Governments - Corporations


U.S. CongressGovernment is a collective group of people that are involved in decision-making that's in the best interest of a country, state or city. Responsibilities include providing safety for its citizens and providing the needs of its citizens. Governments are also responsible for making laws and making sure that everyone is in compliance of these laws. Responsibilities also include keeping citizens informed and up-to-date on important matters that are happening locally and globally. Other Government responsibilities include the management of the money supply as well as the collection of taxes that will be use to maintain infrastructure and industries that are needed to provide the necessary services for every man, women and child. Well, that's what it is supposed to be anyway, but we have serious problems that are undermining our governments responsibilities to its citizens. Problems like corruption from wealthy and powerful influences like corporations.

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Everyone should learn to understand the inner workings of a Government and the politics that surround it, as well as all the responsibilities that everyone shares, which is a lot more then just voting once every couple of years. You need to do some fact checking every now and then. Involve in local Government - Get Involved - Civic Duty.

Political Systems - Types of Governments - Democracy - Open

We need to stop using words like left and right to describe people, who may have particular beliefs that may differ in some ways than other ways. This type of labeling is over-simplifying and it also makes the assumption that there is no middle ground or that there is no agreements of any kind. People all over the world have many things that they can agree on. But there are things that need to be discussed and looked at very carefully. This is why language and communication is so extremely important. We can no longer take for granted our responsibility to learn and progress. We can no longer pretend that we know enough or understand enough about each other and the world around us. We have to take life seriously if we seriously want to live. Live in peace and live in harmony. Live, Learn, Love and Progress. There is no Left or Right, there is only Good and Bad. So we need to remove these ignorant labels that only helps to divide people. Even the word independent is over-simplified. We have over-simplified too many labels. We need to return to our definitions and stop being so general and vague.

Conflict of Interest - Contradictions - Corruption - Secrecy - Split Decisions

Accountability - Watchdogs - Petitions - Departments - Immigration - Healthcare

Government should not be a house of mirrors where people are given the run around when seeking answers. Evasion is a clear sign that someone is lying or hiding corruption.



Search for Elected Officials - Find Your Local Politician


Voting Records Common Cause can help you can find your representatives, how to contact them, bills they've introduced, committees they serve on, and political contributions they've received. Transparency.

How to Contact Your Elected Officials.

Who Represents Me? -Ballot Pedia - Portal: WikiFOIA.

Beyond Transparency are tools that foster civic participation, civic education, government transparency and collaboration.

Freedom of Information Act is a law that gives you the right to access information from the federal government. It is often described as the law that keeps citizens in the know about their government.

Politician Search - Candidate Tracking Tool (PDF) - Federal Register - Gov Pulse.us

Inside Gov - Gov Track.us - Open 311 - 23 Senators are at least 70. Seven are 80 or older.

Fed Ramp - Voting Records - District Maps (Gerry Mandering)

A Starting Point is a video-based civic engagement platform created by Chris Evans, Mark Kassen, and technology entrepreneur Joe Kiani. ASP’s mission is to create a bipartisan channel of communication and connectivity between Americans and their elected officials with the goal of creating a more informed electorate.



Oversight - Watch Dogs - Regulate


Unbalanced Representation Crime Prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice. Investigators.

Watchdog is a person who maintains surveillance over a person, activity, or situation. Making sure that there's transparency and that people are being held accountable for their actions.

Whistle Blowers - Corporate Watch Dogs - Red Flag Warning

Oversight is managing and overseeing the performance or the operation of a person or group. An unintentional failure to notice or do something. A mistake resulting from inattention.

Overseeing is to watch and direct. Regulate.

Investigative Journalism - Right to Information - Whitewashing - FBI - CIA - IRS

Anti-Corruption comprise activities that oppose or inhibit corruption. Just as corruption takes many forms, anti-corruption efforts vary in scope and in strategy. A general distinction between preventive and reactive measures is sometimes drawn. In such framework, investigative authorities and their attempts to unveil corrupt practices would be considered reactive, while education on the negative impact of corruption, or firm-internal compliance programs are classified as the former. Anti-Corruption Agencies (wiki).

Ombudsman is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of mal-administration or a violation of rights. Ombudsman is a government appointee who investigates complaints by private persons against a corporation or a government. Someone appointed internally by an organization to handle complaints and manage internal conflict resolution. The ombudsman is usually appointed by the government or by parliament but with a significant degree of independence. In some countries, an inspector general, citizen advocate or other official may have duties similar to those of a national ombudsman and may also be appointed by a legislature. Below the national level, an ombudsman may be appointed by a state, local, or municipal government. Unofficial ombudsmen may be appointed by, or even work for, a corporation such as a utility supplier, newspaper, NGO, or professional regulatory body. The typical duties of an ombudsman are to investigate complaints and attempt to resolve them, usually through recommendations (binding or not) or mediation. Ombudsmen sometimes also aim to identify systemic issues leading to poor service or breaches of people's rights. At the national level, most ombudsmen have a wide mandate to deal with the entire public sector, and sometimes also elements of the private sector (for example, contracted service providers). In some cases, there is a more restricted mandate, for example with particular sectors of society. More recent developments have included the creation of specialized Children's Ombudsman and Information Commissioner agencies. Members of the United States Congress serve as federal-level ombudsmen in their oversight capacity over federal agencies, and employ staff specifically dedicated to legal compliance enforcement and investigations of maladministration on behalf of constituents. In the United States there is no unified federal ombudsman service. The role of handling complaints against federal authorities has to some extent been unofficially incorporated into the role of the US Member of Congress. This informal job has become increasingly time consuming. It is subject to criticism on the grounds that it interferes with a legislator's primary duty, namely to read and be knowledgeable about a bill before casting his or her vote. Coalition of Federal Ombudsmen (CFO) - promoting and assisting ombudsmen in federal government institutions. United States Ombudsman Association (USOA) - Promoting and supporting fairness, accountability, and equity in government through the public sector ombudsman. The National Association of State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Programs (NASOP). The International Ombudsman Association (IOA) - a professional organization committed to supporting organizational ombuds worldwide. The Organization of News Ombudsmen and Standards Editors.

Some People Can't Play Nice or Follow the Rules. So citizens are forced to monitor suspected criminals and citizens are sometimes forced to take legal action against corrupt people because there is no government service or attorney general that would enforce the law or bring justice to certain people who break the law. People can easily be above the law when there is no one there to enforce the law. But even when people are available to enforce the law, people who are privileged or powerful can easily manipulate the justice system. These are serious problems that require serious actions. It is now the responsibility of the citizens to make sure that there is proper and fair legal services in their community. Accountability must be enforced, because when it's not, innocent people will continue to be victimized.

Complaints by Private Persons (lawsuits) - Maladministration - Citizen Advocate - Investigate into complaints against Government Institutions - People's Rights - Injustice - Free Speech Monitoring - Commenting (feedback)

Secret Law refers to legal authorities that require compliance that are classified or otherwise withheld from the public. Since about 2015 the branches of the United States federal government have accused one another of creating secret law. Journalists, scholars, and anti-secrecy activists have also made similar allegations. Scholarly analysis has shown that secret law is present in all three branches. Loopholes and Rackets.

Inspector General is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. An inspector general leads an organization charged with examining the actions of a government agency, military organization, or military contractor as a general auditor of their operations to ensure they are operating in compliance with generally established policies of the government, to audit the effectiveness of security procedures, or to discover the possibility of misconduct, waste, fraud, theft, or certain types of criminal activity by individuals or groups related to the agency's operation, usually involving some misuse of the organization's funds or credit. In the United States, there are numerous offices of inspector general at the federal, state, and local levels; the Office of the Inspector General of the United States Army is a military example. Attorney General.

Inspector General of the Intelligence Community provides broad authorities for overseeing programs, promoting efficiencies, and detecting fraud, waste, and mismanagement throughout the federal government. The 2010 Intelligence Authorization Act formally established the Office of the Inspector General of the Intelligence Community within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. In accordance with Title 50 U.S.C.A. § 3033, the Intelligence Community Inspector General (ICIG) conducts independent and objective audits, investigations, inspections, and reviews to promote economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and integration across the Intelligence Community.

Government Waste - Judicial Watch - Judges

Internal Affairs refers to a division of a law enforcement agency that investigates incidents and possible suspicions of law-breaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force. It is thus a mechanism of limited self-governance, "a police force policing itself". In different systems, internal affairs can go by other names such as Internal Investigations Division or IID, professional standards, inspectorate general, Office of Professional Responsibility, Internal Review Board, or similar. Due to the sensitive nature of this responsibility, in many departments, officers employed in an internal affairs unit are not in a detective command but report directly to the agency's chief, or to a board of civilian police commissioners. Internal affairs investigators are bound by stringent rules when conducting their investigations. In California, the Peace Officers Bill of Rights is a mandated set of rules found in the Government Code.

Internal Watchdogs are not always trust worthy. Like when scumbag pharmaceutical company's do their own testing, they can easily lie and cherry pick data. Criminals make false claims, that's what they do. Who's checking the fact checker? Repeatability.

Hold Politicians Accountable - Watchdog.net - Budget (money)

Judiciary Committee is a committee of a legislative body that considers issues related to the legal system.

House Committee on the Judiciary is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives that is charged with overseeing the administration of justice within the federal courts, administrative agencies and Federal law enforcement entities. The Judiciary Committee is also the committee responsible for impeachments of federal officials. Because of the legal nature of its oversight, committee members usually have a legal background, but this is not required.

Senate Committee on the Judiciary is a standing committee of the United States Senate, of the United States Congress. a standing committee of 22 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation. The Judiciary Committee's oversight of the DOJ includes all of the agencies under the DOJ's jurisdiction, such as the FBI. It also has oversight of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The Committee considers presidential nominations for positions in the DOJ, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the State Justice Institute, and certain positions in the Department of Commerce and DHS. It is also in charge of holding hearings and investigating judicial nominations to the Supreme Court, the U.S. court of appeals, the U.S. district courts, and the Court of International Trade. The Standing Rules of the Senate confer jurisdiction to the Senate Judiciary Committee in certain areas, such as considering proposed constitutional amendments and legislation related to federal criminal law, human rights law, immigration, intellectual property, antitrust law, and internet privacy.

Complaint System is a set of procedures used in organizations to address complaints and resolve disputes. Complaint systems in the US have undergone several innovations especially since about 1970 with the advent of extensive workplace regulation. Notably in many countries, conflict management channels and systems have evolved from a major focus on labor-management relations to a much wider purview that includes unionized workers and also managers, non-union employees, professional staff, students, trainees, vendors, donors, customers, etc.

Congressional Oversight includes the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation. Congress exercises this power largely through its congressional committee system. Oversight also occurs in a wide variety of congressional activities and contexts. These include authorization, appropriations, investigative, and legislative hearings by standing committees; specialized investigations by select committees; and reviews and studies by congressional support agencies and staff. Congress’s oversight authority derives from its “implied” powers in the Constitution, public laws, and House and Senate rules. It is an integral part of the American system of checks and balances.

Oversight Hearings - Office of Special Counsel - Oversight.house.gov - Government Oversight.

United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. It is the primary committee in the U.S. House of Representatives charged with the oversight of the United States Intelligence Community, though it does share some jurisdiction with other committees in the House, including the Armed Services Committee for some matters dealing with the Department of Defense and the various branches of the U.S. military. House Intelligence Committee.

United States House Committee on Oversight and Reform is the main investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The committee's broad jurisdiction and legislative authority make it one of the most influential and powerful panels in the House. Its chairman is one of only three in the House with the authority to issue subpoenas without a committee vote or consultation with the ranking member. However, in recent history, it has become practice to refrain from unilateral subpoenas.

Checks and Balances is the principle that each of the Branches has the power to limit or check the other two and this creates a balance between the three separate powers of the state, this principle induces that the ambitions of one branch prevent that one of the other branches becomes supreme, and thus be eternally confronting each other and in that process leaving the people free from government abuses.  Where are the Checks and Balances in your Mind?

Separation of Powers refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another. The intent is to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances. Separation of powers is when a state's government is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers associated with the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in parliamentary systems and semi-presidential systems where the executive and legislative branches overlap. Separation of powers, therefore, refers to the division of responsibilities into distinct branches of government to limit any one branch from exercising the core functions of another. The intent of separation of powers is to prevent the concentration of unchecked power by providing for checks and balances to avoid autocracy, over-reaching by one branch over another, and the attending efficiency of governing by one actor without need for negotiation and compromise with any other. The separation of powers model is often imprecisely and metonymically used interchangeably with the trias politica principle. While the trias politica model is a common type of model, there are governments which utilize bipartite, rather than tripartite, systems as mentioned later in the article.

People are Watching the Government, but we still don't know hardly anything about what's happening or why it's happening. The good news is, there are thousands of people who are working to improve the system, and also trying to educate more people.

U.S. Office of Government Ethics (gov) - Better Business Bureau - Consumer Protection

United States Postal Inspection Service is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. Its jurisdiction is defined as "crimes that may adversely affect or fraudulently use the U.S. Mail, the postal system or postal employees." The mission of the U.S. Postal Inspection Service is to support and protect the U.S. Postal Service, its employees, infrastructure, and customers by enforcing the laws that defend the nation's mail system from illegal or dangerous use. In fiscal year 2014, USPIS had 2,376 field employees, a decline of 44.7% from fiscal year 1995. (A figure which doesn’t include headquarters staff.) In 2008, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service had 2,288 full-time personnel with the authority to make arrests and carry firearms on duty. This represented a 23.1% drop over the previous five years. Fraud: These types of investigation involve crimes that use the mails to facilitate fraud against consumers, business and government. Federal statutes that surround these types of investigations include, mail fraud, and other criminal statutes when they are tied to the mails such as bank fraud, identity theft, credit card fraud, wire fraud, and Internet/computer fraud. Mail fraud is a statute that is used in prosecuting many white collar crimes, this would include, Ponzi schemes, 419 frauds, and other white collar crimes where the mail was used to facilitate the fraud including public corruption (under the "Honest Services" provision of the federal fraud statutes). In the 1960s and 70s, inspectors under regional chief postal inspectors such as Martin McGee, known as "Mr. Mail Fraud," exposed and prosecuted numerous swindles involving land sales, phony advertising practices, insurance ripoffs and fraudulent charitable organizations using mail fraud charges. McGee is credited with assisting in the conviction of former Illinois Governor Otto Kerner on mail fraud charges. Inspectors General - Postal Inspectors.

The Trump administration has stopped cooperating with UN investigators over potential human rights violations occurring inside America. The state department has ceased to respond to official complaints from UN special rapporteurs, the network of independent experts who act as global watchdogs on fundamental issues such as poverty, migration, freedom of expression and justice. There has been no response to any such formal query since 7 May 2018, with at least 13 requests going unanswered. Nor has the Trump administration extended any invitation to a UN monitor to visit the US to investigate human rights inside the country since the start of Donald Trump’s term two years ago in January 2017. Two UN experts have made official fact-finding visits under his watch – the special rapporteurs on extreme poverty and privacy – but both were invited initially by Barack Obama, who hosted 16 such visits during his presidency.

Activism.net - Ruckus Society - Free Speech Zone

Self Regulation only works when there's trust and only when people take full responsibility for their actions. If certain people can be manipulated by money or coerced by powerful and corrupt influences, then those people can't be trusted. Some people can't police themselves if they act like criminals and believe that they're above the law. That's like having the Fox Guard the Hen House, it's just stupid. But this is how some aspects of government works, it's insane.

Missed Votes Roll Call Votes is a vote in which each senator votes "yea" or "nay" as his or her name is called by the clerk, so that the names of senators voting on each side are recorded. Under the Constitution, a roll call vote must be held if demanded by one-fifth of a quorum of senators present, a minimum of 11.

OBM Watch
Citizens United
Pro Publica
Foreign Lobbying
Foreign Open Source
Sunlight Foundation
Source Watch
State Watch (Europe)
PR Watch
Freedom Watch USA
Map Light
Little Sis
Public Accountability
How we know us
Participatory Politics
Gov Track
Big Government
Government Docs
Electronic Frontier Foundation - Copyrights
Center for Social Media

Federal Register (gov)

Opportunity Solutions Project is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocacy organization that seeks to improve lives by advocating for public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, individual liberty, and a limited, accountable government.

Libera. Associazioni, nomi e numeri contro le mafie is an Italian association that promotes outreach activities and various types of protest action against the Mafia phenomenon, Italian organized crime, and organized crime in general.

Internet Privacy - Internet Safety - Activism (knowledge base)

Graph and Chart Samples - Government Printing Office (GPO)

Validity - Ratings - Surveys

Watchdog Work is generally performed either by nonprofit organizations that monitor specific government or industry actions, or by special government officials known as “inspectors general” who are tasked with ensuring that the government operates in compliance with customary laws and policies and without waste, fraud, or theft of taxpayer money. Critically monitoring the activities of governments, industry, courts or other organizations and alerting the public or taking legal action when the activities appear to go against the public interest. Attorneys working with non-governmental organizations may: file complaints with government agencies and legislative committees to bring issues to the public’s attention and force agencies and/or legislatures to conduct investigations; submit Freedom of Information Act requests to government agencies requesting documents on a wide variety of issues; pursue litigation as necessary to force government agencies, industry, or other organizations to fulfill their legal duties. Attorneys working in Inspector General offices may: investigate and address complaints concerning the agency’s actions; conduct audits and evaluations of agency expenditures; draft reports conveying to the agency the results of the office’s audits/investigations and recommending remedial procedures to be taken by the agency.

Government Procurement is the procurement of goods, services and construction on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency. With 10 to 20% of GDP, government procurement accounts for a substantial part of the global economy. To prevent fraud, waste, corruption, or local protectionism, the laws of most countries regulate government procurement to some extent. Laws usually require the procuring authority to issue public tenders if the value of the procurement exceeds a certain threshold. Government procurement is also the subject of the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), a plurilateral international treaty under the auspices of the WTO.



Accountability - Responsible


Why they Vote Government Accountability Office is a government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress. It is the supreme audit institution of the federal government of the United States.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (gov) - Government Accountability Project (wiki)

Accountable (politics) - How to Hold Politicians Accountable (how to)

United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform - Like having a Fox Guard the Henhouse.

Conflict of Interest is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another. Typically, this relates to situations in which the personal interest of an individual or organization might adversely affect a duty owed to make decisions for the benefit of a third party. The presence of a conflict of interest is independent of the occurrence of impropriety. Therefore, a conflict of interest can be discovered and voluntarily defused before any corruption occurs. A conflict of interest exists if the circumstances are reasonably believed (on the basis of past experience and objective evidence) to create a risk that a decision may be unduly influenced by other, secondary interests, and not on whether a particular individual is actually influenced by a secondary interest. A widely used definition is: "A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest." Primary interest refers to the principal goals of the profession or activity, such as the protection of clients, the health of patients, the integrity of research, and the duties of public officer. Secondary interest includes personal benefit and is not limited to only financial gain but also such motives as the desire for professional advancement, or the wish to do favors for family and friends. These secondary interests are not treated as wrong in and of themselves, but become objectionable when they are believed to have greater weight than the primary interests. Conflict of interest rules in the public sphere mainly focus on financial relationships since they are relatively more objective, fungible, and quantifiable, and usually involve the political, legal, and medical fields.

Watch Dogs - Consumer Protection

The elections of 1994 demonstrated the power of constituent organizing (mostly done by the right wing), the dissatisfaction of many voters with the current work of elected officials, and the importance of participating in the electoral process. In very few races were housing issues even discussed, except in the general context of slashing government spending. Now in the aftermath of the elections, we see low-income housing under attack.

We can mourn the state of affairs, or we can use the elections as a wake-up call. We must make housing a political issue, and we can begin by holding our elected officials accountable. This is no easy task. It requires consistent vigilance and hard work. And yet, if we want a more just society in which everyone is adequately housed, we must hold them accountable.

Sadly most elected officials care about one thing, votes. The keys to votes – and to the power needed to hold elected officials accountable – are people and money. Housing activists need to learn how to use these keys to influence elected officials. Use this four-step process to analyze your potential to hold your elected officials accountable and visibly demonstrate your organization's power.


Holding Politicians Accountable


1. Analyze Elected Officials. Learn as much as possible about your elected officials. Learning about them one-by-one is crucial, because elections are held ward-by-ward or district-by-district. By how much did the elected official win the election? The smaller the victory, the better for you – he or she will be eager to hear from constituents. Who were the primary groups of people supporting the elected official? How many were "hard core" supporters and how many were possible swing voters? What are the elected official's positions on your issues? Are they firm ideologi-cally, or are they more flexible depending upon the voters' positions? Where did the elected official's money come from? Is any of it from groups that oppose you? Is there evidence to suggest that the elected official is "bought" by moneyed interests?

Government Accountability Office - Government Watch Dogs - Transparency - Openness

2. Analyze Your Supporters and Potential Supporters. Who are the people who care most about your issues? Money and votes flow from the committed supporters. Who else might care about your issues? What other groups might be willing to vote based at least in part upon your issues? Are your supporters and potential supporters registered to vote, and did they vote in the last election? Did any of your supporters or potential supporters contribute money to their elected official? How can we "cut" our issues so they appeal to a broad segment of voters? In order to be successful in the long run, we need a majority in the district or ward supporting our positions. This means we have to define our issues more broadly to unite poor and working class families. If not, they'll be pitted against one another, and we all lose.

3. Make a Plan. Is your elected official strong on your issues, and has he or she won the election by a wide margin? If so, keep up the good work. Maintain a relationship with the elected official and help that person strengthen the base in the community, but focus more attention on other, less agreeable or less popular elected officials. Is your elected official a supporter of your issues who won by a small margin? If so, you will need to shore up his or her support. Make sure your supporters are registered and come out to vote. Register other voters. Educate potential supporters about your positions and the importance of having your elected official's support. Is your elected official flexible (a moderate), depending upon the perceived interests of the district? You must demonstrate that a sizable portion of the district cares about your issues. The closer the election, the more the elected official cares about groups of voters; however, you must make sure that your group's support doesn't diminish the elected official's support from another group. If it does, you will have to demonstrate that votes and money support your position. Is your elected official indifferent or adverse to your issues while having won the election by a small margin? Unless you think the elected official is redeemable, it is probably best to begin looking for another candidate to support and begin educating the voters about the official's position on your issues, so they will vote for an alternative candidate in the next election. Does your elected official oppose your issues but enjoy wide electoral support? This is the worst situation. Unless a very large number of unregistered voters could be registered and mobilized, you may want to consider focusing your efforts on other districts.

