the barrier. When all the costs of the energy conversions are added up, “mining” hydrogen for use in a zero-carbon energy system has generally been a money-losing business. The useful services hydrogen provides cannot compensate for the energy (and money) it takes to produce and use it. At least not to date.

Infinite chains of hydrogen atoms have surprising properties, including a metallic phase. An infinite chain of hydrogen atoms is just about the simplest bulk material imaginable -- a never-ending single-file line of protons surrounded by electrons. Yet a new computational study combining cutting-edge methods finds that the material boasts remarkable quantum properties, including the chain transforming from a magnetic insulator into a metal. The computational methods used in the study present a significant step toward custom-designing materials with sought-after properties, such as high-temperature superconductivity.

Hydrogen Line or 21-centimeter line or H I line is the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms. This electromagnetic radiation is at the precise frequency of 1,420,405,751.7667±0.0009 Hz, which is equivalent to the vacuum wavelength of 21.1061140542 cm in free space. This wavelength falls within the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is observed frequently in radio astronomy because those radio waves can penetrate the large clouds of interstellar cosmic dust that are opaque to visible light. This line is also the theoretical basis of hydrogen maser. The microwaves of the hydrogen line come from the atomic transition of an electron between the two hyperfine levels of the hydrogen 1 s ground state that have an energy difference of ˜ 5.87433 µeV. It is called the spin-flip transition. The frequency, ?, of the quanta that are emitted by this transition between two different energy levels is given by the Planck–Einstein relation E = h?. According to that relation, the photon energy of a 1,420,405,751.7667 Hz photon is ˜ 5.87433 µeV. The constant of proportionality, h, is known as the Planck constant.

Spectral Line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. Spectral lines are often used to identify atoms and molecules. These "fingerprints" can be compared to the previously collected "fingerprints" of atoms and molecules, and are thus used to identify the atomic and molecular components of stars and planets, which would otherwise be impossible.

Energy Observer is a hydrogen vessel launched in April 2017. Developed in collaboration with engineers from the CEA-LITEN (fr) the boat will test and prove the efficiency of a full production chain that relies on the coupling of different renewable energies. Energy Observer will be the "first hydrogen vessel around the world". Following its launch, scheduled for winter 2017, the boat will leave in the Spring for a world tour lasting 6 years in order to optimize its technologies and lead an expedition that will serve durable solutions for energy transition.


Electrolysis - Water Splitting


Water Splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Efficient and economical water splitting would be a key technological component of a hydrogen economy. Various techniques for water splitting have been issued in water splitting patents in the United States. In photosynthesis, water splitting donates electrons to the electron transport chain in photosystem II.

Solar-Powered Water Splitting is a promising means of Generating Clean and Storable Energy. A novel catalyst based on semiconductor nanoparticles has now been shown to facilitate all the reactions needed for 'artificial photosynthesis'.

Water splitting advance holds promise for affordable renewable energy. A team has developed a less expensive water electrolysis system that works under alkaline conditions but still produces hydrogen at comparable rates to the currently used system that works under acidic conditions and requires precious metals. This advance brings down the cost of water splitting technology, offering a more viable way to store energy from solar and wind power in the form of hydrogen fuel.

Electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell. The voltage that is needed for electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential. The key process of electrolysis is the interchange of atoms and ions by the removal or addition of electrons from the external circuit. The desired products of electrolysis are often in a different physical state from the electrolyte and can be removed by some physical processes.

Electrolysis of Water is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric current being passed through the water. The reaction has a standard potential of −1.23 V, meaning it ideally requires a potential difference of 1.23 volts to split water. This technique can be used to make hydrogen fuel (hydrogen gas) and breathable oxygen; though currently most industrial methods make hydrogen fuel from natural gas instead. Breathable Air for Space Travel.

Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell is a solid oxide fuel cell that runs in regenerative mode to achieve the electrolysis of water (and/or carbon dioxide) by using a solid oxide, or ceramic, electrolyte to produce hydrogen gas (and/or carbon monoxide) and oxygen. The production of pure hydrogen is compelling because it is a clean fuel that can be stored easily, thus making it a potential alternative to batteries, which have a low storage capacity and create high amounts of waste materials. Electrolysis is currently the most promising method of hydrogen production from water due to high efficiency of conversion and relatively low required energy input when compared to thermochemical and photocatalytic methods.

Ultrasonic Electrolysis: This design may enable cars to run on water - HHO

Electrocatalyst is a catalyst that participates in electrochemical reactions. Catalyst materials modify and increase the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed in the process. Electrocatalysts are a specific form of catalysts that function at electrode surfaces or may be the electrode surface itself. An electrocatalyst can be heterogeneous such as a platinum surface or nanoparticles, or homogeneous like a coordination complex or enzyme. The electrocatalyst assists in transferring electrons between the electrode and reactants, and/or facilitates an intermediate chemical transformation described by an overall half-reaction. Fuel Cells.



Fusion - Cold Fusion - Fire from Water


Cold Fusion Diagram Cold Fusion is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature. This is compared with the "hot" fusion which takes place naturally within stars, under immense pressure and at temperatures of millions of degrees, and distinguished from muon-catalyzed fusion. There is currently no accepted theoretical model that would allow cold fusion to occur. Quantum Mechanics.

Cold Fusion: Fire From Water 1/6 (youtube)

Cold Fusion Infinite Energy - Cold Fusion Energy Science

Energy Catalyzer is claimed to be a cold fusion reactor. E Cat

Fusion Power is energy generated by nuclear fusion. Fusion reactions fuse two lighter atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. It is a major area of plasma physics research that attempts to harness such reactions as a source of large scale sustainable energy. Fusion reactions are how stars transmute matter into energy.

SPARC is a tokamak that has been proposed for construction by Commonwealth Fusion Systems (CFS) in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC), with funding from Eni, Breakthrough Energy Ventures, Khosla Ventures, Temasek, Equinor, Devonshire Investors, and others.

Tokamak is a device which uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus. The tokamak is one of several types of magnetic confinement devices being developed to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power. As of 2016, it is the leading candidate for a practical fusion reactor.

SPARC is planned to be the first experimental device ever to achieve a 'burning plasma' -- a self-sustaining fusion reaction in which different isotopes of the element hydrogen fuse together to form helium, without the need for any further input of energy.

General Fusion, more than 50 scientists and engineers are world leaders in fusion technology, with expertise across plasma physics, computer simulation and engineering. Hydrogen atoms fused together using extreme high temperatures from compressing plasma. Creating clean, safe, sustainable energy.

Fusion is a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy. The state of being combined into one body.

Nuclear Fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons and/or protons). The difference in mass between the products and reactants is manifested as the release of large amounts of energy. This difference in mass arises due to the difference in atomic "binding energy" between the atomic nuclei before and after the reaction. Fusion is the process that powers active or "main sequence" Stars, or other high magnitude stars. Nuclear fusion converts hydrogen atoms into helium. Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons. Stellar Nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars change due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and their overlying mantles. Stars are said to evolve (age) with changes in the abundances of the elements within. Core fusion increases the atomic weight of elements and reduces the number of particles, which would lead to a pressure loss except that gravitation leads to contraction, an increase of temperature, and a balance of forces. A star loses most of its mass when it is ejected late in the star's stellar lifetimes, thereby increasing the abundance of elements heavier than helium in the interstellar medium. The term supernova nucleosynthesis is used to describe the creation of elements during the evolution and explosion of a presupernova star.

Primordial black holes may have helped to forge heavy elements - Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (wiki)

Thermonuclear Fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures. There are two forms of thermonuclear fusion: uncontrolled, in which the resulting energy is released in an uncontrolled manner, as it is in thermonuclear weapons such as the "hydrogen bomb" and in stars and brown dwarves (not sub-brown dwarves) and controlled, where the fusion reactions take place in an environment allowing some of the resulting energy to be harnessed for constructive purposes. This article focuses on the latter. Laser-Heated Nanowires produce micro-scale Nuclear Fusion.

