Farming - Agriculture
is the practice of
. Agriculture considered as an
or way of life.
is the cultivation of animals, plants and fungi for food,
and other products used to
enhance human life.
can also refer to the
federal department that administers programs
created in 1862 that
provides services to
including research and soil conservation
and efforts to
the farming economy
Buying a Farm
is a person who operates a farm and is engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for
materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of
raising field crops
, or other
Farmer is sometimes also called an agriculturer.
- Pesticide Warnings
- Factory Farms
is an area of land
that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary
objective of producing food
and other crops; it is the basic facility in
is any community whose economy is based on producing
and maintaining crops and farmland. Another way to define an agrarian
society is by seeing how much of a nation's total
is in agriculture.
Everyone should know how to Grow and Harvest Food. Even if you grow
food on a small scale, like in a
small backyard garden
or on your
windowsill, the benefits are numerous. Not only does growing your own food
provide you with healthy nutrition, you can also
learn several subjects at the same time
, soil health
is a group of
farm-produced crops and goods, including
grains, oats, etc. are also sometimes considered produce.
intentional planting of trees
or shrubs that is
production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are
generally grown for commercial production.
plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also
raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice
and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture.
is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a
tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on
their portion of land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a
wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used
a form of the system.
makes use of agricultural assets they do not own in
return for some percentage of the profits.
In a Letter from
"Agriculture is our wisest pursuit, because it will in the end contribute
most to real wealth, good morals, and happiness."
330 farm families
leave their land for good. We must
stop this exodus and do what ever we can to turn this
around, our lives, and our future lives, depend on it. 47 Million
in Americans don't have Food Security
(Grow Beds) -
- Community Gardens
(Small Town Farming)Soil
(Food Forests) -
- DiseasesDry Land Farming
- Food Safety
Pick Your Own Food Farms
- Pick your Own
- Farm Fresh Ri
is the study of ecological processes
applied to agricultural production
systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological
principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management
approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used
imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, [or] a practice".
Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of
agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming,
whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional; intensive or
extensive. Although it has much more common thinking and principles with
some of the before mentioned farming systems.
is the branch of
with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants
includes the cultivation of
seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food
crops such as grass and ornamental
. It also includes
plant conservation, landscape restoration
, landscape and garden design,
construction, and maintenance, and
. Inside agriculture,
horticulture contrasts with extensive field farming as well as animal
husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies
used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses
and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation
and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality,
nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and
. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and
technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.
Horticulture even refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden.
is the science and technology of producing
and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
has come to encompass work in the areas of
plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. It is the
application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry,
economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics. Agronomists of today are
involved with many issues, including producing food, creating healthier
food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture, and extracting
energy from plants. Agronomists often specialise in areas such as crop
rotation, irrigation and drainage, plant breeding, plant physiology, soil
classification, soil fertility, weed control, and insect and pest control.
is a broad multidisciplinary
field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic
and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of
agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often
excluded from the definition.) Agriculture is the set of activities
that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants
for human use. Agriculture concerns techniques, including the application
of agronomic research. Agronomy
is research and development related to
studying and improving plant-based crops. Agricultural sciences include
research and development on:
Production techniques (e.g., irrigation
management, recommended nitrogen inputs). Improving agricultural
productivity in terms of quantity and quality (e.g., selection of
drought-resistant crops and animals, development of new pesticides,
yield-sensing technologies, simulation models of crop growth, in-vitro
cell culture techniques). Minimizing the effects of pests (weeds,
insects, pathogens, nematodes) on crop or animal production systems.
Transformation of primary products into end-consumer products (e.g.,
production, preservation, and packaging of dairy products). Prevention
and correction of adverse environmental effects (e.g., soil degradation,
waste management, bioremediation). Theoretical production ecology,
relating to crop production modeling. Traditional agricultural systems,
sometimes termed subsistence agriculture, which feed most of the poorest
people in the world. These systems are of interest as they sometimes
retain a level of integration with natural ecological systems greater than
that of industrial agriculture, which may be more sustainable than some
modern agricultural systems. Food production and demand on a global
basis, with special attention paid to the major producers, such as China,
India, Brazil, the USA and the EU. Various sciences relating to
agricultural resources and the environment (e.g. soil science,
agroclimatology); biology of agricultural crops and animals (e.g. crop
science, animal science and their included sciences, e.g. ruminant
nutrition, farm animal welfare); such fields as agricultural economics and
rural sociology; various disciplines encompassed in agricultural
engineering. Farming Technologies and Advanced
is self-sufficiency farming
in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and
their families. The output is mostly for local requirements with little or
no surplus trade
. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and
animals needed by the family to feed and clothe themselves during the
year. Planting decisions are made principally with an eye toward what the
family will need during the coming year, and secondarily toward market
prices. Tony Waters writes: "Subsistence peasants are people who grow what
they eat, build their own houses, and live without regularly making
purchases in the marketplace."
is an approach to food and farming systems
that regenerates topsoil
long into the future. Regenerative Agriculture improves water cycles,
enhances ecosystem services, increases resilience to climate fluctuation
and strengthens the health and vitality of farming and ranching
Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration
is a low-cost, sustainable land
restoration technique used to combat poverty
amongst poor subsistence
farmers in developing countries by increasing food and timber production,
and resilience to climate extremes. It involves the systematic
regeneration and management of trees and shrubs from tree stumps, roots
is measured as the ratio of agricultural
agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by
weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output
difficult. Therefore, output is usually measured as the market value of
final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used
in the meat industry. This output value may be compared to many different
types of inputs such as labour and land (yield). These are called partial
measures of productivity. Agricultural productivity may also be measured
by what is termed total factor
(TFP). This method of calculating agricultural
productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of
outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to
remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity; notably
that it is often hard to identify the factors cause them to change.
Changes in TFP are usually attributed to technological improvements.
Farm Inputs: Land, equipment, seeds, feed, fuel, and fertilizer
is the business of agricultural
production. The term was coined in 1957 by Goldberg and Davis. It includes
agrichemicals, breeding, crop production (farming and contract farming),
distribution, farm machinery, processing, and seed supply, as well as
marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain
and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness
is an applied field of
economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing
the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as
agronomics. Agronomics was a branch of economics that specifically dealt
with land usage. It focused on maximizing the crop yield while maintaining
a good soil ecosystem.
a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supply most of the
food consumed by the world population. Only subsistence farmers, those who
survive on what they grow, and hunter-gatherers can be considered outside
of the scope of the modern food industry. The food Industry includes:
Agriculture: raising of crops and livestock, and seafood. Manufacturing:
agrichemicals, agricultural construction, farm machinery and supplies,
seed, etc.. Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, and
manufacture of prepared food products. Marketing: promotion of generic
products (e.g., milk board), new products, advertising, marketing
campaigns, packaging, public relations, etc.. Wholesale and distribution:
logistics, transportation, warehousing. Foodservice (which includes
Catering). Grocery, farmers' markets, public markets and other retailing.
Regulation: local, regional, national, and international rules and
regulations for food production and sale, including food quality, food
security, food safety, marketing/advertising, and industry lobbying
activities. Education: academic, consultancy, vocational. Research and
development: food technology. Financial services: credit, insurance.
United States Department of Agriculture
U.S. federal executive
responsible for developing and executing federal laws
related to farming, forestry, and food
aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural
, work to assure food safety
protect natural resources
foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and
internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes
to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS)
. The largest component of the FNS budget is the
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
(formerly known as the Food Stamp program), which is the cornerstone of
USDA's nutrition assistance.
involves any agriculturally based
operation or activity that brings visitors to a farm or ranch. Agritourism
has different definitions in different parts of the world, and sometimes
refers specifically to farm stays, as in Italy. Elsewhere, agritourism
includes a wide variety of activities, including buying produce direct
from a farm stand, navigating a corn maze, slopping hogs, picking fruit,
feeding animals, or staying at a bed and breakfast (B&B) on a farm.
involves various types of agriculture with higher
levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area. It is
characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital
and labour, and higher crop yields per cubic unit land area. This
contrasts with traditional agriculture, in which the inputs per unit land
are lower. The term "intensive" involves various meanings, some of which
refer to organic farming methods (such as biointensive agriculture and
French intensive gardening), and others that refer to nonorganic and
industrial methods. Intensive animal farming involves either large numbers
of animals raised on limited land, usually concentrated animal feeding
operations (CAFOs), often referred to as factory farms, or managed
intensive rotational grazing (MIRG), which has both
and non-organic types. Both increase the yields of food and
fiber per acre as compared to traditional animal husbandry. In CAFO, feed
is brought to the seldom-moved animals, while in MIRG the animals are
repeatedly moved to fresh forage.
is an agricultural production system that uses small
inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being
Food Growing Tips - Planting Tips
is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar
or different types of
crops in the same area in sequenced
seasons. It is done so that the soil
of farms is not used for only one set of
. It helps in reducing
and crop yield.
4 Year Crop Rotation Plan
is a multiple cropping practice involving growing two or more crops in
. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater
yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources or ecological
processes that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop.
Intercropping can also help to reduce pests, reduce weeds and protect the
exposed soil from drying out. The plants must be
and not be
competing for nutrients or water. Herbs and root plants are good plants to
intercrop, as well as flowers like marigolds.
Nature needs Diversity
Inga Alley Cropping
refers to planting agricultural crops between rows of Inga trees
. Using the Inga tree for alley cropping has
been proposed as an alternative to the much more ecologically destructive
slash and burn cultivation. The technique has been found to increase
yields. It is sustainable agriculture as it allows the same plot to be
cultivated over and over again thus eliminating the need for burning of
the rainforests to get fertile plots.
is the planting of rows of
trees or shrubs wide enough to create alleyways within which agronomic or
forage crops are planted or produced. Permaculture
is the planting of
different crops in
for any of a number of different reasons, including
habitat for beneficial creatures
maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.
Companion planting is a form of
. Companion planting is used by
farmers and gardeners in both industrialized and developing countries for
many reasons. Many of the modern principles of companion planting were
present many centuries ago in cottage gardens in England and forest
gardens in Asia, and thousands of years ago in Mesoamerica.
Companion Plants List
- Corn, Beans, and Winter
Squash. These three plants grow symbiotically to deter weeds and pests,
enrich the soil, and support each other and work together to help one
another thrive and survive. For many Native American communities, these 3
crops represented the most important crops.
is the practice of growing two or more
crops in the same piece of land in same growing seasons instead of one
. It is a form of polyculture
. It can take the form of
double-cropping, in which a second crop is planted after the first has
been harvested, or relay cropping, in which the second crop is started
amidst the first crop before it has been harvested
. A related practice,
companion planting, is sometimes used in gardening and intensive
cultivation of vegetables and fruits. One example of multi-cropping is
tomatoes + onions + marigold; the marigolds repel some tomato pests. Mixed
cropping is found in many agricultural traditions. In the Garhwal Himalaya
of India, a practice called baranaja involves sowing 12 or more crops on
the same plot, including various types of beans, grains, and millets, and
harvesting them at different times. In the cultivation of rice, multiple
cropping requires effective irrigation, especially in areas with a dry
season. Rain that falls during the wet season permits the cultivation of
rice during that period, but during the other half of the year, water
cannot be channeled into the rice fields without an irrigation system. The
Green Revolution in Asia led to the development of high-yield varieties of
rice, which required a substantially shorter growing season of 100 days,
as opposed to traditional varieties, which needed 150 to 185 days. Due to
this, multiple cropping became more prevalent in Asian countries.
- Plant Diseases
refers to several planting methods that
increase crop availability during a growing season by making efficient use
of space and timing. There are four basic approaches, that can also be
combined: Two or more crops in succession:
After one crop is harvested, another is planted in the same space. The
length of the growing season, climate, and crop selection are key factors.
For example, a cool season spring crop could be followed by a heat-loving
summer crop. Same crop, successive plantings:
Several smaller plantings are made at timed intervals, rather than all at
once. The plants mature at staggered dates, establishing a continuous
harvest over an extended period. Lettuce and other salad greens are common
crops for this approach. Within a small garden or home garden, this method
is useful in circumventing the initial large yield from the crop and
rather providing a steady, smaller yield that may be consumed in its
entirety. This is also known as relay planting. Two or more crops simultaneously:
Non-competing crops, often with different maturity dates, are planted
together in various patterns. Intercropping is one pattern approach;
companion planting is a related, complementary practice. This method is
also known as Interplanting:
of growing two types of plants in the same space. Interplanting requires a
certain amount of preplanning and knowledge of the maturity dates of
different types of vegetables. It has been noted that successful
interplanting and intensive gardening is done in raised beds within the
planting areas. Planting two or more non-competing crops may raise issues
with soil-borne diseases and insects that only affect one type of plant.
Depending on how close the interplanting varieties are, crop failure is a
possibility. Same crop, different maturity dates:
Several varieties are selected, with different maturity dates: early, main
season, late. Planted at the same time, the varieties mature one after the
other over the season.
or Fall Planting.
Vegetables to Grow
. Growing a
Second Crop after First Harvest
. Days to Maturity
refers to the time a seed takes to germinate
and grow to maturity.
are agricultural crops that are sown in winter and
harvested in the spring in South Asia. The term is derived from the Arabic
word for "spring", which is used in the Indian subcontinent, where it is
the spring harvest (also known as the "winter crop").
are antimicrobial allelochemic volatile organic compounds
derived from plants. Some plants give off very active substances that help
to prevent them from rotting or being eaten by some insects and animals.
