Food Preserving Tips - Food Storage Tips - Food Shopping Tips
is to prevent the growth of bacteria
, fungi (such as
), or other micro-organisms (although some methods work by
introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as
of fats that cause rancidity. Food preservation may also include
processes that inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic
browning reaction in apples after they are cut during
Many processes designed to preserve
will involve a number
of food preservation methods
by turning it into jam, for
example, involves boiling (to reduce the fruit’s moisture content and to
kill bacteria, etc.), sugaring
(to prevent their re-growth) and sealing
within an airtight jar
(to prevent recontamination). Some traditional
methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input
and carbon footprint, when compared to modern methods. Some methods of
food preservation are known to create carcinogens. In 2015, the
International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health
that has undergone
, and smoking
, as "carcinogenic to humans".
Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavor is an
important aspect of food preservation.
is to keep or maintain
in unaltered condition and cause to remain
or last. To keep in
, loss, or destruction. To keep up
and reserve for personal use or special use. To prevent food from
. To maintain in safety from
is to keep in safety and
, decay, loss, or destruction. Fruit preserved by cooking with
sugar. Keep constant
through physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary
is to hold back or
set aside, especially for future use or
Arrange for and reserve something for someone else in advance. Something
kept back or saved
for future use or a special purpose.
Reduce Food Waste
- Shelf Life
Food Preserving Survival Tips
- Food Safety
should be kept
clean to avoid bacteria or contamination. Make sure the
set to 40 F or cooler (5 C). Don't over stock refrigerators, or food
draws, or food containers, because packing food to tightly will prevent
cool air from circulating.
Reducing Food Waste
Using glass containers
will help you see what's inside, especially
Depending on the
type of refrigerator
, The top self
may be the coldest area or the warmest area in the fridge.
warmest part of the frige
compartment is best for pre-prepared foods
such as yogurt, cheese and sauces.
Store cooked meat and leftovers
in sealed containers on the middle shelves. If there’s space, keep milk
here too – it’ll keep for longer than it would in the door rack where
it’s warmed by hot air whenever the door is opened.
in the door racks can fluctuate because they’re
exposed to the warm air of the kitchen when the door is opened. The door
racks are a good place for condiments, jam and fruit juice. A lidded
compartment is ideal for keeping butter and margarine extra cold.
The coldest part of the fridge
, keep raw meat, fish and poultry in its
sealed packaging, or place it in sealed containers and store on the
bottom shelf. Plus there’s less risk of raw juices dripping onto
ready-to-eat foods. Food Storage Tips
– Store fruit and
vegetables in the salad crisper drawer. Some come with humidity
controls to retain moisture which will help certain vegetables, such
as lettuce, cucumber, cauliflower, broccoli, beans, carrots and leafy
veg, last longer. Line the bottom of your refrigerator’s crisper
drawer with small towels. They’ll absorb the excess moisture that
causes veggies to rot. Best Way To
Keep Greens Fresh is the Bath Towel Method.
Prepare your greens
by cutting them into bite-sized pieces, washing them in a group all
together, and then shaking off the excess water in a salad spinner. Then
spread the greens out on clean bath towels to air dry for a few hours.
When you're ready to store the greens, simply roll the towels up with
the greens inside. The rolls are secured with rubber bands and stored in
the bottom shelf of the fridge. Each day you can unroll just enough
greens for your salads and then bundle them up again. The absorbent
towels do a great job of keeping the greens moist but not damp so they
stay fresh and crispy all week long.
For the low humidity
setting the window is completely open; for the high humidity setting
it is completely closed. Low Humidity.
Put things that tend to
rot in a drawer with a low humidity setting. Low Humidity Drawer should
contain Produce not sensitive to moisture loss. Like apples, avocados,
bananas (ripe), cantaloupes, figs, honeydews, kiwis, mangoes, papayas,
pears, plantains, stone fruits (apricots, nectarines, peaches, plums).
Produce is sensitive to moisture loss. Produce
to ethylene gas. Leafy greens like arugula, spinach, and herbs. By
having the window closed, water vapor is held in the drawer and the
moisture keeps the greens crisper and fresher longer. Keeping
fruits and vegetables that are sensitive to ethylene gas, like
strawberries, in this drawer will also keep them away from ethylene
producers. High Humidity, bananas (unripe), Belgian endive, broccoli,
Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, cucumbers, eggplant,
green beans, herbs, (cilantro, dill, parsley, thyme), leafy greens
(kale, lettuces, spinach, Swiss chard, watercress) okra, peas, peppers,
strawberries, summer squash, watermelon.
Forever Green Bag
preserves food longer by absorbing the
that produce gives off, and finally spoils it.
Evert Fresh Green Bags extend the life of fresh produce 3 to 10 times
longer without chemicals
in the bag and helps preserve produce
freshness. Special non-chemical properties infused into the bag naturally
absorb gases that fruits and vegetables produce. These minerals are found
in remote Japan caves and were discovered years ago to retard ripening
when the food was stored in the caves. The bags are made in the USA.
Do not combine different produce in same bag
Do not pack produce tightly. Do not put fruits that need ripening into the
bag as they will stay green.Freezer
units are used in households and in industry and commerce. Food stored at
or below −18 °C (0 °F) is safe indefinitely. Most household freezers
maintain temperatures from −23 to −18 °C (−9 to 0 °F), although some
freezer-only units can achieve −34 °C (−29 °F) and lower. Refrigerators
generally do not achieve lower than −23 °C (−9 °F), since the same coolant
loop serves both compartments: Lowering the freezer compartment
temperature excessively causes difficulties in maintaining above-freezing
temperature in the refrigerator compartment. Domestic freezers can be
included as a separate compartment in a refrigerator, or can be a separate
appliance. Domestic freezers are generally upright units resembling
refrigerators or chests (upright units laid on their backs). Many modern
upright freezers come with an ice dispenser built into their door. Some
upscale models include thermostat displays and controls, and sometimes
flatscreen televisions as well. Why
Refreezing Food is Bad?
