Journalism is the work and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, people, facts and ideas that are the "news of the day", which is suppose to help inform society, but sadly this is not always the case. Free Speech.

Media Literacy - News Outlets - Investigations - Independent Press

Journalism Hero's - Films about Journalism - Citizen Journalism - Editing Help - Journalism Education

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Journalists Freedom of the Press is the Freedom of Communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials. While such freedom mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state, its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections.

Human Rights - Freedom of Information - Free Speech Zone - Education Rights

World Press Freedom Day. The United Nations General Assembly declared May 3 to be World Press Freedom Day or just World Press Day to raise awareness of the importance of freedom of the press and remind governments of their duty to respect and uphold the right to freedom of expression enshrined under Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and marking the anniversary of the Windhoek Declaration, a statement of free press principles put together by African newspaper journalists in Windhoek in 1991. Journalism Mentorship.

"Journalism is the protection between people and any sort of totalitarian rule. That's why my hero, admittedly a flawed one, is a journalist." ~ Andrew Vachss

"Journalism can never be silent, that is its greatest virtue and its greatest fault. It must speak, and speak immediately, while the echoes of wonder, and the claims of triumph, and the signs of horror are still in the air."

Social Criticism is a form of academic or journalistic criticism focusing on social issues in contemporary society, in respect to perceived injustices and power relations in general.

"Never believe anything until it's been officially denied. Those who's job it is to keep the records straight should be the voice of the people, not the voice of the people in power."

Keep the Records Straight is to write or say something in order to make the true facts known. To provide the facts about something that people have a false understanding of. To keep a written account or photographs of it so that it can be referred to later.

There is no more important struggle for American democracy than ensuring a diverse, independent and free media. Free Press is at the heart of that struggle. Bill Moyers (wiki)

"Our liberty depends on the freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost." ~ Thomas Jefferson (wiki)

"Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them off to distant lands to die of foreign fevers and foreign shot and shell." — Hugo Black (wiki)

Over 200 Journalists were Arrested or Detained in the last 2 years in America since 2019.

Press Freedom Index is an assessment of a countries press freedom records in the previous year. It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organizations, and netizens have in each country, and the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom. Reporters Without Borders is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom and does not measure the quality of journalism nor does it look at human rights violations in general. Democracy Index.

Fairness Doctrine was a policy introduced in 1949 that required broadcasters to devote some of their airtime to discussing controversial matters of public interest, and to air contrasting views regarding those matters to ensure that viewers were exposed to a diversity of viewpoints. The holders of broadcast licenses both to present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that fairly reflected differing viewpoints. In 1987, the FCC abolished the fairness doctrine, making propaganda the new norm.
Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting monitors American news media for bias, inaccuracies and censorship, and advocates for more diversity of perspectives in the news media. FAIR describes itself as "the national media watch group". FAIR publishes Extra!, a magazine of media criticism, and also produces the radio program CounterSpin, which features interviews with journalists, scholars, and activists on current media-related news stories.

Journalism Ethics and standards are principles of truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness, and public accountability and good practice as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public. Journalism ethics include the principle of "limitation of harm". This often involves the withholding of certain details from reports such as the names of minor children, crime victims' names or information not materially related to particular news reports release of which might, for example, harm someone's reputation. There is also a concern with discriminatory references in news based on race, religion, sexual orientation, and physical or mental disabilities. Poynter Institute (wiki).

Journalistic Objectivity refers to fairness, disinterestedness, factuality, and nonpartisanship. Objectivity in journalism aims to help the audience make up their own mind about a story, providing the facts alone and then letting audiences interpret those on their own. To maintain objectivity in journalism, journalists should present the facts whether or not they like or agree with those facts. Objective reporting is meant to portray issues and events in a neutral and unbiased manner, regardless of the writer's opinion or personal beliefs. Truthfulness is a commitment to reporting only accurate and truthful information, without skewing any facts or details to improve the story or better align an issue with any certain agenda. Neutrality suggests that stories be reported in an unbiased, even-handed, and impartial manner. Under this notion, journalists are to side with none of the parties involved, and simply provide the relevant facts and information of all. The third idea, detachment, refers to the emotional approach of the journalist. Essentially, reporters should not only approach issues in an unbiased manner but also with a dispassionate and emotionless attitude. Through this strategy, stories can be presented in a rational and calm manner, letting the audience make up their minds without any influences from the media.

Barbara Walters sometimes interviewed people by asking rude and demeaning questions. Walters often excused her behavior by saying “you know I have to ask,” or “you know this is what people are wondering." Not to say that Barbara Walters was not a good journalist, it's just that too many times it was more about sensationalism and drama than it was about finding the truth and informing people. Some Journalist are Just Robots.