4. Demonstrate Your Power. It is not enough to have the people and campaign contributors on your side, you must visibly demonstrate that power. A few tried and true tactics for demonstrating your power include: Voter-registration drives. Make sure all new supporters are registered. Turn out the vote campaigns. Except in times of high publicity and high voter turnout, a well-orchestrated campaign to turn out the vote is an effective demonstration of power. Orchestrate communication with elected officials to help them gauge their constituents' concerns. Personal letters get the most weight, but they are hardest to generate. Postcards or petitions are less influential unless people send them in large quantities. It may be easier to collect 5000 postcards than 50 personal letters. Ideally, collect both. Use the phone and fax also. Seek quantity rather than quality. Politicians are seldom moved by the merits of the position, but they may well be moved by the breadth of constituent interest. Town hall meetings. Turn your supporters out to these meetings. Wear visible buttons or pins. Grab the mikes early and ask your questions. Be a visible force. Media coverage. Issues covered by the media are believed to concern constituents. Have supporters write letters to the editor (the second most widely read section of the paper), seek editorial board endorsements, write guest editorials. Try to get media coverage of every event possible demonstrating public support for your issues. Media coverage gives the impression of broad support and educates potential supporters. Accountability sessions. Ask the elected official to commit to your issue at a well-planned, large meeting between your supporters and the official. Invite the media and large segments of the community. These meetings are effective ways to demonstrate power and work especially well with flexible elected officials who won close election races.

"Government Failures are also the failures of Citizens. We have to take certain responsibilities out of the hands of incompetent and criminal people, and share these responsibilities among citizens."

April 15th is Representation Day: An annual national day of action to build power for the grassroots movement to fix America's corrupt political system. This year, Representation Day coincides with Democracy Spring and Democracy Awakening in Washington D.C.

Exploiting ignorant people, just so you can spread even more ignorance, and do it for money, now that’s just insane and also the kind of Psychopathic Behavior that is really damaging to society. It's also a direct threat to humanity. But hey that’s politics for you, and that’s also TV too. But simply changing the channel will not fix the problem, nor would simply voting for someone else change anything. You have to take Action. And the first action you take is to educate yourself so that you can have a clear understanding about the Choices that you must make, because no one is going to do it for you. Inspiration 101.



Open Accessible Government - Openness - Transparency


How Politicians Voted Open Government holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight.

Open Government Initiative - Open Governance - Open Source Curriculum - Information Stations.

Open Source Governance enables any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy.

Open Society where individuals are confronted with personal decisions, would keep no secrets from itself in the public sense, as all are trusted with the knowledge of all.

Direct Democracy - Social Learning - Consensus Decision-Making - Currency Alternatives - Self-Management

Transparency is free unrestricted access to knowledge and information, as well as collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority.

Oversight CommitteeTransparency - Open Congress - Open Secrets - Freedom of Information

Right to know is the legal principle that the individual has the right to know the chemicals to which they may be exposed in their daily living. It is embodied in federal law in the United States as well as in local laws in several states. "Right to Know" laws take two forms: Community Right to Know and Workplace Right to Know. Each grants certain rights to those groups.

Decentralization is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.

Open Systems Interconnection is an effort to standardize computer networking that was started in 1977 by the International Organization for Standardization.

Public Relations is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization.

Open Data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.

Access to Knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development.

Freedom of Information the right to privacy in the content of the internet and information technology. As with the right to freedom of expression.

Open Science make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional.

Open Science Data is publishing observations and results of scientific activities available for anyone to analyze and reuse.

Science Commons strategies and tools for faster, more efficient web-enabled scientific research. The organization's goals were to identify unnecessary barriers to research, craft policy guidelines and legal agreements to lower those barriers, and develop technology to make research data and materials easier to find and use. Its overarching goal was to speed the translation of data into discovery and thereby the value of research.

Collaborative Innovation Network is a social construct used to describe innovative teams of self-motivated people with a collective vision, enabled by the Web to collaborate in achieving a common goal by sharing ideas, information, and work.

Open Knowledge promotes and shares information at no charge, including both content and data.

Gov Track.us began in 2004 as a project to use technology to make the U.S. Congress more open and accessible. Today we’re the leading non-governmental source of legislative information and statistics.

Media Transparency is determining how and why information is conveyed through various means.

Information Activists is someone who works to make information available to the general population.

Public Information officer's is to provide information to the media and public as required by law and according to the standards of their profession.

E-Governance is the use of electronic communications devices, computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens. Democracy.

Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area.

Internet Governance is the development and application of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet

US Action - Our Future - Ad Action - People for American Way - Independent Politics - America Speaks - Democracy Corps - No Labels - Common Cause - Policy.

Technical Information Service - General Services Admin - FEMA - U.S. Capital - Government Website - White House.gov - Washington DC - Washington D.C. Photos - America.gov - City Year - Recovery.gov - Change.gov - Bill Hammons - Federal Reporting - Library of Congress.

David Korten - Ralph Nader - Howard Zinn - Bernie Sanders - Bernie - Cynthia Mckinney - Ron Paul - For Liberty - Independent.

One of your most important responsibilities is to always be aware of what's happening in your countries leadership. There are crimes being committed and people area acting above the law, so they are not being held accountable. You also don't have justice when prosecutors and judges can be manipulated. And this is just the tip of the iceberg. If you're not working on educating people about the problems they face, those problems will keep repeating themselves as they are today. Peoples ability to understand pattern recognition has been corrupted. People are not learning enough. People have very little understanding of what's happening in their world and people don't understand their place in the world or how they fit in the scheme of things. It's all about making the best decision you can. Making a good decision is the end result of learning something valuable. But you can't make good decisions until you learn what those good decisions are. City Management.



Fact Checking


Fact-Checking is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise disseminated. Fact-checking may be done privately, such as when a magazine editor wants to verify the contents of a news article, either before or after publication. This is called internal fact-checking. Alternatively, the fact-checking analysis may be published, in which case it is called external fact-checking. Ante hoc fact-checking (fact-checking before dissemination) aims to remove errors and allow text to proceed to dissemination (or to rejection if it fails confirmations or other criteria). Post hoc fact-checking is most often followed by a written report of inaccuracies, sometimes with a visual metric from the checking organization (e.g., Pinocchios from The Washington Post Fact Checker, or TRUTH-O-METER ratings from PolitiFact). Several organizations are devoted to post hoc fact-checking, such as FactCheck.org and PolitiFact. Research on the impact of fact-checking is relatively recent but the existing research suggests that fact-checking does indeed correct misperceptions among citizens, as well as discourage politicians from spreading misinformation. Research Fraud - Propaganda - Attack Adds.



Fact Checking Resources


Fact Check - Politi Fact - Marist Poll - Ipsos market research

USA Facts federal, state and local data from over 70 government sources.

Data.gov - Government Open Data, not all the data is presented, and not all the data is calculated accurately, but it's a start. And what you start out with is not always what you end up with. - Propaganda Knowledge.

Research Resources (facts)

Independent Third Party Fact Checking - Peer Review - Journalism - Investigations - Activism

Wiki Tribune evidence-based journalism.

International Fact-Checking Network

Fact Scan fact Checking Canadian Politics

Mashup Data - Civic Impulse - Open Apps - Aristotle - Dod-Aristotle

CRG improves the quality of communities - through impactful research, analysis, consultation and data management for the public, nonprofit and philanthropic organizations that serve them. By defining transformative solutions for governments; schools; nonprofits; and key business / civic initiatives. By applying research and analysis to address the most critical issues communities and regions face. By improving government management; advancing economic competitiveness; promoting fiscal sustainability; and encouraging responsive community institutions. And above all, by empowering positive change for our clients, their organizations and the communities they serve. Our multi-disciplinary team brings deep policy, financial and analytical expertise, and an industry-leading reputation for objective, fact-based analysis and consulting in four practice areas: Government & Education, Economics & Public Finance, Health & Human Services and Nonprofits & Communities.



Petitions


Petition is a formal request in writing submitted to an authority requesting that something to be done or not to be done.

Activism - Watchdogs - Accountable

Freedom to Petition the Government is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals. The Article 44 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union ensures the right to petition to the European Parliament. The right can be traced back to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, the Bill of Rights 1689, the Petition of Right (1628), and Magna Carta (1215).

Request is a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority. To express the need or desire for something to improve. To question and ask for information. Freedom of Information Act.

Petition Resources - Start a Petition - Go Petition - I Petitions - Credo Action - Petition Spot - Sign on - Change.org - Mechanical Turk - Demand Progress - Causes - Daily Kos - Move On - Progress Now - Take Part

Relevance Today - Human Rights - Constitution - Activism - List of Peace Activists - List of Civil Rights Leaders.



Government Departments


Departments of the United States Government Government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state. Government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a means by which organizational policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority or tyranny. While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include monarchy, aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny. The main aspect of any philosophy of government is how political power is obtained, with the two main forms being electoral contest and hereditary succession. Administration.

Govern is to direct or strongly influence and exercise authority over the behavior of people who are responsible for managing a country, state or city. Governing may also include bring conformity with rules, principles or usage. To impose regulations and be able to make changes when needed. Governance are the persons, or committees or departments who make up a body for the purpose of administering something. Leadership.

Government Departments List (usa.gov) - 90,000 Jurisdictions and 23 Million Employees.

The Federal Government is the nation's single largest employer, although it employs only about 12% of all government employees, compared to 24% at the state level and 63% at the local level. Government employees in the United States includes the United States federal civil service, employees of the state governments of the United States, and employees of local government in the United States. Government employees are not necessarily the same as civil servants, as some jurisdictions specifically define which employees are civil servants; for example, it often excludes military employees. Government Employee is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector on behalf of a government department or agency. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not.

State is a politically organized body of people under a single government.

Federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government. Confirmation of Appointed Judges.

Definition of State and Local Government Employee (RS 01505.015). An officer of a state or political subdivision. (Section 218(b)(3)); Any officer of a corporation; Any individual, who, under the common law rules applicable in determining an employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee, (Section 210(j)(2)); and Any individual who performs services for remuneration for any person, (Section 210(j)(2).

Legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

Legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are often elected by the people of the state.

Legislative Branch is composed of Two Legislative Bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, and only rarely to a third party or as independents. Congress has 535 voting members: One Representative for every thirty thousand people in each state, and each State shall have at Least one Representative. California has 53 representatives. Congress has 435 Representatives and 100 Senators, two senators from each state. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members. These members can, however, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. These members represent Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Congress.org - Congress Link.

Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the House of Representatives, the lower chamber, composes the legislature of the United States. The annual salary of each senator, since 2009, is $174,000; the president pro tempore and party leaders receive $193,400. In June 2003, at least 40 of the then-senators were millionaires. Sometimes when Senators leave office they become lobbyist's for the same criminals they took bribes from. Standing Rules of the Senate are the parliamentary procedures adopted by the United States Senate that govern its procedure. The Senate's power to establish rules derives from Article One, Section 5 of the United States Constitution. Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, rules, and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies. Senate.gov.

Senator is a member of a senate. Senators have three qualifications, they must be at least 30 years old; they must have been citizens of the United States for the past nine years or longer; and they must be inhabitants of the states they seek to represent at the time of their election. The age and citizenship qualifications for senators are more stringent than those for representatives.

House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, which, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers which include the power to initiate all bills related to revenue, the impeachment of federal officers, who are sent to trial in the Senate, and in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for President, the duty falls upon the House to elect one of the top three recipients of electors for that office, with one vote given to each state for that purpose. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is therefore traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences, depending on whichever party has more voting members. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol. House.gov

Representatives have three qualifications to be a representatives. Each representative must be at least twenty-five years old; have been a citizen of the United States for the past seven years; and be an inhabitant of the state they represent at the time of the election.

Representative is a person who represents others or someone who advocates on the behalf of citizens who may have elected them to be their representative.

Congressman or Congresswoman is a member of the United States House of Representatives.

Federal Agencies - Cabinet - Oath of Office

Executive in government is the organ that exercises authority in and holds responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law.

Executive Branch: The executive power in the federal government is vested in the president of the United States, although power is often delegated to the cabinet members and other officials. The president and vice president are elected as running mates by the Electoral College, for which each state, as well as the District of Columbia, is allocated a number of seats based on its representation (or ostensible representation, in the case of D.C.) in both houses of Congress. The president is limited to a maximum of two four-year terms. If the president has already served two years or more of a term to which some other person was elected, he or she may only serve one more additional four-year term.

Judicial Branch: The Judiciary, under Article III of the Constitution, explains and applies the laws. This branch does this by hearing and eventually making decisions on various legal cases.

Federal Judiciary of the United States is one of the three branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government. Article III of the Constitution requires the establishment of a Supreme Court and permits the Congress to create other federal courts, and place limitations on their jurisdiction. Article III federal judges are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate to serve until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die. The federal courts are composed of three levels of courts. The United States district courts (one in each of the 94 federal judicial districts, and three territorial courts) are general federal trial courts, although in certain cases Congress has diverted original jurisdiction to specialized courts, such as the Court of International Trade, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, the Alien Terrorist Removal Court, or to Article I or Article IV tribunals. The district courts usually have jurisdiction to hear appeals from such tribunals (unless, for example, appeals are to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.) The United States courts of appeals are the intermediate federal appellate courts. They operate under a system of mandatory review which means they must hear all appeals of right from the lower courts. In some cases, Congress has diverted appellate jurisdiction to specialized courts, such as the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. The federal courts of appeals sit permanently in 13 appellate circuits (11 regional circuits as well as a DC Circuit and the Federal Circuit). Note that there are several other federal courts that bear the phrase "Court of Appeals" in their names, but they are not Article III courts and are not considered to sit in appellate circuits. The Supreme Court of the United States is the court of last resort. It generally hears appeals from the courts of appeals and sometimes state courts, operating under discretionary review, which means that the Supreme Court can choose which cases to hear, by granting writs of certiorari. There is therefore generally no basic right of appeal that extends automatically all the way to the Supreme Court. In a few situations (like lawsuits between state governments or some cases between the federal government and a state) it sits as a court of original jurisdiction. Other tribunals. Besides these federal courts, described as Article III courts, there are other adjudicative bodies described as Article I or Article IV courts in reference to the article of the Constitution from which the court's authority stems. There are a number of Article I courts with appellate jurisdiction over specific subject matter including the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims and the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, as well as Article I courts with appellate jurisdiction over specific geographic areas such as the District of Columbia Court of Appeals. The Article I courts with original jurisdiction over specific subject matter include the bankruptcy courts (for each district court), the immigration courts, the Court of Federal Claims, and the Tax Court. Article IV courts include the High Court of American Samoa and territorial courts such as the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, District Court of Guam, and District Court of the Virgin Islands. Federal judges, like Supreme Court justices, are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate to serve until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die. In April 2013, about 10 percent of federal seats were vacant, with 85 of 856 positions unfilled and 4 vacancies on the prestigious Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. The high vacancy rate has been attributed to politics, particularly Senate filibustering of potential appointees by Senators. In many cases there is no nominee for the position; however, the Senate has a tradition of senatorial courtesy in which nominees are only considered if the home senators approve. In May 2013 Congressional Research Service published a paper analyzing the vacancies and appointment process. Under Article I of the federal Constitution, Congress also has the power to establish other tribunals, which are usually quite specialized, within the executive branch to assist the president in the execution of his or her powers. Judges who staff them normally serve terms of fixed duration, as do magistrate judges who assist Article III judges. Judges in Article I tribunals attached to executive branch agencies are referred to as administrative law judges (ALJs) and are generally considered to be part of the executive branch even though they exercise quasi-judicial powers. With limited exceptions, they cannot render final judgments in cases involving life, liberty, and private property rights, but may make preliminary rulings subject to review by an Article III judge. The Judicial Conference of the United States is the policymaking body of the U.S. federal courts. The conference is responsible for creating and revising federal procedural rules pursuant to the Rules Enabling Act. The Administrative Office of the United States Courts is the primary support agency for the U.S. federal courts. It is directly responsible to the Judicial Conference. The AO prepares the judiciary's budget, provides and operates secure court facilities, and provides the clerical and administrative staff essential to the efficient operation of the courts. The judicial councils are panels within each circuit charged with making "necessary and appropriate orders for the effective and expeditious administration of justice". The Federal Judicial Center is the primary research and education agency for the U.S. federal courts. The Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation transfers and consolidates cases in multiple judicial districts that share common factual issues. The United States Marshals Service is an Executive Branch agency that is responsible for providing protection for the federal judiciary and transporting federal prisoners. The Supreme Court Police provide security for the Supreme Court building. The Supreme Court has interpreted the Constitution as placing some additional restrictions on the federal courts. For example, the doctrines of mootness, ripeness, and standing prohibit district courts from issuing advisory opinions. Other doctrines, such as the abstention doctrine and the Rooker-Feldman doctrine limit the power of lower federal courts to disturb rulings made by state courts. The Erie doctrine requires federal courts to apply substantive state law to claims arising from state law (which may be heard in federal courts under supplemental or diversity jurisdiction). In difficult cases, the federal courts must either guess as to how a court of that state would decide the issue or, if that state accepts certified questions from federal courts when state law is unclear or uncertain, ask an appellate court of that state to decide the issue. Notably, the only federal court that can issue proclamations of federal law that bind state courts is the Supreme Court itself. Decisions of the lower federal courts, whether on issues of federal law or state law (i.e., the question was not certified to a state court), are persuasive but not binding authority in the states in which those federal courts sit. Some commentators assert that another limitation upon federal courts is executive nonacquiescence in judicial decisions, where the executive simply refuses to accept them as binding precedent. In the context of administration of U.S. internal revenue laws by the Internal Revenue Service, nonacquiescences (published in a series of documents called Actions on Decisions) "generally do not affect the application of stare decisis or the rule of precedent". The IRS "will recognize these principles and generally concede issues accordingly during administrative proceedings." In rare cases, however, the IRS may continue to litigate a legal issue in a given circuit even where the IRS has already lost a case on that issue in that circuit. SCOTUS stands for the Supreme Court of the United States.

Administration refers to the executive branch under a specific president (or governor, mayor, or other local executive); or the term of a particular executive; for example: "President Y's administration" or "Secretary of Defense X during President Y's administration." It can also mean an executive branch agency headed by an administrator, as the Small Business Administration or the National Archives and Records Administration. The term "administration" has been used to denote the executive branch in presidential systems of government. Administration is a method of tending to or managing the affairs of some group of people. The act of governing and exercising authority. The persons, committees or departments who make up a body for the purpose of administering something.

Government Agency sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an administration. There is a notable variety of agency types. Although usage differs, a government agency is normally distinct both from a department or ministry, and other types of public body established by government. The functions of an agency are normally executive in character, since different types of organizations (such as commissions) are most often constituted in an advisory role—this distinction is often blurred in practice however, it is not allowed. A government agency may be established by either a national government or a state government within a federal system. The term is not normally used for an organization created by the powers of a local government body. Agencies can be established by legislation or by executive powers. The autonomy, independence and accountability of government agencies also vary widely. The Congress and President of the United States delegate specific authority to government agencies to regulate the complex facets of the modern American federal state. Also, most of the 50 U.S. states have created similar government agencies. Each of the 50 states' governments is pretty similar to the national government with most having some form of a senate and house of representatives. The term "government agency" or "administrative agency" usually applies to one of the independent agencies of the United States government, which exercise some degree of independence from the President's control. Although the heads of independent agencies are often appointed by the government, they can usually be removed only for cause. The heads of independent agencies work together in groups, such as a commission, board or council. Independent agencies often function as miniature versions of the tripartite federal government with the authority to legislate (through the issuing, or "promulgation" of regulations), to adjudicate disputes, and to enforce agency regulations (through enforcement personnel). Examples of independent agencies include the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Federal Reserve Board, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

Machinery of Government is the interconnected structures and processes of government, such as the functions and accountability of departments in the executive branch of government. The term is used particularly in the context of changes to established systems of public administration where different elements of machinery are created.



Hearings - Confirmations - Appointed


confirmation flow chart Political Appointment is any employee who is appointed by the President, the Vice President, or agency head. As of 2016, there are around 4,000 political appointment positions which an incoming administration needs to review, and fill or confirm, of which about 1,200 require Senate confirmation. These positions are published in the United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions (the Plum Book), a new edition of which is released after each United States presidential election. Nepotism.

Appointment is the act of putting a person into a non-elective position.

Appointed is to select someone for a job or assign a duty, responsibility or obligation to a person.

Confirmation involves several steps set forth by the United States Constitution, which have been further refined and developed by decades of Article Two of the United States Constitution requires the President of the United States to nominate Supreme Court Justices and, with Senate confirmation, requires Justices to be appointed. Screening.

Judicial Nominations - Not Always Qualified

US Courts - Supreme Court - Media

How can a judge be labeled conservative or a liberal if they are supposed to be impartial and unbiased? That's like saying that a judge can be bribed or easily coerced to rule or vote in a particular way. That's basically telling every citizen that true justice doesn't exist. The separation of church and state is an illusion. When things are based on personal interpretation, then there is no consistency or symmetry, which means that you're left with chaos and destruction. Judges should not be stuck in an information bubble and pretend that is normal behavior. You're either good or you're bad and wrong. The Robert Bork confirmation and the Clarence Thomas confirmation is just more of the same staged theatrics that is used to distract people from the real corruption that goes on behind the scenes and behind closed doors. To be a supreme court justice is to protect the rights of every citizen and to protect the country from scumbag criminals and corrupt politicians and corrupt corporations who are degrading America and degrading other countries around the world. When criminals can pick their own jury, pick their own prosecutors, and pick their own judge, then these ignorant scumbags will always be above the law and commit any crime they want. A person should not be forced to be loyal to an ignorant criminal. But some morons don't care that they're accessories to criminals. They always have some ignorant excuse, as if reasoning and judging is just a feeling or a belief. If you can't explain yourself, then go f*ck yourself, or maybe just go educate yourself and grow up. Citizens will wait for you and even help you. But you can't expect citizens to be forced to take your black box bullsh*t. We don't want your opinion, we need logical coherent reasoning based on facts and evidence. The right to remain silent does not apply here. You are supposed to be the voice of the people, you're not supposed to be silent or be looking the other way or be looking in just one direction. You should know the law and you should know the facts. Evasion is a clear sign that someone is lying or hiding corruption. Imagine interviewing someone for a job, and all they do is avoid answering your questions, questions that would help you determine if they are competent enough and trustworthy enough to do the job? No one would hire an idiot who's not upfront. Besides that, withholding evidence is illegal, and then you expect us to give you a legal job. That doesn't seem like good reasoning skills, which is another requirement of this job. Judges are supposed to be masters of reason and not masters of treason. Judges are supposed to be independent thinkers and not puppets for predators. And judges are supposed to follow the law equally and fairly without giving special exemptions to a certain group of people that allows them to be above the law, especially without presenting a valid argument or giving a logical reason for such an exemption. If everyone else has to follow the law, then why would certain people who have no disabilities or special needs have special privileges. This is in your face quid pro quo that undermines the law that you took an oath to uphold.

