Declaration of Independence
is a document that declared why the 13 American colonies had to become
independent of Britain and had to be free in order to protect the
colonists’ rights. If a government does not protect the rights of
, people have the right to form a new government. People have
certain inalienable rights
Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness.
All Humans are created equal
Individuals have a civic duty
defend these rights
for themselves and
Declaration of Independence
was adopted by the Continental Congress on July
- Declaration of
(US History) "We
Hold these Truths to be Self-Evident, that all
men are Created Equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain Inalienable Rights
among these are Life
Pursuit of Happiness
(we the people) -
- Human Values
Public Interest Law
Freedom of Speech
is having freedom
. Liberty is having
from arbitrary exercise of authority
Liberty is having political independence.
as contrasted with determinism
, liberty consists of the
social and political freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
The power to act or speak
without externally imposed
or unfair restraints
is freedom from interference
by other people and freedom from external restraint on one's actions.
is the possession of the capacity to act
and having the
possession of the power and resources to fulfill one's own
A concept of positive liberty
may also include freedom from internal constraints
is a collection of
and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
to maximize political freedom
, emphasizing freedom of choice
is described as
, and having immunity from
exercise of authority
, as well as the
absence of disabling conditions
an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions.
is being free in having the power
, and to speak
without externally imposed restraints
that are proven to be
. To not be held in servitude
and to have immunity from unfair obligations or
is being able to act at will; not hampered; not under
compulsion or restraint. Not held in servitude. Not taken up by scheduled
activities. Release from obligations or duties. Remove or force out from a
position. Grant relief or an exemption from a rule or requirement to. Make
information available for publication.
possible courses of action
. To be
Leeway is the amount
of freedom to move or act that is available. Allowing some freedom to move
within limits. A permissible
difference. Leeway is
the amount of drift motion to leeward of an object floating in the water
caused by the component of the wind vector that is perpendicular to the
object’s forward motion.
Give Me Some Slack
is to give someone liberty and freedom, or to sometimes allow someone to
do something that is not usually allowed. To treat someone in a less harsh
or critical way. Not to judge someone as severely as you usually would
because they are having problems at the present time.
is freeing someone from the control of another person or from legal or
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights,
political rights or equality,
often for a specifically disenfranchised group.
Emancipate is to give equal rights to women and minorities. To free
people from slavery or servitude.
does not include
the freedom to be abusive
freedom to a scumbag
is a responsibility
gives you choices, but if you make the wrong choices, then freedom can do
more harm than good. Freedom is
like having power
, both power and freedom can do more harm than
good when they are misused
freedom of choice is only effective when the choice you make is
right and logical
. So you need to learn how to choose
is a skill, and
need to be
, which makes learning an
extremely important responsibility too. One of the best types of freedom
is when you free yourself from your own ignorance, and you free yourself
from being negatively affected by
. You can't
allow ignorant behavior to get under
. If you are going to protect freedom, you must first protect
yourself. It's a great feeling when
you can control how you feel
instead of letting other people control
how you feel. Be good
, and be
good at it. Everyone should have the freedom to do what they need to do,
just as long as it does not infringe
freedoms of other people who also need to do what they need to do. You
can't be free to do what you want if it stops other people from being free
to do what they want. You can't be free to pollute the water if people
have the right to drink clean water
is a right
just as long as you are right
Don't act like a criminal
influence other people to behave badly. You have freedoms, but not the
freedom to exploit laws or inflict harm or intrude on other peoples
You Don't Own Me - Lesley Gore
the World Index measures the degree of civil liberties and political
rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories
around the world.
Freedom Indices are produced by several non-governmental organizations
that publish and maintain assessments of the state
of freedom in the world, according to their own various definitions
of the term, and rank countries as being free, partly free, or using
various measures of freedom, including civil liberties, political rights
and economic rights. Racism -
are the legal, social, or ethical
of freedom or entitlement. Rights
fundamental normative rules
about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to a legal system
, social convention, or
theory. Rights are of essential importance in such disciplines as
, especially theories of
, which is the normative ethical theory that the morality of
an action should be based on whether that action itself is
right or wrong
series of rules, rather than based on the
action. Rights are often
considered fundamental to civilization, being regarded as established
, and the history
of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its
development. Right should be right
and not every law is right. This is why we have
. Humans don't
always get things right the first time. And not every human
follows the law
. This is our
it. Civil Rights
Bill of Rights
- No Unfair
are the rights that a person has over their own body. Rights as of
personal security, personal liberty, and private property appertaining to
the person. Among personal rights are associated rights to protect and
safeguard the body, most obviously protected by the torts of
assault and battery
Furthermore, aspects of personality are protected, such as a person's
reputation and honor
by the tort of defamation, and legislation protecting the privacy of
individuals, and freedom of movement. Copyrights
are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs
of any particular culture or government, and so are universal and
inalienable. Natural laws cannot be repealed
by human laws, though one can
forfeit their enforcement through one's actions, such as by violating
someone else's rights. Legal Rights
are those bestowed
onto a person by a given legal system
, which can be modified,
restrained by human laws.
of some status or
in a jurisdiction is
of it as being true
, legal, or
worthy of consideration
and may involve approval or the granting of rights.
are moral principles
which describe certain standards of human behavior, and are regularly
protected as legal rights in municipal and international law. They are
commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights "to which a person
is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being," and
which are "inherent in all human beings" regardless of their nation,
location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status. They are
applicable everywhere and at every time in the sense of being universal,
and they are egalitarian in the sense of being the same for everyone. They
require empathy and the rule of law and impose an obligation on persons to
respect the human rights of others. They should not be taken away except
as a result of due process based on specific circumstances; for example,
human rights may include freedom from
, and execution.
Human Rights Measurement
is a global initiative to track the human rights performance of countries.
are a group of rights that have been recognized by
a high degree of protection from encroachment
These rights are specifically identified in a Constitution, or have been
found under Due Process of law.
Social Rights Empowerment Initiative
Universal Law - Sovereign Law Trumps All Others.
1. No man or woman, in or out of government shall initiate force,
threat of force or fraud
against my life
and property and, any and all contracts
I'm a party to not giving full disclosure to me whether signed by me or
not are void at my discretion
2. I may use force in
against anyone that violates Law
3. There shall be no exceptions to Law 1 and 2.
is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority,
corporation, individual or other legal entity.
is a provision made in accordance with a legal framework
of a society. Typically, entitlements are based on concepts of principle
which are themselves based in concepts of
enfranchisement. A government program guaranteeing access to some
benefit by members of a specific group and based on established rights
or by legislation. Not the same as believing that you are
entitled to privileges
Privilege in Legal Ethics
is a certain entitlement to
by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth
or on a conditional basis.Prerogative
is a right or privilege
exclusive to a particular individual or class.
- Food - Water - Shelter - Energy -
International Human Rights Law
is the body of international law
designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
As a form of international law, international human rights law are
primarily made up of treaties, agreements between sovereign states
intended to have binding legal effect between the parties that have agreed
to them; and customary international law. Other international human rights
instruments, while not legally binding, contribute to the implementation,
understanding and development of international human rights law and have
been recognized as a source of political obligation.