Is It Safe to Refreeze Raw Meat and Poultry that Has Thawed
? Once food
is thawed in the refrigerator, it is safe to refreeze it without cooking,
although there may be a loss of quality
to the moisture lost through thawing. When water molecules escape from
your frozen food, it is also possible for
seep in. The oxygen molecules can dull the color and modify the flavor of
your frozen product. Food that has freezer burn is safe to eat, but you
may find the texture and taste not to your liking.
condition that occurs when frozen food has been damaged by dehydration and
, due to air
reaching the food. It is generally caused by food not being securely
wrapped in air-tight packaging. Freezer burn appears as grayish-brown
leathery spots on frozen food, and occurs when air reaches the food's
surface and dries the product. Color changes result from chemical changes
in the food's pigment. Freezer burn does not make the food unsafe; it
merely causes dry spots in foods. The food remains usable and edible, but
removing the freezer burns will improve the taste. Freezer burn is a
condition in which frozen food has been exposed to air. When food is
frozen, water molecules in the food turn into ice crystals. These
then migrate to the surface of
the food, which is why you often see mounds of ice on your frozen foods.
- Food Storage TipsFridge Stinks
. Wipe down fixed
parts with a cloth dampened with soapy water and vinegar. Dry all surfaces
thoroughly and place everything back in the fridge. Leave an open
container of baking soda in the fridge to absorb refrigerator smell for at
least 24 hours or change the baking soda or coffee grounds every two to
three days until the odors are absorbed. Throw away the baking soda or
coffee once it completes its job.
Why are refrigerator doors sometimes hard
? Since cold air takes up less space than warm air, a
negative pressure or a suction vacuum
results. This can make the door very difficult to open until the negative
relieved. The cooling of the gas causes a reduction in pressure inside the
freezer, resulting in a partial vacuum that makes the door more difficult
Air inside a fridge or freezer shrinks or
as it gets colder. This can
sometimes create suction, which makes opening the door difficult. If the
door is closed quickly or slammed shut, air will be forced out and it may
take several minutes for the vacuum
released, after which the door can be opened normally.
Food Shelf Life
length of time for which an item remains usable, fit for consumption, or
saleable. Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored
without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.
Sell by - Use
by - Best by. These terms and
their many variations have probably caused you to toss perfectly good food
just because the date on the label has passed. “Sell by.” “Use by.” “Best
by.” These terms and their many variations have probably caused you to
toss perfectly good food just
because the date on the label has passed.
Still Tasty Shelf Life Guide
Food Expiration Dates
Eat by Date
Leftovers Last How Long
? (PDF) -
Food Product Dating
Find when your
favorite fruits and vegetables are at their peak of ripeness
is food that will decay rapidly if not
Detecting food spoilage with optical sensor
What is the
difference between Peak Quality and the
Difference Between 'Best By,' 'Sell By' And 'Expires On'
H.R.5298 - Food Date Labeling Act of 2016
Food Safety -
Food Labels Explained
is a small
storeroom for storing foods or wines.
is a room in
which things are stored.Stored
is a place to keep things safe or
to lay aside for future use. To put things away for storage or
is a storage compartment with doors and shelves and drawers.
is a flat horizontal plane which is used in a home, business,
store, or elsewhere to hold items that are being displayed, stored, or
offered for sale. It is raised off the ground and usually
anchored/supported on its shorter length sides by brackets. It can also be
held up by columns or pillars. A shelf is also known as a counter, ledge,
mantel, or rack. Tables designed to be placed against a wall, possibly
mounted, are known as console tables, and are similar to individual
is a cabinet or small recess with a door and typically shelves, used for
is a small secluded
is a small
is a storage compartment for clothes and valuables; usually it has a lock.
enclosed space used for storage, particularly that of clothes.
is an area
or space that is subdivided or partitioned section, chamber, or separate
room within a larger enclosed area.
s the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either
in brine or immersion in vinegar. The resulting
food is called a pickle, or, to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with the
adjective pickled. The pickling procedure will typically affect the food's
texture and flavor. In East Asia, vinaigrette (vegetable oil and vinegar)
is also used as a pickling medium. Foods that are pickled include meats,
fruits, eggs, and vegetables. Another distinguishing characteristic is a
pH of 4.6 or lower, which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling
can preserve perishable foods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices,
such as mustard seed, garlic, cinnamon or cloves, are often added. If the
food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced simply
by adding dry salt. For example, German sauerkraut and Korean kimchi are
produced by salting the vegetables to draw out excess water. Natural
fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the
required acidity. Other pickles are made by placing vegetables in vinegar.
Unlike the canning process, pickling (which includes
not require that the food be completely sterile before it is sealed. The
acidity or salinity of the solution, the temperature of fermentation, and
the exclusion of oxygen determine which microorganisms dominate, and
determine the flavor of the end product. When both salt concentration and
temperature are low, Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominates, producing a mix
of acids, alcohol, and aroma compounds. At higher temperatures
Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces primarily lactic acid.
Many pickles start with Leuconostoc, and change to Lactobacillus with
is a molded glass jar used in home canning to preserve food. The
jar's mouth has a screw thread on its outer perimeter to accept a metal
ring (or "band"). The band, when screwed down, presses a separate stamped
aluminium disc-shaped lid against the jar's rim. An integral rubber ring
on the underside of the lid creates a hermetic seal. The bands and lids
usually come with new jars, but they are also sold separately. While the
bands are reusable, the lids are intended for single use when canning.
are premium glass
jars and containers ultraviolet glass maintain the optimum freshness.
is a method of preserving food in
which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
Canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years,
although under specific circumstances it can be much longer. A freeze-dried canned product, such as canned dried lentils, could
last as long as 30 years in an edible state.