How to remove bad Judges - Congress can override a supreme court ruling - Unanimous Decision.
 
A Supreme Court Nominee may legitimately be asked by the Senate questions that go to his general judicial philosophy or methodology, the nominee should not be asked or forced to comment on Specific Past Supreme Court Rulings.

Judicial Nomination and Confirmation Process - Supreme Court Appointment Process (PDF)

Legal Terminology - What is Justice? - Department of Justice - F.B.I.

Renomination is the the act of officially naming a candidate. The condition of having been proposed as a suitable candidate for appointment or election. An address (usually at a political convention) proposing the name of a candidate to run for election.

Office of Justice Programs

Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 or court-packing, was a legislative initiative to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court in order to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that the Court had ruled unconstitutional. The central provision of the bill would have granted the president power to appoint an additional justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every member of the court over the age of 70 years and 6 months.

Institute of Corrections - Prisons

Solicitor General represents the federal government of the United States before the Supreme Court of the United States. The Solicitor General determines the legal position that the United States will take in the Supreme Court. In addition to supervising and conducting cases in which the government is a party, the office of the Solicitor General also files amicus curiae briefs in cases in which the federal government has a significant interest. The office of the Solicitor General argues on behalf of the government in virtually every case in which the United States is a party, and also argues in most of the cases in which the government has filed an amicus brief. In the federal courts of appeal, the Office of the Solicitor General reviews cases decided against the United States and determines whether the government will seek review in the Supreme Court. The Solicitor General's office also reviews cases decided against the United States in the federal district courts and approves every case in which the government files an appeal. Solicitor General is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice.

Communications Commission (FCC)

National Archives - US Embassy

Congressional Hearing is mostly government theater and a made for TV drama that teaches people very little about a subject and provides little justice for any criminal activity. Most individuals respond favorably to an invitation to testify, believing it to be a valuable opportunity to communicate and publicize their views on a question of public policy. However, if a person will not come by invitation alone, a committee or subcommittee may require an appearance through the issuance of a subpoena (Rule XXVI, paragraph 1). Committees also may subpoena correspondence, books, papers, and other documents. Subpoenas are issued infrequently, and most often in the course of investigative hearings. The vast majority of committee hearings are open to the public, as required under Senate rules. But a hearing, like other committee meetings, may be closed for specific reasons stated in Senate rules (Rule XXVI, paragraph 5(b)). A committee may close a hearing if it involves national security information; concerns committee personnel, management, or procedures; invades the personal privacy of an individual, damages an individual's reputation or professional standing, or charges an individual with a crime or misconduct; reveals identities or damages operations relating to law enforcement activities; discloses certain kinds of confidential financial or commercial information; or divulges information that other laws or regulations require to be kept confidential. The Senate rules also contain a specific procedure for closing a hearing. By motion of any Senator, if seconded, a committee may close a session temporarily to discuss whether there is a need to close a hearing for any of the reasons stated above. If so, the committee can close the hearing by majority roll call vote in open session. By this procedure, a committee can close a hearing or a series of sessions on a particular subject for no more than 14 calendar days. Legislative Hearings measures policy issues that may become public law. Oversight Hearings review or study a law, issue, or an activity, often focusing on the quality of federal programs and the performance of government officials. Investigative Hearings share some of the characteristics of legislative and oversight hearings. The difference lies in Congress's stated determination to investigate, usually when there is a suspicion of wrongdoing on the part of public officials acting in their official capacity, or private citizens whose activities suggest the need for a legislative remedy. Confirmation Hearings on presidential nominations often offer an opportunity for oversight into the activities of the nominee's department or agency. Field Hearings are Congressional hearings held outside Washington.


Money - Treasury


Department of the Treasury prints all paper Currency and mints all coins in circulation through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint, respectively; collects all federal taxes through the Internal Revenue Service; manages U.S. government debt instruments; licenses and Supervises Banks and thrift institutions; and advises the legislative and executive branches on matters of fiscal policy. The basic functions of the Department of the Treasury mainly include: Producing all currency and coinage of the U.S.; Collecting taxes, duties and money paid to and due to the U.S.; Paying all Bills of the U.S.; Managing the Federal Finances; Managing government accounts and the United States public debt; Supervising national banks and thrift institutions; Advising on domestic and international financial, monetary, economic, trade and tax policy (fiscal policy being the sum of these); Enforcing federal finance and tax laws; Investigating and prosecuting Tax Evaders; Publishing statistical reports.

Secretary of the Treasury - U.S. Treasury - U.S. Treasury Council.

Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, who is appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States. The IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings. The IRS has also overseen various benefits programs, and enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act.

Revenue Service is a government agency responsible for the intake of government revenue, including taxes and sometimes non-tax revenue. Depending on the jurisdiction, revenue services may be charged with tax collection, investigation of tax evasion, or carrying out audits.

Federal Reserve is the Central Banking System of the United States of America. It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act. The U.S. Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act: maximizing employment, stabilizing prices, and moderating long-term interest rates. The first two objectives are sometimes referred to as the Federal Reserve's dual mandate. Its duties have expanded over the years, and currently also include supervising and regulating banks, maintaining the stability of the financial system, and providing financial services to depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign official institutions. The Fed conducts research into the economy and provides numerous publications, such as the Beige Book and the FRED database. The Federal Reserve System is composed of several layers. It is governed by the presidentially appointed board of governors or Federal Reserve Board (FRB). Twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks, located in cities throughout the nation, regulate and oversee privately owned commercial banks. Nationally chartered commercial banks are required to hold stock in, and can elect some of the board members of, the Federal Reserve Bank of their region. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) sets monetary policy. It consists of all seven members of the board of governors and the twelve regional Federal Reserve Bank presidents, though only five bank presidents vote at a time (the president of the New York Fed and four others who rotate through one-year voting terms). There are also various advisory councils. Thus, the Federal Reserve System has both public and private components. It has a structure unique among central banks, and is also unusual in that the United States Department of the Treasury, an entity outside of the central bank, prints the currency used. The federal government sets the salaries of the board's seven governors. The federal government receives all the system's annual profits, after a statutory dividend of 6% on member banks' capital investment is paid, and an account surplus is maintained. In 2015, the Federal Reserve earned net income of $100.2 billion and transferred $97.7 billion to the U.S. Treasury. Federal Reserve is a privately owned bank. Although an instrument of the US Government, the Federal Reserve System considers itself "an independent central bank because its monetary policy decisions do not have to be approved by the President or anyone else in the executive or legislative branches of government, it does not receive funding appropriated by the Congress, and the terms of the members of the board of governors span multiple presidential and congressional terms." Who are the owners?

Tax Administrators - Appropriations

Budget and Accounting Act is to provide a national budget system and an independent audit of government accounts. Mandates that all government estimates, receipts, and expenditures be cleared by the director of the budget. From the director, the estimates go directly to the president and from the president, directly to Congress.

Office of Management and Budget

Follow the Money - Budget (spending) - Money

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 20th Street and Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington, DC 20551. The FOMC holds eight regularly scheduled meetings during the year and other meetings as needed. The FOMC makes an annual report pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act. The FOMC FOIA Service Center provides information about the status of FOIA requests and the FOIA process.

Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. The mission of the department is to "promote job creation and improved living standards for all Americans by creating an infrastructure that promotes economic growth, technological competitiveness, and sustainable development". Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, and helping to set industrial standards. This organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans. The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D.C.. Commerce - City Commerce.

Digital Accountability and Transparency Act of 2013 - The DATA Act would require the Treasury Department to create government-wide data standards for agency financial reports, payments, budget actions, contract reporting, and grant reporting, direct agencies to use those data standards, and mandate that information be published online. Once it is fully implemented, the DATA Act will be the most significant federal transparency reform since President Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act in 1967. This comprehensive House bill contains an accountability platform that was removed from the Senate's companion legislation S. 994. The provision would expand the mandate of the Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board's Recovery Operations Center, which used open data analytics to eliminate potential waste and fraud in stimulus spending, to cover all federal disbursements rather than just stimulus grants and contracts.

Securities and Exchange Commission we work together to make a positive impact on America’s economy, our capital markets, and people’s lives. Our mission requires tireless commitment and unique expertise from our staff of dedicated professionals who care deeply about protecting Main Street investors and others who rely on our markets to secure their financial futures. (SEC).


Cabinet - Heads of 15 Executive Departments


The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, who are generally the heads of the federal executive departments. All Cabinet members are nominated by the President and then presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority (although, before use of the nuclear option during the 113th US Congress, they could have been blocked by filibuster, requiring cloture to be invoked by 3/5 supermajority to further consideration). If approved, they are sworn in and then begin their duties. Aside from the Attorney General, and the Postmaster General when it was a Cabinet office, they all receive the title of Secretary. Members of the Cabinet serve at the pleasure of the President; the President may dismiss or reappoint them (to other posts) at will. Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 Executive Departments, listed according to their order of succession to the Presidency. Note that the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate follow the Vice President and precede the Secretary of State in the order of succession, but both are in the legislative branch and are not part of the Cabinet.

Presidency is an administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. Although often the executive branch of government, and often personified by a single elected person who holds the office of "president," in practice, the presidency includes a much larger collective of people, such as chiefs of staff, advisers and other bureaucrats. Although often led by a single person, presidencies can also be of a collective nature, such as the presidency of the European Union is held on a rotating basis by the various national governments of the member states. Alternatively, the term presidency can also be applied to the governing authority of some churches, and may even refer to the holder of a non-governmental office of president in a corporation, business, charity, university, etc. or the institutional arrangement around them. For example, "the presidency of the Red Cross refused to support his idea." Rules and support to discourage vicarious liability leading to unnecessary pressure and the early termination of term have not been clarified. These may not be as yet supported by state let initiatives. Contributory liability and fraud may be the two most common ways to become removed from term of office and/or to prevent re-election. POTUS stands for "President of the United States".

President is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states. Many countries make a distinction between the head of state (i.e., ceremonial president) and the head of government. ... They are two of many hats worn by the President. As chief executive the president is responsible for administering the laws of the United States by overseeing his cabinet and various executive agencies. Ceremonial Duties of the President. As Head of State the President is obliged to take part in public ceremonies and provide non-partisan leadership in the community.

Presidential Memorandum is a type of directive issued by the president of the United States to manage and govern the actions, practices, and policies of the various departments and agencies found under the executive branch of the United States government. It has the force of law and is usually used to delegate tasks, direct specific government agencies to do something, or to start a regulatory process. There are three types of presidential memoranda: presidential determination or presidential finding, memorandum of disapproval, and hortatory memorandum. Sometimes used interchangeably, an executive order is a more prestigious form of executive action that must cite the specific constitutional or statutory authority the president has to use it. Unlike executive orders, memoranda are not required by law to be published in the Federal Register, but publication is necessary in order to have "general applicability and legal effect". The Federal Register gives publication priority to executive orders and presidential proclamations over memoranda. Memoranda can be amended or rescinded by executive orders or another memorandum, but executive orders take legal precedence and cannot be changed by a memorandum.

Head of State is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In the parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, because the leader de facto is the prime minister. In contrast, the semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation (in practice they divide the leadership of the nation among themselves).

Head of Government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

Vice President of the United States is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the Federal government as President of the Senate under Article One, Section Three, Paragraph Four of the United States Constitution. The vice president is also a statutory member of the National Security Council under the National Security Act of 1947 and under Amendment XXV, Clause One of the United States Constitution is the second-highest-ranking official in the presidential line of succession in the executive branch of the United States, after the President. The executive power of both the vice president and the president is granted under Article Two, Section One of the Constitution. The vice president is indirectly elected, together with the president, to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. In the presidential line of succession, the vice president is the first person who would normally ascend to the presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. The Office of the Vice President of the United States assists and organizes the vice president's official functions. Speaker (wiki).

Secretary of State heading the U.S. Department of State, is concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs. The Secretary of State is nominated by the President of the United States and is confirmed by the United States Senate. The Secretary of State, along with the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, and Attorney General are generally regarded as the four most important Cabinet members because of the importance of their respective departments. Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level. Creation by Congress in July 1789.

Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies. This position in the Federal Government of the United States is analogous to the Minister of Finance in many other countries. The Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the President's Cabinet and  has been a non-statutory member of the U.S. National Security Council. The Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Defense are generally regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. The Secretary of the Treasury is fifth in the United States presidential line of succession.

Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, an Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America. The Secretary of Defense's power over the United States military is second only to that of the President. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in many other countries. The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense", and is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". Ensuring civilian control of the military, an individual may not be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years after relief from active duty as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force. The Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes subject only to the orders of the President, over all Department of Defense forces: the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. This is also extended to the United States Coast Guard during any period of time in which its command and control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense (or the President) can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments (the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force) and the nine Combatant Commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Northern Command, Pacific Command, Southern Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, Transportation Command). Because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, and is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, it has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense and the President, and while the Chairman may assist the Secretary and President in their command functions, the Chairman is not in the chain of command. The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of the Treasury are generally regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. The Secretary of Education is supposed to be even more important, but we have criminals in power who want people to be ignorant.

Intelligence Departments

Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U.S.C. § 503, concerned with legal affairs, and is the chief law enforcement officer and chief lawyer of the United States government. The attorney general serves as a member of the cabinet of the President of the United States and is the only cabinet officer who does not have the title of secretary. The Attorney General is appointed by the President and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate. Confirmation is a two step process in the Senate, first with the Judiciary Committee and then the majority of the full Senate. He or she serves at the pleasure of the president and can be removed by the president at any time; the attorney general is also subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors." The office of Attorney General was established by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the president of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments." Only in 1870 was the Department of Justice established to support the attorney general in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of Defense are generally regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. Attorney General is the main legal advisor to the government. In some jurisdictions, attorneys general may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally. In practice, the extent to which the attorney general personally provides legal advice to the government varies between jurisdictions, and even between individual office-holders within the same jurisdiction, often depending on the level and nature of the office-holder's prior legal experience. The term was originally used to refer to any person who holds a general power of attorney to represent a principal in all matters. In the common law tradition, anyone who represents the state, especially in criminal prosecutions, is such an attorney. Although a government may designate some official as the permanent attorney general, anyone who came to represent the state in the same way could, in the past, be referred to as such, even if only for a particular case. Today, however, in most jurisdictions, the term is largely reserved as a title of the permanently appointed attorney general of the state, sovereign or other member of the royal family. Civil law jurisdictions have similar offices, which may be variously called "public prosecutor general", "procurators", "advocates general", "public attorneys", and other titles. Many of these offices also use "attorney general" or "attorney-general" as the English translation of the title, although because of different historical provenance, the nature of such offices is usually different from that of attorneys-general in common law jurisdictions. Inspector General.

United States Department of Justice is a federal executive department of the United States government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration, and administers several federal law enforcement agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.

Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The U.S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in many other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the U.S. Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice. The U.S. Department of the Interior is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources; it oversees such agencies as the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Geological Survey, and the National Park Service. The Secretary also serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. Because the policies and activities of the Department of the Interior and many of its agencies have a substantial impact in the western United States, the Secretary of the Interior has typically come from a western state; only one of the individuals to hold the office since 1949 is not identified with a state lying west of the Mississippi River.
The line of succession for the Secretary of Interior is as follows:
Deputy Secretary of the Interior.
Solicitor of the Interior.
Assistant Secretary for Policy, Management and Budget.
Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management.
Assistant Secretary for Water and Science.
Assistant Secretary for Fish, Wildlife and Parks.
Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs.
Director, Security, Safety, and Law Enforcement, Bureau of Reclamation.
Central Region Director, US Geological Survey.
Intermountain Regional Director, National Park Service.
Region 6 (Mountain-Prairie Region) Director, US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Colorado State Director, Bureau of Land Management.
Regional Solicitor, Rocky Mountain Region.

Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The position carries similar responsibilities to those of agriculture ministers in other governments. The department includes several organizations. The 297,000 mi2 (770,000 km²) of national forests and grasslands are managed by the United States Forest Service. The safety of food produced that are produced in the United States and sold here is ensured by the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service. The Food Stamp Program works with the states to provide food to low-income people. Advice for farmers and gardeners is provided by the United States Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.
The line of succession for the Secretary of Agriculture is as follows:
Deputy Secretary of Agriculture.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agriculture Services.
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture for Administration.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food Safety.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Natural Resources and Environment.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development.
Under Secretary of Agriculture for Marketing and Regulatory Programs.
General Counsel of the Department of Agriculture.
Chief of Staff, Office of the Secretary.
State Executive Directors of the Farm Service Agency (in order of seniority by length of unbroken tenure) for the States of: California, Iowa, Kansas
Regional Administrators of the Food and Nutrition Service (in order of seniority by length of unbroken tenure) for the:
Mountain Plains Regional Office (Denver, Colorado)
Midwest Regional Office (Chicago, Illinois)
Western Regional Office (San Francisco, California)
Chief Financial Officer of the Department of Agriculture.
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture for Civil Rights.
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture for Congressional Relations.
In 2015, Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack said "There are days when I have literally nothing to do".

Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products. FDA.

Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with health matters. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The office was formerly Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. In 1979, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health and Human Services, and its education functions transferred to the new Department of Education. Patricia Roberts Harris headed the department before and after it was renamed. Nominations to the office of Secretary of HHS are referred to the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee and the Finance Committee, which has jurisdiction over Medicare and Medicaid, before confirmation is considered by the full United States Senate. Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act the role of the Secretary has been greatly expanded.

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, a member of the President's Cabinet, and Twelfth in the Presidential line of succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development on September 9, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (Pub.L. 89–174) into law. The Department's mission is "to increase homeownership, support community development and increase access to affordable housing free from discrimination."

Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation, a member of the President's Cabinet, and thirteenth in the Presidential Line of Succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Transportation Act. The Department's mission is "to develop and coordinate policies that will provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, and the national defense." The Secretary of Transportation oversees eleven agencies, including the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. In April 2008, Mary Peters launched the official blog of the Secretary of Transportation called The Fast Lane. The salary of the Secretary of Transportation is $199,700.

Secretary of Energy is the head of the U.S. Department of Energy, a member of the Cabinet of the United States, and Fourteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act. Originally the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better and more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention also turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality. The current Secretary of Energy is Ernest Moniz. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, who was a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is also the only secretary to be dismissed from the post.

Secretary of Education is the head of the U.S. Department of Education, and takes advice, and proposes and executes legislation that deals with federal influence over education policy. As a member of the President's Cabinet, this Secretary is fifteenth in line of United States presidential line of succession. The United States Secretary of Education is a member of the President's Cabinet, the fifteenth in line of United States presidential line of succession. This Secretary deals with federal influence over Education policy, and heads the U.S. Department of Education. The Secretary is advised by the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity, an advisory committee, on "matters related to accreditation and to the eligibility and certification process for institutions of higher education." Superintendent.

Secretary of Veterans Affairs is the head of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the department concerned with veterans' benefits, health care, and national veterans' memorials and cemeteries. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and second to last at sixteenth in the line of succession to the presidency (the position was last until the addition of the United States Department of Homeland Security in 2006). To date, all appointees and acting appointees to the post have been United States military veterans, but that is not a requirement to fill the position. When the post of Secretary is vacant, the United States Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs or any other person designated by the President serves as Acting Secretary until the President nominates and the United States Senate confirms a new Secretary.

Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the U.S. and the safety of U.S. citizens. The secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The position was created by the Homeland Security Act following the attacks of September 11, 2001. The new department consisted primarily of components transferred from other cabinet departments because of their role in homeland security, such as the Coast Guard, the Federal Protective Service, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (which includes the Border Patrol), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (which includes Homeland Security Investigations), the Secret Service, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It did not, however, include the FBI or the CIA. On January 20, 2009, the Senate confirmed Barack Obama's appointment of Janet Napolitano to be the third Secretary of Homeland Security, effective January 21, 2009. Napolitano resigned effective August 2013 to head the University of California. Intelligence Departments


Cabinet-Level Officials


White House Chief of Staff is the highest ranking employee of the White House. The position is a modern successor to the earlier role of the president's private secretary. The role was formalized as the assistant to the president in 1946 and acquired its current name in 1961. The chief of staff is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the president; it does not require Senate confirmation.

Joint Chiefs of Staff is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense which advises the president of the United States, the secretary of defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by statute and consists of the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS), the military service chiefs from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and the chief of the National Guard Bureau, all appointed by the president following Senate confirmation. Each of the individual military service chiefs, outside their Joint Chiefs of Staff obligations, works directly for the secretary of the military department concerned, e.g. the secretary of the Army, the secretary of the Navy, and the secretary of the Air Force. Following the Goldwater–Nichols Act in 1986, the Joint Chiefs of Staff do not have operational command authority, either individually or collectively, as the chain of command goes from the president to the Secretary of Defense, and from the Secretary of Defense to the commanders of the combatant commands. Goldwater–Nichols also created the office of vice chairman, and the chairman is now designated as the principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the president. The Joint Staff (JS) is a headquarters staff in the Pentagon, composed of personnel from each of the six armed services, that assists the chairman and the vice chairman in discharging their responsibilities and is managed by the Director of the Joint Staff (DJS), who is a lieutenant general or Navy vice admiral.

Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. The OMB Director reports to the President, Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff.

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal government's Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nation's Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. The Administrator is nominated by the President of the United States and must be confirmed by a vote of the Senate. The office of Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 in legislation that created the agency. The EPA Administrator is customarily accorded Cabinet rank by the President and sits with the President, Vice President, and the 15 Cabinet Secretaries. Since the late 1980s, there has been a movement to make the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency a Cabinet Secretary, thus making the EPA a 16th Cabinet department, dealing with environmental policy. The Administrator of the EPA is equivalent to the position of Minister of the Environment in other countries.

Trade Representative is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the president of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG). Established as the Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR) under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the USTR is part of the Executive Office of the President. With over 200 employees, the USTR has offices in Geneva, Switzerland, and Brussels, Belgium.

Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations"; it is also known as the U.S. Permanent Representative, or "Perm Rep", to the United Nations. The U.S. Permanent Representative, currently Samantha Power, is charged with representing the United States on the U.N. Security Council and during almost all plenary meetings of the General Assembly, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer of the United States (such as the U.S. Secretary of State or the President of the United States) is present. Like all United States ambassadors, he or she must be nominated by the U.S. President and confirmed by the Senate.

Council of Economic Advisers is an agency within the Executive Office of the President that advises the President of the United States on economic policy. The CEA provides much of the objective empirical research for the White House and prepares the annual Economic Report of the President.