International Humanitarian Law
is the law that regulates the conduct
of war (jus in bello). It is a branch of international law which seeks to
limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not
participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means
and methods of warfare available to combatants.
A person can only have rights when other people are aware of those
rights and do not violate those rights. So human rights are not a given
and not a guarantee. People and governments can violate human rights
almost at any time. So in order to have rights you must educate people and
inform people to the highest standard and degree possible, and not just to
educate people about rights, but too protect human rights and enforce
human rights so that no one is above
biggest threat to humanity and peoples rights.
is no longer an option.
is something that has no
, and is also in accordance
with established standards
. Fair is something that is
, something that has
no illogical imbalances
is impartial and
without favoritism or
is someone who is free from
favoritism or self-interest or bias or deception. Someone who judges
things based on facts instead of fiction. Someone who shows respect by
conforming with established standards or rules that are applied to
everyone equality. Someone who is not excessive or extreme. Someone who is
very pleasing to the eye. Having few alterations or corrections. Hair or
skin that is pale or light-colored. Free of clouds or rain.
free from undue bias
is a principle of justice holding that decisions should
be based on objective
, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring
the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons.
Even Playing Field
Level Playing Field
is a concept about
fairness where each player has an
to succeed as
long as everyone plays by the same set of rules. There should be no
external interference that affects the ability of the players to compete
fairly. If the rules affect different participants differently, then they
are not actually the same.Equality
- Having a Voice - To be Heard - To Contribute -
worthy of respect
is a sincere intention to be fair,
, regardless of the
outcome of the interaction.
Fair and Equal Justice for Everyone
is a state of fairness in which job applicants are treated
similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers or
except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Freedom of Speech
to the United States Constitution
prohibits the making of
any law that would imped the free
exercise of religion or favor any religion. No law can be made that would
restrict the freedom
of speech, infringe on the
freedom of the press, interfere with the
Right of the
People to Peaceably Assemble
prohibit the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances
was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that
constitute the Bill of Rights
People have the
Right to Speak
up against cruel and oppressive
, and injustices and
. Let us not distort this right
by adding scenarios
that have nothing to do with this right.
is the right to communicate
Freedom of Speech
does not say
that your words
will be heard, or does it mean
that the people who are allowed to speak are not lying. When
statements are made, and the public is not given a chance to
express a counter argument
or even have an open discussion
about the statement, then all you are left with is
a narrow point of view
, and that is complete bullshit and
absolutely dangerous. You can't have a rule or a law that can be
circumvented and manipulated, because that leads to chaos, and
that is exactly what happens every seconded of every day
somewhere on this planet. And just because there is no chaos
where you live, that does not mean that chaos does not exist.
Freedom of Speech
: You are free to speak your mind, but you must be
aware of the timing and the place. Lies, hate or
dangerous, for they are weapons that distort information
and distort the
truth. Communication is our greatest strength, but
is also our greatest
weakness when it is abused and misused
. Freedom is a Right as long as your
freedom is not used to deny others their freedom.
- SLAPP Suites
Freedom of Thought
is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider
a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
Freedom of Expression
is a principle that supports the freedom of an
individual or a community to articulate their
and ideas without fear of retaliation,
, or legal sanction. The
term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes
any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas,
regardless of the medium used.
in social science
refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions – and
ideally exert influence – regarding political, economic, management or
other social decisions. Participatory
can take place along any realm of human social
activity, including economic (i.e. participatory economics), political
(i.e. participatory democracy or parpolity), management (i.e.
participatory management), cultural (i.e. polyculturalism) or familial
(i.e. feminism). For well-informed participation to occur, it is argued
that some version of transparency, e.g. radical transparency, is necessary
but not sufficient. It has also been argued that those most affected by a
decision should have the most say while those that are least affected
should have the least say in a topic.
encompasses the freedom to hold,
restriction. Viewed as an integral component of a
freedom protects an individual's right to
, explore, consider, and
express ideas and information as the basis for a
citizenry. Intellectual freedom comprises the bedrock for
freedoms of expression
, speech, and the
relates to freedoms of information and
. The United Nations upholds intellectual freedom as a basic
human right through
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Everyone has the right to
freedom of opinion
and expression; this right includes freedom to hold
opinions without interference and to seek,
through any media and regardless of frontiers. The institution of
libraries in particular values intellectual freedom as part of their
mission to provide and protect access to information and ideas. The
American Library Association (ALA) defines intellectual freedom as "the
right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all
points of view without restriction
. It provides for free access to
all expressions of ideas
through which any and all
sides of a question, cause or movement can be explored." The modern
concept of intellectual freedom developed out of an opposition to book
censorship. It is promoted by several professions and movements. These
entities include, among others, librarianship, education, and the Free
Software Movement. Declarative
that represents the act or state as
an objective fact
statement that is emphatic and explicit spoken or written. A formal
. Declaration in
law unsworn statement that can be admitted in evidence in a legal
is a a
formal public statement. The formal act of proclaiming or
giving public notice
is a public statement
containing information about an event that has happened or is going to happen.
Freedom of Speech Abuses
A Right to Speak
or the Freedom of Speech
is not a right
to tell lies
. A right is a power for
good. A right is not for scumbags
to abuse and misuse, yet
here we are. The media must be held
for giving a voice to criminals
. The media are
to criminal activity and need to be held
. We can not allow
who believe that
is an excuse to be a
. False Advertising
is when speech could be criminalized if it
or criminal activity
permits restriction of freedom of speech by government if it is believed
that a form of speech has a sole tendency to incite or cause illegal
defines the limits of freedom of speech if speech
merely advocated violence.
Shouting Fire in a Crowded Theater
is a popular metaphor for speech or
actions made for the principal purpose of creating panic.
Falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic highlights that
speech that is dangerous and false is not protected, as opposed to speech
that is dangerous but also true. False Flag Attack
How do you stop propaganda
violating free speech? Censorship
is dangerous and sometimes necessary when
. Speak your mind,
but please remember, the
truth is debatable
. Know what you say, but understand that people can listen and
things differently than
Communications Decency Act
of 1996 was the first notable attempt by
the United States Congress to regulate pornographic material on the
Internet. It attempted to regulate both indecency and obscenity
especially when available to
children. Second, section 230 of the act has
been interpreted to say that
operators of Internet services
are not to be
construed as publishers (and thus not legally liable for the words of
third parties who use their services).
Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act
provides immunity from
liability for providers and users of an "interactive computer service" who
publish information provided by third-party users: No provider or user of
an interactive computer service
shall be treated as the publisher or
speaker of any information provided by another information content
Public Forum Free Speech Laws
- Social Networks
- Accessories to Crimes
Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act
became law on April 11, 2018 to make
it illegal to knowingly assist, facilitate, or support sex trafficking,
and amend the Section 230 safe harbors of the Communications Decency Act
(which make online services immune from civil liability for the actions of
their users) to exclude enforcement of federal or state sex trafficking
laws from its immunity
Federal Communications Commission
to regulate interstate
communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. The FCC
maintains jurisdiction over the areas of broadband access, fair
competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, and
homeland security. Watchdogs
As long as people don't mind what you speak, you should
speak your mind
. But if you speak your
mind, you should know your mind and you should know how to speak, and also
know what you're talking about.
and Political Rights
are a class of
from infringement by
, and private individuals. They ensure one's
ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without
. Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental
; protection from Discrimination
on grounds such as
, gender expression, gender dysphoria,
sexual orientation (also called
, the freedoms of
and conscience, speech
. Political rights include
(procedural fairness) in
, such as the
rights of the accused
, including the
right to a fair trial
; the right to seek redress or a
; and rights of
freedom of association
right to assemble
right to petition
right of self-defense
, and the
. Civil and political rights form the original and main part of
international human rights.