Canning And Preserving Food
is a method of packaging that removes air
from the package prior to
sealing. This method involves (manually or automatically) placing items in
a plastic film package, removing air from inside, and sealing the package.
Shrink film is sometimes used to have a tight fit to the contents. The
intent of vacuum packing is usually to remove oxygen from the container to
extend the shelf life of foods and, with flexible package forms, to reduce
the volume of the contents and package. Vacuum packing reduces atmospheric
oxygen, limiting the growth of
fungi, and preventing the evaporation of volatile components. It is also
commonly used to store dry foods over a long period of time, such as
cereals, nuts, cured meats, cheese, smoked fish, coffee, and potato chips
(crisps). On a more short term basis, vacuum packing can also be used to
store fresh foods, such as vegetables, meats, and liquids, because it
inhibits bacterial growth. Vacuum packing greatly reduces the bulk of
non-food items. For example, clothing and bedding can be stored in bags
evacuated with a domestic vacuum cleaner or a dedicated vacuum sealer.
This technique is sometimes used to compact household waste, for example
where a charge is made for each full bag collected. Vacuum packaging
products, using plastic bags, canisters, bottles, or mason jars, are
available for home use. For delicate food items which might be crushed by
packing process (such as potato chips), an alternative is to
replace the interior gas with nitrogen. This has the same effect of
inhibiting deterioration due to the removal of oxygen.
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Best Food Storage Containers
Pyrex Storage 10-Piece
Reusable Food Containers
Curing Food Preservation
is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such
as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt,
nitrates, nitrites, or sugar, with the aim of drawing moisture out of the
food by the process of osmosis. Many curing processes also involve
smoking, spicing, or cooking. Dehydration was the earliest form of food
curing. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and
hence decreases its water potential, the food becomes inhospitable for the
microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to
antiquity, and was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the
late 19th century. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are
one of the most common agents in curing meat because they further inhibit
the growth of Clostridium botulinum. They also contribute to the
characteristic pink color. Drying Food
also known as lyophilisation or cryodesiccation, is a low temperature
freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by
sublimation. This is in contrast to dehydration by most conventional
methods that evaporate water using heat
Freeze drying results in a high quality product because of the low
temperature used in processing. The original shape of the product is
maintained and quality of the rehydrated product is excellent. Primary
applications of freeze drying include biological (e.g. bacteria and
yeasts), biomedical (e.g. surgical transplants), and food processing (e.g.
coffee) and preservation.
preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten. Since
early times, farmers, fishermen, and trappers have preserved their grains
and produce in unheated buildings during the winter season. Freezing food
slows down decomposition by turning residual moisture into ice, inhibiting
the growth of most bacterial species. In the food commodity industry,
there are two processes: mechanical and cryogenic (or flash freezing). The
freezing kinetics is important to preserve the food quality and texture.
Quicker freezing generates smaller ice crystals and maintains cellular
structure. Cryogenic freezing is the quickest freezing technology
available due to the ultra low liquid nitrogen temperature −196 °C (−320
°F). Preserving food in domestic kitchens during the 20th and 21st
centuries is achieved using household freezers. Accepted advice to
householders was to freeze food on the day of purchase.
are vegetables that have had their
temperature reduced and maintained to below their freezing point for the
purpose of storage and transportation (often for far longer than their
natural shelf life would permit) until they are ready to be eaten. They
may be commercially packaged or frozen at home.
is a type of food packaging made from a
laminate of flexible plastic and metal foils. It allows the sterile
packaging of a wide variety of food and drink handled by aseptic
processing, and is used as an alternative to traditional industrial
canning methods. Packaged foods range from water to fully cooked,
thermo-stabilized (heat-treated) high-caloric (1,300 kcal on average)
meals such as Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MREs) which can be eaten cold, warmed
by submersing in hot water, or through the use of a flameless ration
heater, a meal component introduced by the military in 1992. Retort
pouches are used in field rations, space food, camping food, and brands
such as Capri Sun and Tasty Bite. Some varieties have a bottom gusset and
are known as Stand-Up Pouches.
is a Natural Postharvest Protection, a micro-thin, invisible
peel that protects the delicate surface of fruit, reducing oxidation and
water loss that cause produce to shrivel and lose flavor.
Keep Food Produce Fresh Longer
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RF Technology kills bugs and pathogens in food
Blue LED's as a chemical-free method to kill bacteria that lead to spoilage
a long shelf life
and don’t require
. Most dry goods are
non-perishable like pasta, oatmeal and rice.
Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, vegetables and a can opener. Protein or
fruit bars, dry cereal or granola, Peanut butter, Dried fruit, Canned
juices, Non-perishable pasteurized milk, High energy foods, Food for
infants.Meals Ready to
cylindrical tower used for storing silage, which is fodder harvested while
green and kept succulent by partial fermentation as in a silo.
is a coarse food, especially for
livestock, composed of entire plants or the leaves and stalks of a cereal
is the stage of crop production immediately following
harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing. The instant a
crop is removed from the ground, or separated from its parent plant, it
begins to deteriorate. Postharvest treatment largely determines final
quality, whether a crop is sold for fresh consumption, or used as an
ingredient in a processed food product.
Controlled Atmosphere Storage Rooms
, control the temperature,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and humidity levels are adjusted to form
hospitable hibernation environments for apples being stored after harvest.