Proton-Proton Chain Reaction is one of two known sets of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars with masses less than or equal to that of the Sun, whereas the CNO cycle, the other known reaction, is suggested by theoretical models to dominate in stars with masses greater than about 1.3 times that of the Sun. In general, proton–proton fusion can occur only if the kinetic energy (i.e. temperature) of the protons is high enough to overcome their mutual electrostatic repulsion. In the Sun, deuterium-producing events are rare. Diprotons are the much more common result of proton–proton reactions within the star, and diprotons almost immediately decay back into two protons. Since the conversion of hydrogen to helium is slow, the complete conversion of the hydrogen in the core of the Sun is calculated to take more than ten billion years. Although called the "proton–proton chain reaction", it is not a chain reaction in the normal sense. In most nuclear reactions, a chain reaction designates a reaction that produces a product, such as neutrons given off during fission, that quickly induces another such reaction. The proton-proton chain is, like a decay chain, a series of reactions. The product of one reaction is the starting material of the next reaction. There are two such chains leading from Hydrogen to Helium in the Sun. One chain has five reactions, the other chain has six. (p-p chain).

CNO Cycle is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction (p-p cycle), which is more efficient at the Sun's core temperature. The CNO cycle is hypothesized to be dominant in stars that are more than 1.3 times as massive as the Sun. Unlike the proton-proton reaction, which consumes all its constituents, the CNO cycle is a catalytic cycle. In the CNO cycle, four protons fuse, using carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopes as catalysts, each of which is consumed at one step of the CNO cycle, but re-generated in a later step. The end product is one alpha particle (a stable helium nucleus), two positrons, and two electron neutrinos.

Mass can Neither be Created nor Destroyed?

Fission is a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy.

Nuclear Fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.

Polywell is a type of nuclear fusion reactor that uses an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions. It is closely related to the fusor, the high beta fusion reactor, the magnetic mirror, and the biconic cusp. A set of electromagnets generates a magnetic field that traps electrons. This creates a negative voltage, which attracts positive ions. As the ions accelerate towards the negative center, their kinetic energy rises. Ions that collide at high enough energies can fuse. The polywell is one of many devices that use an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions. This branch of fusion research is known as inertial electrostatic confinement. The polywell was developed by physicist Robert Bussard, as an improvement over the fusor. His company, EMC2, Inc., developed prototypical devices for the U.S. Navy. Water Splitting.

Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.

How to predict crucial plasma pressure in future fusion facilities.

Photo Electrochemical Water Split.

New model considers an extra factor to improve our prediction of nuclear fission. An improved model for predicting the generation of thermal energy from nuclear fission processes, by focusing on Uranium-236. This model can help improve efficiency in nuclear power generation.

In the fission of a U-235 nucleus, some of the energy of the color fields inside its protons and neutrons is released, with potentially explosive consequences. In the proton–proton chain involving the fusion of four protons, the conversion of two up quarks into two down quarks, forming two neutrons in the process, results in the release of a little excess energy from its color fields. Mass does not convert to energy. Energy is instead passed from one kind of quantum field to another.

Powder, not gas: A safer, more effective way to create a star on Earth. Scientists have found that sprinkling a type of powder into fusion plasma could aid in harnessing the ultra-hot gas within a tokamak facility to produce heat to create electricity without producing greenhouse gases or long-term radioactive waste.

Isotopes of Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. The first two of these are stable while 3H has a half-life of 12.32 years. All heavier isotopes are synthetic and have a half-life less than one zeptosecond (10−21 second). Of these, 5H is the most stable, and 7H is the least.

Hydrogen Energy

Magnetic Confinement Fusion is an approach to generating fusion power that uses magnetic fields (which is a magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials) to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma. Magnetic confinement is one of two major branches of fusion energy research, the other being inertial confinement fusion. The magnetic approach is more highly developed and is usually considered more promising for energy production.

Plasma Physics is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states.

Plasmas - Lasers - Coulter Smithing

Cavitation - Implosion

Developing Nuclear Fusion in a Basement with a Reclusive Gunsmith (youtube)

Magnetized Target Fusion combines features of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Like the magnetic approach, the fusion fuel is confined at lower density by magnetic fields while it is heated into a plasma. As with the inertial approach, fusion is initiated by rapidly squeezing the target to greatly increase fuel density and temperature. Although the resulting density is far lower than in ICF, it is thought that the combination of longer confinement times and better heat retention will let MTF operate, yet be easier to build. The term magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is similar, but encompasses a wider variety of arrangements. The two terms are often applied interchangeably to experiments.

Steven Cowley: Fusion is Energy's Future (video)

Perpetual Motion - emc2

Joint European Torus
ITER Project "The Way"
Culham Centre Fusion Energy

Z Machine - K Star - Focus Fusion

BBC Horizon: Can we Make a Star on Earth (youtube)

Lattice Confinement Fusion is fusion reactions with the fuel deuterium, a widely available non-radioactive hydrogen isotope composed of a proton, neutron, and electron, and denoted “D”, confined in the space between the atoms of a metal solid.

Deuterium is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen with the other being protium, or hydrogen-1. The nucleus of a deuterium atom, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common protium has no neutrons in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.02% (0.03% by mass) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while protium accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another. (deuterium or hydrogen-2, symbol 2H or D, also known as heavy hydrogen).


Water as a Fuel


Water-Fuelled Car is an automobile that hypothetically derives its energy directly from water. Water-fuelled cars have been the subject of numerous international patents, newspaper and popular science magazine articles, local television news coverage, and websites. The claims for these devices have been found to be pseudoscience and some were found to be tied to investment frauds. These vehicles may be claimed to produce fuel from water on board with no other energy input, or may be a hybrid claiming to derive some of its energy from water in addition to a conventional source (such as gasoline). Water is fully oxidized hydrogen. Hydrogen itself is a high-energy, flammable substance, but its useful energy is released when water is formed. Water will not burn. The process of electrolysis can split water into hydrogen and oxygen, but it takes as much energy to take apart a water molecule as was released when the hydrogen was oxidized to form water. In fact, some energy would be lost in converting water to hydrogen and then burning the hydrogen because some waste heat would always be produced in the conversions. Releasing chemical energy from water, in excess or in equal proportion to the energy required to facilitate such production, would therefore violate the first or second law of thermodynamics.

Water Fuel Cell - Water 4 Gas - Water Powered Car

Water Spark Plugs (youtube) - Inventor Jailed for making this video? (youtube)

Water car inventor murdered after turning down a billion dollars to sell patent.

Ogle Fuel System - Vapor Fuel System

Hydronica Blogspot - Aluka - Opel Test Car

Build a Gas Vaporizer - Gas Engine Vaporizer

Fuel Vaporizers (youtube) - Fuel Vaporizing System - Fuel Vaporizer for Lawn Mower (youtube)

Engines (types) - Perpetual - SkyActiv - Zero Emissions.



Natural Gas


Natural Gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Air Pollution - Carbon Capture - Earth Temperatures Rising.

Methane Maps (hazardous leaks) - New Study first to Predict which Oil and Gas Wells are Leaking Methane.

Hydraulic Fracturing is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. The process involves the high-pressure injection of 'fracking fluid' (primarily water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of thickening agents) into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely. When the hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, small grains of hydraulic fracturing proppants (either sand or aluminium oxide) hold the fractures open.

Films about Fracking - Environmental Awareness

EPA Finds Oil and Gas Industries Are Spewing More Methane Than Thought, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

Assessment of Methane Emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain. U.S. oil and gas operations are 60 percent higher than previous estimates from the federal government. Enough natural gas to power 10 million homes for an entire year.