They comprise the first portion of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
economic, social and cultural rights
comprising the second portion).
The theory of
three generations of human rights
considers this group of rights to be
"first-generation rights", and the theory of
negative and positive rights
considers them to be generally
or personal freedoms
are personal guarantees and freedoms that the
government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation
without due process
. Though the scope of the term differs between
countries, civil liberties may include the freedom from torture, freedom
from forced disappearance, freedom of conscience, freedom of press,
freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right
to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the
right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a
fair trial, and the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right
to own property, the right to defend oneself, and the right to bodily
integrity. Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types
of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights
and negative liberty/negative rights.
are a worldwide series of
political movements for equality before the law
, that has been going
on for hundreds of years.
Rights Act of 1957
enacted September 9, 1957, primarily a voting
rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the
United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The purpose of
the Civil Rights Act of 1957 was to show the federal government's support
for racial equality following the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown decision.
Opposition to the legislation, including the longest one-person
filibuster in history, resulted in limited immediate impact, but the Act
paved the way for a series of more effective civil rights bills in the
Civil Rights Act of 1964
enacted July 2, 1964 is a landmark civil
rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination
based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibited
unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation
in schools, employment, and public accommodations.
Civil Rights Division
- Civil Law
Council on American-Islamic Relations
is a Muslim civil rights and
advocacy group. It is headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.,
with regional offices nationwide. Through civil rights actions, media
relations, civic engagement, and education, CAIR promotes social, legal
and political activism among Muslims in America. The government of the
United Arab Emirates has designated CAIR as a terrorist organization.
Critics of CAIR have accused it of pursuing an Islamist agenda and have
claimed the group is connected to Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood, which
CAIR has rejected and described as an Islamophobic smear campaign.
Martin Luther King Jr
. was an African American minister and
who became the most visible
spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his
assassination in 1968. King is best known for advancing civil rights
disobedience, inspired by his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent
. King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and later
became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC). As president of the SCLC, he then led an unsuccessful 1962
struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, and helped organize the
nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama. He helped organize the
1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I
Have a Dream
" speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. On October
14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality
through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to
Montgomery marches. In his final years, he expanded his focus to include
opposition towards poverty, capitalism, and the Vietnam War. FBI Director
J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the
FBI's COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible
communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to
government officials, and, in 1964, mailed King a threatening anonymous
letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.
King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called
the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in
Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities.
Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had
been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for
decades after the shooting. King was posthumously awarded the Presidential
Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr.
Day was established as a holiday in cities and states throughout the
United States beginning in 1971; the holiday was enacted at the federal
level by legislation signed by President Ronald Reagan in 1986. Hundreds
of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in
Washington was rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on
the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 2011. Since the
late 2010s activists have made efforts on Martin Luther King Jr. Day to
reclaim the legacy of King. (Martin was born Michael King Jr. on January
15, 1929 – April 4, 1968).
- Commission on Civil Rights
United States Commission on Civil Rights
is a bipartisan, independent
commission of the United States federal government, created in 1957, that
is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and
making recommendations concerning civil rights issues in the United
States. Pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 1975d, all statutory authority for the
commission terminated on September 30, 1996, and Congress has not passed
new legislation, but has continued to pass appropriations.
Individual and Group Rights
or collective rights, are rights held by a
group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast,
individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are
group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights
if the right-holders are the individuals themselves. Group rights have
historically been used both to infringe upon and to facilitate individual
rights, and the concept remains controversial.
"Liberty will not
descend to a people, a people must raise themselves to liberty; it is a
blessing that must be earned before it can be enjoyed."
Charles Caleb Colton
What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July
is the title now given to a
delivered on July 5, 1852
"Oppression makes a wise man mad. Your fathers were wise men, and if they
did not go mad, they became restive under this treatment. They felt
themselves the victims of grievous wrongs, wholly incurable in their
colonial capacity. With brave men there is always a remedy for oppression.
Just here, the idea of a total separation of the colonies from the crown
was born! It was a startling idea, much more so, than we, at this distance
of time, regard it. The timid and the prudent (as has been intimated) of
that day, were, of course, shocked and alarmed by it. What have I, or
those I represent, to do with your national independence? Are the great
principles of political freedom and of natural justice, embodied in that
Declaration of Independence, extended to us?...What, to the American
slave, is your 4th of July? I answer; a day that reveals to him, more than
all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is
the constant victim."
Descendants Read His Famous ‘Fourth of July’ Speech | NPR
Let America Be America Again
Let America be America again.
Let it be the
dream it used to be.
Let it be the pioneer on the plain
home where he himself is free.
(America never was America to me.)
Let America be the dream the dreamers dreamed—
Let it be that great
strong land of love
Where never kings connive nor tyrants scheme
That any man be crushed by one above.
(It never was America to me.)
O, let my land be a land where Liberty
Is crowned with no false
But opportunity is real, and life is free,
Equality is in the air we breathe.
(There's never been equality for me,
Nor freedom in this "homeland of the free.")
Say, who are you that
mumbles in the dark?
And who are you that draws your veil across the
I am the poor white, fooled and pushed apart,
I am the Negro
bearing slavery's scars.
I am the red man driven from the land,
the immigrant clutching the hope I seek—
And finding only the same old
Of dog eat dog, of mighty crush the weak.
I am the young
man, full of strength and hope,
Tangled in that ancient endless chain
Of profit, power, gain, of grab the land!
Of grab the gold! Of grab the
ways of satisfying need!
Of work the men! Of take the pay!
everything for one's own greed!
I am the farmer, bondsman to the soil.
I am the worker sold to the machine.
I am the Negro, servant to you
I am the people, humble, hungry, mean—
Hungry yet today despite
Beaten yet today—O, Pioneers!
I am the man who never got
The poorest worker bartered through the years.
Yet I'm the
one who dreamt our basic dream
In the Old World while still a serf of
Who dreamt a dream so strong, so brave, so true,
yet its mighty daring sings
In every brick and stone, in every furrow
That's made America the land it has become.
O, I'm the man
who sailed those early seas
In search of what I meant to be my home—
For I'm the one who left dark Ireland's shore,
And Poland's plain, and
England's grassy lea,
And torn from Black Africa's strand I came
build a "homeland of the free."
Who said the free? Not me?
Surely not me? The millions on relief today?
The millions shot down
when we strike?
The millions who have nothing for our pay?
the dreams we've dreamed
And all the songs we've sung
And all the
hopes we've held
And all the flags we've hung,
The millions who have
nothing for our pay—
Except the dream that's almost dead today.
O, let America be America again
The land that never has been yet
yet must be—the land where every man is free.