Cedar, garlic, locust, oak, onion, pine, tea tree, many spices, and many
other plants give off phytoncides. Garlic contains allicin and diallyl
disulfide. Pine contains alpha-pinene, carene, myrcene, and other terpenes.
Sophora flavescens contains sophoraflavanone G. More than 5,000 volatile
substances defend plants that produce them from bacteria, fungi, and
insects. Phytoncides work by inhibiting or preventing the growth of the
. They are widely used in
Russian, Ukrainian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese medicine, as well as in
holistic medicine, aromatherapy, and veterinary medicine. The word
phytoncide means "exterminated by the plant".
is a chemical produced by a living organism,
exerting a detrimental physiological effect on the individuals of another
species when released into the environment.
is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces
one or more biochemicals that influence the germination, growth, survival,
and reproduction of other organisms.
is the agricultural practice of
producing or growing a single crop
, plant, or livestock species,
or breed in a field or farming system at a time.
, where more
than one crop is grown in the same space at the same time, is the
alternative to monoculture. Monoculture is widely used in both industrial
farming and organic farming and has allowed increased efficiency in
planting and harvest. Dangers
(film) - Plant Diseases
Apocalypse | DW Documentary
(youtube) - The world’s insect population
has declined by three quarters in the last 30 years and many species have
become extinct. Bees
Plants that help keep Mosquitos and other
and even apple cider vinegar
Dry Land Farming
is an area of land that is left
unseeded after being ploughed and harrowed to regain fertility for a crop.
Undeveloped or inactive, but potentially useful.
Nitrogen Fixing Crops
are beneficial in many ways. It helps lower the soil temperature which is
beneficial to microbial health
they also don't deplete or rob nutrients in the soil.
is any plant that grows over an area of ground.
Groundcover provides protection of the topsoil
. In an ecosystem, the ground cover forms the
below the shrub layer known as the herbaceous layer. The most
widespread ground covers are grasses
of various types. In ecology,
groundcover is a difficult subject to address because it is known by
several different names and is classified in several different ways. The
term groundcover could also be referring to “the herbaceous layer,”
", “ground flora” or even "step over." In agriculture,
ground cover refers to anything that lies on top of the soil and protects
it from erosion and inhibits weeds
can be anything from a low layer of grasses to a plastic material. The
term ground cover can also specifically refer to landscaping fabric which
is like a breathable tarp
that allows water and gas exchange. In gardening
jargon, however, the term groundcover refers to plants that are used in
place of weeds and improves appearance by concealing bare earth.
Black Tarps Over Cover Crops Suppress Weeds in Organic No-Till Vegetable
. University of New Hampshire researchers have found that using
black tarps and cover crops successfully suppressed weeds in an organic
vegetable system, allowing scientists to forgo tilling
which can have deleterious effects on soil.
is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water-resistant
waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas
or polyester coated with
polyurethane, or made of plastics such as polyethylene. In some places
such as Australia, and in military slang, a tarp
may be known as a hootch. Tarpaulins often have reinforced grommets at the
corners and along the sides to form attachment points for rope, allowing
them to be tied down or suspended. Inexpensive modern tarpaulins are made
from woven polyethylene; this material is so associated with tarpaulins
that it has become colloquially known in some quarters as polytarp.
Borders for Agronomic, Economic and Wildlife Benefits
. A field border
is a band or strip of perennial vegetation
established on the edge of a
cropland field. A field border reduces sheet, rill, and gully erosion at
the edge of fields; protects water quality by trapping sediment, chemical
and other pollutants; provides a turning area for farm equipment; and
provides wildlife habitat.
Natural Habitat can help Farmers Control Pests
Habitat Planning for Beneficial Insects
. Guidelines for Conservation
Biological Control. Drones
(advanced tools) -
Biological Pest Control
30" Raise Bed Rows with 18" separators or walk
ways in between each row
. Plants are planted close together so that
when the plants are almost full grown the leaves will be touching the
other leaves of the other plants next to them, creating a natural ground
cover or canopy. Soil must be deep enough without hard any layers so that
the roots can grow deep enough and give the plant room to grow full size.
Use a broad fork to loosen a no till soil
is a tool used to manually break up
densely packed soil
, like hardpan, to improve aeration and drainage.
It consists of five or so metal tines, approximately eight inches long,
spaced a few inches apart on a horizontal bar, with two handles extending
upwards to chest or shoulder level, forming a large U-shape. The operator
steps up on the crossbar, using full bodyweight to drive the tines into
the ground, then steps backward while pulling backwards on the handles,
causing the tines to lever upwards through the soil. This action leaves
the soil layers intact, rather than inverting or mixing them, preserving
the topsoil structure. A broadfork can be used in a garden, or practically
for one to two acres (4,000 to 8,000 m²). For larger areas, a tractor- or
animal-powered chisel plow or similar tool is usually employed.
is the part of the year during which local
weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant
growth. While each plant or crop has a specific growing season that
depends on its genetic adaptation, growing seasons can generally be
grouped into macro-environmental classes.
Extend your Gardening Season
is a form of mimicry in plants where a
weed comes to share one or more characteristics with a domesticated plant
through generations of artificial selection.
System of Rice Intensification
is a methodology aimed at
increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. It is a low water,
labor-intensive, method that uses younger seedlings singly spaced and
typically hand weeded with special tools. It was developed in 1983 by the
French Jesuit Father Henri de Laulanié in Madagascar. However full testing
and spread of the system throughout the rice growing regions of the world
did not occur until some years later with the help of Universities like
is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Reasons for applying mulch include conservation of soil moisture,
improving fertility and health of the soil, reducing weed growth and
enhancing the visual appeal of the area. A mulch is usually, but not
exclusively, organic in nature. It may be permanent (e.g. plastic
sheeting) or temporary (e.g. bark chips). It may be applied to bare soil
or around existing plants. Mulches of manure or compost will be
incorporated naturally into the soil by the activity of worms and other
organisms. The process is used both in commercial crop production and in
gardening, and when applied correctly, can dramatically improve soil
productivity.A Farmer Performs Following
Eight Major Steps from Crop Selection to Harvesting:
Selection, Land Preparation, Seed Selection, Seed Sowing, Irrigation, Crop
Growth, Fertilizing, Harvesting. Information Required by Farmers:
Farmers need information at each step form crop selection to harvesting.
Information required by the farmers at each of these steps is presented
next. 1: Crop Selection:
pricing of different crops. For some crops government releases prices of
the crop at the time of seeding. Market demand and sale potential of the
crop. Budget required for the cultivation of each crop. Feasibility of the
crop considering climate and quality of land. Crop productivity compared
with other alternatives. 2 Land Preparation:
Effects of any disease from the previous cultivation and steps needed to
minimize this impact. Fertilizers needed to bring land to its normal
fertility depending upon the previous crops and fertilizer used. Layout
and design of the field with respect to crop for efficient irrigation.
Latest techniques for leveling the fields and their cost.
3 Seed Selection:
Price and quantity needed
per acre. Average yield and sprout to sown ratio. Suitability to
particular area and climate. Water requirement. Resistance to diseases.
Location of distribution offices for the seed. 4 Seed Sowing:
Appropriate time to sow the
seed. Optimal weather conditions at sowing time. Best method for the
sowing of seeds. Seed sowing depth. 5 Irrigation:
Critical time for irrigation. Amount of water to be
given to the plants. Frequency of irrigation. 6
Number of plants per unit of area. At times more than
optimum number of seeds sprouts are planted in a given area. Farmers must
reduce density for healthy growth of plants. Average growth rate of the
crop in normal conditions. Comparison of crop growth rate, leaf size, crop
color etc. with expected growth for given conditions and input.
Interventions needed to
maintain expected growth. Frequency, quantity and method for
fertilization. Proper time, frequency and method for plowing. Proper time,
frequency and method for weeding. Expected pest and virus attacks,
symptoms of such attacks, precautionary measure that can be taken in
advance to avoid these attacks, immediate actions including pesticide to
be used to kill pests and viruses, quantity of pesticide to be used per
acre, most effective method for pesticide spray, avoid health issues
related to pesticide spray. 8 Harvesting:
Proper time and method for harvesting. Comparative market rates. Proper
crop storage. Cost of transportation.
For harvest procedures the subsequent points are important to consider: Choosing the correct harvest time refers to both the
ripeness and maturity
of the produce as well as the right time of the day
. Optimal harvest
times for most produce is either early morning hours or the evening
when temperatures are lower. Harvesting of delicate, high value produce
is best done manually (especially when labor costs are low and fuel
costs are high do not place produce on the ground directly, but use
harvesting mats or containers/baskets instead. Considering the
handling of harvested produce, the following points are important:
Handling: before being put into storage, produce should be sorted and
graded with regards to quality (only high quality produce should enter
the storage facility) produce needs to be cleaned
(with clean water in
order to avoid the spread of molds and fungi) before being put into
storage containers and entering the storage rooms. Dirt bears the
potential of introducing pests into the storage facility time span
between harvest and the placement into storage needs to be kept as
short as possible. You should store only mature vegetables. Immature
vegetables and fruits will rot quickly. Never store food that has been
bruised or nicked. Remember
not to wash your vegetables and fruits
, just brush off excess dirt. Do
not store fruits close to vegetables because fruits release ethylene. This
speeds up the ripening of vegetables. Keep your
storage area dark
, but with temperatures not below freezing. Check
on your vegetables every week or two to watch for spoilage. This can
quickly spread to other food in close proximity. (32 Degrees F or 0
Cold Storage of Agricultural Products
Control of temperature and relative humidity and the prevention of
damage can increase shelflife
, especially of fresh vegetables and
fruits, tremendously. Biological deterioration, caused by respiration
rate, ethylene production, mechanical injuries, water stress,
physiological disorders and pathological breakdown, leads to decay,
loss in nutritive value, and changes in color, texture and flavor.
Factors influencing the rate of deterioration are temperature, the
level of relative humidity, air velocity, atmospheric composition, i.e.
concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ethylene, as well as
sanitation. Molding, pests and other spoilage reasons which lead to
quality deterioration, such as loss of water, thrive under warm and
humid conditions – conditions which can be commonly found in India.
Most factors causing product deterioration can be addressed through
temperature control, i.e. cooling. A reduction in temperature lowers
rates of physiological change (respiration, ethylene production, and
enzymatic processes) and slows down the growth of microorganisms (bacteria
and fungi). Produce after the point of harvest is still ‘alive’
meaning that processes of the metabolism, such as respiration, as well
as the activity of microorganisms remain ongoing leading to product
deterioration. In order to lower respiration rates, delay ripening and
to reduce water loss temperature needs to be controlled, either by
avoiding the exposure of heat or by creating cooling conditions thereby
increasing a product’s shelf life. Adequate storage facilities can, to
a certain extent, control factors such as temperature, relative
humidity and air velocity, increasing product quality, shelf-life and
value. Chilling Injury
. Some produce,
especially of tropical origin, is sensitive to chilling, which means
that it will incur physiological damages if stored at a certain time
period below a certain temperature but above their freezing points. In
general, the longer the time period that produce is exposed to
temperature below their level of chilling sensitivity and the lower
the temperature, the faster damages will occur. It should also be
noted that effects can be of a cumulative nature, i.e. the time
periods of storage below the level of chilling sensitivity add up even if
produce is stored at optimal conditions in between. Several factors,
such as the level of maturity and level of ripeness at the point of
harvest can affect chilling sensitivity. Freezing
0°C all type of produce freezes due to dissolved soluble solids which are present in cell saps. Often, damages incurred through freezing only
become visible once the produce is returned to temperatures above 0°C.
Food Odor Transfers which should be avoided:
apples/pears with celery, cabbage, carrots, potatoes or onions. celery
with onions or carrots. Citrus with strongly scented vegetables. Pears/apples with potatoes à former acquire unpleasant taste.
pepper will taint pineapples. onions, nuts, citrus, potatoes should be
stored separately. Ethylene producing and ethylene
Ethylene producing: e.g. apples, avocado,
bananas, pears, peaches, plums, tomatoes. Ethylene sensitive
produce: e.g. lettuce, cucumbers, carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes.
Adequate airflow and the even distribution of cold air need to be
. It is important to note that air always takes the path where
resistance is lowest, and hence partly or unevenly filled storage
facilities will have poor cooling rates. The following points should
be considered: A gap of at least 8 cm between walls and the floor,
and the stacks of produce should be kept in order to ensure air flow.
Well-ventilated storage boxes/containers/crates will improve cooling
speed, such as PVC crates or ventilated boxes made of cardboard.
adequate space in between storage pallets should be about 4-6 inches.
is the act of collecting leftover crops
from farmers' fields after they have been commercially harvested or on
fields where it is not economically profitable to harvest. It is a
practice described in the Hebrew Bible that became a legally enforced
entitlement of the poor in a number of Christian kingdoms.
Gleaning Americas Farm Fields
National Gleaning Day
Imperfect Produce Delivered
Falling Fruit Location App
- Software Tools
"Being a good farmer and conscience farmer makes
you pay attention
to life and also
pay attention to the environment a lot more than usual. Farming brings you
closer to nature by default. And if a farmer dose not feel connected to
the land, that farmer will become more
failures and experience mistakes more often".
is a person who either migrates
within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal
work. Migrant workers usually do not have an intention to stay permanently
in the country or region in which they work.