The perfect combination of temperature and gases, which differs for each
variety, allows apples to stay fresh for longer after harvest than if they
were simply refrigerated. Commercially refrigerating apples only preserves
the fruit for a few months before it gets soft and dehydrated. And just
keeping them in your home refrigerator? They'll likely only stay fresh for
a few weeks.
is an agricultural storage method in which the
concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, as well as the
temperature and humidity of a storage room are regulated. Both dry
commodities and fresh fruit and vegetables can be stored in controlled
A 'bran' new way to preserve healthy food with natural ingredients
found in grain bran could preserve food longer and replace synthetic
antioxidants currently used by the food industry, according to
researchers. The Penn State researchers studied a class of compounds
(AR). Plants such as wheat, rye and barley produce
ARs naturally to prevent mold, bacteria and other organisms from growing
on the grain kernels. Along with using more natural ingredients, the food
industry is also supplementing more foods with healthy oils rich in
omega-3 fatty acids
Adding these healthy oils to foods that normally would not contain them
could boost the health benefits of these foods to consumers. However,
omega-3 rich oils have a shorter shelf life, which could cause these foods
to spoil more rapidly. Antioxidants are compounds that slow the rate at
which omega-3 fatty acids degrade, preserving their health benefits and
preventing food from spoiling as quickly. While consumers demand more
natural ingredients, the food industry has struggled to find natural
antioxidants that are as effective as synthetic ones.
420,000 to 200,000 years ago
, prehistoric humans at Qesem Cave near
Tel Aviv, preserved the bone along with the skin from hunted animal
carcasses for a period that could last for many weeks. This enabled early
humans to break the bone when necessary and eat the still nutritious bone marrow.
is a processing technique wherein commercially
liquid products are
packaged into previously sterilized containers under sterile conditions to
produce shelf-stable products that do not need
. Aseptic processing has almost completely replaced
in-container sterilization of liquid foods, including milk, fruit juices
and concentrates, cream, yogurt, salad dressing, liquid egg, and ice cream
mix. There has been an increasing popularity for foods that contain small
discrete particles, such as cottage cheese, baby foods, tomato products,
fruit and vegetables, soups, and rice desserts. Aseptic processing
involves three primary steps: thermal sterilization of the product,
sterilization of the packaging material, and conservation of sterility
during packaging. To ensure commercial sterility, aseptic processing
facilities are required to maintain proper documentation of production
operations, showing that commercially sterile conditions were achieved and
maintained in all areas of the facility. Any breach of a scheduled process
for the processing or packaging system means that the affected product
must be destroyed, reprocessed or segregated and held for further
evaluation. In addition, the processing and packaging system must be
cleaned and re-sterilized before processing and/or packaging operations
can resume. Packaging equipment and packaging materials are sterilized
with various medium or combination of mediums (i.e., saturated steam,
superheated steam, hydrogen peroxide and heat and other treatments).
Aseptically Filtered is a sterilizing filtration process of removing
microorganisms from a fluid stream without adversely affecting product. ▪
Demonstrate removal of a standard test organism (Brevundimonas diminuta).
refers to any process that removes, kills, or
deactivates all forms of life (in particular referring to microorganisms
such as fungi, bacteria, spores, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as
Plasmodium, etc.) and other biological agents like prions present in a
specific surface, object or fluid, for example food or biological culture
media. Sterilization can be achieved through various means, including
heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration. Sterilization
is distinct from
, sanitization, and pasteurization, in that those methods
reduce rather than eliminate all forms of life and biological agents
present. After sterilization, an object is referred to as being sterile or
is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods
(such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat, usually to less
than 100 °C (212 °F), to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life. The
process is intended to destroy or deactivate organisms and enzymes that
contribute to spoilage or risk of disease, including vegetative bacteria,
but not bacterial spores.
is the process of exposing
foodstuffs to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is energy that can be
transmitted without direct contact to the source of the energy (radiation)
capable of freeing electrons from their atomic bonds (ionization) in the
targeted food. This treatment is used to preserve food, reduce the risk of
food borne illness, prevent the spread of invasive pests, and delay or
eliminate sprouting or ripening. Irradiated food does not become
radioactive. The radiation can be emitted by a radioactive substance or
generated electrically. Irradiation is also used for non-food
applications, such as medical devices.
sterilizes food by heating it above
135 °C (275 °F) – the temperature required to kill spores in milk – for 1
to 2 seconds. UHT is most commonly used in milk production, but the
process is also used for fruit juices, cream, soy milk, yogurt, wine,
soups, honey, and stews. UHT milk was first developed in the 1960s and
became generally available for consumption in the 1970s.
a method of food preservation in which food is dried (dehydrated or
desiccated). Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and mold
through the removal of water. Dehydration has been used widely for this
purpose since ancient times; the earliest known practice is 12,000 B.C. by
inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions. Water is
traditionally removed through evaporation (air drying
, sun drying,
or wind drying), although today electric food dehydrators or freeze-drying
can be used to speed the drying process and ensure more consistent
is a way to preserve fruit,
vegetables, and animal proteins after harvest, that has been practiced
since antiquity, and a food dehydrator refers to a device that removes
moisture from food to aid in its preservation. A food dehydrator uses a
heat source and air flow to reduce the water content of foods. The water
content of food is usually very high, typically 80% to 95% for various
fruits and vegetables and 50% to 75% for various meats. Removing moisture
from food restrains various bacteria from growing and spoiling food.
Further, removing moisture from food dramatically reduces the weight of
the food. Thus, food dehydrators are used to preserve and extend the shelf
life of various foods. Devices require heat using energy sources such as
solar or electric power or biofuel (i.e. oil), and vary in form from
large-scale dehydration projects to DIY projects or commercially sold
appliances for domestic use. A commercial food dehydrator's basic parts
usually consist of a heating element, a fan, air vents allowing for air
circulation and food trays to lay food upon. A dehydrator's heating
element, fans and vents simultaneously work to remove moisture from food.