Administrator of the Small Business Administration is the head of the Small Business Administration of the United States Government.

Independent Agencies of the United States Government of the United States federal government are agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary) and the Executive Office of the President. In a narrower sense, the term may also be used to describe agencies that, while constitutionally managed by the executive branch, are independent of presidential control, usually because the president's power to dismiss the agency head or a member is limited. Established through separate statutes passed by the Congress, each respective statutory grant of authority defines the goals the agency must work towards, as well as what substantive areas, if any, over which it may have the power of rulemaking. These agency rules (or regulations), when in force, have the power of federal law.

Central Intelligence Agency gathers foreign intelligence and provides national security assessments to policymakers in the United States. CIA acts as the primary human intelligence provider for the federal government. Intelligence Departments.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission regulates commodity futures and option markets in the United States. The agency protects market participants against manipulation, abusive trade practices, and fraud. Through oversight and regulation, the CFTC enables the markets to serve better their important functions in the US economy, providing a mechanism for price discovery and a means of offsetting price risk.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is responsible for consumer protection in the financial sector. CFPB jurisdiction includes banks, credit unions, securities firms, payday lenders, mortgage-servicing operations, foreclosure relief services, debt collectors, other financial companies in the United States.

Election Assistance Commission was formed in 2002 to serve as a national clearinghouse and resource of information regarding election administration. EAC is charged with administering payments to states and developing guidance to meet the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) requirements, adopting voluntary voting system guidelines, and accrediting voting system test laboratories and certifying voting equipment. It is also charged with developing and maintaining a national mail voter registration form.

Environmental Protection Agency works for state and local governments throughout the United States to control and abate environmental pollution and to address problems related to solid waste, pesticides, radiation, and toxic substances. The EPA sets and enforces standards for air, soil and water quality, evaluates the impact of pesticides and chemical substances, and manages the Superfund program for cleaning toxic waste sites.

Federal Communications Commission is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. It licenses radio and television broadcast stations, assigns radio frequencies, and enforces regulations designed to ensure that cable rates are reasonable. The FCC regulates common carriers, such as telephone and telegraph companies, as well as wireless telecommunications service providers.

Federal Election Commission oversees campaign financing for all federal elections. The FEC commission oversees election rules as well as reporting of campaign contributions by the candidates. 

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is the United States federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural gas pricing, and oil pipeline rates. FERC also reviews and authorizes liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals, interstate natural gas pipelines, and non-federal hydropower projects.

Federal Maritime Commission regulates the international ocean transportation of the United States. FMC is charged with ensuring a competitive and efficient ocean transportation system.

Federal Reserve Board of Governors is the governing body of the Federal Reserve System (often called "the Fed"), the central bank of the United States. It conducts the nation's monetary policy by influencing the volume of credit and money in circulation. The Federal Reserve regulates private banking institutions, works to contain systemic risk in financial markets, and provides certain financial services to the federal government, the public, and financial institutions.

Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board is one of the smaller Executive Branch agencies, with just over 100 employees. FRTIB was established to administer the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), which provides federal employees the opportunity to save for additional retirement security. The Thrift Savings Plan is a tax-deferred defined contribution plan similar to a private sector 401(k) plan.

Federal Trade Commission enforces federal antitrust and consumer protection laws by investigating complaints against individual companies initiated by consumers, businesses, congressional inquiries, or reports in the media. The FTC commission seeks to ensure that the nation's markets function competitively by eliminating unfair or deceptive practices.

General Services Administration is responsible for the purchase, supply, operation, and maintenance of federal property, buildings, and equipment, and for the sale of surplus items. GSA also manages the federal motor vehicle fleet and oversees telecommuting centers and civilian child care centers. GSA is an independent agency of the United States government established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U.S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, and develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of roughly $20.9 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually. It contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U.S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,700 owned and leased buildings and a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real estate assets managed by GSA are the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D.C. – the largest U.S. federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center (which had previously been the Battle Creek Sanitarium run by John Harvey Kellogg). GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) and the Public Buildings Service (PBS), as well as several Staff Offices including the Office of Government-wide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization, and the Office of Mission Assurance. As part of FAS, GSA's Technology Transformation Services (TTS) helps federal agencies improve delivery of information and services to the public.[8] Key initiatives include the Presidential Innovation Fellows program, 18F (includes login.gov and cloud.gov), FedRAMP, the USAGov platform (USA.gov, GobiernoUSA.gov), Data.gov, and Challenge.gov, the U.S. Web Design System, and I.T. Modernization Centers of Excellence. GSA is a member of the Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public procurement.

International Trade Commission provides trade expertise to both the legislative and executive branches of the federal government, determines the impact of imports on US industries, and directs actions against certain unfair trade practices, such as patent, trademark, and copyright infringement.

National Archives and Records Administration preserves the nation's history by overseeing the management of all federal records. The holdings of the National Archives include original textual materials, motion picture films, sound and video recordings, maps, still pictures, and computer data. The Declaration of Independence, the US Constitution, and the Bill of Rights are preserved and displayed at the National Archives building in Washington, D.C. (NARA).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the federal government's space agency. NASA is responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

The National Labor Relations Board administers the principal United States labor law, the National Labor Relations Act. The board is vested with the power to prevent or remedy unfair labor practices and to safeguard employees' rights to organize and determine through elections whether to have a union as their bargaining representative. (NLRB).

National Science Foundation supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. (NSF)

National Transportation Safety Board is responsible for civil transportation accident investigation in the US. The NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes, ship and marine accidents, pipeline incidents, and railroad accidents.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission was established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 from the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and opened January 19, 1975. The NRC oversees reactor safety and security, reactor licensing and renewal, radioactive material safety, and spent fuel management (storage, security, recycling, and disposal).

Postal Regulatory Commission was created in 1971 as the Postal Rate Commission and strengthened under the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act enacted in December 2006. Provides regulatory oversight over the activities of the United States Postal Service. (PRC).

Securities and Exchange Commission was established to protect investors who buy stocks and bonds. Federal laws require companies that plan to raise money by selling their own securities to file reports about their operations with the SEC, so that investors have access to all material information. The commission has powers to prevent or punish fraud in the sale of securities and is authorized to regulate stock exchanges.

Selective Service System is an independent federal agency operating with permanent authorization under the Military Selective Service Act. It is not part of the Department of Defense; however, it exists to serve the emergency manpower needs of the military by conscripting untrained men, or personnel with professional health care skills, if directed by Congress and the president. Its statutory missions also include being ready to administer an alternative service program, in lieu of military service for men classified as conscientious objectors. (SSS).

Small Business Administration was created in 1953 to advise, assist, and protect the interests of small business concerns. The SBA guarantees loans to small businesses, aids victims of floods and other natural disasters, promotes the growth of minority-owned firms, and helps secure contracts for small businesses to supply goods and services to the federal government.

Smithsonian Institution is an independent establishment of the United States created by an act of Congress August 10, 1846. The SI conducts scientific and scholarly research; publishes the results of studies, explorations, and investigations; organizes exhibits representative of the arts, the sciences, American history, and world culture; and engages in educational programming and national and international cooperative research. Most of the National Museums in Washington, D.C., are part of the Smithsonian.

Social Security Administration is the United States federal agency that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits. To qualify for these benefits, most American workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings; future benefits are based on employee contributions.

Surface Transportation Board was created in the ICC Termination Act of 1995 and is the successor agency to the Interstate Commerce Commission. The STB is an economic regulatory agency that Congress charged with resolving railroad rate and service disputes and reviewing proposed railroad mergers. The STB is decisionally independent, although it is administratively affiliated with the Department of Transportation.

United States Postal Service is defined by statute as an "independent establishment" of the federal government, which replaced the Cabinet-level Post Office Department in 1971. The USPS is responsible for the collection, transportation, and delivery of the mails, and for the operation of thousands of local post offices across the country. It also provides international mail service through the Universal Postal Union and other agreements with foreign countries. Other independent agencies: the National Credit Union Administration and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).



Health Care Reform


Health Care is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, midwifery, nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, pharmacy, psychology, and other health professions are all part of healthcare. It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

Health Care for America - Health Reform - Disease Burden

3.6 million people died in 2016 because they had no access to health care. 5 million people, despite having access to health care, died in 2016 because the quality of care they received was poor.

Healthcare needs to be right and not a privilege for the lucky few. Healthcare is supposed to be a safety net, and not a death sentence for the poor.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Under the act, hospitals and primary physicians would transform their practices financially, technologically, and clinically to drive better health outcomes, lower costs, and improve their methods of distribution and accessibility. The Affordable Care Act was designed to increase health insurance quality and affordability, lower the uninsured rate by expanding insurance coverage and reduce the costs of healthcare. It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law requires insurers to accept all applicants, cover a specific list of conditions and charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex.

32 out of 33 Developed Countries have Universal Health Care. The United States is the only one of the 33 developed countries that doesn't have universal health care. Healthcare Fraud.

Universal Health Care is a health care system in which all residents of a particular country or region are assured access to health care. It is generally organized around providing either all residents or only those who cannot afford on their own with either health services or the means to acquire them, with the end goal of improving health outcomes. Universal healthcare does not imply coverage for all people for everything, only that all people have access to healthcare. Some universal healthcare systems are government funded, while others are based on a requirement that all citizens purchase private health insurance. Universal healthcare can be determined by three critical dimensions: who is covered, what services are covered, and how much of the cost is covered. It is described by the World Health Organization as a situation where citizens can access health services without incurring financial hardship. The Director General of WHO describes universal health coverage as the “single most powerful concept that public health has to offer” since it unifies “services and delivers them in a comprehensive and integrated way”. One of the goals with universal healthcare is to create a system of protection which provides equality of opportunity for people to enjoy the highest possible level of health. As part of Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations member states have agreed to work toward worldwide universal health coverage by 2030. Universal Health Care.

National Health Insurance is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care. It may be administered by the public sector, the private sector, or a combination of both. Funding mechanisms vary with the particular program and country.

Publicly Funded Health Care is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund. Usually this is under some form of democratic accountability, the right of access to which are set down in rules applying to the whole population contributing to the fund or receiving benefits from it.

National Health Service is the umbrella term for the publicly-funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom (UK). Since 1948 they have been funded out of general taxation.

Right to Health is the economic, social, and cultural right to a universal minimum standard of health to which all individuals are entitled.

Global Health is the health of populations in the global context.

Socialized Medicine is a vague misleading term used in the United States to describe and discuss systems of universal health care: medical and hospital care for all by means of government regulation of health care and subsidies derived from taxation. Because of historically negative associations with socialism in American culture, the term is usually used pejoratively in American political discourse.

A New Way to Fund Health Care for the Most Vulnerable: Andrew Bastawrous (video and text)

Study estimates that 5 million people die every year because of poor-quality health care in low- and middle-income countries. That's significantly more than the 3.6 million people in those countries who die from not having access to care.

Physicians for Health Plan - Medicare & Medicaid Services

Common Health - Coverage for All

Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP).

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. Title II of HIPAA, known as the Administrative Simplification (AS) provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers. (signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996).

Healthcare in Switzerland is universal and is regulated by the Swiss Federal Law on Health Insurance. There are no free state-provided health services, but private health insurance is compulsory for all persons residing in Switzerland (within three months of taking up residence or being born in the country). International civil servants, members of embassies, and their family members are exempted from compulsory health insurance. Requests for exemptions are handled by the respective cantonal authority and have to be addressed to them directly. The whole healthcare system is geared toward the general goals of keeping the system competitive across cantonal lines, promoting general public health and reducing costs while encouraging individual responsibility.

Insurance (does not guarantee better health) - Health Websites - Mental Health Websites - Big 5

Low-Cost Healthcare Resources: Helping Those with Limited Finances The cost of healthcare increases every year leaving many people struggling to pay for rising insurance premiums and medical bills. In just two years (between 2015 and 2017), the cost of healthcare rose 14 percent. The resources below provide assistance for families on fixed budgets and seniors on Medicare looking for the healthcare they need.

Medicare Rights Center - Established in 1989, the Medicare Rights Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to ensuring people living with disabilities and older adults have access to affordable health care.

NeedyMeds.org - This national nonprofit provides a wealth of information about drug assistance programs and affordable healthcare options.

MedicareAdvantage.com - This website offers a comprehensive overview of how and when to enroll in Medicare as well as a state-specific list of Medicare information and resources.

My Medicare Matters - Created by the National Council on Aging, My Medicare Matters teaches people about the Medicare system (when to enroll, how much you’ll pay, what to expect when coverage begins, and so on)

Find a Health Center - An online tool that allows people to find federally funded health centers in their area (data can be exported to PDF or XLSX). This interactive map is also available as an iPhone application.

FreeClinics.com - A state-by-state guide to finding free clinics. Offers additional information for no-cost medical clinics, affordable clinics, low-income clinics, and clinics that offer services to those who are uninsured.

Medical Cost Advocate - A healthcare cost reductive service that helps patients renegotiate medical bills as well as check billing accuracy.

Low-Cost Dental Care (NIH) - The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research provides advice on how to find low-cost dental care.

Hill-Burton Free and Reduced Cost Health Care - Information about Hill-Burton free care, which is available to people below current HHS poverty levels.

PACER Center - Specializing in treating children with disabilities, PACER Center provides this resource for parents trying to locate medical treatment and assistance.

CARES Act is a $2.2 trillion economic stimulus bill passed by the 116th U.S. Congress and signed into law on March 27, 2020 in response to the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The spending primarily includes $300 billion in one-time cash payments to individual Americans (with most single adults receiving $1,200 and families with children receiving more[5]), $260 billion in increased unemployment benefits, the creation of the Paycheck Protection Program that provides forgivable loans to small businesses with an initial $350 billion in funding (later increased to $669 billion by subsequent legislation), $500 billion in aid for large corporations, and $339.8 billion to state and local governments. The original CARES Act proposal included $500 billion in direct payments to Americans, $208 billion in loans to major industry, and $300 billion in Small Business Administration loans. The Act includes the following provisions. Allocates $130 billion to the medical and hospital industries. Also including medical equipment manufacturers. Reauthorizes and allocates funding to public health programs. Authorizes the Food and Drug Administration to approve rule changes for over-the counter drugs without full advanced public notice and public comments. Requires an examination, report, and recommendations regarding the security of the United States' supply chain of medical products. Adds personal protective equipment, medical devices, diagnostic tests, and medical supplies that administer drugs, vaccines, and other biological products to the Strategic National Stockpile. Gives legal immunity to manufacturers, distributors, and administrators of respiratory protective devices under federal and state law with respect to all claims for loss caused by the devices. Requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prioritize the review of drug applications when there is an emergency drug shortage. Requires group health plans, health insurance carriers, and Medicare to cover COVID-19 testing and vaccination. Authorizes and appropriates $1.32 billion of grants to community health care centers for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. Provides $145 million in grants over a five-year period for promoting telehealth. Establishes a Ready Reserve Corps of medical professionals in event of a public health emergency or national emergency. Limits federal and state liability for unpaid health care volunteers for harm caused to patients relating to the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of COVID-19. Allows the disclosure of de-identified patient medical records related to substance use disorder. Allows funding for elder nutrition support to be used for an individual who is unable to obtain food due to social distancing. Waives the usual dietary guidelines requirements during the COVID-19 health emergency. Requires the Department of Health and Human Services to carry out a national public awareness campaign about the importance, safety, and need for blood donation. Expedites the development and approval process of new veterinary drugs for diseases that have the potential for serious health consequences for humans. Increases Medicare payments to medical providers between May 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020. Relief to mail delivery. The U.S. Postal Service will receive a $10 billion line of credit. On April 24, Trump attempted to use this loan as leverage for a new demand, as he threatened to block the emergency funding if the post office did not quadruple its prices for online retailers. As of early May, the details of the loan were still being negotiated. $400 million will be allocated to help states prepare for an expected increase in mailed ballots in November 2020.



Immigration - Humans have to Move Sometimes


Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. Immigration in the early years of the United States was fewer than 8,000 people a year, including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. After 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1836 to 1914, over 30 million Europeans migrated to the United States. The death rate on these transatlantic voyages was high, during which one in seven travelers died. In 1875, the nation passed its first immigration law, the Page Act of 1875. The peak year of European immigration was in 1907, when 1,285,349 persons entered the country. By 1910, 13.5 million immigrants were living in the United States. In the final prosperous year, 1929, there were 279,678 immigrants recorded, but in 1933, only 23,068 moved to the U.S. In the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than to it. Nearly 8 million people immigrated to the United States from 2000 to 2005; 3.7 million of them entered without papers. Border Walls.

Covid 19 Migration Emigrate is to leave one's country of residence for a new one.

Immigrate is to migrate to a new environment. Come into a new country and change residency.

Migrate is to move from one country or region to another and settle there. Move periodically or seasonally.

Migrant is periodically moving from place to place especially in search of seasonal work. A traveler who moves from one region or country to another. Housing.

Immigration (uscis.gov) - Great Immigrants

Center for Immigration Studies is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit research organization founded in 1985. It is the nation's only think tank devoted exclusively to research and policy analysis of the economic, social, demographic, fiscal, and other impacts of immigration on the United States.

Every person in America, except for Native Americans, is either an immigrant or a distant relative of immigrants.

"All the World is Welcome Here". Lyndon Baines Johnson 36th President. #you are welcome here.

Notario Fraud is dishonest immigration consultants often known as “Notarios.” Immigration consultants, notaries public, and notarios cannot represent you in the immigration process.

Immigration Courts: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube) - America’s dysfunctional immigration court system forces many children to appear in court alone. That’s as ridiculous in real life as it would be on a courtroom television show.

Regulations.gov - How American Guns caused the Immigration Crisis.

H-1B Visa allows U.S. employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in specialty occupations. If a foreign worker in H-1B status quits or is dismissed from the sponsoring employer, the worker must either apply for and be granted a change of status to another non-immigrant status, find another employer (subject to application for adjustment of status and/or change of visa), or leave the U.S. Effective January 17, 2017, USCIS modified the rules to allow a grace period of up to 60 days. Under the Trump administration, high-skilled workers are getting rejected at a higher rate. In 2015, 92% of new H-1B visa applications were approved. But in the last two years since 2018, the approval rate dipped to only 75%. Meanwhile, U.S. tech companies complain that they can't find enough qualified candidates to fill all their open jobs.

EB-5 Visa provides a method of obtaining a green card for foreign nationals who invest money in the United States. To obtain the visa, individuals must invest $1,000,000 (or at least $500,000 in a Targeted Employment Area - high unemployment or rural area), creating or preserving at least 10 Jobs for U.S. workers excluding the investor and their immediate family. Initially, under the first EB-5 program, the foreign investor was required to create an entirely new commercial enterprise; however, under the Pilot Program investments can be made directly in a job-generating commercial enterprise (new, or existing - "Troubled Business"), or into a "Regional Center" - a 3rd party-managed investment vehicle (private or public), which assumes the responsibility of creating the requisite jobs. Regional Centers may charge an administration fee for managing the investor's investment.

Work Permit is the permission to take a job within a foreign country. It may also be a permit given to minors allowing them to work legally under child labor laws. Within an industry, a work permit may be required to execute certain functions within a factory outside normal operational tasks (such as maintenance tasks) - in some places they might be called Permit to Work (PTW)." Work Permits - Visas - Permit (PDF).

The US Department of Labor - Jobs

Birth Tourism is the practice of traveling to another country for the purpose of giving birth in that country. The main reason for birth tourism is to obtain citizenship for the child in a country with birthright citizenship (jus soli). Such a child is sometimes called an "anchor baby" if their citizenship is intended to help their parents obtain permanent residency in the country. Other reasons for birth tourism include access to public schooling, healthcare, sponsorship for the parents in the future, or even circumvention of China's two-child policy. Popular destinations include the United States and Canada. Another target for birth tourism is Hong Kong, where some mainland Chinese citizens travel to give birth to gain right of abode for their children.

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state. A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless.

Becoming a Citizen (citizenship questions)

Citizenship & Immigration - Public Citizen

Citizens Rule Book (amazon)

Citizens for Ethics - Citizen Tube - Civilian Nation

Lawfully Present describes immigrants who have Qualified Non-Citizen immigration status without a waiting period. Humanitarian statuses or circumstances (including Temporary Protected Status, Special Juvenile Status, asylum applicants, Convention Against Torture, victims of trafficking). Valid non-immigrant visas. Legal status conferred by other laws (temporary resident status, LIFE Act, Family Unity individuals) See a full list of immigration statuses eligible for Marketplace coverage.

Qualified Non-Citizen includes Lawful Permanent Residents (LPR/Green Card Holder). Asylees. Refugees. Cuban/Haitian entrants Paroled into the U.S. for at least one year. Conditional entrant granted before 1980. Battered non-citizens, spouses, children, or parents. Victims of trafficking and his or her spouse, child, sibling, or parent or individuals with a pending application for a victim of trafficking visa. Granted withholding of deportation. Member of a federally recognized Indian tribe or American Indian born in Canada.

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals is an American immigration policy founded by the Obama administration in June 2012. DACA allows certain illegal immigrants who entered the country as minors, to receive a renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and eligibility for a work permit.

Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done by a statute, without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country and typically include a minimum legal residency requirement, and may specify other requirements such as knowledge of the national dominant language or culture, a promise to obey and uphold that country's laws. Naturalization Ceremony is when you take The Oath of Allegiance. Taking the oath will complete the process of becoming a U.S. citizen.

14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States—including former enslaved people—and guaranteed all citizens “equal protection of the laws. Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state. Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. What these rights and duties are varies from state to state. By custom and international conventions, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are. Such determinations are part of nationality law. In some cases, determinations of nationality are also governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality. Nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship, which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country. The noun national can include both citizens and non-citizens. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election. However, in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state, and full citizens are always nationals of the state.

Domicile is the the country that a person treats as their permanent home, or lives in and has a substantial connection with. treat a specified country as a permanent home. Domicile is the status or attribution of being a lawful permanent resident in a particular jurisdiction. A person can remain domiciled in a jurisdiction even after he has left it, if he has maintained sufficient links with that jurisdiction or has not displayed an intention to leave permanently (i.e. if that person has moved to a different state but has not yet formed an intention to remain there indefinitely). Traditionally many common law jurisdictions considered a person's domicile to be a determinative factor in the conflict of laws and would, for example, only recognize a divorce conducted in another jurisdiction if at least one of the parties were domiciled there at the time it was conducted.

Declaration of Domicile is a document which allows you to declare that you are a bona fide resident of some place because you reside in tat place and maintain a place of residence there. Proof of residency form must be notarized along with a completed separation form that is filed as a sworn Declaration of Domicile with the clerk of the circuit court.