Agricultural Labor Relations Act
collective bargaining for farmworkers in that state. A a landmark statute
in US labor law enacted by the state of California which became law on
June 4, 1975.
allows a foreign national entry into the
United States for temporary or seasonal agricultural work. There are
several requirements of the employer in regard to this visa. The H-2A
temporary agricultural program establishes a means for agricultural
employers who anticipate a shortage of domestic workers to bring
non-immigrant foreign workers to the U.S. to perform agricultural labor or
services of a temporary or seasonal nature. In 2015 there were
approximately 140,000 total temporary agricultural workers under this
. Terms of
work can be as short as a month or two or as long as 10 months in most
cases, although there are some special procedures that allow workers to
stay longer than 10 months. All of these workers are covered by U.S. wage
laws, workers' compensation and other standards, additionally temporary
workers and their employers are subject to the employer and/or individual
mandates under the Affordable Care Act. Because of concern that guest
workers might be unfairly exploited the U.S. Department of Labor Wage and
Hour Division is especially vigilant in auditing and inspecting H-2A
employers. H-2A employers are the only group of employers who are required
to pay inbound and outbound transportation, free housing, and provide
meals for their workers. H-2A agricultural employers are among the most
heavily regulated and monitored employers in the U.S.
is a hired agricultural worker on a farm
that works for the farmers. However, in discussions relating to labor law
application, the term "farmworker" is sometimes used more narrowly,
applying only to a hired worker involved in agricultural production,
including harvesting, i.e. not to a worker in other on-farm jobs, such as
Farm Workers Info Graph
of Migrant Farm Workers
One Day in the Life of a Rice Farmer
Farm Workers are hard working and skilled, they need to be paid a fair wage.
International Union of Food Workers
United Farm Workers
David Bacon NAFTA
meaning "manual laborer
"one who works using his arms") was a series of laws and diplomatic
agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the
Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. The agreement guaranteed decent
living conditions (sanitation, adequate shelter and food) and a minimum
wage of 30 cents an hour; it also allowed the importation of contract
laborers from Guam as a temporary measure during the early phases of World
Mexican Mega-farms Labor Abuses
Worker Protection Standard
is intended to protect
employees on farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses that are
occupationally exposed to agricultural
Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides
is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of
work or occupational activity. It is an aspect of occupational safety and
health. An occupational disease is typically identified when it is shown
that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general
population, or in other worker populations. The first such disease to be
recognised, squamous-cell carcinoma of the scrotum, was identified in
chimney sweep boys by Sir Percival Pott in 1775. Occupational hazards that
are of a traumatic nature (such as falls by roofers) are not considered to
be occupational diseases. Under the law of workers' compensation in many
jurisdictions, there is a presumption that specific disease are caused by
the worker being in the work environment and the burden is on the employer
or insurer to show that the disease came about from another cause.
Diseases compensated by national workers compensation authorities are
often termed occupational diseases. However, many countries do not offer
compensations for certain diseases like musculoskeletal disorders caused
by work (e.g. in Norway). Therefore, the term work-related diseases is
utilized to describe diseases of occupational origin. This term however
would then include both compensable and non-compensable diseases that have
is a fungal infection caused by coccidioides (kok-sid-e-OY-deze)
organisms. It can cause fever, chest pain and coughing, among other signs
and symptoms. Two species of coccidioides fungi cause valley fever. These
fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions.
Produce Contamination - Food Safety Info-Graph
Behind the Brands
Rural Legal Services
Coast Migrant Head Start Project Home
World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms
global organization that connects travelers, foodies, agriculturalists. Interant people.
Athletes in Temporary Employment as
or A-TEAM, was in the summer of 1965 when
thousands of American teenage boys heeded the call of the federal
government to work on farms. Secretary of Labor
W. Willard Wirtz
wanted to recruit 20,000 high schoolers to replace
the hundreds of thousands of Mexican agricultural workers who had labored
in the United States. But only 3,300 ever worked in the fields, and many
of them quickly quit or staged strikes because of the poor working
conditions, including oppressive heat and decrepit housing. The program
was cancelled after the first summer. The University High crew worked six
days a week, with Sundays off, and they were not allowed to return home
during their stint. Garden gloves that the farmers gave the students to
help them harvest lasted only four hours, because the cantaloupe's fine
hairs made grabbing them feel like "picking up sandpaper." They got paid
minimum wage — $1.40 an hour back then — plus 5 cents for every crate
filled with about 30 to 36 fruits. Breakfast was "out of the Navy," Carter
says — beans and eggs and bologna sandwiches that literally toasted in the
heat, even in the shade.
Advanced Farming Tools
is machinery used in farming or other
agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and
to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that
they tow or operate. Diverse arrays of equipment are used in both organic
and nonorganic farming. Especially since the advent of mechanised
agriculture, agricultural machinery is an indispensable part of how the
world is fed.
Farming Tools and Machines
see and spray smart agriculture equipment using computer
vision and artificial intelligence. Our smart machines can detect,
identify, and make management decisions about every single plant in the
field. Precisely spraying herbicides only where needed, and with exactly
what's needed eliminating 90% of the herbicide volumes that growers spray
Robots and Farming
Measuring Plant Defensive
is a versatile machine designed to
efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. Reaping, threshing, and
winnowing - into a single process.
Mechanized Planting Machine
Inside of a Tractor
(youtube) - Farmer reveals the Inside Of A Tractor Cab, and the
amount of technology setup inside is astounding.
comes with a GPS antenna.
Location, market trends, and uptake
booking system allows farmers to conveniently request,
schedule and prepay for tractor services, from nearby
Smart Tractor owners, through SMS messaging and mobile
Discovery of new stem cell pathway indicates route to
much higher yields in maize, staple crops
can be used to provide aerial
of crops to monitor disease,
gather data, validate crop
locate animals, and to use sprays
more accurately without waste.
Eyes in the Sky
Drones, Robots, and
Super Sperm - The Future of Farming | DW Documentary (Farming documentary)
The Farmers Breaking Big Tech's Repair Monopoly
Motor Vehicle Owners Right to Repair Act
would require automobile
manufacturers to provide the same information to independent repair
shops as they do for dealer shops. The bill also required automakers to
provide independent repairers the same emissions service information as
provided to franchised new car dealers. California further passed
legislation requiring that all emissions related service information and
tools be made available to independent shops. Unlike the
Clean Air Act
the California bill also required the car companies to maintain web sites
which contained all of their service information and which was accessible
on a subscription basis to repair shops and car owners.
Manufacturers don't support their products so they can force people to by
new products that they don't need.
Farm Animals - Livestock
raised in an
agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber, and
labor. The term is often used to refer solely to those raised for food,
and sometimes only farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. In recent
years, some organizations have also raised livestock to promote the
survival of rare breeds. The breeding, maintenance
, and slaughter of these
animals, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture
that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to
farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. No universally accepted criteria
exist to separate "livestock" from pets or "companion animals", defined as
animals kept primarily for companionship.
is a type of pastoral dog bred for the purpose of
protecting livestock from predators. Livestock guardian dogs stay with the
group of animals they protect as a full-time member of the flock or herd.
Their ability to guard their herd is mainly instinctive as the dog is
bonded to the herd from an early age. Unlike herding dogs which control
the movement of livestock, LGDs blend in with them, watching for intruders
within the flock. The mere presence of a guardian dog is usually enough to
ward off some predators, and LGDs will confront predators by vocal
intimidation, barking, and displaying very aggressive behavior. The dog
may attack or fight with a predator if it is unable to drive away the
predator. Livestock guardians may actively look for predators within
protected territory to catch and destroy them, and there are known cases
of dogs luring coyotes to a source of food in order to hunt them.
Country Farming. Rangitikei .New Zealand
(youtube) - 1000's of sheep
being herding by sheepdogs from one paddock to another. Sheep & Cattle.
is the milking of dairy animals, especially of dairy cattle,
without human labour. Automatic milking systems (AMS), also called
voluntary milking systems (VMS), were developed in the late 20th century.
They have been commercially available since the early 1990s. The core of
such systems that allows complete automation of the milking process is a
type of agricultural robot. Automated milking is therefore also called
robotic milking. Common systems rely on the use of computers and special
herd management software.
Automatic Cow Milking Machine
Adopt a Cow
Holistic Grazing Management
Cows who are fed a diet rich in
Seaweed Edible Algae
not only saves money, it also makes cows
healthier, even eliminating their methane-rich burps and farts.
is a cow that stands on a non-powered inclined
belt so that the animal
will slowly slide down unless it
forward, turning the belt, which spins a gearbox
to drive a generator. A feed box entices the
cow to keep trekking.
prototype generates up to
two kilowatts, enough to power
A small farm could
earn back a 50-cow system’s estimated
$100,000 price in three years.
a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic
(Bos taurus), usually a male in managed breeding programs, and the
American bison (Bison bison), usually a female in managed breeding
programs. The breed was created to combine the characteristics of both
animals for beef production. Beefalo are primarily cattle in genetics and
appearance, with the breed association defining a full Beefalo as one with
three-eighths (37.5%) bison genetics, while animals with higher
percentages of bison genetics are called "bison hybrids".
Nine Million Dairy Cows Are Descended From Just 2 Bulls. That’s Not Good
is a feed additive, banned in most countries, to promote
leanness in animals raised for their meat. Ractopamine is a beta agonist
drug that increases protein synthesis, thereby making the animal more
muscular. This reduces the fat content of the meat. Beta-agonist drugs, as
a class, have been used in US cattle production since 2003.
is food made from non-meats, also
called a meat alternative, meat substitute.
Rare Breed Agriculture
is a breed of poultry or
livestock that has a very small breeding population, usually from a few
hundred to a few thousand.
domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat,
or their feathers. These birds are most typically members of the
superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes (which
includes chickens, quails and turkeys). If there are ducks and or geese
that are kept as pets they shall not be considered poultry unlike
domesticated chickens. Poultry also includes other birds that are killed
for their meat, such as the young of pigeons (known as squabs) but does
not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game.
The word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived
from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal.
Harness the nutritional power of insects.
How Farmers are
Breeding Flies in order to become waste-free | The Fix
How to Use Black
Soldier Flies for Biowaste Treatment
Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906
, farmers who
want to sell meat commercially across state lines must
get their animals slaughtered and processed
at a meat
plant that has been approved
by the USDA. Government meat inspectors are required to
be on the floor anytime
those plants are operating.
Processing Revival and Intrastate Meat Exemption Act
PRIME Act Custom Slaughterhouses.
is a facility where animals are
slaughtered for consumption as food. Slaughterhouses supply meat which
then becomes the responsibility of the packaging department. How to Butcher
Factory Farms Destruction
- Food Safety
Meat Packing Industry
handles the slaughtering,
processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs,
sheep and other livestock. Poultry is not included. This greater part of
the entire meat industry is primarily focused on producing meat for human
consumption, but it also yields a variety of by-products including hides,
feathers, dried blood, and, through the process of rendering, fat such as
tallow and protein meals such as meat & bone meal.
Development of Land
of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to
- Companion Planting
Farmers Find Ways To Save Millions Of Pigs From Slaughter
provides farmers with SMS
messages loaded with great information on how to improve what they are
doing. We provide information on best practices right into their hands
wherever they may be. We also have cool tools that farmers can use to help
them reduce their risks. Our system has a menu through which farmers can
select whatever they require from wherever they are 24/7!.
Department of Crop Sciences
Economic Research Food - Farming
is a volatile organic compound used
in plant defense and many diverse developmental pathways such as seed
germination, root growth, flowering, fruit ripening, and senescence.
is a cyclopropene derivative used as a synthetic plant
growth regulator. It is structurally related to the natural plant hormone
ethylene and it is used commercially to slow down the ripening of fruit
and to help maintain the freshness of cut flowers.
Fuel and Energy from Animal and Food Waste:
Waste to Energy
- Earth Friendly Toilets
Trade - Fair Trade
of the ownership of
, from one person or entity to another, in exchange for
money, goods or services. A network that allows trade is called a
Wall Street Trading
is when countries or governments
imports from, or exports to, other countries. (but you still need
to protect workers and small businesses from cheap imports that do more
harm than good). Price
is different from
is a specific class of special economic zone. It is a
geographic area where goods may be landed, stored, handled, manufactured,
or reconfigured, and re-exported
under specific customs regulation and
generally not subject to customs duty. Free trade zones are generally
organized around major seaports, international airports, and national
frontiers—areas with many geographic advantages for trade.
is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member
countries have signed a Free-Trade Agreement
(FTA). Such agreements involve cooperation between at least two countries
and tariffs – and to increase trade of goods and
services with each other. If people are also free to move between the
countries, in addition to a free-trade agreement, it would also be
. It can be considered the second stage of economic integration.
is to help producers in developing
countries achieve better trading conditions and to promote
is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a
regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs
and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
is an intergovernmental organization
which regulates international trade. Some
were about Profit over People, at Americas
expense. Talk about Terrorism.
is a wide ranging tax, tariff and trade treaty
that often includes investment guarantees. The most common trade
agreements are of the preferential and free trade types are concluded in
order to reduce (or eliminate) tariffs, quotas and other trade
restrictions on items traded between the signatories.