The land that's mine—the
poor man's, Indian's, Negro's, ME—
Who made America,
Whose sweat and
blood, whose faith and pain,
Whose hand at the foundry, whose plow in
Must bring back our mighty dream again.
Sure, call me any
ugly name you choose—
The steel of freedom does not stain.
those who live like leeches on the people's lives,
We must take back
our land again,
I say it plain,
was America to me,
And yet I swear this oath—
America will be!
Out of the rack and ruin of our gangster death,
The rape and rot of
graft, and stealth, and lies,
We, the people, must redeem
the mines, the plants, the rivers.
The mountains and the endless plain—
All, all the stretch of these great green states—
And make America
was an American poet, social activist, novelist,
playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He moved to New York City
as a young man, where he made his career. One of the earliest innovators
of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry, Hughes is best known
as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance. He famously wrote about the period
that "the negro was in vogue", which was later paraphrased as "when Harlem
was in vogue." Growing up in a series of Midwestern towns, Hughes became a
prolific writer at an early age. He graduated from high school in
Cleveland, Ohio and soon began studies at Columbia University in New York
City. Although he dropped out, he gained notice from New York publishers,
first in The Crisis magazine, and then from book publishers and became
known in the creative community in Harlem. He eventually graduated from
Lincoln University. In addition to poetry, Hughes wrote plays, and short
stories. He also published several non-fiction works. From 1942 to 1962,
as the civil rights movement was gaining traction, he wrote an in-depth
weekly column in a leading black newspaper, The Chicago Defender.
Let America be America Again
poem written in
by American poet Langston Hughes. It was originally published
in the July 1936 issue of Esquire Magazine. The poem was republished in
the 1937 issue of Kansas Magazine and was revised and included in a small
collection of Langston Hughes poems entitled A New Song, published by the
International Workers Order in 1938. The poem speaks of the American dream
that never existed for the lower-class American and the freedom and
equality that every immigrant hoped for but never received. In his poem,
Hughes represents not only African Americans, but other economically
disadvantaged and minority groups as well. Besides criticizing the unfair
life in America, the poem conveys a sense of hope that the American Dream
is soon to come. Hughes wrote the poem while riding a train from New York
to his mother's home in Ohio. He was in despair over recent reviews of his
first Broadway play and his mother's diagnosis of breast cancer. Despite
being a pillar of the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s, he was still
struggling for acceptance as a poet, battling persistent racism, and just
eking out a living. Selling a poem or a story every few months, he called
himself a "literary sharecropper." Fate, he said, "never intended for me
to have a full pocket of anything but manuscripts." Hughes finished the
poem in a night but did not regard it as one of his best. It did not
appear in his early anthologies and was only revived in the 1990s, first
in a public reading by Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall, later as a
title for museum shows. The title of this poem was used by Democratic
United States senator John Kerry as a campaign slogan in his 2004
American civil rights activist
and member of the
worked for equality on behalf of
. In the 1940s, her advocacy was credited as being
instrumental in the passing of Alaska's
Anti-Discrimination Act of 1945
, the first state or territorial
anti-discrimination law enacted in the United States in the 20th century.
In 1988, the Alaska Legislature established February 16 as Elizabeth
Peratrovich Day "for her courageous, unceasing efforts to eliminate
discrimination and bring about equal rights in Alaska" (Alaska Statutes
44.12.065). In March 2019, her obituary was added to The New York Times as
part of their "Overlooked No More" series. (Tlingit name: Kaaxgal.aat;
July 4, 1911 – December 1, 1958).
Eyes on the Prize
is an American television series and 14-part
documentary about the 20th-century civil rights movement
in the United States. The documentary originally aired on the PBS network,
and it also aired in the United Kingdom on BBC2. Created and executive
produced by Henry Hampton at the film production company Blackside and
narrated by Julian Bond, the series uses archival footage, stills, and
interviews by participants and opponents of the movement. The title of the
series is derived from the title of the folk song "Keep
Your Eyes on the Prize
", which is used as the opening theme music in
Inalienable - Unalienable
rights that cannot be bought, sold, or transferred
from one individual to another. Rights
are not subject to forfeiture and can be
as a penalty
guaranteed by the
the United States
, they are
Similarly, various types of property are inalienable, such as rivers,
streams, and highways.
are two types of rights. Natural
rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any
particular culture or government, and so are universal and inalienable (they
cannot be repealed by human laws
, though one can forfeit their
enforcement through one's actions, such as by violating someone else's
rights). Legal rights are those bestowed onto a person by a given legal
system (they can be modified, repealed, and restrained by human laws). Unalienable
something incapable of being repudiated or something that you
cannot refuse to acknowledge
refuse to recognize
no one has the right to violate another
- Social Justice
are the rights and
freedoms that every human has inherited is born with rights as a birth
right. But these rights can only be given when someone protects these
rights for you, and when you can protect these rights for yourself and
protect these rights for others. Humans are born with rights that need
protection, just like all animals need protection, the
environment needs protection
your brain needs protection
Virginia Declaration of Rights
was drafted in 1776 to proclaim the
inherent rights of men
, including the right
to reform or abolish "inadequate" government. It influenced a number of
later documents, including the United States Declaration of Independence
(1776) and the United States Bill of Rights (1789). Article 1 states that
"all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain
inherent rights of which ... they cannot deprive or divest their
posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of
acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness
and safety," a statement later made internationally famous in the second
paragraph of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, as "we hold these
truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, and are endowed
by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." Section 1. That all men are
by nature equally free and independent and have certain inherent rights,
of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any
compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life
and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and
pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
The March of
Freedom (Full Episode) | The Story of Us with Morgan Freeman
- Morgan Freeman travels around the world in search of a greater
understanding of the concept of freedom. From solitary confinement and
forced labor camps to social taboos and laws that hinder speech and
expression, freedom seems to be a constant struggle. As individuals and as
entire nations, we are confronted with the question: Will we all ever be
truly free?I serve you
not your slave
. I am an
and a human, and like all humans, we are born with rights
and freedoms. No human can be owned or treated like an object. We respect
each other, we work together
we live together, we learn together, and we progress together.
is the legal requirement that the state must
respect all legal
that are owed to a person. Due process balances the power of law of
the land and protects the individual person from it. When a
harms a person
without following the exact course of the law, this
constitutes a due process violation, which offends the rule of law
Due Process Clause
in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments
to the United States
Constitution each contain a due process clause. Due process deals with the
administration of justice
and thus the due process clause acts as a
safeguard from arbitrary denial of life, liberty, or property
Government outside the sanction of law
. The Supreme Court of the United
States interprets the clauses more broadly because these clauses provide
four protections: The procedural due process in civil and criminal
substantive due process
, a prohibition against vague laws
and as the vehicle for the incorporation of the Bill of Rights
process ensures the rights and equality
of all citizens.