Asylum - Refugees


Asylum is the protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political Refugee. Asylum is a shelter from danger or hardship. Leniency.

Asylum in the United States recognizes the right of asylum for individuals as specified by international and federal law. A specified number of legally defined refugees who either apply for asylum from inside the U.S. or apply for refugee status from outside the U.S., are admitted annually. Refugees compose about one-tenth of the total annual immigration to the United States.

Right of Asylum is when a person persecuted by one's own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution is enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and supported by the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Under these agreements, a refugee is a person who is outside that person's own country's territory owing to fear of persecution on protected grounds, including race, caste, nationality, religion, political opinions and participation in any particular social group or social activities. France was the first country to recognize the constitutional right to asylum, this being enshrined in article 120 of the Constitution of 1793. The United States recognizes the right of asylum of individuals as specified by international and federal law. A specified number of legally defined refugees who apply for refugee status overseas, as well as those applying for asylum after arriving in the U.S., are admitted annually.

Exile is to be expelled from a country or force to leave or move out. Cause to flee or be removed from a position or office.

Forced Displacement is the coerced movement of a person or persons away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.

Internally Displaced Person is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.  They are often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the legal definitions of a refugee.

Environmental Migrant are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment which compromise their well being or secure livelihood, such changes are held to include increased droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal weather patterns such as monsoons.

Refugee is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely. Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) if they formally make a claim for asylum. The lead international agency coordinating refugee protection is the United Nations Office of the UNHCR. The United Nations has a second office for refugees, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), which is solely responsible for supporting the large majority of Palestinian refugees.

Refugee Law is the branch of international law which deals with the rights and duties States have vis-a-vis refugees. Definition of refugee According to the original 1951 Refugee Convention and 1967 Protocol, refugee children were legally indistinguishable from adult refugees. Although the Convention on the Rights of the Child was not specific to the rights of refugee minors, it was used as the legal blueprint for handling refugee minor cases, where a minor was defined as any person under the age of 18. In 1988, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Guidelines on Refugee Children were published, specifically designed to address the needs of refugee children, officially granting them internationally recognized human rights. In 1989, however, the UN signed an additional treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which defined the rights of children and bound its signatories to upholding those rights by international law. Although the treaty is not specific to the rights of refugee minors, in particular, it was used as the legal blueprint for handling refugee minor cases, where a minor was defined as any person under the age of 18. In particular, it extends the protection of refugee children by allowing participating nations the capacity to recognize children who do not fall under the strict guidelines of the Convention definition but still should not be sent back to their countries of origin. It also extends the principle of nonrefoulement to prohibit the return of a child to their country "where there are grounds for believing that there is a real risk of irreparable harm to the child."

Refugee Children make up nearly half of all refugees, and almost one in three children living outside their country of birth is a refugee. These numbers encompass children whose refugee status has been formally confirmed, as well as children in refugee-like situations. In addition to facing the direct threat of violence resulting from conflict, forcibly displaced children also face various health risks, including: disease outbreaks and long-term psychological trauma, inadequate access to water and sanitation, nutritious food, and regular vaccination schedules. Refugee children, particularly those without documentation and those who travel alone, are also vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Although many communities around the world have welcomed them, forcibly displaced children and their families often face discrimination, poverty, and social marginalization in their home, transit, and destination countries. Language barriers and legal barriers in transit and destination countries often bar refugee children and their families from accessing education, healthcare, social protection, and other services. Many countries of destination also lack intercultural supports and policies for social integration. Such threats to safety and well-being are amplified for refugee children with disabilities. Additionally, North American schools often don’t have the resources needed to support refugee children. Refugee children often have to handle discrimination, low socioeconomic status, have no family, or come to a setting that clashes with their cultural beliefs leading to behavioral issues teachers aren’t always prepared for.  Extracurricular resources provided to refugee children include supplementary curriculum enrichment resources, videos for the goal or increasing parent and school awareness, informational leaflets and handbooks, as well as ICT based resources, which serve to benefit refugee involvement in the school.

Convention on the Rights of the Child is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Convention defines a child as any human being under the age of eighteen, unless the age of majority is attained earlier under national legislation.

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.

Amnesty (human rights) - Social Justice - Laws

UNICEF's Top Syria Official: We Have Witnessed Huge Amounts Of Distress Among Kids. UN Story.

Defect is to abandon one's country or cause in favor of an opposing one. To leave a cause or a country or an army, often in order to join the opposing cause, country, or army. Defect can also mean an imperfection.

International Rescue Committee provides emergency aid and long-term assistance to refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster. The IRC is currently working in about 40 countries and 26 U.S. cities where it resettles refugees and helps them become self-sufficient. It focuses mainly on health, education, economic wellbeing, power, and safety. Consisting of first responders, humanitarian relief workers, international development experts, health care providers, and educators, the IRC has assisted millions of people around the world since its founding in 1933. In 2016, 26 million people in about 40 countries and 26 U.S. cities benefited from IRC programs.

Victims of Criminal Activity: U Nonimmigrant Status. A U visa is set aside for victims of crimes (and their immediate family members) who have suffered substantial mental or physical abuse while in the U.S. and who are willing to assist law enforcement and government officials in the investigation or prosecution of the criminal activity. It permits such victims to enter or remain in the US when they might not otherwise be able to do so. The US Congress created the U nonimmigrant visa with the passage of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (including the Battered Immigrant Women’s Protection Act) in October 2000. The legislation was intended to strengthen the ability of law enforcement agencies to investigate and prosecute cases of domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking of people, and other crimes while, at the same time, offer protection to victims of such crimes. The legislation also helps law enforcement agencies to better serve victims of crimes. There are six legal requirements for U nonimmigrant status: The applicant must have been a victim of a qualifying criminal activity. The applicant must have suffered substantial physical or mental abuse as a result of having been a victim of these criminal activities. The applicant must have information concerning that criminal activity. The applicant must have been helpful, is being helpful, or is likely to be helpful in the investigation or prosecution of the crime. The criminal activity occurred in the United States or violated U.S. laws. The applicant is admissible to the United States under current U.S. immigration laws and regulations; those who are not admissible may apply for a waiver.


Deportation


crime rates chart in texas ICE or Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nation's border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security. ICE has two primary components: Homeland Security Investigations that consists of more than 10,300 employees who are assigned to over 210 cities throughout the U.S. and 80 international offices in 53 countries across the world. Over 7,100 special agents are included among the over 10,300 HSI employees. HSI special agents investigate violations of more than 400 U.S. laws that threaten the national security of the United States such as counter-proliferation; counter-terrorism; human smuggling and trafficking; weapons smuggling and export enforcement; narcotics smuggling and trafficking; document and benefit fraud; the manufacturing, sale, and use of counterfeit immigration and identity documents; human rights violations; transnational gang activity; financial crimes, including money laundering and bulk cash smuggling; cyber crime; exploitation of children and sex tourism; trade crimes such as commercial fraud and intellectual property theft; smuggling of counterfeit pharmaceuticals and other merchandise; mass-marketing fraud; art theft; international cultural property and antiquities crimes; and visa security. HSI agents can be requested to provide security for VIPs, and also augment the U.S. Secret Service during overtaxed times such as special security events and elections. HSI was formerly known as the ICE Office of Investigations (OI). HSI special agents investigate the largest range of crimes and have the statutory authority to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (Title 8), U.S. customs laws (Title 19), general federal crimes (Title 18), the Controlled Substances Act (Title 21), as well as Titles 5, 6, 12, 22, 26, 28, 31, 46, 49, and 50 of the U.S. Code. Enforcement and Removal Operations is responsible for enforcing the nation's immigration laws and ensuring the departure of removable immigrants from the United States. ERO uses its detention and deportation officers to identify, arrest, and remove immigrants who violate U.S. immigration law. Deportation officers are responsible for the transportation and detention of immigrants in ICE custody to include the removal of immigrants to their country of origin. Deportation officers arrest immigrants for violations of U.S. immigration law, monitor cases during deportation proceedings, supervise released immigrants, and remove immigrants from the United States. Deportation officers operate strategically placed Fugitive Operations Teams whose function is to locate, apprehend, and remove immigrants who have absconded from immigration proceedings and remain in the United States with outstanding warrants for deportation. ERO manages the Secure Communities program which identifies removable immigrants located in jails and prisons. Fingerprints submitted as part of the normal criminal arrest and booking process will automatically check both the Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) of the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division and the Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) of the Department of Homeland Security's US-VISIT Program. ERO was formerly known as the Office of Detention and Removal Operations (DRO). ERO is headquartered in Washington, D.C., ICE is charged with the investigation and enforcement of over 400 federal statutes within the United States, and maintains attachés at major U.S. embassies overseas. Bounty Hunter - Mercenary.

Extradition is an action wherein one jurisdiction delivers a person accused or convicted of committing a crime in another jurisdiction, over to the other's law enforcement. It is a cooperative law enforcement procedure between the two jurisdictions and depends on the arrangements made between them. In addition to legal aspects of the process, extradition also involves the physical transfer of custody of the person being extradited to the legal authority of the requesting jurisdiction. In an extradition process, one sovereign jurisdiction typically makes a formal request to another sovereign jurisdiction ("the requested state"). If the fugitive is found within the territory of the requested state, then the requested state may arrest the fugitive and subject him or her to its extradition process. The extradition procedures to which the fugitive will be subjected are dependent on the law and practice of the requested state. Between countries, extradition is normally regulated by treaties. Where extradition is compelled by laws, such as among sub-national jurisdictions, the concept may be known more generally as rendition. It is an ancient mechanism, dating back to at least the 13th century BCE, when an Egyptian pharaoh, Ramesses II, negotiated an extradition treaty with a Hittite king, Hattusili III. International Law.

Kidnapping - False Arrests - Airport Screening (TSA) - Racism - Republican Playbook

Trump administration jailed 69,550 migrant kids in past year in 2019.

ICE Is Using Private Contractors To Dodge Local Democracy. The agency is pursuing contracts with private detention providers to circumvent state and local efforts to curtail and regulate immigrant detention.

Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. Deportation can also be known as extradition,, banishment, exile, eviction, or penal transportation.

Repatriate is to send someone back to his homeland against his will, as of refugees. Admit back into the country. A person who has returned to the country of origin or whose citizenship has been restored.

Fugitive is a person who has escaped from a place or is in hiding, especially to avoid arrest or persecution. Someone quick to disappear or is fleeting. Fugitive is a person who is fleeing from custody, whether it be from jail, a government arrest, government or non-government questioning, vigilante violence, or outraged private individuals. A fugitive from justice, also known as a wanted person, can be a person who is either convicted or accused of a crime and hiding from law enforcement in the state or taking refuge in a different country in order to avoid arrest. A fugitive from justice alternatively has been defined as a person formally charged with a crime or a convicted criminal whose punishment has not yet been determined or fully served who is currently beyond the custody or control of the national or sub-national government or international criminal tribunal with an interest in his or her arrest. This latter definition adopts the perspective of the pursuing government or tribunal, recognizing that the charged (versus escaped) individual does not necessarily realize that they are officially a wanted person (e.g., due to a case of mistaken identity or reliance on a sealed indictment), and therefore may not be fleeing, hiding, or taking refuge to avoid arrest. The fugitive from justice is ‘international’ (versus ‘domestic’) if wanted by law enforcement authorities across a national border. Interpol is the international organization with no legal authority to directly pursue or detain fugitives of any kind. Europol is the European authority for the pursuit of fugitives who are on the run within Europe, and coordinates their search, while national authorities in the probable country of their stay coordinate their arrest. In the United States, the U.S. Marshals Service is the primary law enforcement agency that tracks down federal fugitives, though the Federal Bureau of Investigation also tracks fugitives. As a verbal metaphor and psychological concept, one might also be described as a "fugitive from oneself". Finally, the literary sense of "fugitive" includes the meaning of simply "fleeing". In many jurisdictions, a fugitive who flees custody while a trial is underway loses the right to appeal any convictions or sentences imposed on him, since the act of fleeing is deemed to flout the court's authority. Recently, convicted rapist Andrew Luster had his appeals denied on the basis that he spent six months as a fugitive (he was convicted in absentia).

Ethnic Cleansing is the systematic forced removal or extermination of ethnic, racial and/or religious groups from a given area, often with the intent of making a region ethnically homogeneous. Along with direct removal (deportation, population transfer), it also includes indirect methods aimed at coercing the victim group to flee and preventing its return, such as murder, rape, and property destruction. Although the term ethnic cleansing has no legal definition under international criminal law, it constitutes a crime against humanity and may also fall under the Genocide Convention. Ethnic cleansing is usually accompanied by efforts to remove physical and cultural evidence of the targeted group in the territory through the destruction of homes, social centers, farms, and infrastructure, as well as through the desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship. Although many instances of ethnic cleansing have occurred throughout history, the term was first used by the perpetrators as a euphemism during the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s. Since then it has gained widespread acceptance due to journalism and the media's heightened use of the term in its generic meaning.


Genocide


Genocide is a deliberate and systematic destruction and the mass murdering of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a nation, a state, an ethnic group, a racial group or a religious group.

Genocide Prevention Now - End Genocide - Genocide Watch - Stand Now

The Holocaust is just one of the 100's of Genocides throughout human history. The sad fact is that it only takes a few hundred people to mass murder thousands of people everyday. Near the end of world war ll, German soldiers or workers became more and more efficient in mass murdering people in death camps. All you need is a few hundred criminals who blindly follow orders, and you could mass murder millions of people. And if most of the people or citizens are not aware of these crimes, then these crimes will continue. We Shall Not Die Now (Holocaust Documentary) (youtube) - Righteous Among the Nations describes non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis for altruistic reasons.

In the 21st century, people are still being mass murdered everyday in all kinds of ways.

Prejudice is just one of the many horrible side effects of ignorance. Power can Corrupt weak minded people very easily.

Immigration - Censorship - Propaganda - Forced Assimilation

UN Resolution 1769 - United Nations Foundation - United Nations - U.N. Security Council Resolutions

Paragraphs 138-139 World Summit

International Committee of the Red Cross

The responsibility to protect and prevent requires apportioning responsibility to, and promote collaboration between concerned States and the international community. The duty to prevent and halt genocide and mass atrocities lies first and foremost with the State, but the international community has a role that cannot be blocked by the invocation of sovereignty. Sovereignty no longer exclusively protects States from foreign interference; it is a charge of responsibility where States are accountable for the welfare of their people. This principle is enshrined in article 1 of the Genocide Convention and embodied in the principle of “sovereignty as responsibility” and in the concept of the Responsibility to Protect. The three pillars of the responsibility to protect, as stipulated in the Outcome Document of the 2005. United Nations World Summit (A/RES/60/1, para. 138-140) and formulated in the Secretary-General's 2009 Report (A/63/677) on Implementing the Responsibility to Protect are:
The State carries the primary responsibility for protecting populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, and their incitement; The international community has a responsibility to encourage and assist States in fulfilling this responsibility; The international community has a responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian and other means to protect populations from these crimes. If a State is manifestly failing to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take collective action to protect populations, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

Atrocities Prevention: Preventing mass atrocities and genocide is a core national security interest and a core moral responsibility of the United States. – Presidential Study Directive 10, August 4, 2011.

Addressing the causes and impacts of global instability and violent conflict are among the Department of State’s highest priorities. Mass atrocities -- large-scale, deliberate violence against civilians -- have devastating human impacts, and make peace and reconciliation more difficult to achieve. In order to effectively respond to potential mass atrocities, we must focus on and understand this type of violence, and ensure that our diplomatic approaches and programs address it. By engaging experts, improving our analysis, building the knowledge of staff and partners, and developing our understanding of the most effective diplomatic and programming responses, the Department is improving its ability to respond to potential mass atrocities.

Murder and War - Other ways People are Killed - Climate Change

Gacaca Court is a system of community justice inspired by Rwandan tradition where gacaca can be loosely translated to "justice amongst the grass". This traditional, communal justice was adapted in 2001 to fit the needs of Rwanda in the wake of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide (also known as "Hutu vs Tutsi" ) where an estimated 800,000 people were killed, tortured and raped. After the genocide, the new Rwandan Patriotic Front's government struggled to pursue justice on such a massive scale, and therein to develop just means for the humane detention and prosecution of the more than 100,000 people accused of genocide, war crimes, and related crimes against humanity. By 2000, approximately 130,000 alleged genocide perpetrators populated Rwanda's prisons (Reyntjens & Vandeginste 2005, 110). Using the justice system Rwanda had in place, the trial of such massive numbers of alleged perpetrators would take well over 100 years during which Rwanda's economy would crumble as a massive amount of their population awaited trial in prison. For this reason they chose to adapt and create a large-scale justice system, which would work alongside the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in order to heal as a people and to thrive as a country. In response, Rwanda implemented the Gacaca court system, which necessarily evolved to fit the scenario from its prior form of traditional cultural communal law enforcement procedures. The Gacaca courts are a method of transitional justice and are designed to promote communal healing and rebuilding in the wake of the Rwandan Genocide. Rwanda has especially focused on community rebuilding placing justice in the hands of trusted citizens. However, the system has come under criticism from a number of sources, including the Survivors Fund, which represents survivors of the genocide, due to the danger that it poses to survivors and there have been a number of reports on survivors being targeted for giving evidence at the courts. However, the Rwandan government maintains the success of Gacaca Courts citing their present success as a country.

NAACP
Color of Change
National Coalition on Black Civic Participation
Ruckus Environmental
Human Rights & Social Justice
Human Rights
National Urban League
Project Race
Employees International Union
Acorn
Intelligence Aggregator
Globalization Forum
Common Dreams
Equality and Democracy

Main Street Brigade
Reporters Committee
Freedom of the Press
Foot Noted
Move On 
JFK Library

United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

International Courts - Laws

Government in Exile
The Council of State Governments 

Public-Private Ventures was a nonprofit, nonpartisan, social research and policy organization; it disbanded on July 31, 2012. Public/Private Ventures (P/PV).

Common Wealth Fund

It all comes down to how effective communities and governments are in communicating the most important information and knowledge to their citizens. People need good information and knowledge in order to be aware of their world so that they can be aware of their options and have the opportunity to make better choices that would ultimately preserve their freedoms and liberties, while at the same time control their own destinies. Leadership is a failure because you can't be a leader of ignorance. Educate and inform people.

"Government is an unnecessary evil. Human beings, when accustomed to taking responsibility for their own behavior, can cooperate on a basis of mutual trust and helpfulness."


Corporate Abuse - Corporate Crimes


Corporate Crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation or a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities, or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity. Some negative behaviors by corporations may not actually be criminal; laws vary between jurisdictions.

Whistle Blowing (if you see something, say something).

White-Collar Crime refers to financially motivated nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.

Government Watch Dogs - Corporate Watch - Stop Corporate Abuse - Represent Us

Reclaim Democracy - Corporate Rights - Corporate Europe

Corporate Responsibility is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. CSR policy functions as a self-regulatory mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards and national or international norms. With some models, a firm's implementation of CSR goes beyond compliance and statutory requirements, which engages in "actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law". The binary choice between 'complying' with the law and 'going beyond' the law must be qualified with some nuance. In many areas such as environmental or labor regulations, employers can choose to comply with the law, to go beyond the law, but they can also choose to not comply with the law, such as when they deliberately ignore gender equality or the mandate to hire disabled workers. There must be a recognition that many so-called 'hard' laws are also 'weak' laws, weak in the sense that they are poorly enforced, with no or little control and/or no or few sanctions in case of non-compliance. 'Weak' law must not be confused with soft law. The aim is to increase long-term profits and shareholder trust through positive public relations and high ethical standards to reduce business and legal risk by taking responsibility for corporate actions. CSR strategies encourage the company to make a positive impact on the environment and stakeholders including consumers, employees, investors, communities, and others. Proponents argue that corporations increase long-term profits by operating with a CSR perspective, while critics argue that CSR distracts from businesses' economic role. A 2000 study compared existing econometric studies of the relationship between social and financial performance, concluding that the contradictory results of previous studies reporting positive, negative, and neutral financial impact, were due to flawed empirical analysis and claimed when the study is properly specified, CSR has a neutral impact on financial outcomes. Critics questioned the "lofty" and sometimes "unrealistic expectations" in CSR. or that CSR is merely window-dressing, or an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations. Political sociologists became interested in CSR in the context of theories of globalization, neoliberalism and late capitalism. Some sociologists viewed CSR as a form of capitalist legitimacy and in particular point out that what began as a social movement against uninhibited corporate power was transformed by corporations into a 'business model' and a 'risk management' device, often with questionable results. CSR is titled to aid an organization's mission as well as serve as a guide to what the company represents for its consumers. Business ethics is the part of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR. Public sector organizations (the United Nations for example) adhere to the triple bottom line (TBL). It is widely accepted that CSR adheres to similar principles, but with no formal act of legislation. Corporate Responsibility.

Corporate Social Responsibility - Social Progress - Public Service

Environment Legal Defense
Global Witness - Sacom
Wiki Leaks - Poclad
Labor Rights Now - No Sweat
Human Rights - Human Rights
Food Workers Union
Business Human Rights

Big Business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things". The concept first arose in a symbolic sense after 1880 in connection with the combination movement that began in American business at that time. United States corporations that fall into the category of "big business" as of 2015 include ExxonMobil, Wal-Mart, Google, Microsoft, Apple, General Electric, General Motors, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs and JPMorgan Chase. The largest German corporations as of 2012 included Daimler AG, Deutsche Telekom, Siemens and Deutsche Bank.  Among the largest companies in the United Kingdom as of 2012 are HSBC, Barclays, WPP plc and BP. The latter half of the 19th century saw more technological advances and corporate growth in additional sectors, such as petroleum, machinery, chemicals, and electrical equipment.

ACLU
PR Watch
Kroll_Inc is a corporate investigations and risk consulting firm based in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Move On
Public Interest Research
Co op America
Global Exchange
Naomiklein
Smart meme
On The Commons
Green Peace
The Zeitgeist Movement

How Greed Destroys Democracy

Corporate Law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law. Every state and territory has its own basic corporate code, while federal law creates minimum standards for trade in company shares and governance rights, found mostly in the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended by laws like the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010. The US Constitution was interpreted by the US Supreme Court to allow corporations to incorporate in the state of their choice, regardless of where their headquarters are. Over the 20th century, most major corporations incorporated under the Delaware General Corporation Law, which offered lower corporate taxes, fewer shareholder rights against directors, and developed a specialized court and legal profession. Nevada has done the same. Twenty-four states follow the Model Business Corporation Act, while New York and California are important due to their size.