United States Free Trade Agreements
If a country can
grow high amounts of high quality food efficiently, safely, sustainably,
and also pay their workers a fair wage, then that country should be
allowed to export a higher volume
of that product. But If they are
exploiting the environment and exploiting workers, then they should not be
allowed to export that product at such a high volume.
is the characteristic of self-sufficiency; the term usually applies to
political states, societies or to their economic
. Autarky exists whenever an entity survives or continues its
activities without external assistance or international trade. If a
self-sufficient economy also refuses to conduct any trade with the outside
world then economists may term it a "closed economy".(Economic theorists
also use the term "closed economy
technically as an abstraction to allow consideration of a single economy
without taking foreign trade into account – i.e. as the antonym of "open
economy".) Autarky in the political sense is not necessarily an
exclusively economic phenomenon; for example, a military autarky would be
a state that could defend itself without help from another country, or
could manufacture all of its weapons without any imports from the outside
world. A closed economy is one that has no trading activity with outside
economies. The closed economy is therefore entirely
, which means
no imports come into the country and no exports leave the country. The
goal of a closed economy is to provide domestic consumers with everything
they need from within the country's borders. There are no completely
closed economies. Brazil imports the least amount of goods—when measured
as a portion of the gross domestic product (GDP)—in the world and is the
world's most closed economy.
is a type of economy where not only domestic actors but also
entities in other countries engage in trade of products (goods and
services). Trade can take the form of managerial exchange, technology
transfers, and all kinds of goods and services. (However, certain
exceptions exist that cannot be exchanged; the railway services of a
country, for example, cannot be traded with another country to avail the
service.) It contrasts with a closed economy in which international trade
and finance cannot take place.
Balance of Trade
is the difference between the
nation's exports and imports over a certain period. Sometimes a
distinction is made between a balance of trade for goods versus one for
services. If a country exports a greater value than it imports, it is
called a trade surplus, positive balance, or a "favourable balance", and
conversely, if a country imports a greater value than it exports, it is
called a trade deficit
, negative balance,
"unfavorable balance", or, informally, a "trade gap
Preferential Trading Area
that gives preferential access to certain products from the
participating countries. This is done by reducing tariffs but not by
abolishing them completely. A PTA can be established through a trade pact.
It is the first stage of economic integration. The line between a PTA and
a free trade area (FTA) may be blurred, as almost any PTA has a main goal
of becoming a FTA in accordance with the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade. These tariff preferences have created numerous departures from the
normal trade relations principle, namely that World Trade Organization
(WTO) members should apply the same tariff to imports from other WTO
members. With the recent multiplication of bilateral PTAs and the
emergence of Mega-PTAs (wide regional trade agreements such as the
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) or Trans Pacific
Partnership (TPP)), a global trade system exclusively managed within the
framework of the WTO now seems unrealistic and the interactions between
trade systems have to be taken into account. The increased complexity of
the international trade system generated by the multiplication of PTAs
should be taken into account in the study of the choice of fora used by
countries or regions to promote their trade relations and environmental
is the act of
giving something in return for something received.
The act of changing one
thing for another thing
. Give to, and receive from, one another.
Quid pro quo
between people. Sometimes a
agreement. Sometimes trading something or sometimes buying
something or sometimes selling something. Transport
is an agreement, or communication, carried out
between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment, often
involving the exchange of items of value, such as
, goods, services, and
money. It is still a transaction if the goods are exchanged at one time,
and the money at another. This is known as a
: part one is giving the money, part two is
receiving the goods. Real Estate Transaction
in making any economic trade
when participating in a market.
Foreign Exchange Market
is a global decentralized or over-the-counter
(OTC) market for the trading of currencies
This market determines the
Foreign Exchange Rate
. It includes all aspects of buying, selling and
exchanging currencies at current or determined prices. In terms of trading
volume, it is by far the largest market in the world, followed by the
is a system in which the prices for goods and
services are determined by the open
and consumers, in which the laws and forces of
supply and demand
are free from any
intervention by a government, price-setting
, or other authority. Another view considers systems with
significant market power, inequality of bargaining power, or information
asymmetry to be less than free.
is the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that
are legal but unintended by the original manufacturer.
a fully open market is a completely free market in which all
economic actors can trade without any external constraint. In reality,
few markets exist which are open to that extent, since they usually cannot
operate without an enforceable legal framework for trade which guarantees
security of property, the fulfillment of contractual obligations
associated with transactions, and the prevention of cheating.
places that sell dead and live animals out in the open. This includes
poultry, fish, reptiles, and pigs. However, since SARS, large animals and
poultry are not as commonly found in the markets in Hong Kong, though live
fish, shellfish, and frogs are widely available.
is the intentional
of food with cheaper ingredients for economic gain. Food
fraud is fooling
people into believing that
the product that they're buying is high quality, when in fact it is low
quality and possibly harmful and
causes a lot of
problems and causes crimes like
is a good
brought into a jurisdiction
, especially across a national border, from an
external source. The party bringing in the good is called an
import in the receiving
country is an export from the sending country.
Importation and exportation are the defining financial transactions of
in the goods and services
out of the
of a country. The seller of such goods and services is
referred to as an "exporter
" and is based in the country of export whereas
the overseas based buyer is referred to as an "importer". In international
trade, "exports" refers to selling goods and services produced in the home
country to other markets.
Manufacturer's Certificate of Origin
is a specified document
certifying the country of origin of the merchandise required by certain
foreign countries for tariff purposes, it sometimes requires the signature
of the consulate of the country to which it is destined. (Also known as a
Manufacturer’s Statement of Origin or MSO
Bill of Lading
is a document issued by a carrier (or his agent) to acknowledge receipt of
cargo for shipment
People should Trade
Knowledge and Information
just trade Products. Learn to Self
is the relocation of a business process from one country to
another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or
supporting processes, such as accounting. Typically this refers to a
company business, although state governments may also employ offshoring.
sometimes includes offshoring which is relocating a business
function to a distant country and
and assets from one
firm to another.
Global Union Federation
is an international federation of national
trade unions organizing in specific industry sectors or occupational
International Trade Administration
is an agency in the United States
Department of Commerce that promotes United States exports of
nonagricultural U.S. services and goods.
United States International Trade Commission
is an agency of the
United States federal government that advises the legislative and
executive branches on matters of trade. It is an independent, bipartisan
entity that analyzes trade issues such as tariffs and competitiveness and
publishes reports. As a quasi-judicial entity, the USITC investigates the
impact of imports on U.S. industries, and directs actions against unfair
trade practices, such as subsidies, dumping, intellectual property
infringements and, copyright infringement.
is an organization founded and funded by businesses
that operate in a specific industry. An industry trade association
participates in public relations activities such as advertising,
education, political donations, lobbying and publishing, but its focus is
collaboration between companies. Associations may offer other services,
such as producing conferences, networking or charitable events or
offering classes or educational materials. Many associations are
non-profit organizations governed by bylaws and directed by officers who
are also members.
is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal
personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining
agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of
law or right arising from or in the administration of a collective
agreement. Labour unions typically fund the formal organization, head
office, and legal team functions of the labour union through regular fees
or union dues. The delegate staff of the labour union representation in
the workforce are made up of workplace volunteers who are appointed by
members in democratic elections.
Less Regulation and more Education
Trading should be decided locally,
no one should decide for you. Trade is needed to
balance our food diets so that everyone has access to healthy food.
Taxes on Imports and Exports - Trade War - Trade Barriers
is a Tax
imports or exports between sovereign states. It is a form of
foreign trade. It is a policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or
protect domestic industry. It helps limit trade deficits. The tariff is
historically used to protect infant industries and to allow import
substitution industrialization, but sometimes there are
is an extra tariff
charged on goods going into or out of a country, that is introduced
because a country has done business in an illegal or unfair way.
can be used as
an economic weapon
to attack certain people or attack certain
businesses. Taxes don't effect the wealthy and the powerful, because they
the system or
pass on the tax
is a government tax
on imports or exports.
is a Tax
on certain items purchased abroad.
is an economic conflict resulting from
in which states raise or create tariffs or
other trade barriers against each other in response to trade barriers
created by the other party. Increased protection causes both nations'
output compositions to move towards their autarky position.
are government-induced restrictions
on international trade that raises the
price or availability of the traded products. Free
involves the removal of all such barriers, except perhaps those
considered necessary for health or national security.
is the economic policy of restraining trade
through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and
a variety of other government regulations. Protectionist policies protect
the producers, businesses and workers of the import-competing sector in a
country from foreign competitors
is a protectionist
tariff that a domestic government imposes on foreign imports that it
believes are priced below fair market value. While the intention of
anti-dumping duties is to save domestic jobs, but these tariffs can also
lead to higher prices for domestic consumers, becuase corporations are
still greedy and don't mind exploiting slave labor at the expense of its
citizens. Not tax or tariff will discourage criminals from exploiting the
corporate controlled market. It's a kind of cancer that protects itself
from being cured or healed. These corporations would rather kill its host
or destroy their own country then to work a fair and honest job. The love
of money can no longer be used as an excuse for abuse or for the
lose of life
also known as anti-subsidy duties, are trade
import duties imposed under World Trade Organization (WTO) rules to
neutralize the negative effects of subsidies. They are imposed after an
investigation finds that a foreign country subsidizes its exports,
injuring domestic producers in the importing country. According to World
Trade Organization rules, a country can launch its own investigation and
decide to charge extra duties, provided such additional duties are in
accordance with the GATT Article VI and the GATT Agreement on Subsidies
and Countervailing Measures. Since countries can rule domestically whether
domestic industries are in danger and whether foreign countries subsidize
the products, the institutional process surrounding the investigation and
determinations has significant impacts beyond the countervailing duties.
Countervailing duties in the U.S. are assessed by the International Trade
Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce which determines whether
imports in question are being subsidized and, if so, by how much. If there
is a determination that there is material injury to the competing domestic
industry, the Department of Commerce will instruct U.S. Customs and Border
Protection to levy duties in the amount equivalent to subsidy margins.
Petitions for remedies may be filed by domestic manufacturers or unions
within the domestic industry, but the law requires that the petitioners
represent at least 25% of the domestic production of the goods for which
competition is causing material injury.
How Trump’s Trade War Is Making Lobbyists Rich And Slamming Small
. The U.S. trade wars with China and other countries have
now been running for nearly two years, and have
cost businesses and consumers billions of dollars
in part by using their
connections with the Trump administration. Companies that can't afford
lobbyists puts smaller businesses at a big disadvantage.
was a proposed trade
agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia,
Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and the United States
signed on 4 February 2016, which was not ratified as required and did not
come into effect. After the newly elected US president Donald Trump
withdrew the US signature from TPP
January 2017, the agreement could not enter into force. The remaining
countries negotiated a new trade agreement called Comprehensive and
Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, which incorporates
most of the provisions of the TPP and which entered into force on 30
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
proposed trade agreement between the
United States, with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic
growth. Negotiations were halted by President Donald Trump, who then
initiated a trade conflict with the EU. Trump and the
declared a truce of sorts in July 2018,
resuming talks that appeared similar to TTIP. On 15 April 2019, the
negotiations have been declared "obsolete and no longer relevant" by the
TTIP: Might is Right (VPRO Backlight)
is the use of agriculture as a means of
whereby one nation or
group of nations offers or withholds commodities from another nation
group of nations in order to manipulate behavior
. Its potential use as a
weapon was recognized after OPEC’s earlier use of oil as a political
weapon. Food has a major influence on political actions of a nation. In
response to acts of food power, a nation usually acts in the interest of
its citizens to provide food.
may occur when one member of a free trade agreement
charges lower tariffs
to external nations to win trade
, and then re-exports the same product to
another partner in the trade agreement, but tariff-free. Re-exportation
can be used to avoid sanctions by other nations.
of the food Americans eat
. One in three U.S. farm acres is planted
is the Government Service which is responsible for the
administration of Customs law and the collection of duties
and taxes and
which also has the responsibility for the application of other laws and
regulations relating to the importation, exportation, movement or storage
The U.S. Customs and Border Protection
is responsible for
ensuring that all goods entering and exiting
the United States do so
accordance with all applicable U.S. laws
and regulations. Although CBP
U.S. Export Regulations
for various other government agencies,
specific questions pertaining to commodity licensing requirements should
be directed to that lead agency. But like most
, criminals always find a way
to get around regulations using
is any duty on manufactured goods
which is levied at the moment of
, rather than at sale.
Excises are often associated with customs duties (which are levied on
pre-existing goods when they cross a designated border in a specific
direction); customs are levied on goods which come into existence – as
taxable items – at the border, while excise is levied on goods which came
into existence inland.
is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income
exempt status can provide complete relief from taxes, reduced rates, or
tax on only a portion of items. Examples include exemption of charitable
organizations from property taxes and income taxes, veterans, and certain
cross-border or multi-jurisdictional scenarios. Tax exemption generally
refers to a statutory exception to a general rule rather than the mere
absence of taxation in particular circumstances, otherwise known as an
exclusion. Tax exemption also refers to removal from taxation of a
particular item rather than a deduction. International duty free shopping
may be termed "tax-free shopping". In tax-free shopping, the goods are
permanently taken outside the jurisdiction, thus paying taxes is not
necessary. Tax-free shopping is also found in ships, airplanes and other
vessels traveling between countries (or tax areas). Tax-free shopping is
usually available in dedicated duty-free shops. However, any transaction
may be duty-free, given that the goods are presented to the customs when
exiting the country. In such a scenario, a sum equivalent to the tax is
paid, but reimbursed on exit. More common in Europe, tax-free is less
frequent in the United States, with the exception of Louisiana. However,
current European Union rules prohibit most intra-EU tax-free trade, with
the exception of certain special territories outside the tax area.Smuggle
secretly importing prohibited goods or goods on which tax is due. To
import or export without paying customs
List of Free Economic Zones
business and trades laws differ from the
rest of the country
. The term, and a number of other terms, can have
different specific meanings in different countries and publications. Often
they have relaxed jurisdiction of customs or related national regulations.