Right to a Fair Trial
- Equal Justice Under Law
- Innocent Until Proven Guilty
- Not Making Assumptions
Avoidance of Censorship
Substantive Due Process
is a principle allowing courts to protect
certain fundamental rights from government interference, even if
procedural protections are present or the rights are not specifically
mentioned elsewhere in the US Constitution. Courts have identified the
basis for such protection from the due process clauses of the Fifth and
Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, which
the federal and state governments, respectively,
from depriving any person of "life, liberty, or
property, without due process of law
." Substantive due process
demarcates the line between the acts that courts hold are subject to
government regulation or legislation and the acts that
place beyond the reach of
governmental interference. Whether the Fifth and/or Fourteenth Amendments
were intended to serve that function continues to be a matter of scholarly
as well as judicial discussion and dissent.
states, "nor shall any State deny to any
person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws". It
mandates that individuals in similar situations be treated equally by the
to the United States Constitution was adopted on
July 9, 1868. Section 1
. All persons born
in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
thereof, are citizens
of the United States and of the State wherein they
reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the
privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any
State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws. Section 2
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each
State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any
election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of
the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial
officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied
to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of
age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for
participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation
therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male
citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years
of age in such State. Section 3
. No person
shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President
and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the
United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath,
as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a
member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of
any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or
comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds
of each House, remove such disability. Section 4
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law,
including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services
in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But
neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or
obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United
States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all
such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
. The Congress shall have power to
enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
(allows a witness to
decline to answer questions
to the United States Constitution is the part of the
United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal
. The Supreme Court has applied the protections of this
amendment to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth
(freedom of speech)
is technical terminology for the
rule against bias
right to a fair hearing
the term natural justice is often retained as a general concept, it has
largely been replaced and extended by the general "duty
to act fairly
". The basis for the rule against bias is the need to
maintain public confidence in the legal system. Bias can take the form of
actual bias, imputed bias or apparent bias. Actual bias is very difficult
to prove in practice while imputed bias, once shown, will result in a
decision being void without the need for any investigation into the
likelihood or suspicion of bias. Cases from different jurisdictions
currently apply two tests for apparent bias: the "reasonable suspicion of
bias" test and the "real likelihood of bias" test. One view that has been
taken is that the differences between these two tests are largely semantic
and that they operate similarly. The right to a fair hearing requires that
individuals should not be penalized by decisions affecting their rights or
legitimate expectations unless they have been given prior notice of the
case, a fair opportunity to answer it, and the opportunity to present
their own case. The mere fact that a decision affects rights or interests
is sufficient to subject the decision to the procedures required by
natural justice. In Europe, the right to a fair hearing is guaranteed by
Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights, which is said to
complement the common law rather than replace it. (nemo iudex in
causa sua) (audi alteram partem).
Bill of Rights
The Bill of
is the collective name
first ten amendments
to the United
States Constitution. Proposed following the oftentimes bitter 1787–88
battle over ratification of the U.S. Constitution, and crafted to address
the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments
add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and
rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other
proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically
delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or
the people. The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those
found in several earlier documents, including the Virginia Declaration of
Rights and the English Bill of Rights 1689, along with earlier documents
such as Magna Carta (1215).
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
- Civil Rights
Right to Life
is a moral principle based on the belief that a human
being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by
another human being. The concept of a right to life arises in debates on
issues of capital punishment, war, abortion, euthanasia, justifiable
homicide, animal welfare and public health care.
Right to Remain Silent
for "the Great Charter of the Liberties", commonly
called Magna Carta ("the Great Charter"), is a
agreed to by King
John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215
. First drafted
by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King
and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights,
protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift
justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown, to be
implemented through a council of 25 barons.
are two types of rights. Legal Rights
are those bestowed onto a person by a given legal system
that can be modified, repealed, and restrained by human laws). Natural
rights are those that are not dependent on the laws, customs, or beliefs
of any particular culture or government, and therefore universal and
inalienable (i.e., rights that cannot be repealed or restrained by human
Equal Rights Amendment
is a proposed amendment to the United States
Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American
citizens regardless of sex
; it seeks to end
the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce,
property, employment, and other matters. The ERA was originally written by
Alice Paul and Crystal Eastman. The amendment was introduced in Congress
for the first time in October 1921 and has prompted conversations about
the meaning of legal equality
for women and men ever since.
Second Bill of Rights
is a list of rights that was proposed by United
States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union
Address on Tuesday, January 11, 1944. Roosevelt's argument was that the
"political rights" guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
had "proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness".
His remedy was to declare an "economic bill of rights" to guarantee these
(right to work), food, clothing and leisure with enough
income to support them. Farmers' Rights
fair income. Freedom from unfair competition
. Medical Care.
. Roosevelt stated that having such rights would guarantee
American security and that the United States' place in the world depended
upon how far the rights had been carried into practice.
It's Time for the Law to Protect Victims of Gender Violence: Laura L. Dunn
(video and text)
- Women's News
- Sex Crimes
International Human Rights Law
is the body of international law designed to
promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels. As a form
of international law, international human rights law is primarily made up
of treaties, agreements between sovereign states intended to have binding
legal effect between the parties that have agreed to them; and customary
international law. Other international human rights instruments, while not
legally binding, contribute to the implementation, understanding and
development of international human rights law and have been recognized as
a source of political obligation.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
adopted by the United Nations
General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.
National Human Rights Institution
is an independent institution
bestowed with the responsibility to broadly protect, monitor and promote
human rights in a given country. The growth of such bodies has been
encouraged by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights (OHCHR), which has provided advisory and support services, and
facilitated access for NHRIs to the UN treaty bodies and other
committees. There are over 100 such institutions, about two-thirds
assessed by peer review as compliant with the United Nations standards set
out in the Paris Principles. Compliance with the Principles is the basis
for accreditation at the UN, which, uniquely for NHRIs, is not conducted
directly by a UN body but by a sub-committee of the International
Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions (ICC). The
secretariat to the review process (for initial accreditation, and
reaccreditation every five years) is provided by the National Institutions
and Regional Mechanisms Section of the OHCHR.
Human Rights Commission
is a body set up to investigate, promote or
protect human rights.
European Convention on Human Rights
is an international treaty to
protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950
by the then newly formed Council of Europe, the convention entered into
force on 3 September 1953.
Human Rights Search Engine
Declaration of Principles on Equality
reflects a moral and
professional consensus among human rights and
experts done in
December 2008. It contains 27 principles that establish a new paradigm on
equality, drawing on established and emerging principles of international
law. It has been described by the High Court of Delhi as reflecting the
‘current international understanding of Principles on
Alison Crocetta: Bear in Mind
List of Peace Activists
List of Civil Rights Leaders
Journalism from Citizens
for something, or a vote against something.
international organization that trains and supports people using video in
their fight for human rights.
period during which offenders are exempt from punishment
. Amnesty in law
is a warrant granting release
for an offense or the formal act of
. To grant a pardon
to a group of people. Asylum
- Amnesty USA
Human Rights Watch
European Court of Human Rights
Citizens Commission on Human
Right of Asylum
when a person is persecuted by their own country may be protected by
another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official.
Open Society Foundations
The mission of the
Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities
eliminate discrimination through civil and human rights law enforcement
and to establish equal opportunity and justice for all persons within the
state through advocacy and education.
"Your freedom ends where mine begins,
and to know exactly where that line is for me and for you, is the beginning
of understanding each other."
We want control and order without infringing on peoples
needs, or put restrictions on people that causes more harm then good.
better education and less legislation.