Colorado becomes First State To Restrict Methane Emissions, which is a powerful greenhouse gas.

Extensive research effort tackles methane leaks. Better information enables data-driven solutions to dangerous climate risk.

A Bridge to Clean Energy? Or just more criminal greed and corruption?

Free Gas Forever, Tell Everyone! (youtube) - Using Saltwater and Radio Frequency Generator

Bio Gas (waste energy) - Green Products

Methane Clathrate is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice. Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System, where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of the Earth. Methane Hydrates.

Natural Gas-burning stoves and furnaces found in millions of US kitchens and basements can produce a range of health-damaging pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde. Over the past four decades, researchers have amassed a large body of scientific evidence linking the use of gas appliances, especially for cooking, with a higher risk of a range of respiratory problems and illnesses.



Plastics - Materials


Bioplastic are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota. Bioplastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called petrobased polymers), are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Production of such plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse gases than the production of biobased polymers (bioplastics). Some, but not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bioplastics can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. Bioplastics can be composed of starches, cellulose, biopolymers, and a variety of other materials. Composite Material.

Biopolymer are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures. There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified according to the monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotides (RNA and DNA), which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric carbohydrate structures. Other examples of biopolymers include rubber, suberin, melanin and lignin. Cellulose is the most common organic compound and biopolymer on Earth. About 33 percent of all plant matter is cellulose. The cellulose content of cotton is 90 percent, for wood it is 50 percent. Materials Science.

Polymer a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.

New Polymer Manufacturing Process saves 10 orders of magnitude of Energy. Researchers have developed a new polymer-curing process that could reduce the cost, time and energy needed, compared with the current manufacturing process. This development marks what could be the first major advancement to the high-performance polymer and composite manufacturing industry in almost half a century.

Biodegradable Plastic are plastics that decompose by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.

Aircarbon Thermoplastic - Plastic Molding - Outgassing (voc's)

Epoxy Compound gets a Graphene bump. Scientists combine graphene foam, epoxy into tough, conductive composite.

Micro-Mechanics of Failure aims to explain the failure of continuous fiber reinforced composites by micro-scale analysis of stresses within each constituent material (such as fiber and matrix), and of the stresses at the interfaces between those constituents, calculated from the macro stresses at the ply level.

Plastic Dangers (garbage waste pollution) - Bio-Mimicry - Meta-Materials.

Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plastic Roads.

Green Plastic production made easy. A one-step method enables scalable and more environmentally friendly production of
plant-derived plastic monomers, paving the way towards the mass production of a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based materials. Biobased plastics are emerging as a next generation material and are expected to replace petroleum-derived
plastics. A plant-derived polyester, called polyethylene furanoate (PEF), is a promising 100% renewables-based polymer derived from plants that can replace the giant of the plastic industry, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), due to its better physical, mechanical and thermal properties. However, realizing large-scale PEF production is seriously hampered by an inefficient production of the monomers. Aerobic oxidation of a biomass-derived substrate called HMF in methanol and ethylene glycol produces monomers called MFDC and HEFDC, respectively. They are recognized as crucial monomers in the manufacture of PEF, because polymerization of MFDC with ethylene glycol or self-condensation of HEFDC can yield high-quality PEF.

Nanocellulose is nano-structured cellulose nanofibers material composed of nanosized cellulose fibrils with a high aspect ratio (length to width ratio). Typical fibril widths are 5–20 nanometers with a wide range of lengths, typically several micrometers. It is pseudo-plastic and exhibits thixotropy, the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under normal conditions, but become less viscous when shaken or agitated. When the shearing forces are removed the gel regains much of its original state. The fibrils are isolated from any cellulose containing source including wood-based fibers (pulp fibers) through high-pressure, high temperature and high velocity impact homogenization, grinding or microfluidization (see manufacture below). Nanocellulose can also be obtained from native fibers by an acid hydrolysis, giving rise to highly crystalline and rigid nanoparticles (often referred to as CNC or nanowhiskers) which are shorter (100s to 1000 nanometers) than the nanofibrils obtained through homogenization, microfluiodization or grinding routes. The resulting material is known as nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC or CNC).Bio-Mimicry.

Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.

Fibre-Reinforced Plastic is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass, carbon, aramid, or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper or wood or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy, vinylester or polyester thermosetting plastic; and phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use.

Wood-Plastic Composite are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and thermoplastic(s) (includes PE, PP, PVC, PLA etc.). In addition to wood fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other ligno-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials. WPCs are a subset of a larger category of materials called natural fiber plastic composites (NFPCs), which may contain no cellulose-based fiber fillers such as pulp fibers, peanut hulls, bamboo, straw, digestate, etc. Chemical additives seem practically "invisible" (except mineral fillers and pigments, if added) in the composite structure. They provide for integration of polymer and wood flour (powder) while facilitating optimal processing conditions. In recent years, people in the flooring industry starts referring to WPC as a type of floor that has a basic structure of top vinyl veneer plus a rigid extruded core (the core can be made without any wood fiber). WPC is now an established product category within LVT. This type of WPC is different than the WPC decking and is not intended for outdoor usage.

Bioinspired Polymeric Woods provide bioinspiration for engineering materials due to their superior mechanical performance. We demonstrate a novel strategy for large-scale fabrication of a family of bioinspired polymeric woods with similar polyphenol matrix materials, wood-like cellular microstructures, and outstanding comprehensive performance by a self-assembly and thermocuring process of traditional resins. In contrast to natural woods, polymeric woods demonstrate comparable mechanical properties (a compressive yield strength of up to 45 MPa), preferable corrosion resistance to acid with no decrease in mechanical properties, and much better thermal insulation (as low as ~21 mW m-1 K-1) and fire retardancy. These bioinspired polymeric woods even stand out from other engineering materials such as cellular ceramic materials and aerogel-like materials in terms of specific strength and thermal insulation properties. The present strategy provides a new possibility for mass production of a series of high-performance biomimetic engineering materials with hierarchical cellular microstructures and remarkable multifunctionality.



Carbon Fiber - Composites


Carbon Fiber are fibers about 5–10 micrometres in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. Carbon Fibers have several advantages including high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion. These properties have made carbon fiber very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. However, they are relatively expensive when compared with similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers. To produce a carbon fiber, the carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber as the crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (in other words, it is strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric. Carbon fibers are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. When impregnated with a plastic resin and baked it forms carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (often referred to as carbon fiber) which has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is extremely rigid although somewhat brittle. Carbon fibers are also composited with other materials, such as graphite, to form reinforced carbon-carbon composites, which have a very high heat tolerance.

Carbon Nano-Tubes - Carbon Fiber Recycle - CFRP - Making Carbon-fiber

Composite Material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

Graphene - Nano-Graphene

Make Your Own Carbon Fiber Parts (youtube) - How to make a two-part Mold (youtube)

Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polymer is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are commonly used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and rigidity are required, such as aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, sports goods and an increasing number of other consumer and technical applications. The binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid (e.g. Kevlar, Twaron), aluminium, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) or glass fibers, as well as carbon fiber. The properties of the final CFRP product can also be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix (the resin). The most frequent additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used. The material is also referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP is less common, as it clashes with glass-(fiber)-reinforced polymer). In product advertisements, it is sometimes referred to simply as graphite fiber for short.

Kevlar is a heat-resistant and strong synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965, this high-strength material was used first commercially in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to bulletproof vests, because of its high tensile strength-to-weight ratio; by this measure it is five times stronger than steel. It also is used to make modern marching drumheads that withstand high impact. When used as a woven material, it is suitable for mooring lines and other underwater applications. A similar fiber called Twaron with the same chemical structure was developed by Akzo in the 1970s; commercial production started in 1986, and Twaron is now manufactured by Teijin.