They can be ports or other large areas or smaller allocated areas. Terms
include free port (porto Franco), free zone (zona franca), bonded area
(US: foreign-trade zone), free economic zone, free trade zone, export
processing zone and maquiladora. Most commonly a free port is a special
customs area or small customs territory with generally less strict customs
regulations (or no customs duties and/or controls for transshipment).
Earlier in history, some free ports like Hong Kong enjoyed political
autonomy. Many international airports have free ports, though they tend to
be called customs areas, customs zones, or international zones.
Fair Food Matters
Fair Food Project
Fair Food Network
Fair Trade Federation
Trans Fair USA
- Fair Trade
World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) software
is a standardized system of names and numbers to classify traded products.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
is a system
through which investors can sue
for alleged discriminatory practices.
sustainable Cargo Shipment
Emission free from A to B.
Eco-Friendly Shipping Tips
Eco-Friendly Shipping Boxes
refers to the broad subject of
transport that is sustainable
in the senses
of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the
global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely. Components for
evaluating sustainability include the particular vehicles used for road,
water or air transport; the source of energy; and the infrastructure used
to accommodate the transport (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals
and terminals). Another component for evaluation is pipelines for
transporting liquid or gas materials. Transport operations and logistics
as well as transit-oriented development are also involved in evaluation.
Transportation sustainability is largely being measured by transportation
system effectiveness and efficiency as well as the environmental and
climate impacts of the system.
Fuel For Eco-Boats
GMO - Genetically Modified Organism
Genetically Modified Food
are foods produced from
organisms that have had changes introduced into their
using the methods of
. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the
introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits than
previous methods such as selective breeding and
or variation breeding
. which is the process of
exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with
desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars. Plants created using
mutagenesis are sometimes called
plants or mutagenic
.GMO is not saying that something is
, what's bad is corporations creating GMO plants that can be sprayed
with dangerous chemicals
. They are
with chemical companies and
falsifying the research
GMO-Free or Non-GMO
mean the food is free of pesticides
fungicides or fertilizers. Know Your Farmer. Food that is Certified Organic
the only way to eat cleaner food, though there are criminals in the
organic side as well. Educate yourself.
Genetically Modified Bacteria
were the first organisms to be modified
in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics. These organisms are now
used for several purposes, and are particularly important in producing
large amounts of pure human proteins for use in medicine.
is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in
order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other
cultivars. Plants created using
sometimes called mutagenic plants
is the process by which humans use animal breeding and
to selectively develop particular
(characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and
females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. Domesticated
animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder,
while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.
Two purebred animals of different breeds produce a crossbreed, and
crossbred plants are called hybrids. Flowers, vegetables and fruit-trees
may be bred by amateurs and commercial or non-commercial professionals:
major crops are usually the provenance of the professionals.
GM Food Overview
NON GMO Project
is a buyer's guide to suppliers of non-GMO and
, grains, ingredients,
feed and foods.
Non GMO Source Book
is a buyer's guide to suppliers of non-GMO and organic
seeds, grains, ingredients,
feed and foods.
Seeds of Deception
(video animated) -
Films about GMO's
Seeds of Death
Poison on the Platter
Of the Land
(2015 - 1 hr. 29 min.)
A film about GMOs and the
industrial food juggernaut.
Washington's Food Fight: The Debate Over GMO Labels
Not to say that all
food is bad, but we would
have to know
the details in order to determine which
ones are bad and which ones are good.
founder of the modern science of
genetics. (20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884).
is a biological process in which
RNA molecules inhibit gene expression
or translation, by neutralizing
targeted mRNA molecules.
How Plants turn off Genes they don't need
. Small sequences in plant
DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the
placement of proteins that silence gene expression. A plant has one
genome, a specific sequence of millions of basepairs of nucleotides. Yet
how this genome is expressed can vary from cell to cell, and it can change
as a plant goes through various life stages, from germination to
vegetative growth to flowering to dormancy. Some genes must be turned on
and others shut off to ensure each plant cell is doing what it needs to do
when it needs to do it.
How corn's ancient ancestor rejects crossbreeding
. It was known that a
cluster of genes called Tcb1-s is one of three that confers
incompatibility between these rarely hybridizing maize and teosinte
populations. Unlike the other two, it is found almost exclusively in wild
teosinte. It contains both male and female genes that encode wild
teosinte's ability to reject maize pollen.
Genetically Modified Common Houseplant
pothos ivy to
chloroform and benzene from the air around it
. The modified plants express
a protein, called
Cytochrome P450 2E1
, that transforms these compounds into molecules
that the plants can then use to support their own growth.
are a family of proteins first discovered in
fruit flies that can remodel chromatin such that epigenetic silencing of
genes takes place. Polycomb-group proteins are well known for silencing
Hox genes through modulation of chromatin structure during embryonic
development in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster).
GMO? - Evolution
is a plant growth regulator
used as a sprout suppressant for grass weeds, alfalfa, lima and snap
beans, blueberries, cane fruit, carrots, cranberries, ladino clover,
garlic, seed grass, onions, spinach, sugar beets, tomatoes, safflower,
soybeans, gladioli and woody nursery stock. It is also used to inhibit
potato sprouting and for sucker control in tobacco. Chlorpropham is
available in emulsifiable concentrate and liquid formulations.
Chlorpropham is approved for use as a plant regulator and herbicide only
on potatoes in the United States. The use of CIPC was banned in the EU and
UK in 2019 after it was not reauthorised for use due to toxicity concerns,
with sales prohibited from January 2020.
Membrane Transport Protein
is a membrane
involved in the movement of
ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across
a biological membrane.
is an enclosing or separating
membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living
things. Biological membranes, in the form of cell membranes, often consist
of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and peripheral
communication and transportation of chemicals and ions. Bulk lipid in
membrane provides a fluid matrix for proteins to rotate and laterally
diffuse for physiological functioning. Proteins are adapted to high
membrane fluidity environment of lipid bilayer with the presence of an
annular lipid shell, consisting of lipid molecules bound tightly to
surface of integral membrane proteins. The cellular membranes should not
be confused with isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as
mucous membranes and basement membranes.
90 percent of America's corn and soybeans are
and producers of eggs, milk, and
rely on those crops to feed their animals.
A quick, five-minute check can verify if
a crop contains specific proteins
that are the signature of genetic modification.
We can't allow
as a reason
for not listing ingredients.
"GMO-free" means that something contains no more than
0.9 percent GMOs.
Clarks on Grain
Crop Yield Gets Boost with Modified Genes in Photosynthesis
Journey to Forever
Increasing Crops Nutritional Value
Tripling the number of grains in Sorghum and perhaps other staple crops
Scientists have figured out how to triple the number of grains that the
plant produces by lowering the level of a key hormone, generating more
flowers and more seeds. This points toward a strategy for significantly
increasing the yield of sorghum and other staple grain crops. A simple
genetic modification can triple the grain number of sorghum, a
drought-tolerant plant that is an important source of food, animal feed,
and biofuel in many parts of the world.
Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling
. Researchers have identified a receptor on plant stem
cells that can issue different instructions about how to grow. Tweaking
this pathway can lead to bigger fruits or more seeds in important food
When One Reference Genome is Not Enough
. Having plant pan-genomes for
crops that are important for fuel and food applications would enable
breeders to harness natural diversity to improve traits such as yield,
disease resistance, and tolerance of marginal growing conditions.
Scientists have gauged the size of a plant pan-genome using Brachypodium
distachyon, a wild grass widely used as a model for grain and biomass
Nanomaterials give Plants Super Abilities
. Development of plants that
can make nanomaterials called
and the application of MOFs as coatings on plants. The
could potentially perform useful new functions. MOFs consist of metal ions
or clusters linked to organic molecules that form highly porous crystals
that can sop up, store and release other molecules, much like a sponge.
Tillage - No Dig Farming - No-Till Farming - Minimum
agricultural preparation of soil
by mechanical agitation of various types,
such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered
tilling methods using hand tools include shovelling, picking, mattock
work, hoeing, and raking. Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized
work include ploughing (overturning with moldboards or chiseling with
chisel shanks), rototilling, rolling with cultipackers or other rollers,
harrowing, and cultivating with cultivator shanks (teeth).
is to break up and turn soil
using a rototiller, which is a motorized cultivator having rotating
blades. How to Turn
is the process by which air is circulated through,
mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.
degrades soil, killing off
its biology, including beneficial fungi and earthworms
occasional tilling helps mix in fertilizers and manure, helps
churn weeds and crop residue back into the earth, and also helps
loosen the top layer of the soil
to ready it for
tilling uses less nitrogen fertilizer or fungicide and produces
yields that are above average with less labor and lower costs.
Soil health proponents say that by leaving fields unplowed and
using cover crops
which act as sinks for nitrogen and other nutrients, growers can
increase the amount of organic matter in their soil, making it
better able to absorb and retain water.
s a tool or farm
implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation
for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
is any of several types of farm implement used for
. One sense of the name
refers to frames with teeth (also called shanks) that
pierce the soil as they are dragged through it
. Another sense refers to machines that use rotary motion
of disks or teeth to accomplish a similar result. The rotary tiller is a
principal example. Cultivators stir and pulverize the soil, either before
planting (to aerate the soil and prepare a smooth, loose seedbed) or after
the crop has begun growing (to kill weeds—controlled disturbance of the
topsoil close to the crop plants kills the surrounding weeds by uprooting
them, burying their leaves to disrupt their photosynthesis, or a
combination of both). Unlike a harrow, which disturbs the entire surface
of the soil, cultivators are designed to disturb the soil in careful
patterns, sparing the crop plants but disrupting the weeds. Cultivators of
the toothed type are often similar in form to chisel plows, but their
goals are different. Cultivator teeth work near the surface, usually for
weed control, whereas chisel plow shanks work deep beneath the surface,
breaking up hardpan. Consequently, cultivating also takes much less power
per shank than does chisel plowing. Small toothed cultivators pushed or
pulled by a single person are used as garden tools for small-scale
gardening, such as for the household's own use or for small market
gardens. Similarly sized rotary tillers combine the functions of harrow
and cultivator into one multipurpose machine. Cultivators are usually
either self-propelled or drawn as an attachment behind either a two-wheel
tractor or four-wheel tractor. For two-wheel tractors they are usually
rigidly fixed and powered via couplings to the tractors' transmission. For
four-wheel tractors they are usually attached by means of a three-point
hitch and driven by a power take-off (PTO). Drawbar hookup is also still
commonly used worldwide. Draft-animal power is sometimes still used today,
being somewhat common in developing nations although rare in more
is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year
disturbing the soil through tillage
. No-till is an agricultural technique
which increases the amount of water that infiltrates into the soil, the
soil's retention of organic matter and its cycling of nutrients. In many
agricultural regions, it can reduce or eliminate soil erosion. It
increases the amount and variety of life in and on the soil, including
disease-causing organisms and disease organisms. The most powerful benefit
of no-tillage is improvement in soil biological fertility, making soils
more resilient. Farm operations are made much more efficient, particularly
improved time of sowing and better trafficability of farm operations.
Turning over the Soil
depends on your soil
is a non-cultivation method used by some organic
gardeners. This technique recognizes that micro- and macro-biotic
organisms constitute a "food web" community in the soil, necessary for the
healthy cycling of nutrients and prevention of problematic organisms and
diseases. The plants transfer a portion of the carbon energy they produce
to the soil, and microbes that benefit from this energy in turn convert
available organic substances in the soil to the mineral elements the
plants need to thrive. Historically the reasons for tilling the soil are
to remove weeds, loosen and aerate the soil, and incorporate organic
matter such as compost or manure into lower soil layers. In areas with
thin soil and high erosion there is a strong case against digging, which
argues that in the long term it can be detrimental to the food web in the
fragile topsoil. While digging is an effective way of removing perennial
weed roots, it also often causes seeds that can remain dormant for many
decades to come to the surface and germinate. The act of aerating the soil
also increases the rate of decomposition and reduces soil organic matter.