Powerful Families and Organizations

Stop Child Labor - Free the Children - End Child Labor

Time-Bound Programmes or Time-Bound Measures to address this issue will attempt to: Prevent the engagement of children in the worst forms of child labour. Provide direct assistance for the removal of children from the worst forms of child labour and for their rehabilitation and social integration. Ensure access to free basic education and appropriate vocational training for all children removed from the worst forms of child labour. Identify and reach out to children at special risk, and Take account of the special situation of girls.

National Labor Committee
No Sweat Apparel
Sweat Free
Maquila Solidarity
War On Want
Ad Busters
Unite Here
My Cultural Divide (video)

Whistle Blowers - Grievances - Corporations (occupy)

Corporation Documentaries - Money is a Man Made Tool, it's not a Reason. Learn the Facts, do the Math.

Move to Amend

Common Purpose Law is a common law legal doctrine that imputes criminal liability to the participants in a criminal enterprise for all that results from that enterprise. A common application of the rule is to impute criminal liability for wounding a person to participants in a riot who knew, or were reckless as to knowing, that one of their number had a knife and might use it, despite the fact that the other participants did not have knives themselves.



Political Systems - Government Types


Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state, by a market or by a network – over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society. It relates to "the processes of interaction and decision-making among the actors involved in a collective problem that lead to the creation, reinforcement, or reproduction of social norms and institutions". In lay terms, it could be described as the political processes that exist in and between formal institutions. A variety of entities (known generically as governing bodies) can govern. The most formal is a government, a body whose sole responsibility and authority is to make binding decisions in a given geopolitical system (such as a state) by establishing laws. Other types of governing include an organization (such as a corporation recognized as a legal entity by a government), a socio-political group (chiefdom, tribe, gang, family, religious denomination, etc.), or another, informal group of people. In business and outsourcing relationships, Governance Frameworks are built into relational contracts that foster long-term collaboration and innovation. Governance is the way rules, norms and actions are structured, sustained, regulated and held accountable. The degree of formality depends on the internal rules of a given organization and, externally, with its business partners. As such, governance may take many forms, driven by many different motivations and with many different results. For instance, a government may operate as a democracy where citizens vote on who should govern and the public good is the goal, while a non-profit organization or a corporation may be governed by a small board of directors and pursue more specific aims. In addition, a variety of external actors without decision-making power can influence the process of governing. These include lobbies, think tanks, political parties, non-government organizations, community and media.

The best political governing system will be a combination of the best parts of several systems. The best system will be the best parts of a direct democracy, the best parts of capitalism, the best parts of socialism and the best parts of communism, as well as the best parts of other processes that are proven effective, efficient and fair.

Forms of Government List (wiki) - Democracy

Beware of Labels. When someone mentions a name of a country, or a type of government, or a persons political affiliation, they are not explaining anything that can be accurately understood. You have to look beyond the label and read the ingredients and also understand what those ingredients mean. Every democracy and every socialist or communist country has corruption and crimes. And any person, no matter what political affiliation they have, can be a criminal. You need to know the individual. You need to know the political system and how that political system is supposed to work. Judgment should be based on facts and the true intentions of the person or system involved. You can not judge something or someone based on its failures if you do not understand how those mistakes were made and who was at fault. Pretending to understand someone or pretending to understand a particular type of government will not help you understand anything, which will make you an angry and prejudice person with low intelligence. You need to educate yourself and take the responsibility of learning seriously.

Informed Democracy is the only way democracy works. It does not matter what political system, form of government, political party or ideology a country has, no political structure will ever succeed or flourish without a very comprehensive, constantly improving and effective education system that provides equal education for every citizen. Without informed citizens, and without a quality education for every person, no country on earth will ever rid itself of corruption, ignorance, crime, Social diseases or suffering, no matter what political structure it has. These structures are doomed to fail as you can plainly see today and throughout human history. Ignorant people are horrible leaders and ignorant citizens could never Self Govern. Poor education creates mindless consumers and working slaves, as well as Corrupt leaders and politicians, which is a total waste of human potential. Our only Hope is to improve education. An education that matures, develops, thrives and evolves as our knowledge, information, experiences and wisdom increases. The world has so much knowledge and experience at its fingertips and its being wasted, misused, exploited, unappreciated, underutilized, unorganized, unrealized, it’s being lost, misplaced, destroyed, and most knowledge is not even being properly distributed or shared. It’s a huge mess and a complete injustice to future generations. 

There has been a lot of confusion about how humans should govern themselves. But today we know right from wrong, we know good from bad, we know cause and effect, we know the importance of human rights and freedoms. So we need to upgrade to a new and improved Universal Governing System or a Universal Human Management System. A system that utilizes the worlds combined knowledge. A system that understands the importance of everyone having access to a high quality education, a Standard Issue Education. Knowledge is power. And if everyone is knowledgeable and educated to the same level, then everyone shares the power, and no one can rule over you, and you could rule over no one. This is not to say there will be no hierarchy structure. Because every system needs rules in order to function. Except this time, now that everyone is highly educated equally to the same level, the responsibilities of our rules are clearly understood by everyone. So crimes and corruption will become irrelevant since no one wants to waste time, energy, people and resources when there is no need to. People would rather just live and be happy, as always.

The labels used below to describe the types of Governments are mostly just generalizing and do not explain all the pros and cons or the vulnerabilities. To truly understand your world, you need to learn the facts. Some of these terms that are used below are to make people believe that they are divided. There needs to be a more expended view of this information in order to communicate effectively and to stop misleading people.


When a Small Group of People can Rule a Country


Dictatorship is a form of government where a country is ruled by one person or political entity, and exercised through various mechanisms to ensure the entity's power remains strong. Despot is a cruel and oppressive dictator. Despotic is characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule. (Autocrat - Tyrant). Military Dictatorship is a dictatorship in which military experts exert complete and substantial control over political authority, and the dictator is often a high-ranked military officer.

Dictator is a ruler who is unconstrained by law. A person who behaves in a unjust undesirable manner. A dictator also means a speaker who dictates to a listener or to a recording machine.

Tyrannical is the exercising of power in a cruel or arbitrary way. Marked by unjust severity or arbitrary behavior. Characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule; having absolute sovereignty.

Tyranny is a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator and not restricted by a constitution, laws or opposition etc.. Dominance through threat of punishment and violence. Tyranny of the Majority is used in discussing an inherent weakness in the system of pure direct democracy and majority rule. Tyranny of the majority involves a scenario in which a majority of an electorate places its own interests above, and at the expense and to the detriment of, those in the minority, where by that detriment constitutes active oppression comparable to that of a tyrant or despot. War - Secrecy.

Fascism is a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government as opposed to democracy or liberalism. Signs of a fascist regime is when a country has a disdain for human rights, has rampant cronyism and corruption, interferes with elections, has rampant sexism, has a controlled mass media, has an obsession with national security, protects corporate power, suppresses labor power, has disdain for science and the arts, they are obsessed with crime and punishment, there is no real separation of religion from government, exploits nationalism.

Imperialism - Empires - Colonialism - Extremism - World Control (one world order)

Plutocracy is a form of oligarchy and defines a society ruled or controlled by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens.

Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, education, corporate, religious or military control. Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who typically pass their influence from one generation to the next, but inheritance is not a necessary condition for the application of this term. "to rule or to command". (America is an oligarchy with elections).

Potentate is a ruler who is unconstrained by law.

Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection). Autocratic relates to a ruler who has almost absolute power and takes no account of other people's wishes or opinions, unless they have lots of wealth and power. So no one has absolute power, every human is a slave to something or someone. Absolute power only exists in fantasies.

Domineer is to rule or exercise power over somebody in a cruel and autocratic manner. Cult of Personality.

Absolute Monarchy and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy. In very early times, the term "autocrat" was written in coins as a favorable feature of the ruler, having some connection to the concept of "lack of conflicts of interests". Not to be confused with Leadership. Absolute Monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. An absolute monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people.

Monarchy is an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority.

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

Totalitarianism is a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

Totalitarian Democracy refer to a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of the government. (sound familiar?).

Inverted Totalitarianism is a system where corporations have corrupted and subverted democracy and where economics trumps politics. In inverted totalitarianism, every natural resource and every living being is commodified and exploited to collapse as the citizenry is lulled and manipulated into surrendering their liberties and their participation in government through excess consumerism and sensationalism.

Fiefdoms are an organization that is controlled by a dominant person or group. The domain controlled by a feudal lord, or a man of rank in the ancient regime.

Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action. Such action may be in disregard for other parties, or as an expression of a commitment toward a direction which other parties may find disagreeable. As a word, unilateralism is attested from 1926, specifically relating to unilateral disarmament. The current, broader meaning emerges in 1964. It stands in contrast with multilateralism, the pursuit of foreign policy goals alongside allies. Unilateralism and multilateralism represent different policy approaches to international problems. When agreement by multiple parties is absolutely required—for example, in the context of international trade policies—bilateral agreements (involving two participants at a time) are usually preferred by proponents of unilateralism. Unilateralism may be preferred in those instances when it is assumed to be the most efficient, i.e., in issues that can be solved without cooperation. However, a government may also have a principal preference for unilateralism or multilateralism, and, for instance, strive to avoid policies that cannot be realized unilaterally or alternatively to champion multilateral solutions to problems that could well have been solved unilaterally. Typically, governments may argue that their ultimate or middle-term goals are served by a strengthening of multilateral schemes and institutions, as was many times the case during the period of the Concert of Europe.

Unitary State is a state governed as a single entity in which the central government is ultimately supreme. Unitary states stand in contrast with federations, also known as federal states. Global Governing - Imperialism.

Supranational Union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The term is sometimes used to describe the European Union or EU, as a new type of political entity. It is the only entity that provides for international popular elections, going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaties. The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts such as a substitute for international, transnational or global. Another method of decision-making in international organisations is intergovernmentalism in which state governments play a more prominent role.

Political Union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states. The process of creating such a state out of smaller states is called unification. Unification of states that used to be together and are reuniting is referred to as reunification. Unlike a personal union or real union, the individual states share a central government and the union is recognized internationally as a single political entity. A political union may also be called a legislative union or state union. A union may be effected in many forms, broadly categorized as, Incorporating union, Incorporating annexation, Federal union, Federative annexation and Mixed unions.

Federated State is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation. Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as the sovereign powers have been divided between the federated states and the central or federal government. Importantly, federated states do not have standing as entities of international law. Instead, the federal union as a single entity is the sovereign state for purposes of international law. Depending on the constitutional structure of a particular federation, a federated state can hold various degrees of legislative, judicial and administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government. (which may also be referred to as a state, a province, a region, a canton, a governorate, an oblast, an emirate or a country). Regime Change.

Diplomatic Recognition in international law is a unilateral political act whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state). Recognition can be accorded either on a de facto or de jure basis. Recognition can be a declaration to that effect by the recognizing government or an act of recognition such as entering into a treaty with the other state. Recognition may, but need not, have domestic and international legal consequences. If sufficient countries recognize a particular entity as a state, that state may have a right to membership in multinational organizations, while treaties may require all existing member countries unanimously agreeing to the admission of a new member. A vote by a country in the United Nations in favor of the membership of another country is an implicit recognition of that country by the country so voting, as only states may be members of the UN. On the other hand, a negative vote for U.N. membership does not necessarily mean non-recognition of the applicant as a state, as other criteria, requirements or special circumstances may be considered relevant for U.N. membership. Similarly, a country may chose not to apply for U.N. membership for its own reasons, as was the case with the Vatican, and Switzerland was not a member until 2002 because of its concerns to maintain its neutrality policy. The non-recognition of particular acts of a state does not normally affect the recognition of the state itself. For example, the international rejection of the occupation of particular territory by a recognized state does not imply non-recognition of the state itself, nor a rejection of a change of government by illegal means.

States with Limited Recognition or polities that have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognized as such. These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past. There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being. The declarative theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria: a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and a capacity to enter into relations with other states. According to the declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the constitutive theory defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are already a member of the international community. The criteria for inclusion mean that a polity must claim sovereignty, lack recognition from at least one UN member state, and either: satisfy the declarative theory of statehood, or, be recognized as a state by at least one UN member state. The declarative theory of statehood defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria: 1) a defined territory; 2) a permanent population; 3) a government and 4) a capacity to enter into relations with other states. According to declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states, as long as the sovereignty was not gained by military force. The declarative model was most famously expressed in the 1933 Montevideo Convention.

Proto-State is also known as a quasi-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.

Fragile State is a country characterized by weak state capacity or weak state legitimacy leaving citizens vulnerable to a range of shocks. Economic Hit Men

Failed State is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly. A state can also fail if the government loses its legitimacy even if it is performing its functions properly. For a stable state it is necessary for the government to enjoy both effectiveness and legitimacy. Likewise, when a nation weakens and its standard of living declines, it introduces the possibility of total governmental collapse. The Fund for Peace characterizes a failed state as having the following characteristics: Loss of control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force therein. Erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions. Inability to provide public services. Inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community. Common characteristics of a failing state include a central government so weak or ineffective that it has an inability to raise taxes or other support, and has little practical control over much of its territory and hence there is a non-provision of public services. When this happens, widespread corruption and criminality, the intervention of state and non-state actors, the appearance of refugees and the involuntary movement of populations, sharp economic decline, and military intervention from both within and without the state in question can occur. Metrics have been developed to describe the level of governance of states. The precise level of government control required to avoid being considered a failed state varies considerably amongst authorities. Furthermore, the declaration that a state has "failed" is generally controversial and, when made authoritatively, may carry significant geopolitical consequences. Imperialism.


Republicans - GOP - Conservatives - Far Right


Republican Party is said to support free market capitalism, free enterprise, business, a strong national defense, deregulation, restrictions on labor unions, social-conservative policies (particularly opposition to abortion and same-sex marriage), and traditional values, usually with a Judeo-Christian ethical foundation. But this vague description does not explain why so many republican politicians do horrible things.

Republican is a member of the Republican Party. GOP

Liberal Republicans were members of the Republican Party in the 1930s–1970s who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues.

Political Positions of the Republican Party (wiki) - Factions in the Republican Party (wiki) - Religious Factions.

Republican National Committee is generally associated with social conservative policies, although it does have dissenting centrist and libertarian factions. The social conservatives want laws that uphold their traditional values, such as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion, and marijuana.

We Have More In Common than we do uncommon. We want the same things, and we have an overlapping consensus on many other things. Most people are not aware of our commonalities or appreciate the fact that we all share similar values as everyone else does. We are literally all on the same side, but very few people know this. One of the main problems is when we
see something we don't like, or when we don't agree with something, we immediately look for someone to blame. Instead of learning more about something, we assume that we know enough about something in order to make a judgment. This passive approach does not solve any problems. The geatest thing that divides people is the lack of communication. When we don't want to talk about something or explain our opinions, there is no way to prove that we understand something. When we don't want to listen, we let our own stubbornness and laziness ruin everything else that we agree on. Everyone would agree that everyone is ignorant about something and that no one is a know it all. So we first have to agree that we don't know everything. Our conversations need to be about learning, and what we can learn from each other. Our discussions should be fact finding missions with a mutually shared goal of understanding a particular problem so that we can all be on the same page, and actually see it. We can still have our own opinions, we just need to agree on some of the most important matters at hand. And the only sure way to agree on things is when people can understand things in the same way, which means that we have to think intensely about a problem and collaborate. We can't waste time on blaming, complaining or shaming. We need to listen and not just talk. We need to reach out instead of lashing out. We need to learn and stop pretending that we know enough. Everyone has to agree that we all have to learn how to solve our problems, because they will never go away if we don't. Our respect for our ancestors starts with us showing respect for future generations. Our legacy has to be based on resilience and not based on resistance to change. The history of earth has taught us one extremely important lesson, if you don't adapt, you don't live. So if we don't learn how to adapt now, future generations will not be alive. Learning is our only chance for survival. So learning needs to be our top priority. Every thing is reliant on what we know, and not what we pretend to know. We can't all be stubborn dictators and expect people to listen to us. We need to think. And there is no greater strength or power than the combined intelligence of millions of people thinking, especially when we're trying to find a solution to a problem or find an answer to a question.

Everyone needs to just put a little extra effort and educate themselves so that we can have productive conversations. When people lack knowledge and information and lack communication skills, people can't communicate effectively enough, and thus, people can't connect or understand each other, or accurately understand our current reality. When people use vague words and pretend to understand things, this makes their own ignorance the dividing wall between people, and reality. And this wall can be easily removed by giving people access to more knowledge and information that they need. We have the language, we have valuable knowledge and information, we have the technology, and we have over 7 billion humans with amazing potential. But what we don't have is the will to do what is right and do what is good. There is no left or right, there's only good or bad. You don't want to be too far left that you can't see what's right or can't see what's on the other side. And you don't want to be so far right that you're actually wrong, or be so far right that you stop learning or stop looking for answers. If you take sides without looking on the inside, then you're blind and can't see the facts or understand the truth. We are not divided. We need to define ourselves and stop pretending to know what other people think, and stop pretending that we clearly understand what we really stand for. If you stop blaming other people for your own ignorance, then we can start having real conversations. People should justify their reasoning with facts, instead of using narrow minded observations to make excuses for how they think or how they act.

I agree with you when you say that you don't believe everything that you hear, but you do believe in things, things that you can't prove. You show that you have common sense, but you only apply this common sense when its convenient for you. That's like saying that you know what reality is, but you would rather live in a fantasy world where other people have little idea what that means, because other people can't live inside your head. Reality is something that we can all share because we all experience the environment that we live in. But we can't share someone's personal fantasy world because it exists only in their mind. It's like learning a new language that has never been spoken before. We can listen to you, but we can't use your new language as a basis for reasoning. We can only come to an agreement on what certain words should mean. Then from there, we can start having a real conversations.

Too many republican voters usually vote for one or two reasons, or they base their votes on a few vague concepts. Voters don't realize that most republican politicians represent the wealthy. So they are mostly focused on making laws that benefit the wealthy, and they don't care how these laws will effect you. They will only pretend to represent the republican voter. These politicians know how to exploit peoples ignorance by using a few keywords that republican people like to hear. And they just keep repeating those same keywords at almost every speech they make. This way the gullible republican voters will believe that the politician is speaking their language and focused on their needs, which they are not. Corrupt republican politicians just want your vote, and they will say anything to get your vote. They don't care about you. They will continue to sell you the same snake oil that you have been naively buying for the past 50 years. The republican voter is basically saying that "just tell me what I want to hear, I don't care what happens or who suffers or who dies. Just keep repeating my favorite keywords so I can continue to live in my fantasy world and keep pretending that I'm making a difference."

The American voter is needs to stop being narrow-minded and selfish. You should never vote for someone based on a few vague reasons. This makes you look like a narrow-minded and selfish person, who also has a conflict of interest, the conflict being that you are not interested in learning and understanding the responsibility of being a citizen. There are many other reasons to vote for someone. Representatives have many responsibilities and that can influence hundreds of decisions that will have an effect on peoples lives. You should never ignore the facts and pretend to believe that the person you vote for will supposedly represent you in some meaningful level. You need to see a side by comparison of every decision we make. You need to visualize and see the good when compared to the bad. You need to understand that there is always another side to a story. You need to take responsibility for your actions and stop blaming other people for your failures and for your own ignorance. It's time for us to be adults.

So hear me out my republican friends, it's time for enlightenment. We need to take responsibility for our lives and for our education. I can tell you that knowledge is good for you, and I could even pay you to learn, but I can not make you learn. So if we can just make this one agreement, that we will agree to learn, then we will solve almost every single problem that we have in this world.

I don't judge people for a particular point of view, because that's usually just one of many points of view that a person may have. It's just when a point of view causes damage and becomes a threat to peoples wellbeing. A point of view is no longer just a point of view when that point of view influences abusive behavior that harms people. The worst thing about being bad is when you believe that you're doing something good, but in reality, what you're really doing is something bad and wrong. Being a republican does not mean that you're a bad person or a good person, and being a democrat does not mean that you're a bad person or a good person. Something is considered to be good when it can be quantified and measured when analyzing the benefits and understanding the recognizable accomplishments that it causes. Something is considered to be bad when it can be quantified and measured when analyzing the negative effects that it has and the damages that it causes. So it does not matter how you label yourself or what label you choose to define your voting preference. What matters is that you can prove that your actions are doing more good than harm. Just pretending to be good is not good enough. You should know that you're good and be able to prove that you're good. If you can't prove that your actions or beliefs are good, then you're probably doing something bad and you're most likely wrong about something. This is why we need to explain ourselves and clearly understand each other. We need to prove to each other that we are accurately and effectively measuring our worth, and not just pretending that we're worthy or good. Just because someone has not taken the time to prove you wrong, this does not necessarily mean that you're right. You have to prove that you're right and you have to know that you're right. A fantasy is not proof. If you don't understand what you stand for, then you will fall for something.

You just can't get your information from just one source like FOX News. FOX stands for Fraudsters, Oafs and Xenophobes.

Republican Playbook: Influences misplaced nationalism. Has disdain for human rights. Creates enemies for people to hate. Puts more money into the military than into schools and communities. Harbors sexist views. Controls the media to a certain degree. Uses national security as a fear mongering weapon. Exploits extreme religious views to win votes and increase donations. Protects corporate interests at the expense of its citizens. Ignores corruption and cronyism. Weakens labor unions and workers rights. Interferes with elections and peoples right to vote. Has disdain for science and the arts. Is obsessed with crime and punishment but not rehabilitation. Likes the death penalty but doesn't like improving schools. Likes guns but doesn't like common sense gun control. They don't like a women's right to choose but also don't like safe sex education that reduces teenage pregnancies and also reduces the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. They're against abortion but not against mass murder, mass incarceration, mass poverty, mass diseases, mass starvation, mass wars, or mass abuse. They want a small government with less regulations but they don't like contaminated drinking water, contaminated food, contaminated soil and air pollution, which are the things that would stop premature deaths and reduce health problems and also stop the spread of cancers and diseases. Republicans are full of invalid arguments with too many contradictions, they only complain and blame but never explain. Republicans prey on the gullible, and then blame the gullible for being gullible in an attempt to shift the blame away from them, when republican leaders are the reason why people are so gullible in the first place. It's a type of ignorant feedback loop, where the republican leaders manipulate the gullible republican followers into believing that other people are to blame for their problems. The same divide and conquer trick that has been perpetrated by leaders for hundreds of years.

Subversion is destroying peoples honesty or loyalty and undermining moral integrity. Subversion also means overthrowing or destroying a legally constituted government. Domestic terrorism by ignorant morons is not an insurrection. You were brainwashed by a demagogue whose cult of personality was sold to you because you were naive enough to buy it.