Negative and Positive Rights
that oblige either action
(positive rights) or inaction (negative rights). These obligations may be
of either a legal or moral character. The notion of positive and negative
rights may also be applied to liberty rights
. To take an example involving
two parties in a court of law: Adrian has a negative right to x against
Clay if and only if Clay is prohibited from acting upon Adrian in some way
regarding x. In contrast, Adrian has a positive right to x against Clay if
and only if Clay is obliged to act upon Adrian in some way regarding x. A
case in point, if Adrian has a negative right to life against Clay, then
Clay is required to refrain from killing Adrian; while if Adrian has a
positive right to life against Clay, then Clay is required to act as
necessary to preserve the life of Adrian. Rights considered negative
rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech,
life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion,
habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery. Rights considered
positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel
Vasak, may include other civil and political rights such as police
protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as
economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public
education, employment, national security, military, health care, social
security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living. In the "three
generations" account of human rights, negative rights are often associated
with the first generation of rights, while positive rights are associated
with the second and third generations. Some philosophers (see criticisms)
disagree that the negative-positive rights distinction is useful or valid.
Claim Rights and Liberty Rights
. A claim right is a right which
entails responsibilities, duties, or obligations on other parties
regarding the right-holder. In contrast, a liberty right is a right which
does not entail obligations on other parties, but rather only freedom or
permission for the right-holder. The distinction between these two senses
of "rights" originates in American jurist Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld's
analysis thereof in his seminal work Fundamental Legal Conceptions, As
Applied in Judicial Reasoning and Other Legal Essays. Liberty rights and
claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right
permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a
claim right forbidding him from doing so; and likewise, if a person has a
claim right against someone else, that other person's liberty is thus
limited. This is because the deontic concepts of obligation and permission are De Morgan dual; a person is permitted to do all and only
the things he is not obliged to refrain from, and obliged to do all and
only the things he is not permitted to refrain from.
American Rights at Work
a policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who
suffer or have suffered from discrimination within a culture. Some
countries, such as India, use a quota system, whereby a certain percentage
of government jobs, political positions, and school vacancies must be
reserved for members of a certain group. In some other regions where
quotas are not used, minority group members are given preference or
special consideration in selection processes.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
is a federal agency that
administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace
discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on
an individual's race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age,
disability, gender identity, genetic information, and retaliation for
reporting, participating in, and/or opposing a discriminatory practice.
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude,
except as punishment for a crime.
Freedom of Information Act
- Data Protection
- International Committee of the Red Cross
Rights of Man
is a book by
written 1791 that included 31 articles, posits that popular political
is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural
rights of its people. Using these points as a base it defends the French
Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in Reflections on the Revolution
in France (1790). It was published in two parts in March 1791 and February 1792.
Constitution - Principles - Precedents
We the People
—affirm that the
of the United States
exists to serve its citizens
. It is
not for corrupt individuals
themselves at the expense of others. Most people can't see corruption or
fully comprehend how damaging corruption is. When you give money to a
business to pay for needed services, you expect to receive those services.
If you do not receive the services that you paid for under contract, this
is what is called fraud
, which are criminal
violations punishable by law in every state in America. But just
prosecuting people who violate these laws does not fix the problem of
corruption, because corrupt individuals are easily replace with other
corrupt individuals. So you can't fire everyone, but you can educate
everyone. September 17, 1787
, 38 delegates
, which is a model for the governance of a state with
separate and independent powers
and areas of
, so that the
powers of one branch are not in
with the powers associated with the other branches, creating
distinct branches to limit any one branch from exercising the core
functions of another. This was supposed to stop corruption from forming,
but it did not succeed as planed. Corruption is a systemic problem that
can not be solved with just a few documents or using just a few laws. We
have very little accountability
because we have
very little education and not enough information. We are essentially blind
because too many people are not knowledgeable enough to understand
themselves or understand the world which we all live in. And we can easily
fix this problem if we all agree to educate ourselves and inform ourselves
about the reality that we live in. We have proven that we can
. But we need
to define our responsibilities and honor these agreements. The
Constitution describes the rights and responsibilities of state
governments, and the states in relationship to the federal government.
Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been
amended 27 times
, including one amendment
that repealed a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that
has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first
ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights
offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place
restrictions on the powers of government. The majority of the seventeen
later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others
address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes
, like the millions of cells and microbes do in our bodies.
is when each state has its own constitution.
is a set of fundamental principles
which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make
up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written
down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may
be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a
single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified
constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United
Kingdom) are uncodified
, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a
legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different
levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and
unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international
organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that
organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the
principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are
made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions,
also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's
rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights. The Constitution of India
is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world,
containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 118 amendments, with
146,385 words in its English-language version, while the Constitution of
Monaco is the shortest written constitution, containing 10 chapters with
97 articles, and a total of 3,814 words. U.S.
Constitution is 7,591 words
, including 27 amendments.
United States Constitution
is the supreme law of the United States of
America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles
delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles
entrench the doctrine of the
separation of powers
, whereby the federal
government is divided into three branches
: the legislative, consisting of
the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and
the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court
and other federal courts.
Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing
the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in
relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the
procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it.
We the People
of the United States, in Order to form a
More Perfect Union
, insure domestic
, provide for the
, promote the general
, and secure the Blessings of Liberty
to ourselves and our Posterity
, do ordain and establish this Constitution
for the United States of America.Our
is of or belonging to us.Us
objective case of we, the persons speaking.
is plural of "I".
is everyone and everybody, all people.
is composed of more than one member,
a set, or a kind. Plural in writing is a grammatical number category
referring to two or more items or units. The form of a word that is used
to denote more than one.Of
a noun with the preceding word. Expresses possession or connection.
Indicates parts, content, or quality. Indicates a point of reference. A
reason or cause.
is a body of law
defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a
state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the
judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal
countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between
the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
. Create and charge with a task or
. Represent and
or lay the
is the act of
establishing something, like laws that determine the
of a government or the way in which someone or
something is composed
or form a new or provide with a new
is to put
together something out of existing information or material. Make up
or basic details for
of something, as by
, explanation or
experiment. Use as a basis
found on. To bring about and build or establish something
or set forth in court.
Set up or lay the groundwork
Rule According to Higher Law
is a statement which expresses that no
law may be enforced by the government unless it
conforms with certain universal principles
. Thus, the rule according to a
higher law may serve as a practical legal criterion to qualify the
instances of political or economical decision-making, when a government,
even though acting in conformity with clearly defined and properly enacted
legal rules, still produces results which many observers find unfair or
is a compound of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of
behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government
derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law.
Amendments to the United States Constitution
Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
. The federal
government possesses only those powers delegated to it by the United
States Constitution. All remaining powers are reserved for the states or
the people. US
Constitution of May 3, 1791
Center for Constitutional
of the entity are the documents which define
the existence of the entity and regulate the structure and control of the
entity and its members. The precise form of the constitutional documents
depends upon the type of entity.
Articles of Association
is a document which, along with the memorandum
of association (in cases where the memorandum exists) form the company's
constitution, defines the
responsibilities of the directors
, the kind of business to be
undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the
board of directors. It refers to that document of the company in which
rules of internal management to achieve the objective laid down in the
memorandum of association are stated. Historic Documents that Influenced
the American System of Government.
Magna Carta, 1215.