Injection Molding - Tools - Action Physics

Bakelite is an early plastic. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Venturi.

Q-carbon is an allotrope of carbon that is ferromagnetic, electrically conductive, and glows when exposed to low levels of energy. It is relatively inexpensive to make, and some news reports claim that it has replaced diamond as the world's hardest substance. Discovered in 2015.

A Team At MIT Has Developed A Super Light Weight Material Ten Times Stronger Than Steel (youtube)

Carbon fiber technology that extracts CO2 from the air and turns it into cars and other industrial products.

Polyvinylidene Fluoride (wiki) 

Paint made from coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles makes tough self-cleaning surfaces. Nano-Technology

Syntactic Foam are composite materials synthesized by filling a metal, polymer, or ceramic matrix with hollow particles called microballoons. In this context, "syntactic" means "put together". The presence of hollow particles results in lower density, higher specific strength (strength divided by density), lower coefficient of thermal expansion, and, in some cases, radar or sonar transparency.

Glass Microsphere are microscopic spheres of glass manufactured for a wide variety of uses in research, medicine, consumer goods and various industries. Glass microspheres are usually between 1 and 1000 micrometers in diameter, although the sizes can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. Hollow glass microspheres, sometimes termed microballoons or glass bubbles, have diameters ranging from 10 to 300 micrometers.

Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation. Viscous materials, like honey, resist shear flow and strain linearly with time when a stress is applied. Elastic materials strain when stretched and quickly return to their original state once the stress is removed. Viscoelastic materials have elements of both of these properties and, as such, exhibit time-dependent strain. Whereas elasticity is usually the result of bond stretching along crystallographic planes in an ordered solid, viscosity is the result of the diffusion of atoms or molecules inside an amorphous material.

Aquatherm polypropylene (PP-R) pipe for use in pressurized plumbing and mechanical systems of all sizes. Our products are reliable, competitively priced, and environmentally friendly.

Polypropylene is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids. Polypropylene has a relatively slippery "low energy surface" that means that many common glues will not form adequate joints. Joining of polypropylene is often done using welding processes. In 2013, the global market for polypropylene was about 55 million tonnes. Polypropylene is the world's second-most widely produced synthetic plastic, after polyethylene.

Green Catalysts with Earth-abundant metals accelerate production of bio-based plastic. How crystalline structure can affect the performance of MnO2 catalysts. Scientists have developed and analyzed a novel catalyst for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, which is crucial for generating new raw materials that replace the classic non-renewable ones used for making many plastics.

Fuel Cells - Rubber Tires made from Dandelions.

Green Catalysts are the catalysts which are eco friendly that can be regenerated hence reused multiple times and thus minimise waste production during process. A catalyst is defined as “a substance that changes the velocity of a reaction without itself being changed in the process”.



Nuclear Testing


Operation Crossroads Baker All people who were born since 1951 have received some exposure to Radiation from Weapons Testing-Related Fallout. An equivalent of 29,000 of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima—428 megatons—were added to the air through Nuclear Testing. U.S. Government Radiological Weapons Program sprayed, injected and fed radiation and other dangerous materials to Innocent Americans in secret. They also worked to develop radiological weapons and later "combination weapons" using radioactive materials along with chemical or biological weapons. Toxins - Half-Life.

Radiation Poisoning and Sickness is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. The onset and type of symptoms depend on the amount of radiation exposure, both in any one dose, and cumulative exposure. Relatively smaller doses result in gastrointestinal effects, such as nausea and vomiting, and symptoms related to falling blood counts, and predisposition to infection and bleeding. Relatively larger doses can result in neurological effects, including but not limited to seizures, tremors, lethargy, and rapid death. Treatment of acute radiation syndrome is generally supportive with blood transfusions and antibiotics, with some extreme cases requiring more aggressive treatments, such as bone marrow transfusions. The radiation causes cellular degradation due to Damage to DNA and other key molecular structures within the cells in various tissues. This destruction, particularly because it affects the ability of cells to divide normally, in turn causes the symptoms. The symptoms can begin within one hour and may last for several months. The terms refer to acute medical problems rather than ones that develop after a prolonged period. Similar symptoms may appear months to years after exposure as chronic radiation syndrome when the dose rate is too low to cause the acute form. Radiation exposure can also increase the probability of developing some other diseases, mainly different types of cancers. These later-developing diseases are sometimes also described as radiation sickness, but they are never included in the term acute radiation syndrome. Radiation Therapy.

New way to protect against high-dose radiation damage discovered. Increases in levels of the protein URI protect mice against high-dose ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome and enhance mouse intestinal regeneration and survival in 100 percent of the cases. New Nuclear Reactors.

New biomaterial could shield against harmful radiation. New form of melanin has ability to protect human tissue from X-rays during medical treatment, spaceflight. Researchers have synthesized a new form of melanin enriched with selenium. Called selenomelanin, this new biomaterial shows extraordinary promise as a shield for human tissue against harmful radiation. Body Armor Grown in a Lab? Why Not, Say Synthetic Biologists.

Nuclear Weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. (also called an atom bomb, nuke, atomic bomb, nuclear warhead, A-bomb, or nuclear bomb).

Nuclear Fallout is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust and ash created when a nuclear weapon explodes. The amount and spread of fallout is a product of the size of the weapon and the altitude at which it is detonated. Fallout may get entrained with the products of a pyrocumulus cloud and fall as black rain (rain darkened by soot and other particulates). This radioactive dust, usually consisting of fission products mixed with bystanding atoms that are neutron activated by exposure, is a highly dangerous kind of radioactive contamination. Doomsday - Nuclear and Radiation Accidents and Incidents (wiki).

Effects of Nuclear Explosions. The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can be divided into four basic categories: Blast—40–50% of total energy. Thermal radiation—30–50% of total energy. Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy (more in a neutron bomb). Residual radiation—5–10% of total energy with the mass of the explosion. Teapot Apple 2 Cue houses atomic bomb effects Colorized by DeOldify (youtube).

How to Dismantle a Nuclear Bomb. Testing a new method for verification of weapons reduction. The experiments consisted of sending a horizontal neutron beam first through a proxy of the warhead, then through a lithium filter scrambling the information. The beam's signal was then sent to a glass detector, where a signature of the data, representing some of its key properties, was recorded. The MIT tests were performed using molybdenum and tungsten, two metals that share significant properties with plutonium and served as viable proxies for it.

Sievert is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. The sievert is of fundamental importance in dosimetry and radiation protection, and is named after Rolf Maximilian Sievert, a Swedish medical physicist renowned for work on radiation dose measurement and research into the biological effects of radiation. Quantities that are measured in sieverts are intended to represent the stochastic health risk, which for radiation dose assessment is defined as the probability of cancer induction and genetic damage. One sievert carries with it a 5.5% chance of eventually developing cancer based on the linear no-threshold model. To enable consideration of stochastic health risk, calculations are performed to convert the physical quantity absorbed dose into equivalent and effective doses, the details of which depend on the radiation type and biological context. For applications in radiation protection and dosimetry assessment the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) have published recommendations and data which are used to calculate these. These are under continual review, and changes are advised in the formal "Reports" of those bodies. The sievert is used for radiation dose quantities such as equivalent dose and effective dose, which represent the risk of external radiation from sources outside the body, and committed dose which represents the risk of internal irradiation due to inhaled or ingested radioactive substances. Conventionally, the sievert is not used for high dose rates of radiation that produce deterministic effects, which is the severity of acute tissue damage that is certain to happen; such effects are compared to the physical quantity absorbed dose measured by the unit gray (Gy). One sievert equals 100 rem. The rem is an older, non-SI unit of measurement. To enable a comprehensive view of the sievert this article deals with the definition of the sievert as an SI unit, summarises the recommendations of the ICRU and ICRP on how the sievert is calculated, includes a guide to the effects of ionizing radiation as measured in sieverts, and gives examples of approximate figures of dose uptake in certain situations.