A dehydrator's heating element warms the food causing its moisture to be
released from its interior. The appliance's fan then blows the warm, moist
air out of the appliance via the air vents. This process continues for
hours until the food is dried to a substantially lower water content,
usually less than 20%. Most foods are dehydrated at temperatures of 130
°F, or 54 °C, although meats being made into jerky should be dehydrated at
a higher temperature of 155 °F, or 68 °C, or preheated to those
temperature levels, to guard against pathogens that may be in the meat.
The key to successful food dehydration is the application of a constant
temperature and adequate air flow. Too high a temperature can cause
hardened foods: food that is hard and dry on the outside but moist, and
therefore vulnerable to spoiling, on the inside.
Build a Solar Dehydrator
- Homemade Solar Food Dehydrator
Freeze-dried Food vs. Dehydrated, Canned and Frozen
Make Your Own Beef Jerky
Make Beef Jerky
which the majority of the original water content has been removed either
naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or
dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the
fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet
taste, nutritive value, and long shelf life. Today, dried fruit
consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold are
raisins, followed by dates, prunes, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and
pears. These are referred to as "conventional" or "traditional" dried
fruits: fruits that have been dried in the sun or in heated wind tunnel
dryers. Many fruits such as cranberries, blueberries, cherries,
strawberries and mango are infused with a sweetener (e.g. sucrose syrup)
prior to drying. Some products sold as dried fruit, like papaya, kiwi
fruit and pineapple are most often candied fruit. Dried fruits retain most
of the nutritional value of fresh fruits. The specific nutrient content of
the different dried fruits reflects their fresh counterpart and the processing method.
are dried berries of the small, sweet, seedless grape cultivar 'Black Corinth' (Vitis vinifera).
is a dried
Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or
used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, New
Zealand, and Australia, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored
dried large grape, with "sultana" being a golden-colored dried grape, and
"currant" being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape. Raisins are
rich in dietary fiber , carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, and
minerals like copper and iron, with a low fat content. Raisins are often
recommended as a snack for weight control because they help the control of
glucose, the good functioning of the digestive system and the regulation
of blood pressure. The health benefits of raisins include treating
constipation, acidosis, anemia, fever, and sexual dysfunction. They have
also been known for aiding in a healthy weight gain, as well as for their
positive impact on the eye, dental, and bone health. Raisins can contain
up to 72% sugars by weight, most of which is fructose and glucose. They
also contain about 3% protein and 3.7%–6.8% dietary fiber. Raisins, like
prunes and apricots, are also high in certain antioxidants, but have a
lower vitamin C content than fresh grapes. Raisins are low in sodium and
contain no cholesterol. Despite their small size, raisins are packed with
energy and rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Raisins are naturally
sweet and high in sugar and calories, but they're beneficial to our health
when eaten in moderation. In fact, raisins can aid digestion, boost iron
levels, and keep your bones strong. Women should eat at least 1.5 cups of
fruit daily and men should have 2 cups, Grapes are harvested in August
through September. While drying on trays, the grapes' moisture content is
reduced from 75% to under 15% and the color of the fruit changes to a
brownish purple. After the fruit is dried, the paper trays are rolled up
around the raisins to form a package. Raisins may help fight — not cause —
cavities. ... Certain chemicals in raisins suppress the growth of oral
bacteria associated with cavities and gum disease, according to a study of
raisins and human health. It has long been known that eating sweet and
sticky foods can lead to tooth decay. Along with water, fiber helps give
stool the right consistency to pass easily. Good fruit choices for a
constipation diet are raisins, prunes, figs, bananas, apples, and
applesauce. Load your plate with vegetables. Vegetables are also high in
fiber and can help prevent constipation. Raisin
drying methods are:
sun drying, shade drying, and mechanical
drying. Sun drying is an inexpensive process; however, environmental
contamination, insect infections, and microbial deterioration can occur
and the resulting raisins are often of low quality. Additionally, sun
drying is a very slow process and may not produce the most desirable
raisins. Mechanical drying can be done in a safer and more controlled
environment where rapid drying is guaranteed. One type of mechanical
drying is to use microwave heating. Water molecules in the grapes absorb
microwave energy resulting in rapid evaporation. Microwave heating often produces puffy raisins.
Storing organic raisins
: General rules of storing home dehydrated
fruits are one month at room temperature and about a year in the freezer.
Be sure to keep your newly-made organic raisins in an airtight container.
If you’re storing the raisins at room temperature, be sure to do it in a cool, dark place.
Fermentation - Controlled Decay
is a metabolic process
, gases, or
It occurs in yeast
, and also in oxygen-starved muscle
cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation is also
used more broadly to refer to the bulk
growth of microorganisms on a
, often with the goal of producing a specific chemical product.
is a metabolic process by which glucose and other
six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose
or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate,
which is lactic acid in solution. It is an anaerobic fermentation reaction
that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells, such as muscle cells. If
oxygen is present in the cell, many organisms will bypass fermentation and
undergo cellular respiration; however, facultative anaerobic organisms
will both ferment and undergo respiration in the presence of oxygen.
Sometimes even when oxygen is present and aerobic metabolism is happening
in the mitochondria, if pyruvate is building up faster than it can be
metabolized, the fermentation will happen anyway. Lactate dehydrogenase
catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant
interconversion of NADH and NAD+. In homolactic fermentation, one molecule
of glucose is ultimately converted to two molecules of lactic acid.