Digging can also damage soil structure, causing compaction, and unbalance
symbiotic and mutualist interactions among soil life. Digging tends to
displace nutrients, shifting surface organic material deeper, where there
is less oxygen to support the decomposition to plant-available nutrients,
which then need to be otherwise replenished. Digging is practised
traditionally in regions with old, deep, rich soils such as Western
Europe, where digging was followed by periodic resting of the soil,
usually with an undisturbed cover crop. No-dig methods allow nature to
carry out cultivation operations. Organic matter such as well rotted
manure, compost, leaf mold, spent mushroom compost, old straw, etc., is
added directly to the soil surface as a mulch at least 5-15 centimeters
(2–6 in) deep, which is then incorporated by the actions of worms, insects
and microbes. Worms and other soil life also assist in building up the
soil's structure, their tunnels providing aeration and drainage, and their
excretions bind together soil crumbs. This natural biosphere maintains
healthy conditions in the upper soil horizons where annual plant roots
thrive. No-dig systems are said to be freer of pests
and disease, possibly due to a more balanced soil population being allowed
to build up in this undisturbed environment, and by encouraging the
buildup of beneficial rather than harmful soil fungi. Moisture is also
retained more efficiently under mulch than on the surface of bare earth,
allowing slower percolation and less leaching of nutrients. Another no-dig
method is sheet mulching wherein a garden area is covered with wetted
paper or cardboard, compost and topped off with landscape mulch. A no-dig
system is easier than digging. It is a long term process, and is reliant
upon having plentiful organic matter to provide mulch material. It is also
helpful to remove any perennial weed roots from the area beforehand,
although their hold can be weakened by applying a light-excluding surface
layer such as large sheets of cardboard or several thicknesses of spread
out newspaper before adding the compost mulch. The newspaper or cardboard
should be thoroughly wet to help it lie flat and keep it from blowing away
until the overlying material is added.
works along with the natural biodiversity of each farmed area, encouraging
the complexity of living organisms—both plant and animal—that shape each
particular ecosystem to thrive along with food plants. Rather than
offering a structured method, Fukuoka distilled the natural farming
mindset into five principles: No tillage, No fertilizer, No pesticides or
herbicides, No weeding, No pruning.Soil
- Soil Knowledge
Minimum Tillage Systems
is a piece of agricultural equipment that crushes dirt clods, removes air
pockets, and presses down small stones, forming a smooth, firm seedbed.
Where seed has been broadcast, the roller gently firms the soil around the
seeds, ensuring shallow seed placement and excellent seed-to-soil contact.
Chisel Plow Rototiller, Straw Mulching,
Disking, Subsoiling, Landplaning, Bed Formation, Dry Mulching, Soil Compaction, Incontrolled
Excessive Plant Residue, Uneven Beds
Cultivation, Harvest Operations, Non-uniform Stand Establishment.
Deep Tillage. Ripping, or Row-Till
Deep plowing is a plowing to a depth greater than 50 cm (20 in)
as compared to ordinary plowing which rarely exceeds 20 cm (8
in). The purpose of deep plowing is to modify the soil water
retention characteristics over the long term. In one long term
lasting 35 years, the mean annual grain yield was 2,800 lbs per
acre (3,138 kg per ha) with deep plowing, which was 10% greater
than the 2,550 lbs per acre (2,858 kg per ha) yield in unplowed
There is a movement away from plowing altogether, and from deep
plowing in particular. The theory is that this will stop the
loss of topsoil, increase the organic content of soil and reduce
runoff of fertilizer and pesticides into rivers. Another part of
the no-plowing theory is that ground moisture would be
conserved; but this was shown to be incorrect by a 35-year
A subsoiler or flat lifter is a tractor mounted implement
used to loosen and break up soil at depths below the level of a
traditional ploughing, disk harrow or rototiller. Most tractor
mounted cultivation tools will break up and turn over surface
soil to a
depth of 15–20 cm (6–8 in) while a subsoiler will break up and
loosen soil to twice those depths. Typically a subsoiler mounted
to a Compact Utility Tractor will reach depths of about 30 cm
(12 in) and typically have only one thin blade with a sharpened
The subsoiler is a tillage tool which will improve growth in all
crops where soil compaction is a problem. In agriculture angled
wings are used to lift and shatter the hard pan that builds up
due to compaction. The design provides deep tillage, loosening
soil depth is deeper than a tiller or plough is capable of
reaching. Agricultural ubsoilers, according to the Unverferth
Company, can disrupt hardpan ground down to 60 cm (24 in)
Various manufacturers' brochures claim that crops perform well
during hot and dry seasons because roots penetrate soil layers
deeper to reach moisture and nutrients. Brochures further claim
that in wet conditions, the water passes more easily
through the shattered areas, reducing the possibility of crops
Agricultural subsoiler implements will have multiple deeper
reaching blades; each blade is called a scarifier or shank.
Purdue University's Dept. of Agriculture indicates that common
subsoilers for agricultural use are available with 3, 5 or 7
shanks. Subsoilers can be up to 15' wide, some models are towed
behind tractors while others are mounted to the three-point
A form of this implement (with a single blade), a
pipe-and-cable-laying plough, is used to lay buried cables or
pipes, without the need to dig a deep trench and re-fill.
is "Natural Farming" or "Do-nothing Farming". -
New Evidence Shows Fertile Soil Gone From Midwestern Farms across the US
. Farming has destroyed a lot of the rich soil of America's
Midwestern prairie. A team of scientists just came up with a staggering
new estimate for just how much has disappeared. The most fertile topsoil
is entirely gone from a third of all the land devoted to growing crops
across the upper Midwest, the scientists say.
Giant Organic Farm Faces Criticism
. Farmers often till the soil,
breaking it up with tools such as chisel plows or disks, to uproot weeds
and get the land ready for planting. But tillage also tears soil loose
from the plant roots that help hold it together and also breaks down parts
of the soil that are most rich in carbon and nutrients. Once you disturb
it, nothing holds that soil together. It just turns into powder and is
vulnerable to rain and soil erosion or wind that can blow the soil away.
Planting wide strips of native grasses across ta farm could help prevent
soil from blowing away. Crops such as alfalfa, that don't require annual
planting, could help the steepest slopes to stay covered.
Half the worlds population works the
with 3 quarters of them doing it by hand. -
Over 11% of the earths land surface is used
We have cleared 19.4 million square miles for crops and
livestock, roughly the size of South America and Africa combined.
10 to 12 billion apples are harvested every year by hand.
3/4's of the varieties of foods
developed by farmers over 1,000's of years has been wiped out.
A large portion of crops are
being grown just to feed live stock. -
70% of all water is for
Where Farms are Sucking the Planet Dry
There is less then 3 million farmers in America? 2.2 percent (6.8
million) are farm operators or farm household members.
13 million more acres
of farmland would be required to produce enough
fruit and vegetables for the daily diets of all Americans
to meet U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrition guidelines.
The United States
has a total land area of nearly 2.3 billion acres. -
USDA Fact Sheets
Total U.S. Farmland occupies 954 Million
Acres, or 1.490.625 Square Miles
23 million acres of farmland (roughly the size of Indiana) have been lost since the late 80's due to sprawl and development.
2007 USDA Census of Agriculture claims 62% of farms did not collect any
"United States produces 4,000 calories worth of food per resident daily, twice what's required. We have
ample land; we just need to stop abusing the soil we have."
7 Million Farms in 1935, now less then 1.9 Million in 1997
Family Farming Knowledge Platform
One Million acres of Farm
Land are lost each year
Each week, around
330 farm families
leave their land for good.
February 2012: 206,900 foreclosure filings,
default notices, scheduled auctions and bank
As of 2013 there is an average of 50,000 foreclosures a month.
Suicide Rates are Alarmingly High
America's Farmers are being forced to kill themselves in record numbers.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) found that people
working in agriculture – including farmers, farm laborers, ranchers,
fishers, and lumber harvesters – take their lives at a rate higher than
any other occupation. The data suggested that the suicide rate for
agricultural workers in 17 states was nearly five times higher compared
with that in the general population.
Since 2013, net farm income for US farmers has
declined 50%. Median farm income for 2017 is projected to be negative
$1,325. And without parity in place (essentially a minimum price floor for
farm products), most commodity prices remain below the cost of production.
People working in “ farming
fishing, and forestry” had the highest rates compared to all other
industries, at 84.5 per 100,000. That number is more than five times the
national rate and is comparable to high suicide rates among military veterans.
Farm Crisis Center
Net farm income
dropped 50 percent from 2013-2016, and it has remained depressed ever
Young Farmers Coalition
is building hope and health in the rural agricultural community.
is to enhance quality of life for farmers, ranchers, and
other agricultural workers with disabilities.
Suicides in India
. In 2014, the National Crime Records Bureau of India
reported 5,650 farmer suicides. The highest number of farmer suicides were
recorded in 2004 when 18,241 farmers committed suicide. The farmers
suicide rate in India has ranged between 1.4 and 1.8 per 100,000 total
population, over a 10-year period through 2005. More than 270,000 farmers
have died by suicide since 1995 in India.
Buy a Farm
97 percent of the 2.1 million farms in the United States
are family-owned operations.
88 percent of all U.S. farms are small family farms
58 percent of all direct farm sales to consumers come from small
64 percent of all vegetable sales and 66 percent of all dairy
sales come from the 3 percent of farms that are large or very
large family farms.
18 percent of principal operators on family farms in the U.S.
started within the last 10 years.
A family farm
is any farm where the majority of the business is
owned by the operator and individuals related to the operator,
including through blood, marriage, or adoption.
Center for Rural
reports that less than 6 percent of Nebraska farmers are under the age of 35.
Global Assessment of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture: Irrigated
and Rainfed Croplands
Two-thirds of all farms sell less than $25,000 worth of crops or
livestock each year. That's not profit, that's total sales.
So more than half of all farmers need to work
second jobs. Meanwhile, though, big farms are getting bigger. There are just
80,000 farms with sales of over $1 million a year. They
represent just 4 percent of the total farm population. But those
few big farms account for two-thirds of all agricultural
production in the country.
Census of Agriculture
There are two million farms in America. But just four percent of those
farms account for two-thirds of all agricultural production.
Mega Farms can be Ignorant and Dangerous
Factory Farm Map
- National Farmers Union
is land devoted to agriculture, rearing of livestock and production of
crops—to produce food for humans. It is thus generally synonymous with
farmland or cropland.
is land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arable Land (% of land area)
The World Factbook
Land (% of land area)
Dry Land Farming
Land Use in Agriculture
Land Value Tenure
Agricultural Land Area
- U.N. Statistics
Indoor Greenhouse Growing
56 million acres of wheat
grow in a belt stretching more
than 1,000 miles from the Canadian border to Central Texas.
For 2015, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
forecasts farm income will drop 38 percent to $55.9 billion, the
lowest in a decade. Net farm income went from just over $50 billion in 2000 to close
to $130 billion in 2013, a nearly threefold increase.
Much of that growth came thanks to a spike in trade with China,
to which U.S. farm exports grew from just a few billion dollars
in 2000 to a record $29.9 billion last year.
Small-Scale Agriculture threatens the Rainforest
Paying Farmers Not to Farm.
The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)
is a land conservation program
administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). In exchange for a
yearly rental payment, farmers enrolled in the program agree to remove
environmentally sensitive land from agricultural production and plant
species that will improve environmental health and quality. Contracts for
land enrolled in CRP are 10-15 years in length. The long-term goal of the
program is to re-establish valuable land cover to help improve water
quality, prevent soil erosion, and reduce loss of wildlife habitat. If you
would like to watch an informational video on CRP, please click here.
“What greater wealth is there than
to own your life and to spend it on growing? Every
living thing must grow. It can't stand still.
It must grow or perish.” (Ellis Wyatt
(Part 3, Chapter 1, Page 722)
"We have always had
, and that is a fact. So don't ever believe that we
need GMO's or mega farms in order to feed people, because that
is a lie. What we need is more local farms, then everyone will
"If solving a problem causes more problems then it solves, then you did not solve a problem."
is a grassroots organization that has worked for more than
40 years to
empower African American families
in Southwest Georgia and advocate
for social justice. In 1910, black farmers owned more than 15 million
acres of land. In 2017, that number was
down to 4 million acres
, according to the agricultural census.
(or agricultural society) is any society whose
economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland. Another
way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation's
total production is in agriculture. In an agrarian society cultivating the
land is the primary source of wealth. Such a society may acknowledge other
means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of
agriculture and farming. Agrarian societies have existed in various parts
of the world as far back as 10,000 years ago and continue to exist today.
They have been the most common form of socio-economic organization for
most of recorded human history.
Origins of Plants
Native origins and primary regions of diversity for selected major
Origins of Food Crops connect Countries Worldwide
Domesticated Plants List
(wiki) - Wild grains were collected and eaten from at
least 20,000 BC.
Neolithic Founder Crops
are the eight plant species that were
Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B,
11,700 years ago
farming communities in
the Fertile Crescent region of southwest Asia, and which formed the basis
of systematic agriculture in the Middle East, North Africa, India, Persia
and (later) Europe. They consist of flax, three cereals and four pulses,
and are the first known domesticated plants in the world. Although
domesticated rye (Secale cereale) occurs in the final Epi-Palaeolithic
strata at Tell Abu Hureyra (the earliest instance of domesticated plant
species), it was insignificant in the Neolithic Period of southwest Asia
and only became common with the spread of farming into northern Europe
several millennia later. Cereals:
wheat (Triticum dicoccum, descended from the wild T. dicoccoides). Einkorn
wheat (Triticum monococcum, descended from the wild T. boeoticum). Barley
(Hordeum vulgare/sativum, descended from the wild H. spontaneum).
Lentil (Lens culinaris). Pea (Pisum
sativum). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia).
Flax (Linum usitatissimum).
"We don't want to feed ignorance, that's just crazy, because if you feed ignorance
then the product produced will be ignorant.
That means innocent people will be subjected to people feeding them
ignorance. We need to educate people so they don't grow
up to become neither eaters nor feeders of ignorance. This way we can finally end this cycle of
ignorance once and for all. Everyone needs to be educated on the matter, if
not, then living wont matter."