House of Burgesses, 1619.
The Mayflower Compact, 1620.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1636.
English Bill of Rights, 1689.
The Declaration of Independence, 1776.
The Articles of Confederation,
1781.Some of the 10 Most Important
Documents in American History
Common Sense (1776)
Federalist Papers (1784-1788)
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" (1848)
Gettysburg Address (1863)
Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S.
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (1918)
is a collection of 85 articles and essays written (under
the pseudonym Publius) by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay
promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Seventy-seven were published serially in the Independent Journal and the
New York Packet between October 1787 and August 1788. A compilation of
these and eight others, called The Federalist: A Collection of Essays,
Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon by the Federal
Convention, September 17, 1787, was published in two volumes in 1788 by J.
and A. McLean. The collection's original title was The Federalist; the
title The Federalist Papers did not emerge until the 20th century. Though
the authors of The Federalist Papers foremost wished to influence the vote
in favor of ratifying the Constitution, in "Federalist No. 1", they
explicitly set that debate in broader political terms: It has been
frequently remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of
this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important
question, whether societies of men are really capable or not, of
establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they
are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on
accident and force.
What, am I to argue that
it is wrong to make men brutes
to rob them of their liberty, to work them without wages, to keep them
ignorant of their relations to their fellow men, to beat them with sticks,
to flay their flesh with the lash, to load their limbs with irons, to hunt
them with dogs, to sell them at auction, to sunder their families, to
knock out their teeth, to burn their flesh, to starve them into obedience
and submission to their masters? Must I argue that a system thus marked
with blood, and stained with pollution, is wrong? ... At a time like
this, scorching irony, not convincing argument, is needed. O! had I the
ability, and could I reach the nation’s ear, I would, to-day, pour out a
fiery stream of biting ridicule, blasting reproach, withering sarcasm, and
stern rebuke. For it is not light that is needed, but fire; it is not the
gentle shower, but thunder. We need the storm, the whirlwind, and the
earthquake. ~Frederick Douglass
America is a great example of why it is so extremely important to
give people freedom and the opportunities to explore
, discover and learn.
We have advanced our civilization in many fantastic ways, except for one
critical area, education. Though we have
in some ways,
education did not improve enough to match our level of knowledge that we
have acquired in the last 100 years. We have failed miserably, and 99
percent of people on the planet don't understand how our inadequate
education is. That is because they do not have the necessary knowledge and
information that is needed to understand these
inadequate education, along with our inadequate and
and news outlets, have been solely responsible for the deaths of millions
of people, as well as the suffering of 100's of millions of people, and
the devastating consequences of poison air, poison water, poison food,
poison products and
poison land. It is absolutely necessary to improve education, if not, our own
will be the death of us all.
American Revolutionary War
was fought primarily between the Kingdom of
Great Britain and her Thirteen Colonies in America, resulting in the
overthrow of British rule in the colonies and the establishment of the
United States of America. also known as the American War of
taxation without representation
and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with
the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain
responded by closing the harbor and passing a series of punitive measures
against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with
the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which
wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed
a Continental Congress[k] to coordinate their resistance, establishing
committees and conventions that effectively seized power.
on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when the British
Army departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the
American Revolutionary War. In their wake, General George Washington
triumphantly led the Continental Army from his headquarters north of the
city across the Harlem River, and south through Manhattan to the Battery at its southern tip.
Interpretations of Law
is the claim that the Constitution
or it has
the properties of an animate being in the sense that it changes. The idea
is associated with views that contemporaneous society should be taken into
account when interpreting
constitutional phrases. interpreting the Constitution in accordance with
its original meaning or intent is sometimes
unacceptable as a policy
, and thus that an evolving interpretation
is necessary, and
constitutional framers specifically wrote the Constitution in broad and
flexible terms to create a dynamic
Constitution should be changed through the
. Allowing judges to determine an ever-changing
meaning of the constitution
can easily undermine democracy.
is a concept regarding the
that asserts that all statements in the constitution must be
based on the original understanding of the authors or the people at the
time it was ratified. This concept views the Constitution as stable from
the time of enactment, and that the meaning
of its contents can be changed
only by the steps set out in Article Five. This notion stands in contrast
to the concept of the Living Constitution, which asserts that the
Constitution should be interpreted based on the
of the current
times, even if such interpretation is different from the original
interpretations of the document.
Separation of Powers
Separation of Church and State
Constitution in Exile
refers to the situation resulting from
provisions of the United States Constitution allegedly not having been
enforced according to their "original intent
" or "original meaning". Some originalists might argue, for example, that the Commerce Clause and
Necessary and Proper Clause do not authorize economic legislation dating
all the way back to the New Deal.
involves judges interpreting the text only as
it was written; once a clear meaning has been established, there is no
need for further analysis, based on this way, which advocates that judges
should avoid drawing inferences
previous statutes or the constitution and instead focus on exactly what
was written. For example, Justice Hugo Black argued that the First
Amendment's wording in reference to certain civil rights that Congress
shall make no law should mean exactly that: no law,
is the process by which courts interpret and
apply legislation. Some amount of interpretation is often necessary when a
case involves a statute. Sometimes the words of a statute have a plain and
a straightforward meaning. But in many cases, there is some ambiguity in
the words of the statute that must be resolved by the judge. To find the
meanings of statutes, judges use various tools and methods of statutory
interpretation, including traditional canons of statutory interpretation,
legislative history, and purpose. In common law jurisdictions, the
judiciary may apply rules of statutory interpretation both to legislation
enacted by the legislature and to delegated legislation such as
administrative agency regulations.
is the way in which the judiciary construes
the law, particularly constitutional documents, legislation and frequently
Government by Judiciary
argues that the U.S. Supreme Court
interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
to the original intent of
the framers of this Amendment and that the U.S. Supreme Court has thus
taken control by force the authority of the American people to
their own destiny.
The Supreme Court's originalism is
has weaponized this harmful judicial philosophy as a way to embrace a
racist, patriarchal narrowing of political rights.
is a formalist theory in which the interpretation of the
law is primarily based on the ordinary meaning of the legal text, where no
consideration is given to non-textual sources, such as intention of the
law when passed, the problem it was intended to remedy, or significant
questions regarding the justice or rectitude of the law.
Plain Meaning Rule
dictates that statutes are to be interpreted using
the ordinary meaning of the language
the statute. In other words, a statute is to be read word for word and is
to be interpreted according to the ordinary meaning of the language,
unless a statute explicitly defines some of its terms otherwise or unless
the result would be cruel or absurd. Ordinary words are given their
ordinary meaning, technical terms are given their technical meaning, and
local, cultural terms are recognized as applicable. The plain meaning rule
is the mechanism that prevents courts from taking sides in legislative or
political issues. Additionally, it is the mechanism that underlies
textualism and, to a certain extent, originalism. Plain meaning rule is
also known as the literal rule and is one of three rules of statutory
construction traditionally applied by English courts. The other two are
the "mischief rule" and the "golden rule".