Heterolactic fermentation, in contrast, yields carbon dioxide and ethanol
in addition to lactic acid, in a process called the phosphoketolase
or alcoholic fermentation, is a biological
process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into
cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
Because yeasts perform this conversion in the absence of oxygen, alcoholic
fermentation is considered an anaerobic process. It also takes place in
some species of fish (including goldfish and carp) where (along with
lactic acid fermentation) it provides energy when oxygen is scarce.
Ethanol fermentation has many uses, including the production of alcoholic
beverages, the production of ethanol fuel, and bread cooking.
, also called fermentation, occurs when
but there is no oxygen
a result, cells convert glucose into either ethanol or lactic acid.
Alcoholic respiration occurs in plants and yeast. Anaerobic respiration is
respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
Although oxygen is not used as the final electron acceptor, the process
still uses a respiratory electron transport
chain called physolmere; it is respiration without oxygen.
Lab Grown Meat
- Waste Energy
Fermentation on Wheels
Fermentation in Food Processing
is the process of converting
to alcohol or
organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts
—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that
the action of microorganisms is desired. The science of fermentation is
or zymurgy.Wild Fermented
like kimchi, sauerkraut, or pickles, tend to have a higher
diversity of microbes
than your store-bought, probiotic-infused yogurts. Whether each individual
strain in these foods is good for us is still unknown, but again, higher
diversity tends to be associated with better health.
Bacteria in fermented food signal the human immune system, explaining
. Ability to detect bacteria may have enabled human
ancestors to eat not-so-fresh food. Researchers have discovered that
humans and great apes possess a receptor on their cells that detects
metabolites from bacteria commonly found in fermented foods and triggers
movement of immune cells.
How microbes generate and use their energy to grow
. Researchers have
shed light on how bacteria and baker's yeast generate and use their energy
to grow. Knowing about cells' energy use is essential for industrial
biotech processes. Cells constantly generate high-energy molecules called
from the sugar glucose. ATP is the
cellular "food" consumed by the workers -- enzymes -- within cells. The
enzymes use this energy to build biomass or do other cellular work. The
more ATP available, the better the microbial workhorses perform in
fermentations; at least in principle -- many other aspects play a part as
well. Using a computational approach, the researchers found out that ATP
can be generated by either of two pathways: a high-yielding respiratory
pathway resulting in 23.5 ATP's per glucose molecule or a low-yielding
fermentative pathway, which only generates 11 ATP's per glucose molecule.
The two pathways supplement each other, but the researchers were able to
shift the natural balance between the two by changing the conditions of
the fermentation and the amount of sugar and protein available.
Furthermore, they showed that the high-yielding pathway needs more protein
mass than the low-yielding pathway for consuming glucose at the same rate.
They also showed that making some key enzymes perform better meant that
the cells changed from doing low yielding fermentative metabolism to
breathing through the high yielding respiratory metabolism. This shift
both results in more intracellular ATP, but also avoids the build-up of
fermentative byproducts; acetate in E. coli and ethanol in
is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and
typically beef or pork. Historically, salami was popular among southern
and central European peasants because it can be stored at room temperature
for up to 40 days once cut, supplementing a potentially meager or
inconsistent supply of fresh meat. Countries and regions across Europe
make their own traditional varieties of salami. The production of
fermented meat products goes back thousands of years because it was
quickly discovered that shelf-stable meat products could be produced by
adding salt to meat and subsequently dried or fermented. Fermentation
involves complex microbial ecosystems that combine bacteria, yeasts, and
is a process of preparing beef for consumption, mainly by
breaking down the connective tissue. Dry-aged beef is beef that has been
hung or placed on a rack to dry for several weeks. After the animal is
slaughtered and cleaned, it is hung as a full or half carcass. Primal
(large distinct sections) or sub primal cuts, such as strip loins, rib
eyes, and sirloin, are placed in a refrigerator unit, also known as a "hot
box". This process involves considerable expense, as the beef must be
stored near freezing temperatures. Subprimal cuts can be dry aged on racks
either in specially climate-controlled coolers or within a
moisture-permeable drybag. Moreover, only the higher grades of meat can be
dry aged, as the process requires meat with a large, evenly distributed
fat content. Because of this, dry-aged beef is seldom available outside of
steak restaurants and upscale butcher shops or groceries. The key effect
of dry aging is the concentration and saturation of the natural flavour,
as well as the tenderization of the meat texture. The process changes beef
by two means. Firstly, moisture is evaporated from the muscle. The
resulting process of desiccation creates a greater concentration of beef
flavour and taste. Secondly, the beef's natural enzymes break down the
connective tissue in the muscle, which leads to more tender beef. The
process of dry-aging usually also promotes growth of certain fungal (mold)
species on the external surface of the meat. This does not cause spoilage,
but rather forms an external "crust" on the meat's surface, which is
trimmed off when the meat is prepared for cooking. These fungal species
complement the natural enzymes in the beef by helping to tenderize and
increase the flavor of the meat. The genus Thamnidium, in particular, is
known to produce collagenolytic enzymes which greatly contribute to the
tenderness and flavor of dry-aged meat.
Dried Meat Types
can have a negative health impact on us via our microbes, because they
produce a metabolite called TMAO, which has been linked to negative health
, is a microbial byproduct of
This metabolite is thought to promote
by contributing to cholesterol metabolism in heart
artery walls, as well as in the liver and intestines.
(knowledge and history)
Brewing hoppy beer without the hops
Berkeley scientists have found a way to avoid expensive, variable and
water-intensive hops by endowing yeast with the ability to create a hoppy
flavor use yeast instead of hops to impart flavor and aroma. The
engineered yeast strains were altered using
. The two other
genes were from yeast and boosted the production of precursor molecules
needed to make linalool and geraniol, the hoppy flavor components. The
yeast cells then translated the Cas9 gene into the Cas9 proteins, which
cut the yeast DNA at specific points. Yeast repair enzymes then spliced in the four genes plus promoters.