Films about Farming and Food
Life Running Out of Control
The Future of Food
Super Size Me
Bigger, Stronger, Faster
The Beautiful Truth
The Gerson Miracle
To Market, To Market: To Buy a Fat Pig
14 The Garden in LA (2008)
Ripe for Change
The Truth About Your Food
In Organic We Trust (2013)
The Food of the Future
The Starfish Throwers 20144
"If you are not a benefit to humans, then you are most likely a threat to humans."
Farm to Consumer Legal Defense Fund
Ideas to Help Improve the World
- Natural Products
- Water Safety
Food Forest Garden
US grows about 92 million acres of corn averaging about 160 bushels an
with 55 pounds per bushel, this equates to about 800 billion pounds
per year, or 2500 lbs. per person per year (approximate 300 million
people in the US), or 8 lbs. per day per person on one commodity crop alone. 8 lbs. of corn/food becomes 1/2 a pound of
meat and a gallon of gas. About 40 percent of the planet's crops currently are fed to animals.
University of Minnesota
Plant Breeding - Pruning - Grafting - Propagation
is selecting only particular
desirable characteristics to grow, so that all the new plants grown will
have these new desirable characteristics. Selective adaptation instead of
the natural process of evolution
where only the strongest survive. The art and science of changing the
traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant
breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging
from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for
propagation, to more complex molecular techniques (see cultigen and
cultivar). Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since
near the beginning of human civilization. It is practiced worldwide by
individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant
breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions,
universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers.
is a person who selectively breeds carefully selected mates, normally of
the same breed to sexually reproduce offspring with specific, consistently
replicable qualities and characteristics. This might be as a farmer,
agriculturalist, or hobbyist, and can be practiced on a large or small
scale, for food, fun, or profit.
Bread Lab Plant
Harnessing tomato jumping genes could help speed-breed drought-resistant
. Once dismissed as 'junk DNA' that served no purpose, a family
of 'jumping genes
found in tomatoes has the potential to accelerate crop breeding for traits
such as improved drought resistance
is a plant
that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result
of artificial selection or
, which is the process by which humans use animal breeding and
plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits
(characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and
females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are
maintained during propagation.
or cross breeding, is the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction,
two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera.
Using genetic terminology, it may be defined as follows. Hybrid generally
refers to any offspring resulting from the breeding of two genetically
distinct individuals, which usually will result in a high degree of
heterozygosity, though hybrid and heterozygous are not, strictly speaking,
synonymous. A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same
gene. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have
differing structure in at least one
, as a result of structural
abnormalities. A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes
having different haploid numbers of chromosomes. A permanent hybrid is a
situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs, because all
homozygous combinations are lethal. Plant
organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or
populations. Crossbreeding, sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", is
the process of breeding such an organism, often with the intention to
create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or
producing an organism with hybrid vigor. While crossbreeding is used to
maintain health and viability of organisms, irresponsible crossbreeding
can also produce organisms of inferior quality or dilute a purebred gene
pool to the point of extinction of a given breed of organism.
is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding
of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. By
analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers
to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from
expression of deleterious or recessive traits resulting from incestuous
sexual relationships and consanguinity. Inbreeding results in homozygosity,
which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by
harmful or recessive traits
. This usually
leads to at least temporarily decreased biological
of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is
its ability to survive and reproduce. An individual who inherits such
deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred. The avoidance of
expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via
inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for
outcrossing. Crossbreeding between populations also often has positive
effects on fitness-related traits, but also sometimes leads to negative
effects known as outbreeding depression. However increased homozygosity
increases probability of fixing beneficial alleles and also slightly
decreases probability of fixing deleterious alleles in population.
Inbreeding can result in purging of deleterious alleles from a population
through purifying selection. Inbreeding is a technique used in selective
breeding. For example, in livestock breeding
breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable
trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but
will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can
then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling.
Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a
trait. Inbreeding is also used to reveal deleterious recessive alleles,
which can then be eliminated through assortative breeding or through
culling. In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the
creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis.
Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of
Inbreeding can significantly influence gene
expression which can prevent inbreeding depression.
Plant Growth Chambers
that control temperature, light, humidity for agricultural biotechnology,
plant science research.
as a method to
accelerate applied and basic research on cereal species, standard
genotypes of spring bread wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum),
barley (H. vulgare) and the model grass.
Biologists untangle growth and defense in maize, define key antibiotic
. Studying the complex layers of immunity in maize, a staple
for diets around the world, scientists have identified key genes that
enable surprisingly diverse antibiotic cocktails that can be produced as
defensive blends against numerous disease agents. Biologists describe how
they combined an array of scientific approaches to clearly define 6 genes
that encode enzymes responsible for the production of key maize
antibiotics known to control disease resistance.
is an area of agricultural science
involving the use of scientific tools and techniques, including genetic
engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and
tissue culture, to modify living organisms: plants, animals, and
is the transfer of pollen from the flower
of one plant to the flower of a plant having a different genetic
is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive
organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. Like all
living organisms, seed plants have a single major goal: to
pass their genetic information on to
the next generation
. The reproductive unit is the seed, and
pollination is an essential step in the production of seeds in all spermatophytes (seed plants).
To grow or to flower: Genes IDed in early land plant descendant also found
in modern crops
. Most mammals, including humans, are born with the
cells that they'll need as adults to produce their own offspring. Plants,
however, develop their reproductive cells only after switching from the
vegetative stage, when they grow new leaves or get bigger, to the
reproductive stage. One of the microRNAs that helps flowering plants
control the shift to the reproductive stage is also one of the eight
microRNAs shared between thale cress and liverworts. That microRNA is
known to researchers as microRNA156/529. To pin down the potential role of
this evolutionarily conserved microRNA, Watanabe's research group created
a genetically modified version of liverwort that lacked
Those so-called microRNA156/529 knockout liverworts produced reproductive
cells on their vegetative tissues rather than developing the normal
umbrella-shaped reproductive structures that distinguish males and
females. Identifying the same molecule with a similar role in the
vegetative-to-reproductive switch in such different plant species reveals
that microRNA156/529 and the other molecules it interacts with are part of
an important control module used by potentially all land plants to
regulate their reproductive timing. Watanabe imagines that in the future,
farmers could measure the amount of microRNA156/529 in crops to
predict harvest times
Propagation - Cloning
is the process of creating new plants
a variety of sources: seeds
, cuttings, bulbs and other plant parts. Plant
propagation can also refer to the artificial or natural dispersal of
plants. There are two types of propagation: sexual and asexual. Sexual
reproduction is the union of the pollen and egg, drawing from the genes of
two parents to create a new, third individual. Sexual propagation involves
the floral parts of a plant. When pruning your trees to help sprout new
growth, save the clippings for propagation.
is using water as a
medium to root succulent cuttings.
is a method of asexual plant propagation, where the
plant (usually an herbaceous perennial) is broken up into two or more
parts. Both the root
and crown of each part is kept intact. The technique
is of ancient origin, and has long been used to propagate bulbs such as
garlic and saffron. Division is mainly practiced by gardeners and very
small nurseries, as most commercial plant propagation is now done through
plant tissue culture. Division is one of the three main methods used by
gardeners to increase stocks of plants (the other two are seed-sowing and
cuttings). Division is usually applied to mature perennial plants, but may
also be used for shrubs with suckering roots, such as gaultheria, kerria
and sarcococca. Annual and biennial plants do not lend themselves to this
procedure, as their lifespan is too short. Most perennials are best
divided and replanted every few years to keep them healthy. They may also
be divided in order to produce new plants. Those with woody crowns or
fleshy roots need to be cut apart, while others can be prized apart using
garden forks or hand forks. Each separate section must have both shoots
and roots. Division can take place at almost any time of the year, but the
best seasons are Autumn and Spring.
Propagate your shrubs from softwood cuttings
Plant Propagation from softwood Cuttings
Fruit Tree Propagation
is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding
a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock. GMO
the grain has grown in a deformed manner. It is commonly found in the form
of a rounded outgrowth on a tree trunk or branch that is filled with small
knots from dormant buds
is an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are
maintained during propagation. More generally, a cultivar is the most
basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International
Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arise
in cultivation, but some are from wild plants that have distinctive
Over 7,500 cultivars of the culinary or eating apple (Malus pumila) are
Pruning - Trimming
involves the selective removal of parts of a plant
such as branches, buds, or roots. Reasons to prune plants include deadwood
removal, shaping to control or direct growth
, improving or
health, reducing risk
from falling branches, preparing nursery specimens for transplanting, and
both harvesting and increasing the yield or quality of flowers and fruits
Tree Pruning Tips
(shape tree / arrange branches)
Don't Prune trees when its Raining because rain can lead to infections
Clean your Pruning tool if pruning Multiple trees to avoid cross-contamination
Fall pruning could cause more harm than good.
is a form of trimming a
bush or tree that increases air flow and sunlight
to the center of the plant while providing ample spacing and sun exposure
to the primary and secondary scaffold branches. This is sometimes referred to as
Buds and Spurs
should be sniped at 45 degree angle above an outer bud.
Central Leader Training
is when the
dominant upright branch
is promoted and other branches are allowed
or forced to grow at an angle from it, somewhat resembling a Christmas tree.
How to Pinch your Garden Plants
is a sustainable Japanese
forestry technique where specially planted cedar trees are pruned like a
giant bonsai, allowing more "shoots" to grow.
uses living trees and other woody plants as the medium to
create structures and art.
Living Root Bridge
is a type of simple
living plant roots by tree shaping.
is a term that describes a building method in which
architectural structures are created through the interaction of technical
joints and plant growth.
refers to a plant's ability to tolerate low light
levels. The term is also used in horticulture and landscaping, although in
this context its use is sometimes imprecise, especially in labeling of
plants for sale in commercial nurseries. Shade tolerance refers to a
plant's ability to tolerate low light levels. The term is also used in
horticulture and landscaping, although in this context its use is
sometimes imprecise, especially in labeling of plants for sale in
commercial nurseries. Different plant species exhibit different
adaptations to shade. In fact, a particular plant can exhibit varying
degrees of shade tolerance, or even of requirement for light, depending on
its history or stage of development.
Grafting - Joining
is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of
are joined so as
to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is
called the scion while the lower part is called the rootstock. The
technique is most commonly used in
grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. The success of
this joining requires that the vascular tissue grow together and such
joining is called
which is a natural phenomenon in which trunks, branches or roots of two
trees grow together. It is biologically very similar to grafting.
is a shoot
or sprout of a plant cut
for grafting. A descendent
Graft Tomatoes onto Potatoes
- Tree of 40 Fruit
is a means of plant propagation in which a portion
of an aerial stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and
then detaches as an independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common
means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural
environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.
is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an
organism either naturally or artificially. In nature, many organisms
produce clones through asexual reproduction. Cloning in biotechnology
refers to the process of creating clones of organisms or copies of cells
or DNA fragments (molecular cloning). Beyond biology, the term refers to
the production of multiple copies of digital media or software. Many
organisms, including aspen trees, reproduce by cloning.
Propagating plants from cuttings is an ancient
form of cloning
. There are several advantages of cuttings, mainly
that the produced offspring are practically clones of their parent plants.
If a plant has favorable traits, it can continue to pass down its
advantageous genetic information to its offspring. This is especially
economically advantageous as it allows commercial growers to clone a
certain plant to ensure consistency throughout their crop. Does having
less diversity could make something more vulnerable?
is to cause a plant or cutting to grow roots.
(liquid, powder, gel)
are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
is when a piece of the stem or root of the source
plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions
are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant
independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting
produces new roots, and a root cutting produces new stems. Some plants can
be grown from leaf pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems
and roots. The scions
used in grafting are also called cuttings.
Cuttings from Established Plants
are various types of shoots which grow from a bud at the base of
a tree or shrub or from adventitious buds in its roots. A plant that
produces suckers (root sprouts) is referred to as surculose.
may emerge some distance from the originating plant, are considered a
form of vegetative dispersal, and may originate a habitat patch where that
tree is the dominant species. Suckers also may arise from the roots of
trees that have been cut down.
is an undeveloped or
and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of
a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant
condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short
or may have the potential for general shoot
development. The term bud is also used in zoology, where it refers to an
outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual.
is the organ of a
plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil
. Roots can also be
aerial or aerating, that is, growing up above the ground or especially
above water. Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not
exceptional either. Therefore, the root is best defined as
the non-leaf, non-nodes bearing parts of the plant's body. However,
important internal structural differences between stems and roots exist.
have main root systems
in the top 1 to 2 feet of soil. Shallow rooting plants are cabbage, cauliflower,
lettuce, celery, sweet corn, onion, white potato, and radish.
Shallow-rooted trees and shrubs
include Dogwood trees,
Japanese maple trees
, Eastern redbud trees, Cherry trees, Azalea shrubs, Boxwood shrubs,
Holly shrubs, Dwarf tree varieties. Many common landscape trees have
shallow root systems. The roots of these type of trees go down only 4 to 8
inches into the ground. Shallow roots are even visible above the ground.
Visible roots, or surface roots, may become a nuisance in a yard.