Document Writing in Plain Language
is used to determine the exact scope of the "mischief"
that the statute in question has set out to remedy, and to help the court
rule in a manner which will "suppress the mischief, and advance the
can be used to avoid the consequences of a
of the wording of a
statute when such an interpretation would lead to a manifest absurdity or
to a result that is obnoxious to principles of public policy. The rule can
be applied in two different ways, named respectively the narrower approach
and the wider approach.
is an approach to statutory and
under which common law courts interpret
an enactment (a statute, part of a statute, or a clause of a constitution)
within the context
of the law's
Songs of Praise - Songs of Devotion
is a song of devotion or loyalty, or a song of praise.
of celebration, usually used
as a symbol for a distinct group, particularly the national anthems of
countries. Originally, and in music theory and religious contexts, it also
refers more particularly to short sacred choral work (still frequently
seen in Sacred Harp and other types of shape note singing) and still more
particularly to a specific form of Anglican church music.
America the Beautiful -
Words by Katharine Lee Bates, Melody by Samuel Ward
O beautiful for spacious skies,
For amber waves of grain,
For purple mountain
Above the fruited plain!
God shed his
grace on thee
And crown thy good with brotherhood
From sea to
O beautiful for pilgrim feet
A thoroughfare of freedom beat
God mend thine every flaw,
thy soul in self-control,
Thy liberty in law!
O beautiful for
In liberating strife.
Who more than self their country
And mercy more than life!
May God thy
Till all success be nobleness
And every gain divine!
O beautiful for patriot dream
That sees beyond the years
alabaster cities gleam
Undimmed by human tears!
God shed his grace on thee
And crown thy good with brotherhood
sea to shining sea!
O beautiful for halcyon skies,
waves of grain,
For purple mountain majesties
Above the enameled
God shed his grace on thee
wax fair as earth and air
And music-hearted sea!
O beautiful for
Whose stem impassioned stress
A thoroughfare for
Across the wilderness!
his grace on thee
Till paths be wrought through
wilds of thought
By pilgrim foot and knee!
O beautiful for glory-tale
When once and twice,
for man's avail
lavished precious life!
God shed his grace on thee
Till selfish gain no longer stain
The banner of the free!
beautiful for patriot dream
That sees beyond the years
alabaster cities gleam
Undimmed by human tears!
God shed his grace on thee
Till nobler men keep once again
whiter jubilee.God Bless
American patriotic song written by Irving Berlin in 1918
by him in 1938. The later version has notably been recorded by Kate Smith,
becoming her signature song
God Bless America, Land that I love.
beside her, and guide her
Thru the night with a light from above.
From the mountains, to the prairies,
To the oceans, white with foam.
God bless America, My home sweet home.
"While the storm clouds gather far
across the sea,
Let us swear allegiance to a land that's free,
us all be grateful for a land so fair,
As we raise our voices in a
My country, 'tis of thee -
My Country, 'Tis of Thee
My country, 'tis of thee,
land of liberty,
Of thee I sing;
Land where my fathers died,
of the pilgrims' pride,
From ev'ry mountainside
Let freedom ring!
My native country, thee,
Land of the noble free,
Thy name I
I love thy rocks and rills,
Thy woods and templed hills;
heart with rapture thrills,
Like that above.
Let music swell the
And ring from all the trees
Sweet freedom's song;
mortal tongues awake;
Let all that breathe partake;
Let rocks their
The sound prolong.
Our fathers' God to Thee,
Author of liberty,
To Thee we sing.
Long may our land be bright,
With freedom's holy light,
Protect us by Thy might,
Great God our
to celebrate Washington's Centennial:
Our joyful hearts today,
Their grateful tribute pay,
After our toils and fears,
After our blood and tears,
Strong with our hundred years,
O God, to Thee.
by Henry van Dyke:
We love thine inland seas,
Thy groves and
Thy rolling plains;
Thy rivers' mighty sweep,
mystic canyons deep,
Thy mountains wild and steep,--
Thy silver Eastern strands,
Thy Golden Gate that stands
Fronting the West;
Thy flowery Southland fair,
Thy North's sweet,
O Land beyond compare,
We love thee best!
Additional Abolitionist verses
by A. G. Duncan, 1843:
'tis of thee,
Stronghold of slavery, of thee I sing;
Land where my
Where men man’s rights deride,
From every mountainside
thy deeds shall ring!
My native country, thee,
Where all men are
born free, if white’s their skin;
I love thy hills and dales,
mounts and pleasant vales;
But hate thy negro sales, as foulest sin.
Let wailing swell the breeze,
And ring from all the trees the black
Let every tongue awake;
Let bond and free partake;
Let rocks their silence break, the sound prolong.
Our father’s God!
Author of Liberty, to thee we sing;
Soon may our land be
With holy freedom’s right,
Protect us by thy might, Great
God, our King.
It comes, the joyful day,
When tyranny’s proud
sway, stern as the grave,
Shall to the ground be hurl’d,
freedom’s flag, unfurl’d,
Shall wave throughout the world, O’er every
Trump of glad jubilee!
Echo o’er land and sea freedom for
Let the glad tidings fly,
And every tribe reply,
God on high,” at Slavery’s fall.
This Land Is Your Land -
Written by American folk singer Woody Guthrie in 1940
is your land, this land is my land
From California to the New York
From the Redwood Forest, to the Gulf stream waters
was made for you and me
And I went walking that ribbon of highway
And saw above me that endless skyway
I saw below me the golden valley
This land was made for you and me
I roamed and rambled and followed my
To the sparkling sands of her diamond deserts
around meT, a voice was sounding
This land was made for you and me
There was a big high wall there that tried to stop me
A sign was
painted said: Private Property
But on the back side it didn't say
This land was made for you and me
When the sun come shining,
then I was strolling
In wheat fields waving and dust clouds rolling
The voice was chanting as the fog was lifting
This land was made for
you and me
This land is your land, this land is my land
California to the New York Island
From the Redwood Forest, to the Gulf
This land was made for you and me
Star-Spangled Banner -
O say can you see, by the dawn's early
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets'
red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that
our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
On the shore
dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host
in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory
reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner, O
long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of
war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country, should leave us
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight,
or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved homes and
the war's desolation.
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto:
'In God is our trust.'
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
Do, I Do It For You -
Do, I Do It For You
, is a great song when you imagine that the song is about
America. The video would show images of America and showing Americans
doing good things.
Look into my eyes
– you will see
What you mean to me.
Search your heart, search your
And when you find me there you'll search no more.
tell me it's not worth tryin' for.
You can't tell me it's not worth
You know it's true:
Everything I do, I do it for you.
Look into your heart – you will find
There's nothin' there to hide.
Take me as I am, take my life.
I would give it all, I would sacrifice.
Don't tell me it's not worth fightin' for
I can't help it, there's
nothin' I want more
You know it's true:
Everything I do, I do it for
you, oh, yeah.
There's no love like your love
And no other could
give more love.
There's nowhere unless you're there
All the time,
all the way, yeah.
Look into your heart, baby...
can't tell me it's not worth tryin' for.
I can't help it, there's
nothin' I want more.
Yeah, I would fight for you, I'd lie for you,
Walk the wire for you, yeah, I'd die for you.
You know it's true:
Everything I do, oh, I do it for you.
Everything I do, darling.
You will see it's true.
You will see it's true.
heart and your soul
You can't tell it's not worth dying for
I'd walk the fire for you
I'd die for you
going all the time, all the way.