Rad Unit is a deprecated unit of absorbed Radiation dose, defined as 1 rad = 0.01 Gy = 0.01 J/kg. It was originally defined in CGS units in 1953 as the dose causing 100 ergs of energy to be absorbed by one gram of matter. It has been replaced by the gray in SI but is still used in the United States, though "strongly discouraged" in the chapter 5.2 of style guide for U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology authors. A related unit, the roentgen, is used to quantify the radiation exposure. The F-factor can be used to convert between rads and roentgens. The material absorbing the radiation can be human tissue or silicon microchips or any other medium (for example, air, water, lead shielding, etc.).

Absorbed Dose is a physical dose quantity D representing the mean energy imparted to matter per unit mass by ionizing radiation. In the SI system of units, the unit of measure is joules per kilogram, and its special name is gray (Gy). The non-SI CGS unit rad is sometimes also used, predominantly in the USA. Body Burden.

Equivalent Dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. It is derived from the physical quantity absorbed dose, but also takes into account the biological effectiveness of the radiation, which is dependent on the radiation type and energy. In the SI system of units, the unit of measure is the sievert (Sv).

Effective Dose in Radiation is the tissue-weighted sum of the equivalent doses in all specified tissues and organs of the human body and represents the stochastic health risk to the whole body, which is the probability of cancer induction and genetic effects, of low levels of ionising radiation. It takes into account the type of radiation and the nature of each organ or tissue being irradiated, and enables summation of organ doses due to varying levels and types of radiation, both internal and external, to produce an overall calculated effective dose. The SI unit for effective dose is the sievert (Sv) which represents a 5.5% chance of developing cancer. The effective dose is not intended as a measure of deterministic health effects, which is the severity of acute tissue damage that is certain to happen, that is measured by the quantity absorbed dose.

Committed Dose in radiological protection is a measure of the stochastic health risk due to an intake of radioactive material into the human body. Stochastic in this context is defined as the probability of cancer induction and genetic damage, due to low levels of radiation. The SI unit of measure is the sievert. A committed dose from an internal source represents the same effective risk as the same amount of effective dose applied uniformly to the whole body from an external source, or the same amount of equivalent dose applied to part of the body. The committed dose is not intended as a measure for deterministic effects such as radiation sickness which is defined as the severity of a health effect which is certain to happen. The radiation risk proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) predicts that an effective dose of one sievert carries a 5.5% chance of developing cancer. Such a risk is the sum of both internal and external radiation dose.

Barn unit is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2). Originally used in nuclear physics for expressing the cross sectional area of nuclei and nuclear reactions, today it is also used in all fields of high-energy physics to express the cross sections of any scattering process, and is best understood as a measure of the probability of interaction between small particles. A barn is approximately the cross-sectional area of a uranium nucleus. The barn is also the unit of area used in nuclear quadrupole resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify the interaction of a nucleus with an electric field gradient. While the barn is not an SI unit, the SI standards body acknowledges its existence due to its continued use in particle physics.

Banana Equivalent Dose is an informal measurement of ionizing radiation exposure, intended as a general educational example to compare a dose of radioactivity to the dose one is exposed to by eating one average-sized banana. Bananas contain naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, particularly potassium-40 (40K), one of several naturally-occurring isotopes of potassium. One BED is often correlated to 10-7 Sievert (0.1 µSv); however, in practice, this dose is not cumulative, as the principal radioactive component is excreted to maintain metabolic equilibrium. The BED is only meant to inform the public about the existence of very low levels of natural radioactivity within a natural food and is not a formally adopted dose.

Linear no-threshold Model is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits. It assumes that the long term, biological damage caused by ionizing radiation (essentially the cancer risk) is directly proportional to the dose. This allows the summation by dosimeters of all radiation exposure, without taking into consideration dose levels or dose rates. In other words, radiation is always considered harmful with no safety threshold, and the sum of several very small exposures are considered to have the same effect as one larger exposure (response linearity).

Radiation Hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation. The reserve repair mechanisms are hypothesized to be sufficiently effective when stimulated as to not only cancel the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation but also inhibit disease not related to radiation exposure (see hormesis). This counter-intuitive hypothesis has captured the attention of scientists and public alike in recent years.

Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement. As a medication it is used to treat hyperthyroidism, in radiation emergencies, and to protect the thyroid gland when certain types of radiopharmaceuticals are used. In the developing world it is also used to treat skin sporotrichosis and phycomycosis. As a supplement it is used in those who have low intake of iodine in the diet. It is given by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, and swelling of the salivary glands. Other side effects include allergic reactions, headache, goitre, and depression. While use during pregnancy may harm the baby, its use is still recommended in radiation emergencies. Potassium iodide has the chemical formula KI. Commercially it is made by mixing potassium hydroxide with iodine. Potassium iodide has been used medically since at least 1820. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Potassium iodide is available as a generic medication and over the counter. In the United States a course of treatment is less than US$25. Potassium iodide is also used for the iodization of salt.

Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black non-metallic solid at standard conditions that melts to form a deep violet liquid at 114 degrees Celsius, and boils to a violet gas at 184 degrees Celsius.

Iodised Salt is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine. The ingestion of iodine prevents iodine deficiency. Worldwide, iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Deficiency also causes thyroid gland problems, including "endemic goitre". In many countries, iodine deficiency is a major public health problem that can be cheaply addressed by purposely adding small amounts of iodine to the sodium chloride salt. Iodine is a micronutrient and dietary mineral that is naturally present in the food supply in some regions, especially near sea coasts, but is generally quite rare in the Earth's crust, since iodine is a so-called heavy element, and abundance of chemical elements generally declines with greater atomic mass. Where natural levels of iodine in the soil are low and the iodine is not taken up by vegetables, iodine added to salt provides the small but essential amount of iodine needed by humans. An opened package of table salt with iodide may rapidly lose its iodine content through the process of oxidation and iodine sublimation.

There's still fall out from Nuclear Weapons out there.

Dirty Bombs - Toxins

War Waste - A Ticking Bomb for the Environment | DW Documentary (youtube) - Million tons of bombs were disposed in the oceans with highly toxic substances containing arsenic. 100's of dump sites around the world. Agent orange is still toxic and extremely dangerous. Dupleted uranium will continue to be a threat for over 4 billion years. Pollution.

Most Radioactive Places In The World (youtube) Mediterranean Sea, Somalia, Hanford Sight, Mayak Russia, Sellafield England (Irish Sea), Siberia Russia, Mailuu-suu Kyrgyzstan, Polygon Kazakhstan, Chernobyl, Fukushima Japan. Level 7 event classification.

USSR Secretly Conducted over 400 Nuclear Tests in a region of Kazakhstan called "The Polygon", exposing hundreds of thousands of people to dangerous levels of radiation. Now over 200,000 people are believed to have suffered directly from the tests.

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Forgotten Bomb - Hulu 02/07/2015 | 1 hr. 34 min. 

The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (amazon)

Gar Alperovitz (wiki)

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

Plough Shares is a public grantmaking foundation that supports initiatives to prevent the spread and use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and other weapons of war, and to prevent conflicts that could lead to the use of weapons of mass destruction. Ploughshares Fund (wiki).

Society Collapse (doomsday) - An Illusion of Safety (TSA)

Sandia National Laboratories mission responsibilities in the nuclear weapons (NW) program create a foundation from which we leverage capabilities, enabling us to solve complex national security problems.