Populism is when privileged elites trample on the rights, values, and the voices of the legitimate people. Populism is when citizens are mistreated by a small circle of elites. These scumbag elites can be overthrown if people could recognize this threat and work together.

Darkest Hour is the time when bad events are at their worst and most dispiriting. "the darkest hour is just before the dawn".

Political Positions of the Republican Party supports restrictions on immigration, gun rights, restrictions on abortion, and other so called traditional values, usually with a Christian foundation. In foreign policy, Republicans favor increased military spending and unilateral action. Other Republican beliefs include opposition to environmental protection law, opposition to drug legalization, and support for school choice. The party is also socially conservative, which is very vague in its meaning?

If you have vague political views that you don't fully understand, then you're more vulnerable to being manipulated. All someone has to do is say the keywords that you respond to and you can be controlled. Just like with marketing tricks and ponzi scams that fool people. If you don't know the full extent of your choices, then someone will make choices without your consent.

Most republicans are against improving education, which causes most unplanned pregnancies and discriminations. So if you hate the problems that you are causing, then stop causing them by improving education. Everyone wants Social Values. But not everyone is explaining what those values mean. There has to be a debate. Making claims without evidence is false advertising or even fraud. Are you a Conservationist?

Why does the republican party exploit religious people and ignorant people? They are a voice for the rich and powerful who believe in money, not people. Republican party also protects big corporations who poison the land, air and water, while at the same time, Republican party takes away citizens rights and freedoms. People need to wake up, your vote for a republican may be sponsoring terrorism. You need to stop being brainwashed by fox news and other fake news outlets who are exploiting gullible people who have uncontrollable biases. The color of the republican party is red like the blood they spill in the name of money and power. Don't let political colors fool you. They just want to Make America Great Again for the wealthy, and to hell with everyone else, as you can clearly see again in 2016 through 2020.

The separation of church and state is an illusion. Right-Wing Media.

Republicans and their corporate criminal partners are systematically destroying America for profit. Republicans are degrading and eroding family values and undermining Americas constitution, while raping the wealth of America. When owners of a company mismanages the company that they are responsible for, that company fails. People don't blame the employees, because employees focus on doing their job. But when managers are not focused on their job, everyone suffers, except for the owners of course, they usually walk away with the wealth of that the business, the wealth that employees created.

GOP or Grand Old Party. The party is over fellas, time to grow up now. You done enough damage and terrorized too many people for too long. Not to say that the party is over, it's just not your private party anymore, it's a public party now, a party without your style of stupidity. GOP now stands for Gullible Offensive Personnel. Gullible is someone who is easily deceived and easily fooled. Offensive is to violate, attack or offend. Offend is to act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises. Personnel are the employees in an organization who are supposed to follow responsibilities and duty's.

The Republican party has outlived its usefulness. Their purpose was never clearly defined or clearly understood, until now.

Trump is an example of what would happen when the worst TV show that was ever created became real and somehow infected reality. The republican party is like watching a horrible TV show that is both sickening and disturbing. It's like watching a depressing soap opera where every character acts like an ignorant scumbag, and the republican voters play their parts as stock characters who believe that ignorant behavior by their leaders somehow validates their own ignorant behavior. When you talk to a republican voter, they show all the signs of being in a cult and being brainwashed by cult leader who is bat shit crazy. It's like watching a stupid TV commercial advertisement that makes obvious false claims, but millions of people are still gullible enough to believe it, and they continue to watch it as if it's real. They have fallen for it hook, line and sinker. Republican voters naive fantasies and their distorted views of reality is doing real damage to this country and hurting millions of people. This is not a bad dream, this is a living nightmare. Ignorance is the devil, and the devil has a lot of demon followers who are dumb as sh*t, which creates a real danger to every living thing on this planet. So how the f*ck did this happen? The answer is a dumbed down education system and a propaganda machine that we call the media. The allegory in the cave is just child's play when compared to this cluster f*ck that we call republican politics. What good is having metaphors, analogies and satire if people are too ignorant to understand what those concepts mean or what the real message is? It's like when someone is playing a joke on you that's not funny. Your joke sucks and it's FUBAR. The intentionally dumbing down of Americans went way to far. Now we have to educate the grownups and not just the children. Ignorance is the most deadliest cancer that this world has ever faced. Luckily we can cure this disease using valuable knowledge and information.

Corporations Funding GOP’s efforts to undermine America's elections the destroy America's Democracy, as documented on the committee’s publicly available IRS Form 8872s: 1-800 Contacts, 3M, Amazon, Anheuser-Busch, Autozone, Bank of America, Best Buy, Boeing, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Capital One, Charter Communications, Chevron, Citigroup, Coca-Cola, Comcast, ConocoPhillips, Deloitte, Dominion Energy, DraftKings, Ebay, Eli Lilly, ExxonMobil, Facebook, Farmer’s Group, FedEx, Freedom Financial, General Motors, GlaxoSmithKline, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Home Depot, Honeywell, iHeartMedia, Intuit, JPMorgan Chase, Juul, Kwik Trip, LegalZoom, LexisNexis, MasterCard, Microsoft, MillerCoors, Motorola, Mylan, Nationwide, Novo Nordisk, PayPal, PepsiCo, Pfizer, Raytheon, Reynolds American, Sheetz, SmileDirectClub, Square, Target, TIAA, T-Mobile, Tracfone, TruGreen, UnitedHealth, UPS, Visa, Volkswagen, Waffle House, Walgreens, Wal-Mart, Waste Management, Waymo, Wells Fargo, and Yum Brands. In 2010, the Republican State Leadership Committee, or RSLC, was able to fund its Redistricting Majority Project, or REDMAP, with $30 million in donations taken in part from corporations like Wal-Mart, AT&T, and Pfizer.

Most Republicans today are gullible and ill-informed. And some republicans can be two faced hypocrites, bigots, racists, xenophobic, stubborn and ignorant about themselves and the world around them. Most republicans also lack empathy, and too many republicans like to pretend that they know things, which makes it difficult to have real conversations with them. This is why improving education has to be top priority. To make a America great again you have to Make Americans Educated Again. The Declaration of Independence and Americas Constitution was created by educated Americans. And it will take highly educated Americans to defend this beautiful country against the ignorance that is destroying American values. This is not about vilifying republicans, it's about educating republicans and all Americans to the highest American standards that we have. We have to educate ourselves out of this mess. Our democracy is in shambles. We can not continue this decline while other world powers are getting stronger. A strong military without strong minded people will only guarantee our destruction. We need strong minded citizens who are highly educated and resilient. Knowledge is the new world power.

Extremism - Cults - Imperialism - Wealth Inequality

Practice what You Preach Conservative is being resistant to change or progress and conforming to outdated standards and conventions, as well as being reluctant to accept better changes and new ideas. Which sounds like it's all about Me, Me, Me. I care about families as longs as its just my family and not everyone's else's family. I care about freedom as long as it's just my own personal freedoms and I don't have to care about everyone else's freedoms. I care about my country just as long as I can define what caring means. I like discrimination and prejudice as long as it doesn't effect me. You're not conserving traditional values when you're denying other people their values. No one is stopping you from your beliefs, so why are you stopping other people from their beliefs. This type of reasoning is way beyond just being hypocritical or contradictory, this is the type of reasoning that kills people and the kind of reasoning that starts wars and keeps people divided, like a false flag attack on the human mind. If your actions cause violence and degrade society, then you're not a conservative, you're just ignorant about reality, and you're forcing your ignorance on other people. You need to explain yourself so that people can understand your true intentions. People have a right to know if you are a threat or a benefit. This is why false advertising is illegal, because people will say and do anything without ever taking the responsibility for its repercussions, so the only thing that they are accountable for is death and destruction. Is a conservative against progress and against Improving Life because they fear they might have to share what they have stolen and give up their control over people who were born free just like them? No Duty to Rescue? Do conservatives want things to stay the same like murder, war, rape, child abuse, corruption, theft, inequality, poisoning of the water, air and food, propaganda and the dumbing down of education, just to name a few? What are conservatives trying to conserve? Conserve is to keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction and to use things cautiously and frugally. Everyone in the world wants that, but of course that is not what is happening. So someone is committing fraud and lying, which is not surprising these days. So the word con-serv-ative should be broken down like this..Con is a criminal with fraudulent schemes used to deprive, mislead and steal. serv is to work for or contribute to. ative is a suffix meaning relating to or tending to. So the word conservative means working for, tending to and contributing to criminals. The word conserve can also be seen as meaning to preserve and maintain the status quo of criminal activities. Opposite of Independent or Moderate. Conservative TV lies to its viewers, so being conservative is not about conserving the truth. Conservative TV is more about conserving the lies. Lies that helps to keep conservatives in the dark, and being in the dark is not where you should be. It's time to come to the light and see the light. And you have to stop blaming people you don't know. If you really want to conserve something, then you should conserve the process of learning, and stop pretending that you know enough. Maybe you need some conversion therapy? Your lack of empathy is disturbing.

Republican VirusConservatism promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. Conservatives seek to preserve institutions like the Church, monarchy and the social hierarchy, as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others, called reactionaries, oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were", which doesn't explain anything, because it's too vague and you're are not specifying anything. Persuasive Definitions.

Social Conservatism is focused on the preservation of traditional values and beliefs. It focuses on a concern with moral and social values which proponents of the ideology see as degraded in modern society by social democracy and liberalism (blame game). Social conservatives are concerned with many social issues, but don't fully understand them, such as abortion, sex education, the Equal Rights Amendment, school prayer, same-sex marriage, and many others. They oppose many of the cultural changes brought on by the culture wars and the sexual revolution, which they can not prove. Many religious conservatives push for a focus on Christian traditions as a guiding force for the country on social issues, leading them to be considered social conservatives. Explain how this guiding force works and how it translates into good behaviors? And don't be Vague.

Bible Belt is a region of the Southern United States with conservative evangelical Protestantism ideals.

Moral Majority was a prominent American political organization associated with the Christian right and Republican Party. It played a key role in the mobilization of conservative Christians as a political force and particularly in Republican presidential victories throughout the 1980s. The origins of the Moral Majority can be traced to 1976 when Baptist minister Jerry Falwell Sr. embarked on a series of "I Love America" rallies across the country to raise awareness of social issues important to him.

Heartland in the United States is the central land area of the U.S. associated with conservative political and religious ideals. Heart Land is not to be confused with the Heart of America. The Heart of America is Americas indigenous roots, its diversity, its constitution, and its independence from fascist rule.

Federalist Society is a rightwing extremist organization of conservatives and libertarians that advocates for a textualist and originalist interpretation of the United States Constitution.

Neophobia is the fear of anything new, especially a persistent and abnormal fear. In its milder form, it can manifest as the unwillingness to try new things or break from routine. In the context of children the term is generally used to indicate a tendency to reject unknown or novel foods. Food neophobia, as it may be referred to, is an important concern in pediatric psychology. In biomedical research, neophobia is often associated with the study of taste.

Regime is the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit. Medical Regime.

Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.

When people know your weaknesses, or know the things that you like, then they can easily manipulate you and gain your trust. Most every person on the planet wants the same things. But the criminals who control politicians don't care about you or the planet. So we should work together (right and left), and get rid of these scumbags once and for all, in a diplomatic way of course. "Aliens do exist, they're called republicans and conservatives. They act like they're from another planet, so we have to assume that they are from another world."

Change your Mind When a bakery refuses to serve someone with a different sexual orientation, conservatives say "that's the right of the bakery." But if a bakery refuses to serve someone because they are not wearing a mask, then conservatives say "you're violating my rights." Having it Both Ways.

Neo-Conservatism relates to a return to a modified form of a traditional viewpoint (what ever that is, no one knows). A particular political ideology characterized by an emphasis on free-market capitalism and an interventionist foreign policy. (which does not explain or define anything) People are just assuming they understand things. Neoconservatism advocates the promotion of democracy and American national interest in international affairs, including by means of military force and are known for espousing disdain for communism and for political radicalism. (and no one knows what that really means).

Conservatism can be like an oxymoron. There's a big difference between preserving traditions and preserving old ways of doing things. The old ways of doing things came about because people figured out better ways of doing things. But for some reason, people just excepted the old way and stopped looking for a better way of doing things, or they just ignored better ways of doing things. They also never explain why they reject advancements in society, even when they benefit from the advancements in society. We don't want to lose our ancient skills or our ancient knowledge. But we certainly don't want to lose our minds by ignoring new skills and new knowledge.

"Republicans and the Christian right spent decades warning us about the antichrist, and when he finally shows up, they vote for him in 2016."

"Imagine living in a country that took months to respond to a pandemic but only minutes to militarize the police against citizens exercising their first amendment right."

Terrorism is the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence or terror in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological aim. 12% of terrorists are related to Muslim extremists and 50% were from far right extremists or republicans.

On April 19, 1995, a right-wing extremist detonated a truck bomb next to the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.

Right-Wing Terrorism anti-communism, neo-fascism, neo-Nazism, and a mindset against abortion. Aim to overthrow governments and replace them with nationalist or fascist-oriented regimes, which has been slowly happening over the years with the government takeover by Republicans. False Flag Attacks.

Know Nothing was a far-right nativist political party and movement in the United States which operated nationwide in the mid-1850s. It was primarily an anti-Catholic, anti-immigration, and xenophobic movement, originally starting as a secret society. The Know Nothing movement also briefly emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to simply reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, providing the group with its common name. A notable Know Nothings was John Wilkes Booth, actor at Ford's Theatre who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln.

Republican Zombies Make America Great Again is a vague slogan. There is not one republican that can explain what that slogan means, or describe their plan coherently. What part of America is not great that once was great, because you use the word again? And what do you mean by great? Can you define something that you consider as being great? And can you measure this greatness and confirm your information using physical data that is accurate and not biased? Can you give people real answers and not force people to ask you more questions because your answers are vague and general and don't explain enough? Now tell me what you think the word America means? And did you ever ask anyone else what they think the word America means to them? And what do you mean when you say the word Make? Do you want other people to make America great? Or are you are living a life that is making America great? What are you making? Are you making a difference? Or are you just making a commotion?

666 the Mark of the Beast 666 is called the "Number of the Beast" in most manuscripts of chapter 13 of the Book of Revelation, of the New Testament, and also in popular culture.

Number of the Beast is associated with the Beast of Revelation in chapter 13, verse 18 of Book of Revelation. In most manuscripts of the New Testament and in English translations of the Bible, the number of the beast is six hundred and sixty-six.

The Beast revelation is when the first beast comes "out of the sea" and is given authority and power by the dragon. This first beast is initially mentioned in Revelation 11:7 as coming out of the abyss. His appearance is described in detail in Revelation 13:1-10, and some of the mystery behind his appearance is revealed in Revelation 17:7-18. The second beast comes "out of the earth" and directs all peoples of the earth to worship the first beast. The second beast is associated with Revelation 13:11-18 the false prophet. The two beasts are aligned with the dragon in opposition to God. They persecute the "saints" and those who do "not worship the image of the beast [of the sea]" and influence the kings of the earth to gather for the battle of Armageddon. The two beasts are defeated by Christ and are thrown into the lake of fire mentioned in Revelation 19:18-20.

Far-Right Politics known for their opposition to immigration and their espousal of nationalism, with similarities to neo-fascists and neo-nazis, including racism, prejudice, discrimination, ableism, xenophobia, antiziganism, antisemitism, social prejudice against people with disabilities, fear and distrust, negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality, and discrimination directed against Jews as a group. The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions.

Sometimes people get mad, And they feel like being bad. But the very same people who are mad sometimes, Are the very same people who are glad sometimes. It's funny, but it's true. It's the same, isn't it for me and...Sometimes people are good, And they do just what they should. But the very same people who are good sometimes, Are the very same people who are bad sometimes. It's the same, isn't it for me...Isn't it the same for you?

Do you know what you're Voting for? Do you know what your Vote stands for?


Imagine trying to express your point of view to a judge and jury? Do you think that you would be arrested for filing a frivolous lawsuit? Do you have any real evidence or just second hand news? If your choice causes negative effects that harms people or kills people, then you should be held accountable and be held liable for your actions. Negligence laws were created to protect innocent people from negligent acts that cause people harm. And even if the harm is not directly caused by you, you are still an accessory to crimes being committed by the person you voted for. You need to be held accountable for your actions, and your votes. Could people sue the republican delegates who voted for trump since their act of voting is a form of criminal negligence? They voted to hire this employee who the delegates are now liable for, and they are also accessories to all the crimes that were committed by Donald Trump. Every freedom and every right carries a responsibility.

People need to stop consenting to the lies that they're hearing. Passive behavior puts everyone at risk. Looking at things the wrong way and not seeing the whole picture is dangerous. It's the duty of every citizen to understand themselves and understand the world around them. It's also the duty of every citizen to confirm what other people understand about themselves and the world around them. We need to have real conversations. Not just to debate or argue, but to have real discussions. You have to prove what you know. And you have to prove that you understand. We are on the same team, so we need to have the same play book. If you don't know the play and understand what your responsibility is in making the play succeed, then the play will be chaotic with no symmetry or progress, it will be a broken play. Every human knows that every human is capable of cooperation, but not every human knows how to cooperate or do they understand the function of cooperation. Human innate abilities need to be fostered. You still need to learn a lot of things about the world and you still need to rely on the inputs from the environment. Though life on planet earth is complicated, we can still put things into simple terms that all humans can understand. Terms like clean water, clean food, clean air, clean soil and clean products, these terms can be easily understood. But that does not protect people from other people who don't care about these important factors. These rough players need to start reading the playbook.

If someone asks you if you are a democrat, or a republican or a socialist, ask them to define the word. This is because most people don't know what those words mean, or they have a distorted interpretation of the word. There is not one person on earth who can be described using one word, yet people do it all the time, as if they know the person they are referring to.

Alt-Right is a loosely-connected and somewhat ill-defined grouping of white supremacists, white nationalists, neo-Nazis, neo-fascists, neo-Confederates, Holocaust deniers, and other far-right fringe hate groups.

Right-Wing Politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable?, natural?, normal?, or desirable? Typically defending this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition? (not one person fully understands what these beliefs actually mean). People are pretending to know.

Tea Party is an American political movement known for its conservative positions and its role in the Republican Party. Called for a reduction of the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit by reducing government spending, and for lower taxes. The movement opposes government-sponsored universal healthcare and has been described as a mixture of libertarian, populist, and conservative activism.

Reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society. As an adjective, the word reactionary describes points of view and policies meant to restore the status quo ante. Political reactionaries are at the right-wing of a political spectrum; yet, reactionary ideologies can be radical, in the sense of political extremism, in service to re-establishing the status quo ante. In political discourse, being a reactionary is generally regarded as negative; "political reactionary".

Patriarchy is an ignorant and corrupt system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it. A social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. In the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children. Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage.

Patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy.


Separation - Isolationists


Separatist is a person who supports the separation of a particular group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or gender.

Divided - Racism - Segregation - Isolation - Information Bubble

Separatism is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession, separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy. While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online. Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups. Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.

Nationalism - Protectionism - Economic Warfare

Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals. Everything is Connected.

Isolationism is the foreign policy position that a nations' interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. A type of passive behavior that suggests that a country can some how be unaffected by activities from another country, when in fact we are all connected in one way or another. No country is immune from blockades, sanctions, pollution, corrupt influences or war. One possible motivation for limiting international involvement is to avoid being drawn into dangerous and otherwise undesirable conflicts. There may also be a perceived benefit from avoiding international trade agreements or other mutual assistance pacts. But you will never fully understand these dangers until you educate yourself. You can't isolate yourself in a world were everything is connected. Working together is the only logical choice that we have. We just don't want some ignorant and corrupt one world government telling us what to do. Secrecy can be Extremely Dangerous.

International Isolation being shunned by the international community of nations or the greater group of countries.

Every human has a right to a personal identity and individuality. Every human also has a right to protest against injustices and unequal treatments. But when people try to separate themselves from reality or from each other, then they risk dividing themselves from the only power they have, which is each other. What people really want is to separate themselves from the criminals in power, but just separating ignorance will still leave you with ignorance. You have to end the ignorance. And the only way to do that is to improve education and improve the media. Then the only things that you will need to separate is the good from the bad, and the right from the wrong. Self Governing.


Colonization - Imperialism


Imperialism is an action where a country extends its power by acquisition of territories. It may also include the exploitation of those territories which is similar to colonialism which is generally regarded as an expression of imperialism. Fascism.

Empire is a domain ruled by an emperor or empress; the region over which imperial dominion is exercised. A group of countries under a single authority. A monarchy with an emperor as head of state. A group of diverse companies under common ownership and run as a single organization.

Colonization is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components. To exploit the resources and people of another country for profit at the expense of that country.

Colonialism is the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance, expansion, and exploitation of that colony. The term is also used to describe a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples.

Gentrification - Marginalize - Eminent Domain - Invasions - Infections - Assimilations - Evictions - Over Development

Pillage is the act of stealing valuable things from a place, or illegally obtaining goods or money. Rape.

Annex is to take territory as if by conquest. An addition that extends a main building. Attach to something. Eviction.

Incursion is  the act of entering some territory or domain, often in large numbers. An attack that penetrates into enemy territory. The mistake of incurring liability or blame.

Neocolonialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country, in lieu of either direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).

Balkanization is a disorderly or unpredictable fragmentation, or sub-fragmentation, of a larger region or state into smaller regions or states, which may be hostile or uncooperative with one another. When sponsored or encouraged by a sovereign third party, the term has been used as an accusation against such third party nations. The term has also been used by voices for the status quo to underscore the dangers of acrimonious or runaway secessionism. The term has its roots in the Spring of Nations and Balkan Wars, during which many independent Balkan states emerged from the protracted dissolution of the Ottoman Empire throughout the 19th and early 20th century. Non-controversial, non-locally referencing, much older terms are separatism and its stronger analog, secessionism, which is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Failed State.

Polyarchy describes a form of government in which power is invested in multiple people. It takes the form of neither a dictatorship nor a democracy, which is what America has been for over 100 years. Money Control.

World Government a political psychopathic fantasy for a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth. Be extremely aware of the next False Flag Attack because they will use this mass murder as a reason for a one world government. There is no need for a one world government when we have the U.S. Constitution and other Human Rights Agreements, where People can Govern Themselves. But sometimes we do need to enforce the laws that are made to protect people. So we need to have Military Forces that are designed to protect people without destroying the country itself, or without killing innocent people, or without violating peoples rights. We also need to educate the public so they are aware of injustices where ever they are in the world. Then people can take the appropriate actions, like boycotts and other methods, to force countries and states to abolish unjust laws and rules that violate Human Freedom and Human Rights, like we do sometimes in America, but not always. This is because Power and Control has been stolen from people. Power that people can easily have if people where more educated then the current pathetic standards that we have today.