Moderately deep-rooted crops
are those with the main root system in the
top 1 to 4 feet of soil. Deep-Rooted Plants
are tomatoes, asparagus, winter squash, pumpkins and parsnips. Taproot
grows vertically downwards and thus reaches deep into the soil.
are tubular outgrowths of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on
of a plant root. These structures are lateral extensions of
a single cell and are only rarely branched. They are found in the region
of maturation, also called the zone of differentiation of the root. Just
prior to and during root hair cell development, there is elevated
phosphorylase activity. Plants absorb water through the roots from the
soil by bulk flow. Root hair cells are adapted to this process by
increasing root surface area for the purpose of taking in more water. The
large vacuole inside root hair cells makes this intake much more
woody structural member connected to but not part
of the central trunk of a tree
(or sometimes a shrub). Large
branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs. Due to
a broad range of species of trees, branches and twigs can be found in many
different shapes and sizes. While branches can be nearly horizontal,
vertical, or diagonal, the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal
branches. The term "twig" often refers to a terminus, while "bough" refers
only to branches coming directly from the trunk.
is one of two main structural axes of a
, the other being the root. The stem is normally
divided into nodes and internodes: The nodes hold one or more leaves, as
well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or
inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from
the nodes. The internodes distance one node from another. The term
"shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new
fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves
or flowers. In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but
some plants have underground stems. Stems have four main functions which
are: Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. The
stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to
keep its flowers and fruits. Transport of fluids between the roots and the
shoots in the xylem and phloem. Storage of nutrients. Production of new
living tissue. The normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years.
Stems have cells called meristems that annually generate new living
a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen-like
characteristics. Auxins have a cardinal role in coordination of many
growth and behavioral processes in the plant's life cycle and are
essential for plant body development. GMO
(Genetically Modified Organisms)
Corporation applies crop science, bioprocessing and
materials science for the production of agricultural-based biomaterials
made from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).
More Carbon Dioxide in the Air
Helps crops but Lowers Nutrients
Increasing Crops Nutritional Value
rather than anatomy – as in animal systems. Organs of
plants can be divided into vegetative and reproductive. Vegetative plant
organs include roots, stems, and leaves. The reproductive organs are
variable. In flowering plants, they are represented by the flower,
seed and fruit. In conifers, the organ that bears the reproductive
structures is called a cone. In other divisions (phyla) of plants, the
reproductive organs are called strobili, in Lycopodiophyta, or simply
gametophores in mosses. The vegetative organs are
essential for maintaining the life of a plant
. While there can be
11 organ systems in animals, there are far fewer in plants, where some
perform the vital functions, such as photosynthesis, while the
reproductive organs are essential in reproduction. However, if there is
asexual vegetative reproduction, the vegetative organs are those that
create the new generation of plants.
is the study of the physical form and external
structure of plants. This is usually considered distinct from plant
anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants,
especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the
visual identification of plants.
in biology is a branch of biology
dealing with the study of the form and
specific structural features.
or land plants, are the most familiar group of green
plants that form vegetation on earth.
form a large group of plants that are defined as those
land plants that have lignified tissues (the
for conducting water
throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue
(the phloem) to conduct products of
Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms
and angiosperms (flowering
). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta,
Tracheobionta and Equisetopsida sensu lato. The term higher plants should
be avoided as a synonym for vascular plants as it is a remnant of the
abandoned concept of the great chain of being. (c. 308,312 accepted known
Food Plant Diseases and Fungus - Plant Viruses
is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by
pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions
(physiological factors). Cross Breading
refers to a specific symptom affecting plants in
response to infection by a pathogenic organism. It is a rapid and complete
chlorosis, browning, then death of plant tissues such as leaves, branches,
twigs, or floral organs. Accordingly, many diseases that primarily exhibit
this symptom are called blights.
are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses,
plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the
molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses can be
pathogenic to higher plants. Most plant viruses are rod-shaped, with
protein discs forming a tube surrounding the viral genome; isometric
particles are another common structure. They rarely have an envelope. The
great majority have an RNA genome, which is usually small and single
stranded (ss), but some viruses have double-stranded (ds) RNA, ssDNA or
dsDNA genomes. Although plant viruses are not as well understood as their
animal counterparts, one plant virus has become iconic: tobacco mosaic
virus (TMV), the first virus to be discovered. This and other
viruses cause an estimated U.S$60 billion loss in
crop yields worldwide each year
. Plant viruses are grouped into 73
genera and 49 families. However, these figures relate only to cultivated
plants, which represent only a tiny fraction of the total number of plant
species. Viruses in wild plants have been relatively little studied, but
the interactions between wild plants and their viruses often do not appear
to cause disease in the host plants. To transmit from one plant to another
and from one plant cell to another, plant viruses must use strategies that
are usually different from animal viruses. Plants do not move, and so
plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects).
Plant cells are surrounded by solid cell walls, therefore transport
through plasmodesmata is the preferred path for virions to move between
plant cells. Plants have specialized mechanisms for transporting mRNAs
through plasmodesmata, and these mechanisms are thought to be used by RNA
viruses to spread from one cell to another. Plant defenses against viral
infection include, among other measures, the use of siRNA in response to
dsRNA. Most plant viruses encode a protein to suppress this response.
Plants also reduce transport through plasmodesmata in response to injury.
New test can detect plant viruses faster, cheaper
Family of Crop Viruses at the Molecular Level
. For the first-time we
can take a molecular-level look at one of the world's deadliest crop
are pathogenic plant viruses responsible for major crop
losses worldwide. Transmitted by aphids, the viruses infect a wide range
of food crops including cereals, legumes, cucurbits, sugar beet, sugarcane
The method involves infiltrating a type of tobacco plant
with the genes necessary to create virus-like particles (VLPs). From the
inserted genetic information, the VLPs self-assemble inside the plant
host. This technique avoids the need to handle the infectious virus. This
provided, for the first time, a molecular-level insight into how the
luteovirid capsid forms and suggests how it is transmitted by aphids. The
Luteoviridae attack the plant vasculature which causes severe stunting
leading to crop loss. The family includes barley yellow dwarf virus and
potato leafroll virus which cause crop losses to a value of £40-60m per
year in the United Kingdom.
What’s Killing America’s Apple Trees
New portable DNA sequencer quickly and accurately diagnoses wheat viruses
A group of scientists have developed a new technology that makes it
possible to rapidly identify viruses in wheat fields with a significantly
higher accuracy. They collected four wheat samples from western Kansas and
used a new harmonica-sized DNA sequencer and a computer program to quickly
detect three different viruses in the samples. Furthermore, their results
suggested that the samples contained a new virus strain. Blasts cause
significant loses in wheat crops. Recently Bangladesh was devastated by an
invasion of South American races of wheat blast fungus, which occurred for
the first time in the country in 2016. The disease spread to an estimated
15,000 hectares (16% of cultivated wheat area in the country) and resulted
in yield losses as high as 100%.
and not enough verity in food crops, is a catastrophe ready to happen
Great Famine Ireland
or the Great Hunger was a period of
mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.
About two-fifths of the population was solely reliant on this cheap crop
for a number of historical reasons. Approximately one million people died
and a million more emigrated from Ireland.
is an absent or greatly diminished crop yield relative to
expectation, caused by the plants being damaged, killed, or destroyed, or
affected in some way that they fail to form edible fruit, seeds, or leaves
in their expected abundance. Crop failures can be caused by catastrophic
events such as plant disease outbreaks (see e.g. Great Famine (Ireland)),
heavy rainfall, volcanic eruptions, storms, floods, or drought, or by
slow, cumulative effects of soil degradation, too-high soil salinity,
erosion, desertification, usually as results of drainage, overdrafting
(for irrigation), overfertilization, or overexploitation. In history, crop
failures and subsequent famines have triggered human migration, rural
exodus, etc. The proliferation of industrial monocultures, with their
reduction in crop diversity and dependence on heavy use of artificial
fertilizers and pesticides, has led to overexploited soils that are nearly
incapable of regeneration. Over years, unsustainable farming of land
degrades soil fertility and diminishes crop yield. With a steadily growing
world population and local overpopulation, even slightly diminishing
yields are already the equivalent to a partial harvest failure.
Fertilizers obviate the need for soil regeneration in the first place, and
international trade prevents local crop failures from developing into
agricultural practice of producing or growing a single
, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or
farming system at a time.
is where more than one crop is grown in the same space at
the same time
, is the alternative to monoculture. Monoculture is widely
used in both industrial farming and organic farming and has allowed
increased efficiency in planting and harvest. Seeds
Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Cubense
is a fungal plant pathogen
that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium
wilt of banana.
is a plant disease of the roots of banana
plants. It is a type of Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen
Fusarium oxysporum. The pathogen is resistant to fungicide and cannot be
Taxonomy, distribution and biology of lettuce powdery mildew (Golovinomyces
cichoracearum sensu stricto)
Guidelines for Head Lettuce Production in Arizona
wild lettuce with regular lettuce that helps protects against fungus and
Marine Invasions Research
New Tool to Predict which Plants will become Invasive
predicts which species are more likely to become invasive based on
biological traits. Around the world, over 13,000 plant species have
embedded themselves in new environments -- some of them integrate with the
native plants, but others spread aggressively. Understanding why some
plants become invasive, while others do not is critical to preserving the
Invasive species alters marine community, interferes in post-disaster
. Clavelina oblonga, an invasive marine fouling species, not
only reduces diversity in communities it invades, it also interferes in
their recovery following natural disasters - a process known as
Dodder Parasitic Plant
causes major damage to crops in the US and
worldwide every year. They can silence the
expression of genes
in the host plants from which it obtains water and nutrients. This
cross-species gene regulation, which includes genes that contribute to the
host plant's defense against parasites, has never before been seen from a
is a plant
that derives some or all of its nutritional
requirements from another living plant. They make up about 1% of
angiosperms and are in almost every biome in the world. All parasitic
plants have modified roots, named haustoria (singular: haustorium), which
penetrate the host plants, connecting them to the conductive system –
either the xylem, the phloem, or both. This provides them with the ability
to extract water and nutrients from the host. Parasitic plants are
classified depending on where the parasitic plant latches onto the host
and the amount of nutrients it requires. Some parasitic plants are
able to locate their host plants by detecting chemicals in the air or soil
given off by host shoots or roots, respectively. About 4,500 species of
parasitic plant in approximately 20 families of
is a plant that
obtains or may obtain part of its food by
, which also photosynthesizes.
Alien Species may be the main driver of recent Extinctions
animals and plants, according to a new study by UCL researchers.
Dogs can Detect Agricultural Diseases Early
. A dog can be trained to
detect laurel wilt-diseased trees before the visible symptoms are seen.
Once a diseased tree is identified, these "agri-dogs" will sit, indicating
a positive alert.
Nearly 40% of plant species are very rare and are vulnerable to climate
. There are about 435,000 unique land plant species on Earth.
Dry Weather Farming
How do you cultivate a healthy plant microbiome
? Researchers home in
on core microbial community of tomato, one that is robust and stable.
Crops today never see their parents' microbiome, so how do they develop a
leaf microbial community that's healthy and resistant to invasion by
pathogens? Biologists sequenced the microbiomes of tomatoes through four
generations and saw three-quarters of the bacteria disappear, leaving a
core community that proved resistant to random invaders. The findings show
it's possible to cultivate a robust plant microbiome, and suggests that
probiotic additions could survive on crops, providing lasting benefits.
Key immune system protein discovered in plants
. A new study has
discovered the key calcium channel responsible for closing plant pores as
an immune response to pathogen exposure. The findings are a major step
toward understanding the defense mechanisms plants use to resist
infection, which could eventually lead to healthier, more resistant and
more productive crops. A protein called OSCA1.3 forms a channel that leaks
calcium into the cells surrounding a plant's pores.
Trashed Farmland could be a conservation treasure
agricultural land could be transformed into millions of hectares of
conservation reserve across the world, according to new research. The
research team proposed a new way of understanding the conservation value
of ''uncontested lands'' - areas where agricultural productivity is low.
Yeast and bacteria together biosynthesize plant hormones for weed control
Synthetic strigolactones could also improve nutrient uptake in crops.
Plants regulate their growth using hormones, including a group called
strigolactones that prevent excessive budding and branching.
Strigolactones also help plant roots form symbiotic relationships with
microorganisms that allow the plant to absorb nutrients from the soil.
These two factors have led to agricultural interest in using
strigolactones to control the growth of weeds and root parasites, as well
as improving nutrient uptake. These root-extruding compounds also
stimulate germination of witchweeds and broomrapes, which can cause entire
crops of grain to fail, making thorough research essential prior to
commercial development. Now scientists have synthesized strigolactones
also help plant roots form symbiotic relationships with
microorganisms that allow the plant to absorb nutrients from the soil.
These two factors have led to agricultural interest in using
strigolactones to control the growth of weeds and root parasites, as well
as improving nutrient uptake.
The microbial molecule that turns plants into zombies
. Zombie plants,
witches' brooms and the curse that might contain a cure. A newly
discovered manipulation mechanism used by parasitic bacteria to slow down
plant aging, may offer new ways to protect disease-threatened food crops.
Research has identified a manipulation molecule produced by
to hijack plant development. When inside a plant,
this protein causes key growth regulators to be broken down, triggering
abnormal growth. The new findings show how the bacterial protein known as
SAP05 manipulates plants by taking advantage of some of the host's own
Goodbye Yellow Brick - Elton John
(youtube) - I should have stayed on
the farm, I should have listened to my old man, You can't plant me in your
penthouse, I'm going back to my plough, Back to the howling old owl in the
woods, Hunting the horny back toad, Oh I've finally decided my future
lies, Beyond the yellow brick road...
"No plough stops for the dying man", well maybe for a
little while, then I have to get back to work.