Radon is a radioactive gas. It is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and chemically inert. Unless you test for it, there is no way of telling how much is present. Radon is formed by the natural radioactive decay of uranium in rock, soil, and water. Naturally existing, low levels of uranium occur widely in Earth's crust. It can be found in all 50 states. Once produced, radon moves through the ground to the air above. Some remains below the surface and dissolves in water that collects and flows under the ground's surface. Radon has a half-life of about four days—half of a given quantity of it breaks down every four days. When radon undergoes radioactive decay, it emits ionizing radiation in the form of alpha particles. It also produces short-lived decay products, often called progeny or daughters, some of which are also radioactive. Unlike radon, the progeny are not gases and can easily attach to dust and other particles. Those particles can be transported by air and can also be breathed. The decay of progeny continues until stable, non-radioactive progeny are formed. At each step in the decay process, radiation is released. Radon is a chemical element with the symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas. It occurs naturally in minute quantities as an intermediate step in the normal radioactive decay chains through which thorium and uranium slowly decay into lead and various other short-lived radioactive elements. Radon itself is the immediate decay product of radium. Its most stable isotope, 222Rn, has a half-life of only 3.8 days, making it one of the rarest elements. Since thorium and uranium are two of the most common radioactive elements on Earth, while also having three isotopes with half-lives on the order of several billion years, radon will be present on Earth long into the future despite its short half-life. The decay of radon produces many other short-lived nuclides, known as radon daughters, ending at stable isotopes of lead. Body Burden - Toxins.

Picocurie is a unit of measurement of radioactivity, equal to one trillionth (10-12) of a curie – that's 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a curie. A picocurie represents about 0.037 disintegrations per second or 2.22 disintegrations per minute (of radioactive decay).


Radiation Detection


Radiation Detector is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. Detectors can measure the particle energy and other attributes such as momentum, spin, charge, particle type, in addition to merely registering the presence of the particle.

Geiger Counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation. Also known as a Geiger–Muller counter (or Geiger–Müller counter), it is widely used in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics, and the nuclear industry. It detects ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays using the ionization effect produced in a Geiger–Müller tube, which gives its name to the instrument. In wide and prominent use as a hand-held radiation survey instrument, it is perhaps one of the world's best-known radiation detection instruments. The original detection principle was realized in 1908, at the Victoria University of Manchester, but it was not until the development of the Geiger–Müller tube in 1928 that the Geiger counter could be produced as a practical instrument. Since then, it has been very popular due to its robust sensing element and relatively low cost. However, there are limitations in measuring high radiation rates and the energy of incident radiation

Gamma Counter is a machine to measure gamma radiation emitted by a radionuclide. Unlike survey meters, gamma counters are designed to measure small samples of radioactive material, typically with automated measurement and movement of multiple samples.

Scintillation Counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillating material, and detecting the resultant light pulses. It consists of a scintillator which generates photons in response to incident radiation, a sensitive photodetector (usually a photomultiplier tube (PMT), a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, or a photodiode), which converts the light to an electrical signal and electronics to process this signal. Scintillation counters are widely used in radiation protection, assay of radioactive materials and physics research because they can be made inexpensively yet with good quantum efficiency, and can measure both the intensity and the energy of incident radiation.

Scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation, the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation. Luminescent materials, when struck by an incoming particle, absorb its energy and scintillate (i.e. re-emit the absorbed energy in the form of light).[a] Sometimes, the excited state is metastable, so the relaxation back down from the excited state to lower states is delayed (necessitating anywhere from a few nanoseconds to hours depending on the material). The process then corresponds to one of two phenomena: delayed fluorescence or phosphorescence. The correspondence depends on the type of transition and hence the wavelength of the emitted optical photon.

Particle Detector is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. Detectors can measure the particle energy and other attributes such as momentum, spin, charge, particle type, in addition to merely registering the presence of the particle.

Nuclear Forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information.

Chernobyl: Two Days in the Exclusion Zone (youtube)

Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams. X-rays are a form of energy, similar to light and radio waves. X-rays are also called radiation. Unlike light waves, x-rays have enough energy to pass through your body. As the radiation moves through your body, it passes through bones, tissues and organs differently, which allows a radiologist to create pictures of them. The radiologist views these images on photographic film or on monitors similar to a computer display.

Reducing Radiation from Medical X-rays (FDA) - Imaging Machines

Dental X-Rays: The upside is that an X-ray allows your dentist to see bones, tissue, and hidden surfaces of your teeth that he or she can't see with the naked eye. The downside is that X-rays expose you to radiation. Four bitewing X-rays, which is what many people get in a routine exam, give about .005 millisieverts of radiation, according to the American College of Radiology. That's about the same amount of radiation you get in a normal day from the sun and other sources. A panoramic dental X-ray, which goes around your head, has about twice that amount of radiation. Dental x-rays are one of the lowest radiation dose studies performed. A routine exam which includes 4 bitewings is about 0.005 mSv, which is less than one day of natural background radiation. It is also about the same amount of radiation exposure from a short airplane flight (~1-2 hrs).

Radiation Risk Calculator - Cell Phone Radiation.

Radiation-Induced Cancer or invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.

RadNet has more than 130 radiation air monitors in 50 states. RadNet runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week collecting near-real-time measurements of gamma radiation. Over time, RadNet sample testing and monitoring results reveal the normal background levels of environmental radiation.

Radiation Protection is the protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this. Exposure can be from a radiation source external to the human body or due to the bodily intake of a radioactive material. Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine, and can present a significant health hazard by causing microscopic damage to living tissue. This can result in skin burns and radiation sickness at high exposures, known as "tissue" or "deterministic" effects (conventionally indicated by the gray), and statistically elevated risks of cancer at low exposures, known as "stochastic effects" (conventionally measured by the sievert).

Workers in hospitals and nuclear facilities can wear disposable yeast badges to check their daily radiation exposure instantly. Hospital lab workers better track their daily radiation exposure, enabling a faster assessment of tissue damage that could lead to cancer.

The Fogging of Photographic Film by Radioactive Contaminants in Cardboard Packaging Materials..

Nuclear Test Sites World Map Sr-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years. It undergoes β− decay into yttrium-90, with a decay energy of 0.546 MeV. Strontium-90 has applications in medicine and industry and is an isotope of concern in fallout from nuclear weapons and nuclear accidents.

Iodine-131 is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley. It has a radioactive decay half-life of about eight days. It is associated with nuclear energy, medical diagnostic and treatment procedures, and natural gas production. It also plays a major role as a radioactive isotope present in nuclear fission products, and was a significant contributor to the health hazards from open-air atomic bomb testing in the 1950s, and from the Chernobyl disaster, as well as being a large fraction of the contamination hazard in the first weeks in the Fukushima nuclear crisis. This is because I-131 is a major fission product of uranium and plutonium, comprising nearly 3% of the total products of fission (by weight). See fission product yield for a comparison with other radioactive fission products. I-131 is also a major fission product of uranium-233, produced from thorium.

Isotopes of Ruthenium (44Ru) is composed of seven stable isotopes. Additionally, 27 radioactive isotopes have been discovered. Of these radioisotopes, the most stable are 106Ru, with a half-life of 373.59 days; 103Ru, with a half-life of 39.26 days and 97Ru, with a half-life of 2.9 days. Twenty-four other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 86.95 u (87Ru) to 119.95 u (120Ru). Most of these have half-lives that are less than five minutes, excepting 95Ru (half-life: 1.643 hours) and 105Ru (half-life: 4.44 hours). The primary decay mode before the most abundant isotope, 102Ru, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay product before 102Ru is technetium and the primary product after is rhodium.