New World Order refers to the emergence of a totalitarian world government. One World Order Revised.

There is no need for a New World Order, we just need an easy to use failsafe governing system that any country can easily implement. A system where every citizen has a voice. A system that guarantees that countries and states can be independent. A system that guarantees peace. A system that guarantees basic needs including rights and freedoms. A system that guarantees that everyone can work and share in the responsibilities of life equally without prejudice. Input-Output.

Capitalism is a Racket when criminals can exploit it for their own selfish reasons.

Corporatism is the sociopolitical organization of a society by major interest groups, known as corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labour, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of their common interests, which is the exploitation of resources and wealth at the expense of citizens and common sense.

Corporatocracy is an economic and political system controlled by corporations or corporate interests. It is most often used today as a term to describe the current economic situation in a particular country, especially the United States.

Transnationalism as an economic process involves the global reorganization of the production process, in which various stages of the production of any product can occur in various countries, typically with the aim of minimizing costs. Proponents of capitalists transnationalism seek to facilitate the flow of people, ideas, and goods among regions. They believe that it has increasing relevance with the rapid growth of capitalist globalization. They contend that it does not make sense to link specific nation-state boundaries with for instance migratory workforces, globalized corporations, global money flow, global information flow, and global scientific cooperation. However, critical theories of transnationalism have argued that transnational capitalism has occurred through the increasing monopolization and centralization of capital by leading dominant groups in the global economy and various power blocs. Scholars critical of global capitalism (and its global ecological and inequality crises) have argued instead for a transnationalism from below between workers and co-operatives as well as popular social and political movements. Trade.

Supranational Union - European Union (EU)

Radicalism are the beliefs or actions of people who advocate thorough or complete political or social reform.

Political Radicalism denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary means and changing value systems in fundamental ways. Extremism - White Nationalism.


Global Governing


Globalist is a person who advocates the interpretation or planning of economic and foreign policy in relation to events and developments throughout the world. Relating to or advocating the operation or planning of economic and foreign policy on a global basis or things that can affect all parts of the world on a global scale. Macro vs. Micro - Oligarchies.

Globalism is the operation or planning of economic and foreign policy on a global basis.

World System is a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis.

Global Governance is a movement towards political cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region. Institutions of global governance—The United Nations, the International Criminal Court, the World Bank, etc.—tend to have limited or demarcated power to enforce compliance. The modern question of world governance exists in the context of globalization and globalizing regimes of power: politically, economically and culturally. In response to the acceleration of worldwide interdependence, both between human societies and between humankind and the biosphere, the term "global governance" may name the process of designating laws, rules, or regulations intended for a global scale. Global governance is not a singular system. There is no "world government" but the many different regimes of global governance do have commonalities: While the contemporary system of global political relations is not integrated, the relation between the various regimes of global governance is not insignificant, and the system does have a common dominant organizational form. The dominant mode of organization today is bureaucratic rational—regularized, codified and rational. It is common to all modern regimes of political power and frames the transition from classical sovereignty to what David Held describes as the second regime of sovereignty—liberal international sovereignty. In the society of states tradition, states are seen as individual entities that can mutually agree on common interests and rules of interaction, including moral rules, in much the same way as human individuals can. Often, this idea of agreement between peers is formalised by a social contract argument.

Global Justice (wiki) - Global Citizenship - Fairness - United Nations

Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Self Governing.



Democracy - Government of the People and for the People


Direct Democracy is where all people have a voice equally. Representative Democracy.

Democratization is the transition to a more democratic political regime. It may be the transition from an authoritarian regime to a full democracy, a transition from an authoritarian political system to a semi-democracy or transition from a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. Reactionary seeks to correct the present condition of greed and moral decay and replace it with a more intelligent and sustainable system.

Democratic Socialism is a political ideology that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production, often with an emphasis on democratic management of enterprises within a socialist economic system.

Democratic Party advocates social and economic equality along with human rights and freedoms. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy when needed. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection, and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy.

Democrat is an advocate of democratic principles or a member of the Democratic Party. Someone who is not a republican.

Left-Wing Politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.

Conservative Democrat is a member of the democratic party with conservative political views, or with views that are conservative compared to the positions taken by other members of the democratic party. Traditionally, conservative Democrats have been elected to office from the southern states, rural areas, and the midwest.

Factions in the Democratic Party (wiki) - Political Positions of the Democratic Party (wiki)

Social Democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a capitalist economy, and a policy regime involving collective bargaining arrangements, a commitment to representative democracy, measures for income redistribution, regulation of the economy in the general interest and welfare state provisions. Reform.

Public Choice refers to the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science. Relative.

Open Society is when the government is expected to be responsive and tolerant, and political mechanisms are said to be transparent and flexible.

Open Democracy - Open Knowledge - Independent - Self Managing

Representative Democracy is when elected officials represent a group of people, usually wealthy, as opposed to direct democracy in which all people decide directly on their own behalf.

Representation in politics is supposed to be that citizens are granted representation in the government in the form of voting rights; however, some democracies have extended this right further.

Spokesperson is someone engaged or elected to speak on behalf of others.

Republic is a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch. A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch. Republic (Latin: res publica). Having the supreme power lying in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them or characteristic of such government. (Sadly, America is not a Republic or a True Democracy.)

Liberal Democracy is a representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. It is also called western democracy. It is characterized by fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, and political freedoms for all people.

Liberal is a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties. A person who favors an economic theory of laissez-faire and self-regulating markets.

Libertarianism wants to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment.

Liberalism emphasizes the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality.

Classical Liberalism advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law and emphasizes economic freedoms found in economic liberalism which is also called free market capitalism.

Neoliberalism is extensive economic liberalization policies such as privatization, fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, and reductions in government spending in order to enhance the role of the private sector in the economy.

American Left consists of individuals and groups that have sought egalitarian or social equality, changes in the economic, political and cultural institutions of the United States. Various subgroups with a national scope are active. Liberals and progressives believe that equality can be accommodated into existing capitalist structures, but they differ in their criticism of capitalism and on the extent of reform and the welfare state. Liberalism provides democratic societies with the means to carry out civic reform by providing a framework for developing public policy and providing the correct conditions for individuals to achieve civil rights. Left Leaning Alternative Media Sources.


Progressive - Improvements - Making things Better


Progressive is favoring social change that benefits everyone by correcting abuses and implementing new ideas that develop gradually in stages and proceeds step by step. Progressive ideas or systems are new and modern, encouraging change in society or in the way that things are done. People who are progressive favor reform and civil liberties. Progressive people are interested in improvements and progress.

Progressivism is based on the idea of progress, which asserts that advancements in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to the improvement of the human condition. Strengthening the basis of empirical knowledge as the foundation of society. Progressivism in the U.S. (wiki)

Progressive Realism is focused on producing measurable results in pursuit of widely supported goals. It supports stronger international institutions, free trade, and US national interests.

Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned the 1890s to the 1920s. The main objectives of the Progressive movement were addressing problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and political corruption. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office, a further means of direct democracy would be established. They also sought regulation of monopolies (trustbusting) and corporations through antitrust laws, which were seen as a way to promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors. They also advocated for new government roles and regulations, and new agencies to carry out those roles, such as the FDA. Women's suffrage was promoted to bring a "purer" female vote into the arena. A third theme was building an Efficiency Movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, and bring to bear scientific, medical and engineering solutions; a key part of the efficiency movement was scientific management, or "Taylorism". In Michael McGerr's book A Fierce Discontent, Jane Addams stated that she believed in the necessity of "association" of stepping across the social boundaries of industrial America. Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. Progressives transformed, professionalized and made "scientific" the social sciences, especially history, economics, and political science. Initially the movement operated chiefly at the local level, but later it expanded to the state and national levels. Progressives drew support from the middle class, and supporters included many lawyers, teachers, physicians, ministers, and business people. Some Progressives strongly supported scientific methods as applied to economics, government, industry, finance, medicine, schooling, theology, education, and even the family. They closely followed advances underway at the time in Western Europe and adopted numerous policies, such as a major transformation of the banking system by creating the Federal Reserve System in 1913 and the arrival of cooperative banking in the US with the founding of its first credit union in 1908. Reformers felt that old-fashioned ways meant waste and inefficiency, and eagerly sought out the "one best system".

Modernization theory refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society.

Revised is to improve something so that it is brought up to date. Develop.

Moderate - Independent - Centrism

Technocracy is a system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of technological knowledge. Scientists, engineers, technologists, or experts in any field, would compose the governing body, instead of elected representatives who are only elected because of money from wealthy corporate interests, and not because they are qualified. Leadership skills would be selected on the basis of specialized knowledge and performance, rather than parliamentary skills. Technocracy in that sense of the word (an entire government run as a technical or engineering problem) is mostly hypothetical. In another commonly used sense, technocracy is any portion of a bureaucracy that is run by technologists in technically and analytically sound ways. The term technocracy was originally used to advocate the application of the scientific method to solving social problems. In such a system, the role of money, economic values, and morals could be eliminated altogether. Concern would be given to sustainability within the resource base, instead of monetary profitability, so as to ensure continued operation of all social-industrial functions. Some uses of the word refer to a form of meritocracy, where the ablest are in charge, ostensibly without the influence of special interest groups. The word technocratic has been used to describe governments that include non-elected professionals at a ministerial level. Meritocracy.

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterized by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production; as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership; to citizen ownership of equity; or to any combination of these. Socialism is an economic system based on state ownership of capital. A political theory advocating state ownership of industry instead of being privately owned by a corporation who is more interested in money than proving a good service to people.  Private ownership means people have less control over the quality and the price of a utility and also the availability of the service it is supposed to provide. Social Security - Why Are So Many Young People Becoming Socialists (youtube)

There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition for socialism, so when someone says the word socialism, they must specify the exact social program that they are referring to, if not, then they are saying anything. Socialism has become a buzzword for rightwing radicals who pretend to know politics.

Worker Coops -Employee Owned - Benefit Corporation - Self Managing - Progressive - Liberty

Capital are the assets available for use in the production of further assets. Wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value. Asset is a useful or valuable quality.

Populist is an advocate of democratic principles. Populism emphasizes the role of the people.

Laissez-faire is the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs.

Individualism is a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence.

Self-Governing - Sharing - Independent

Solidarity (working together) - Nationalism - Patriotism

Constitutionalism is a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law. Political organizations are constitutional to the extent that they "contain institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenry, including those that may be in the minority". As described by political scientist and constitutional scholar David Fellman: Constitutionalism is descriptive of a complicated concept, deeply embedded in historical experience, which subjects the officials who exercise governmental powers to the limitations of a higher law. Constitutionalism proclaims the desirability of the rule of law as opposed to rule by the arbitrary judgment or mere fiat of public officials ... Throughout the literature dealing with modern public law and the foundations of statecraft the central element of the concept of constitutionalism is that in political society government officials are not free to do anything they please in any manner they choose; they are bound to observe both the limitations on power and the procedures which are set out in the supreme, constitutional law of the community. It may therefore be said that the touchstone of constitutionalism is the concept of limited government under a higher law.

Constitutionalist is a person who adheres to the philosophy of constitutionalism.

Collectivism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the group and its interests. Collectivists focus on communal, societal, or national interests in various types of political, economic, and educational systems. But the rights of the individual must always be preserved and understood to be extremely important. working together as a whole does not have to mean denying personal freedoms.

Parliamentary System is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from the legislature (parliament) and is also held accountable to that legislature. Parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government (i.e., hearings, inquiries).

Semi-Presidential is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state.

Small Government is government which minimizes its own activities, like unfair laws, spying and corruption.

Big Government is being excessively large and wasteful, and not necessarily providing better services.

Limited Government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution. It is a key concept in the history of liberalism. The United States Constitution presents an example of the federal government not possessing any power except what is delegated to it by the Constitution — with the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution making explicit that powers not specifically delegated to the federal government are reserved for the people and the states. The Magna Carta and the United States Constitution also represents important milestones in the limiting of governmental power. The earliest use of the term limited government dates back to King James VI and I in the late 16th century. Limited government put into practice often involves the protection of individual liberty from government intrusion.

Whenever you hear someone say big government or small government, they're being vague. A person needs to explain what they mean and give an example. Just saying less government does not explain anything. The government that governs less is a government that governs best, that too says absolutely nothing. Honesty in government says absolutely nothing. I want to be left alone to live my life, that too explains very little. More morality, family values and traditions, this also says very little. Macro vs Micro.

Anarchy is society run on the principles of anarchism. Anarchy is usually the result of a failure in government that has become corrupt and lawless, which causes a state of disorder due to absence or non-recognition of authority.

Anarchist
is a person who believes in anarchy or tries to bring about anarchy.

Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political and social philosophy that rejects hierarchies as unjust and advocates their replacement with self manage, self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. These institutions are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations. A small government that is accountable, transparent, responsible and easily maintained. Anarchism's central disagreement with other ideologies is that it holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.

People don't mind following laws that are fair, and people don't mind having rules and regulations that provide order and safety. It's just when corrupt people in government don't follow the laws and put peoples lives in danger, that's when people scream anarchy. It's not to abolish government, it's just to rid the government of criminal activity and remove the criminals who exploited their positions of authority. This is usually when revolutionary reforms start to form.

Individualist Anarchism emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.

Social Anarchism sees individual freedom as interrelated with mutual aid. Social anarchist thought emphasizes community and social equality as complementary to autonomy and personal freedom. It attempts to accomplish this balance through freedom of speech maintained in a decentralized federalism, with freedom of interaction in thought and subsidiarity. Subsidiarity is best defined as "that one should not withdraw from individuals and commit to the community what they can accomplish by their own enterprise and industry" and that "[f]or every social activity ought of its very nature to furnish help to the members of the body social, and never destroy and absorb them", or the slogan "Do not take tools out of people's hands".

Free-Market Anarchism is the branch of anarchism that advocates a free-market economic system based on voluntary interactions without the involvement of the state.

Free Association is a relationship among individuals where there is no state, social class, hierarchy, or private ownership of means of production. Once private property is abolished, individuals are no longer deprived of access to means of production, thus enabling them to freely associate without social constraint to produce and reproduce their own conditions of existence and fulfill their individual and creative needs and desires. The term is used by anarchists and Marxists and is often considered a defining feature of a fully developed communist society.

Anti-Authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government. Anti-authoritarians usually believe in full equality before the law and strong civil liberties. Sometimes the term is used interchangeably with anarchism, an ideology which entails opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations, including the state system.

Communism is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state. Without becoming a monopoly of a different kind.


The American Dream


American Dream is about having the opportunity for prosperity and success, and having no unfair discriminating barriers that would impeded upward social mobility for individuals, families and their children. The American Dream can be seen as a set of ideals in which freedom, democracy, human rights, liberty, opportunity, and equality are important characteristics. The American Dream is about life being better, richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunities for everyone, regardless of a persons social class or the circumstances of their birth. The American Dream is rooted in the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims that "All people are created equal with the right to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness."

The American Dream can be achieved through hard work and determination, but a person must realize and understand that the American Dream is not a guarantee, especially knowing that America is suffering from corruption that is eroding its democracy. The American Dream has become the American scheme for the wealthy and for corrupt people with authority. These corrupt scumbags in power take more than they need and leave millions of people with very little, not even a dream. But the American dream is still alive, but sadly, not everyone can make their dream a reality. Too many barriers exist in America, so the American dream is mostly a dream and not a reality. Too many people in America will chase their dream only to end up living a nightmare. And the American dream should not just be about America. Every person on the planet should be given a chance to chase their dream. This way people could pursue their dream where ever they live. To revive and preserve the American Dream is going to take a lot of work, but that is the American Dream. To preserve the opportunity to dream, is the American Dream at its core. George Carlin ~ The American Dream (youtube).

Social Choice Theory is a theoretical framework for analysis of combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense. A non-theoretical example of a collective decision is enacting a law or set of laws under a constitution.

Social Choice and Individual Values a theorem within it created modern social choice theory, a rigorous melding of social ethics and voting theory with an economic flavor.

Working Together - Free Market (Trade) - Zeitgeist - Intergovernmental Organization

"You can't have a representative government without respecting the sovereignty of the individual." - Robert Scheer.

Commune is a large gathering of people sharing a common life. An intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work and income and assets. Human Values.

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, with emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical.

Ujamaa a political concept it asserts that a person becomes a person through the people or community.

People should reject certain forms of privatization and deregulation, for it only creates more corruption and more suffering, which has been clearly documented throughout history. Public Services can never be for profit or be about competition, only service. Duty is for the service of mankind and not the reward for ignorance or corruption.

The problem with capitalism is that it puts profit over people. Capitalism also tries to excuse itself from the laws of nature at the expense of everyone else. Not cool.

Remember, ending poverty, ending hunger, providing healthcare, and even with all the greatest advances and improvements that we make in this world, non of these will mean nothing if we never increase the quality and quantity of our education. Give a person a fish you feed them for a day, teach that person how to fish and you feed them for a lifetime.

"The cycle of ignorance will continue forever if we never improve education and make it available to everyone, and revolution is futile if people don't become fully educated and aware."

Education Reform is absolutely necessary but will take to long, we need an education revolution.

Karl Marx understood the importance of an organized revolutionary action, but he failed to understand that any socio-economic change is worthless and doomed to fail without educated citizens who possess clear defined goals and are not vulnerable to corruption. We are so fortunate to have almost a democracy in America, though imperfect in some areas, it is one of the few political structures that allows the time needed for it’s ignorant citizens to realize its mistakes and injustices in order to correct them accordingly. Hopefully we can correct the problems before the country experiences a total collapse. And being in a recession is clearly saying that we are now close to the edge. With so much work that needs to be done we should have absolutely no unemployment at all. So we need to define our priorities and our responsibilities and put people to work on the most important issues and at the same time start educating our students so that they are prepared for the jobs that will be created when we finally define our priorities and finally define our responsibilities. Two of those priorities are education reform where we need an education system that is more comprehensive and effective. And the second priority is government reform where we need to remove all the corrupt elements that are destroying our democracy and holding back progress. This is just the beginning. And we can’t measure how much something costs using money as our only gauge because we will never be able to fully understand the true worth of our actions. 

"Feeling good about government is like looking on the bright side of any catastrophe. When you quit looking on the bright side, the catastrophe is still there." 

"Government alone cannot solve the problems we deal with in our correctional facilities, treatment centers, homeless shelters and crisis centers - we need our faith-based and community partners."

People need to stop thinking that the government is some separate entity. The government resembles you, it reflects you. If we are stupid, then the government is stupid. If you don't give a sh*t, then the government don't give a sh*t. If you let money control your decisions, then the government will let money control their decisions too. You need to stop saying the government, and you need to start saying "the people and I", and if that contradicts what is happening, then you must act or you will be an accessory to a crime, a contributor of death and destruction, and a coconspirator of our demise. So it's time that we start clearing our names and start setting things right. The Government is People, people who have responsibilities. You have to Know the people, you have to Know their responsibilities.

National Personification is an anthropomorphic personification of a nation or its people. It may appear in political cartoons and propaganda. As a personification it cannot be a real person, of the Father of the Nation type, or one from ancient history who is believed to have been real. Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions, and natural forces, such as seasons and weather. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, and most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters. People have also routinely attributed human emotions and behavioral traits to wild as well as domesticated animals. Personification is an anthropomorphic metaphor in which a thing or abstraction is represented as a person.

Uncle Sam is a common national personification of the U.S. federal government. The earliest known personification of the United States was as a woman named Columbia, which is the personification of the United States. It was also a historical name used to describe the Americas and the New World who first appeared in 1738 (pre-USA) and sometimes was associated with another female personification, Lady Liberty, which has been represented by personifications, often loosely shown as a female classical goddess.

Won't Get Fooled Again (youtube)
We'll be fighting in the streets, With our children at our feet, And the morals when they worship will be gone
And the men who spurred us on, Sit in judgment of all wrong, They decide and the shotgun sings the song
I'll tip my hat to the new constitution, Take a bow for the new revolution, Smile and grin at the change all around
Pick up my guitar and play, Just like yesterday, Then I'll get on my knees and pray
We don't get fooled again
The change, it had to come, We knew it all along, We were liberated from the foe, that's all
And the world looks just the same, And history ain't changed, 'Cause the banners, they'd all flown in the last war
I'll tip my hat to the new constitution, Take a bow for the new revolution, Smile and grin at the change all around
Pick up my guitar and play, Just like yesterday, Then I'll get on my knees and pray
We don't get fooled again, No, no!
I'll move myself and my family aside, If we happen to be left half alive, I'll get all my papers and smile at the sky
For I know that the hypnotized never lie, Do ya?
Yeaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!
There's nothing in the street, Looks any different to me, And the slogans are out-phased, by-the-bye
And the parting on the left, Is now parting on the right, And their beards have all grown longer overnight
I'll tip my hat to the new constitution, Take a bow for the new revolution, Smile and grin at the change all around
Pick up my guitar and play, Just like yesterday, Then I'll get on my knees and pray
We don't get fooled again, Don't get fooled again, No, no!
Yeaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah!
Meet the new boss, Same as the old boss.

Theses videos below by the The Trap TV Series were taken down by corrupt and ignorant people, so please search for them.
BBC - The Trap, What Happened to Our Dreams of Freedom, 1 of 3, March 11, 2007 (youtube).
BBC - The Trap, What Happened to Our Dreams of Freedom, 2 of 3 - The Lonely Robot (youtube).
BBC - The Trap, What Happened to Our Dreams of Freedom, 3 of 3 - We Will Force You to Be Free (youtube).
Government Documentaries 
The Future of Transparency: Bringing Government into the Digital Age US Deputy Chief Technology Officer Beth Noveck (video)  FORA.tv Technology  Season 1 Episode 23 | Aired: 04/29/2010  1:45:22

Two Concepts of Liberty was the inaugural lecture delivered by the liberal philosopher Isaiah Berlin before the University of Oxford on 31 October 1958.

James M. Buchanan was an American economist known for his work on public choice theory (included in his most famous work The Calculus of Consent).

Game Theory is the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.

John Forbes Nash, Jr. was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.

RAND Corporation is an American nonprofit global policy think tank originally formed by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.

Government Crimes - Politics - Money - Power

Documentaries - Media Literacy

Citizen Action - Economics - Activism Quotes

Utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities.

Shangri-La is a fictional place with any earthly paradise, particularly a mythical Himalayan utopia – a permanently happy land, isolated from the world. In the novel, the people who live at Shangri-La are almost immortal, living hundreds of years beyond the normal lifespan and only very slowly aging in appearance. The name also evokes the imagery of the exoticism of the Orient.



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