Food Storage Tips
Refrigeration Not Needed
- Fruit or vegetables that can be
stored at room temperature
or cool pantry without
refrigerating. Avocados, Apricots, Tomatoes, Bananas,
Citrus Fruits, Garlic, Kiwi, Whole Melons, Nectarines, Onions, Pears,
Peaches, Plums, pineapples, potatoes.
Foods that don't need Refrigeration
that should be refrigerated
Apples, Beans, berries, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery,
cherries, corn, cucumbers, eggplant, grapes, jalapenos, leafy greens,
Ways to make foods stay fresh longer
(big-5)Meat & Poultry
should be kept in its original package if
you’ll use it within 2 days. (Re-wrapping increases the risk of
exposing the food to harmful bacteria.) Otherwise, wrap it in foil and
freeze. Wrap smoked meats (bacon, ham, etc.) in a vinegar soaked cloth
then in wax paper and store in the fridge. Bacon can be frozen for up
to a month. More Tips
should be kept in a bag on top of a bowl of ice
and eaten as soon as possible. You can also freeze fish or broil it
and store in the fridge.Tomatoes
, Roast slices or chunks
about-to-go-bad, then store them in olive oil in the fridge, where
they’ll keep for about a week.
, Keep away from other foods.
Apples give off ethylene gas, which can cause foods to spoil. If they
get too soft, just cook them! An apple tree can yield up to 15-20 bushels
of fruit per year. apple industry is estimated to be worth US $10 billion
a year.Fruit or
that go bad should
be separated from the others. Fruit or Vegetables should also be
separated from meats to prevent cross contamination.
Celery, Carrots and Radishes
, to keep fresh
longer, chop them and
store them in water in the fridge, which keeps them crisp for a
surprisingly long time.Bananas
, avoid separating until you
plan to eat them – they spoil less quickly in a bunch. Store bananas
at room temperature until they ripen. Freeze over-ripened bananas for
use in banana bread and other baked goods. Bananas can be frozen. First
peel and slice them and put them on a cookie sheet till frozen, then
store in a plastic container. Bananas should be Kept separate from other
produce because they release gas that speeds up ripening. Wrap
the crown of a bunch of bananas with plastic wrap. They’ll keep for
3-5 days longer than usual, which is especially helpful if you eat
organic bananas. Bananas also produce more
than any other fruit, so keep them isolated on the counter.
Potatoes and Onions
should not be stored together. Store potatoes with apples to keep them
from sprouting. When potatoes sprout, the starch in the potatoes is
converted into sugar. If the potato is firm, it has most of the nutrients
intact and can be eaten after removing the sprouted part. However, if the
potato is shrunken and wrinkled, it should not be eaten.Onions
last longer in a paper bag stored in a cool
Triple the life of by storing them in a jar
of water on the counter. The green onions will keep growing as you
snip the tips for fresh eating.Berries
should be eaten right
away, But they will last longer if washed in a 10 to 1 water and white
vinegar, dry them and then store.Lettuce
will last longer when
the container is lined with a clean towels and then spread loosely in
even layers in a sealed container. Chopped or sliced produce spoils
faster, Only cut them when you are ready to eat them. Lettuce needs
moisture to stay fresh and will quickly wilt if it dehydrates. Wrap
lettuce in damp towels and store in a plastic bag. If salad greens begin
to wilt, soak them in ice water to crisp them up before fixing a
salad.Kale, Collards and Swiss Chard
, After trimming the ends,
store in the fridge in a glass of water with a loose bag over the top.
last longer when they are treated like flowers. Place stems in a
glass of water and cover the top with a small clean towel. Oily herbs
like thyme can be tied loosely together with string and hung in the
open air. The best way to keep herbs fresh is to by storing them in
whole bunches. First wash them, then seal them in zip lock bags and
place them in the freezer. Storing them this way should keep them at
peak freshness for up to a month. When you are ready to use them,
you’ll find they are actually easier to chop frozen – and they’ll
defrost in a hurry once you toss them into a hot pan. Freeze and preserve fresh herbs in
olive oil. The herbs will infuse the oil while freezing, and the ice
cubes are very handy for cooking: just pop one out and use as the base
of a dish. Works best with rosemary, sage, thyme, and oregano. Dill,
basil, and mint should always be used fresh.
slipping a bay leaf into your storage container. The scent of the bay
leave will help repel the bugs.
summer or winter, Rub whole with vegetable oil and store them in the
pantry, where they’ll last for several months.
can be kept in the
, treat like cut flowers. Asparagus will last longer
if its thick ends sit in cold water.Avocados
longer if coated slightly with oil before storing in the fridge. Store
avocadoes unbagged in the refrigerator.Garlic
, Do not store in a
sealed container. Fresh bulbs can be stored in a wire or mesh basket
or even a paper bag.Mushrooms
will last longer in a paper bag, or
by wrapping them in paper towels before refrigerating.
Storage for Large amounts of Food
keep in the main part of the fridge compartment if you have the space.
When milk is stored in the door rack it’s warmed by the ambient air of the
kitchen whenever the fridge door is opened.
that is soft
should be right away. Hard cheese lasts longer. Make sure to wrap all
cheese securely in wax paper or cheese paper before storing it in the
refrigerator, which allows it to breathe without letting in excess
moisture or odors from your fridge. You can also rub butter on the cut
parts of hard cheeses to prevent them from drying out. You can also freeze
cheese.Cottage Cheese or Sour Cream
last longer when you place
the container upside down in the fridge. Inverting the tub creates a
vacuum that inhibits the growth of bacteria that causes food to spoil.