Open Burns = Open Wounds

Depleted Uranium is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium. (Natural uranium contains about 0.72% of its fissile isotope U-235, while the DU used by the U.S. Department of Defense contain 0.3% U-235 or less). Uses of DU take advantage of its very high density of 19.1 g/cm3 (68.4% denser than lead). Civilian uses include counterweights in aircraft, radiation shielding in medical radiation therapy and industrial radiography equipment, and containers for transporting radioactive materials. Military uses include armor plating and armor-piercing projectiles.

Veterans Exposed - Born at the Burnt Land (youtube) - Article

War Crimes (radioactive waste)

How NATO Turned Sardinia Into A Radioactive Nightmare (youtube) - Secret Sardinia: The island of Sardinia is home to two completely different worlds. On the one side sits the villas of the super-rich, with coastal mansions valued in the hundreds of millions. Yet on the other sits Europe's largest military exercise ground, where amour piercing uranium-tipped missiles were tested by the thousand. Now, a disproportionate number of cancers and children and livestock born with hideous deformities have led to accusations of a cover up as to the extent of NATO's polluting of the island.


Radioactive Waste - Poisonous for Hundreds of Years


Toxic Military Open Burn Sites Bio-Persistent is a substance that remains inside a biological organism, rather than being expelled or broken down like a biodegradable product does. Plastics are Biopersistent.

Biological Half-Life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

Entropy - Decomposition - Dormancy - Forever Chemicals - Toxic Waste

Effective Half-Life is the rate of accumulation or elimination of a biochemical or pharmacological substance in an organism; the analogue of biological half-life when the kinetics are governed by multiple independent mechanisms. Contaminated Water.

Half-Life is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay. The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential or non-exponential decay. For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other chemicals in the human body. The converse of half-life is doubling time. Half-life is constant over the lifetime of an exponentially decaying quantity, and it is a characteristic unit for the exponential decay equation.

Plutonium-239 has a Half-Life of 24,000 years. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 have half-lives of about 30 years. The half-life of Uranium-235 is about 700 million years, and the half-life ofuranium-234 is about 25 thousand years. Carbon Dating.

Radioactive Isotopes by Half-Life (wiki) - Half-Life Calculator - Safecast

Decay is the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation.

Radioactive Decay is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, or a gamma ray or electron in the case of internal conversion. A material containing such unstable nuclei is considered radioactive. Certain highly excited short-lived nuclear states can decay through neutron emission, or more rarely, proton emission. (in terms of mass in its rest frame).

Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Radioactive Waste is waste that contains radioactive material. Radioactive waste is usually a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to all forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. Radioactivity naturally decays over time, so radioactive waste has to be isolated and confined in appropriate disposal facilities for a sufficient period until it no longer poses a threat. The time radioactive waste must be stored for depends on the type of waste and radioactive isotopes. Current approaches to managing radioactive waste have been segregation and storage for short-lived waste, near-surface disposal for low and some intermediate level waste, and deep burial or partitioning / transmutation for the high-level waste. A summary of the amounts of radioactive waste and management approaches for most developed countries are presented and reviewed periodically as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.

This Concrete Dome holds a Leaking Toxic Timebomb (youtube) - Thousands of cubic metres of radioactive waste lies buried under a concrete dome on the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, the legacy of over a decade of US nuclear tests in the Pacific.

This Abandoned Nuclear City Is Trapped Under Ice, What Happens when It Thaws? (youtube) - Camp Century, Greenland has tons of nuclear waste from a secret military operation.

High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Project at Yucca Mountain.

Deep Geological Repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet). It entails a combination of waste form, waste package, engineered seals and geology that is suited to provide a high level of long-term isolation and containment without future maintenance. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, under construction in the United States, is currently the only facility which retains high level nuclear waste for permanent disposition.

Beta Decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) is emitted from an atomic nucleus.

Radioactive Decay (space)

Particle Decay is the spontaneous process of one unstable subatomic particle transforming into multiple other particles. The particles created in this process (the final state) must each be less massive than the original, although the total invariant mass of the system must be conserved. A particle is unstable if there is at least one allowed final state that it can decay into. Unstable particles will often have multiple ways of decaying, each with its own associated probability. Decays are mediated by one or several fundamental forces. The particles in the final state may themselves be unstable and subject to further decay. The term is typically distinct from radioactive decay, in which an unstable atomic nucleus is transformed into a lighter nucleus accompanied by the emission of particles or radiation, although the two are conceptually similar and are often described using the same terminology.

Exponential Decay decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

Urban Decay is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.

Social Decay refers to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state.

Forgotten wrecks are a time bomb | DW Documentary (youtube) - Time bombs are ticking on the world’s sea beds. During World War II, 6,300 vessels were sent to the bottom. For years, they have been rusting beneath the waves and leaking toxic oil into the oceans. The biggest oil spill in history is imminent. Experts estimate that the wrecks could hold up to 15 million tons of fuel, posing a threat to both holidaymakers and wildlife. This documentary takes viewers to Poland’s Baltic coast, to Norway, the USA and the Pacific Ocean. It accompanies scientists who are investigating how heavily the seabed has in some places already been contaminated by leaking oil, observing the rotting wrecks, developing danger scenarios and issuing warnings: the oil from several sunken ships urgently needs to be pumped out. There is still time to safely dispose of the sea’s "black tears." But, despite all the warnings, so far very few governments are prepared to take action. Although pumping out the wrecks is technically possible, it would be a complex and expensive process. But we are at the start of a critical phase. After decades of corrosion in salty seawater, sometimes the slightest vibration is enough to cause the steel hulls of the sunken warships to split open. Marine researchers, coastguards and salvage experts worldwide agree the question is not if, but when, further massive oil spills from World War II wrecks will cause an environmental disaster. Land Mines.

Time Bomb is a bomb whose detonation is triggered by a timer. The use or attempted use of time bombs has been for various purposes including insurance fraud, terrorism, assassination, sabotage and warfare. Negligence.

40,000,000 Total acres of land — an area larger than the state of Florida — the EPA estimates has been contaminated by the Pentagon or its contractors in the U.S. open burns. 42 billion dollars spent cleaning up its 39,400 polluted sites by the Pentagon so far in the U.S.. ProPublica reviewed records for the 51 active burn sites and more than 145 others the Pentagon, its contractors, and other private companies operated in the past, and found they had violated their hazardous waste handling permits thousands of times over the past 37 years, often for improperly storing and disposing of toxic material, and sometimes for exceeding pollution thresholds.

Radioactive Contamination is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition). Such contamination presents a hazard because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which emit harmful ionising radiation such as alpha particles or beta particles, gamma rays or neutrons. The degree of hazard is determined by the concentration of the contaminants, the energy of the radiation being emitted, the type of radiation, and the proximity of the contamination to organs of the body. It is important to be clear that the contamination gives rise to the radiation hazard, and the terms "radiation" and "contamination" are not interchangeable. Contamination may affect a person, a place, an animal, or an object such as clothing. Following an atmospheric nuclear weapon discharge or a nuclear reactor containment breach, the air, soil, people, plants, and animals in the vicinity will become contaminated by nuclear fuel and fission products. A spilled vial of radioactive material like uranyl nitrate may contaminate the floor and any rags used to wipe up the spill. Cases of widespread radioactive contamination include the Bikini Atoll, the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the Chernobyl disaster, and the area around the Mayak facility in Russia.

Microrobots clean up Radioactive Waste. Researchers have developed tiny, self-propelled robots that remove radioactive uranium from simulated wastewater. To make their self-propelled microrobots, the researchers designed ZIF-8 rods with diameters about 1/15 that of a human hair. The researchers added iron atoms and iron oxide nanoparticles to stabilize the structures and make them magnetic, respectively. Catalytic platinum nanoparticles placed at one end of each rod converted hydrogen peroxide "fuel" in the water into oxygen bubbles, which propelled the microrobots at a speed of about 60 times their own length per second. In simulated radioactive wastewater, the microrobots removed 96% of the uranium in an hour. The team collected the uranium-loaded rods with a magnet and stripped off the uranium, allowing the tiny robots to be recycled. The self-propelled microrobots could someday help in the management and remediation of radioactive waste, the researchers say.

Radiotrophic Fungus are fungi which appear to perform radiosynthesis, that is, to use the pigment melanin to convert gamma radiation into chemical energy for growth. This proposed mechanism may be similar to anabolic pathways for the synthesis of reduced organic carbon (e.g., carbohydrates) in phototrophic organisms, which convert photons from visible light with pigments such as chlorophyll whose energy is then used in photolysis of water to generate usable chemical energy (as ATP) in photophosphorylation or photosynthesis. However, whether melanin-containing fungi employ a similar multi-step pathway as photosynthesis, or some chemosynthesis pathways, is unknown.

Radiosynthesis is the theorized capture and metabolism, by living organisms, of energy from ionizing radiation, analogously to photosynthesis.

Chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.


Nuclear Energy


Nuclear Reactor is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Thorium Reactor.

Nuclear Reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or a nucleus and an external subatomic particle, collide to produce one or more new nuclides. Thus, a nuclear reaction must cause a transformation of at least one nuclide to another. If a nucleus interacts with another nucleus or particle and they then separate without changing the nature of any nuclide, the process is simply referred to as a type of nuclear scattering, rather than a nuclear reaction. In principle, a reaction can involve more than two particles colliding, but because the probability of three or more nuclei to meet at the same time at the same place is much less than for two nuclei, such an event is exceptionally rare (see triple alpha process for an example very close to a three-body nuclear reaction). The term "nuclear reaction" may refer either to a change in a nuclide induced by collision with another particle, or to a spontaneous change of a nuclide without collision. Natural nuclear reactions occur in the interaction between cosmic rays and matter, and nuclear reactions can be employed artificially to obtain nuclear energy, at an adjustable rate, on demand. Perhaps the most notable nuclear reactions are the nuclear chain reactions in fissionable materials that produce induced nuclear fission, and the various nuclear fusion reactions of light elements that power the energy production of the Sun and stars. The process may be controlled (nuclear power) or uncontrolled (nuclear weapons).

Nuclear Chain Reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions. The specific nuclear reaction may be the fission of heavy isotopes (e.g., uranium-235, 235U). The nuclear chain reaction releases several million times more energy per reaction than any chemical reaction.

E=mc2 (physics) - Nuclear Force - Fission - Fusion

Nuclear Fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.

Nuclear Fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the products and reactants is manifested as the release of large amounts of energy. This difference in mass arises due to the difference in atomic "binding energy" between the atomic nuclei before and after the reaction. Fusion is the process that powers active or "main sequence" stars, or other high magnitude stars.

Old Style Nuclear Reactors: The U.S. has 104 old style Nuclear reactors operating at 65 sites in 31 states. 440 in the world.

Pollution (toxic waste)

Next Generation Nuclear Reactors - Safer Nuclear Energy (Older Safer Design hidden from the Public)

Generation III Reactor is a development of Generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design developed during the lifetime of the Generation II reactor designs. These include improved fuel technology, superior thermal efficiency, significantly enhanced safety systems (including passive nuclear safety), and standardized designs for reduced maintenance and capital costs. The first Generation III reactor to begin operation was Kashiwazaki 6 (an ABWR) in 1996.

Atomic States of America (2012) (video)

How fear of nuclear power is hurting the environment: Michael Shellenberger (video and interactive text)

International Atomic Energy Agency (wiki) - Nuclear Files

Radioactive Caesium-137, which is produced when uranium and plutonium absorb neutrons and undergo fission, has a half-life of about 30 years. The largest source of caesium-137 remains fall-out from those nuclear weapons tests in the 50s and 60s. But 6-30 miles above the Earth’s surface, in the Stratosphere, the concentrations remain 1,000 to 1,500 levels higher than in the Troposphere.

Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. It is among the most problematic of the short-to-medium-lifetime fission products because it easily moves and spreads in nature due to the high water solubility of caesium's most common chemical compounds, which are salts. Heavy Metals in Soil.

Caesium symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.

Roentgenium is a chemical element with the symbol Rg and atomic number 111. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature. Oganesson electron shells 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 (?) 18.

The most serious radioactive material release since Fukushima 2011 took place in September 2017, but the public took little notice of it. A slightly radioactive cloud moved across Europe. Now, a study has been published, analyzing more than 1300 measurements from all over Europe and other regions of the world to find out the cause of this incident. The result: it was not a reactor accident, but an accident in a nuclear reprocessing plant. The exact origin of the radioactivity is difficult to determine, but the data suggests a release site in the southern Urals. This is where the Russian nuclear facility Majak is located. The incident never caused any kind of health risks for the European population. We measured radioactive ruthenium-106.

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011. Immediately after the earthquake, the active reactors automatically shut down their sustained fission reactions. However, the tsunami disabled the emergency generators that would have provided power to control and operate the pumps necessary to cool the reactors. The insufficient cooling led to three nuclear meltdowns, hydrogen-air explosions, and the release of radioactive material in Units 1, 2, and 3 from 12 March to 15 March. Loss of cooling also caused the pool for storing spent fuel from Reactor 4 to overheat on 15 March due to the decay heat from the fuel rods.

Facts about Ocean Radiation and the Fukushima Disaster
NCBI - IAEA - Safecast
Fukushimas Nuclear Disaster has put Americas West Coast in Danger

Fukushima decontamination strategies used and their effectiveness. treating cultivated land, has cost the Japanese state about €24 billion. (Caesium-137).

Chernobyl Disaster Flora and Fauna. After the disaster, four square kilometres (1.5 sq mi) of pine forest directly downwind of the reactor turned reddish-brown and died, earning the name of the "Red Forest". Some animals in the worst-hit areas also died or stopped reproducing. Most domestic animals were removed from the exclusion zone, but horses left on an island in the Pripyat River 6 km (4 mi) from the power plant died when their thyroid glands were destroyed by radiation doses of 150–200 Sv. Some cattle on the same island died and those that survived were stunted because of thyroid damage. The next generation appeared to be normal.


Land Mines


Land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it. Such a device is typically detonated automatically by way of pressure when a target steps on it or drives over it, although other detonation mechanisms are also sometimes used. A land mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both. Toxic Waste.

Minefield is an area planted with explosive mines. An area of water or land set with mines. A subject or situation presenting unseen hazards.

Disarm Film - No More Mines! Resolve the Global Landmine crisis.

The International Campaign to Ban Landmines I.C.B.L.

Rats Are Being Trained To Sniff Out Land Mines And Save Lives.

Drone Landmine Detector.

Cambodian Mine Action Center.

Researchers use drones, machine learning to detect dangerous 'butterfly' landmines. Using advanced machine learning, drones could be used to detect dangerous "butterfly" landmines in remote regions of post-conflict countries, according to research from Binghamton University, State University at New York. It is estimated that there are at least 100 million military munitions and explosives of concern devices in the world, of various size, shape and composition. Millions of these are surface plastic landmines with low-pressure triggers, such as the mass-produced Soviet PFM-1 "butterfly" landmine. Nicknamed for their small size and butterfly-like shape, these mines are extremely difficult to locate and clear due to their small size, low trigger mass and, most significantly, a design that mostly excluded metal components, making these devices virtually invisible to metal detectors. Critically, the design of the mine combined with a low triggering weight have earned it notoriety as "the toy mine," due to a high casualty rate among small children who find these devices while playing and who are the primary victims of the PFM-1 in post-conflict nations, like Afghanistan. The use of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)?based approaches to automate the detection and mapping of landmines is important for several reasons.



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