, store in its original packaging. Stock up on butter when it’s
on sale – you can store it in the freezer for up to six months. Pack
the butter in an airtight container, so it doesn’t take on the flavor
of whatever else you’re freezing.Eggs
that are raw could last
4 weeks in the fridge. Store eggs in their original carton. If you’re
unsure of an egg’s freshness, see how it behaves in a cup of water:
Fresh eggs sink; bad ones float.
are great for storing
food. They provide a healthier and longer-lasting alternative to
plastic tupperware, which deteriorates and stains easily. Produce will
keep a few days longer if stored in a jar.Roast
as you get home from the store, then store them in the freezer. Nuts
that are roasted have more flavor, keep longer, and can always be used
in recipes that call for nuts, roasted or otherwise. Spread them in a
single layer on a sheet pan, bake in a 350 degree oven for 15 minutes, or
until golden brown and fragrant.Flour
, Freeze for 48 hours to
kill any insect eggs that might be present. Then, place in a
tight-sealing container; and store in a cool, dry spot away from
, storing in the refrigerator
can actually make it
spoil more quickly. Your best bet is to store bread on the kitchen
counter in a tightly sealed bag or container. But if you are just toasting
your bread, then the fridge will work fine
is a chemical and physical process in
and other foods that reduces their palatability. Stale bread is dry and
revive day-old, sprinkle them with water, place in a paper bag, and
pop in a hot oven for five to 10 minutes. The steam created by the water
will restore moisture. Snacks
, pasta, half-empty bags of
cereal, pretzels and other dry foods last longer by transferring into
air-tight containers after opening the original packaging. Mason jars
make great air-tight pantry storage.
, Store in an airtight,
opaque container to preserver flavor and freshness. Buy coffee in
whole bean form and grind enough for one pot at a time. If you buy
more coffee than you can use in 3-4 days, store in an airtight
container in the freezer.
, anybody that lives in the south
where the humidity is particularly high probably has had their salt
shakers clog up. If you put a little bit of dry rice in the shaker it
will stop the salt from hardening.
, Keeping brown sugar in
the freezer will stop it from hardening. But if you already have
hardened sugar on your shelf, soften it by sealing in a bag with a
slice of fresh bread or an apple – or by microwaving on high for 30
is the only nonperishable food substance, so don’t
get rid of the stuff if it crystallizes or becomes cloudy. Microwave
on medium heat, in 30-second increments, to make honey clear again.
Clean and prep fresh food as soon as you get it into the kitchen,
making it much less likely you’ll let it spoil.
Before you go shopping for food, move all your
older foods to the front
, so that you can eat them first before they
go to waste.
Don't throw out bruised or dented fruits and
vegetables. They can be just as tasty! Just be sure to remove all
bruised areas during preparation.
Don't shop hungry! Eat a piece
of fruit or some vegetables before going to the grocery store to avoid
hunger-based impulse buys.
Plan ahead! Make a detailed food plan
for the week or month and buy only what you can store or use within
that time. Calculate your Food Budget
Make regular grocery lists
and stick to them. To avoid buying less healthy and more costly items,
make regular grocery lists of essential items that keep you healthy
[like fruits and vegetables], and stick to them.
Make a list of the
healthier, less expensive foods and recipes your family likes to eat.
Add that list of foods to your regular grocery list.
Keep your eye
on expiration dates
when you shop.
Buy locally. If you can grow
them yourself, the next best option is locally grown produce. It lasts
much longer than supermarket fare, which has already traveled long
distances before it gets to your kitchen.
Shop in season at
farmers’ markets. Many farmers’ markets offer WIC or Senior coupons
for the produce. Contact your local health department to find out more
Stick to the outside aisles
when shopping at the grocery store. This is where the fresh produce
and food items are and it’s healthier to avoid the expensive,
processed foods that are located in the inside aisles. Go down only
those aisles that have items you need, like canned veggies and fruits.
Buy frequently-used ingredients in bulk [e.g. beans and frozen
Canned fruits and vegetables matter. Canned vegetables
[such as low-sodium tomatoes] and canned fruits in juice will last a
long time, and can be a healthy addition to a variety of meals. Stock
up when they are on sale.
Always keep frozen fruit on hand. It’s
easy to store and will be available when you’re ready to add it to a
meal or use it for a healthy dessert.
Clearly label your foods
before you store them. When storing fruits and vegetables in the
freezer or refrigerator, clearly label them with contents and the date
to stay within a safe and tasty timeframe.
for Meats. Meats are more expensive but beans are an excellent protein
substitute, and vegetables and fruits add flavor, texture and
Try new fruits and vegetables! You might find a new
family favorite. To minimize waste, buy new foods in smaller amounts
that are easy on your budget.
Skip the Cake ... but you don't
have to skip dessert! Fruits are a delicious and cheap alternative to
more costly desserts.
more dried goods. [such as dried fruit and beans and legumes] that store
well through all seasons. Beans and legumes are also a cheaper protein
option than meat.
Add dried fruit to make any meal or snack
healthier. They last for a long time and taste great too! Buy a large
package of raisins or other dried fruit, such as cherries, cranberries
or apricots, then add to cereals, salads, peanut butter sandwiches or
sweet and savory dinner sauces.
Look for deals and sales at your
grocery store. Check your local grocery store coupons for sales on
seasonal produce, or take advantage of overstock discounts. See Fruits
& Vegetables on a Budget
Use coupons only for items that are on
your list! This will help to avoid buying extra, unhealthy foods.
Save with store brands. Store brands can be a great budget choice for
many forms of fruits and vegetables that are just as tasty and healthy
for you as fresh!
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- Nutrition and
- Farming Knowledge