International Federation of Journalists is a global union federation of journalists' trade unions—the largest in the world. It represents more than 600,000 media workers from 187 organizations in 146 countries. Global Charter of Ethics for Journalists was adopted at the 30th IFJ World Congress in Tunis on 12 June 2019 and will form the core of strengthening ethical standards for journalists worldwide.

Journalist - Investigator - Reporter

Journalism Culture is described as a shared occupational ideology among news-workers. The term journalism culture spans the cultural diversity of journalistic values, practices and media products or similar media artifacts. Research into the concept of journalism culture sometimes suggests an all-encompassing consensus among journalists toward a common understanding and cultural identity of journalism.

Science Journalism is conveying and reporting about science to the public. Explaining Risk.

Naturalistic Observation is when a subject is observed in its natural habitat without any manipulation by the observer. During naturalistic observation, researchers take great care to avoid interfering with the behavior they are observing by using unobtrusive methods. Naturalistic observation involves two main differences that set it apart from other forms of data gathering. In the context of a naturalistic observation, the environment is in no way being manipulated by the observer nor was it created by the observer. Naturalistic observation, as a research tool, comes with both advantages and disadvantages that impact its application. By merely observing at a given instance without any manipulation in its natural context, it makes the behaviors exhibited more credible because they are occurring in a real, typical scenario as opposed to an artificial one generated within a lab. Naturalistic observation also allows for study of events that are deemed unethical to study via experimental models, such as the impact of high school shootings on students attending the high school. Naturalistic observation is used in many techniques, from watching an animal's eating patterns in the forest to observing the behavior of students in a school setting.

Environmental Journalism is the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact. Environmental Journalists Killed.

Backpack Journalist is an emerging form of journalism that requires a journalist to be a reporter, photographer, and videographer, as well as an editor and producer of stories.

Immersion Journalism is a style of journalism similar to gonzo journalism. In the style, journalists immerse themselves in a situation and with the people involved. The final product tends to focus on the experience, not the writer.

People Watching - Cultural Studies - Photographic Journalism - Watchdog Journalism - Citizen Journalism

Gonzo Journalism is a style of journalism that is written without claims of objectivity, often including the reporter as part of the story via a first-person narrative.

Narrative Journalism also referred to as literary journalism, is defined as creative nonfiction that contains accurate, well-researched information. It is related to immersion journalism, where a writer follows a subject or theme for a long period of time (weeks or months) and details an individual's experiences from a deeply personal perspective.

Literary Journalism is a form of nonfiction that combines factual reporting with narrative techniques and stylistic strategies traditionally associated with fiction. This form of writing can also be called narrative journalism or new journalism.

Broadcast News is a 1987 American romantic comedy-drama film about a virtuoso television news producer who has daily emotional breakdowns. Jane Craig is a talented but intense news producer whose life revolves around her work. She is passionate about reporting, and abhors the trend towards soft news in news broadcasts.

Soft Media comprises organizations that primarily deal with commentary, entertainment, arts and lifestyle. Soft media can take the form of television programs, magazines or print articles. The communication from soft media sources has been referred to as soft news as a way of distinguishing it from serious journalism, called hard news. Soft news is defined as information that is primarily entertaining, with the illusion of providing useful information as they pretend to inform the public.

Yellow Journalism - Tabloids 

Journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics.

Reporter - Journalist Hero's

Columnist is a journalist contributing regularly to a newspaper or magazine. A columnist is a person who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that usually offers commentary and opinions. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and other publications, including blogs. They take the form of a short essay by a specific writer who offers a personal point of view.

Just 3.4 Percent of American Journalists Identify as Republican. Journalists who said they are Democrats and Independents have increased, a study finds.

Muckraker was used in the progressive era to characterize reform-minded American journalists who wrote largely for all popular magazines. The modern term is investigative journalism, and investigative journalists today are often informally called "muckrakers." They relied on their own reporting and often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption.

Participant Observation is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their cultural environment, usually over an extended period of time. is one type of data collection method by practitioner-scholars typically used in qualitative research and ethnography. Action Learning.

Journalistic Interventionism reflects the extent to which journalists pursue a particular mission and promote certain values. Journalists with a high interventionist attitude do not report neutrally and objectively but are engaged in the subjects they are reporting about. An interventionist reporting style aims at influencing public opinion. Moreover, "journalism cultures that follow an interventionist approach may act on behalf of the socially disadvantaged or as mouthpiece of a political party and other groups whose interest are at stake".

Participatory Action Research is an approach to research in communities that emphasizes participation and action. It seeks to understand the world by trying to change it, collaboratively and following reflection. PAR emphasizes collective inquiry and experimentation grounded in experience and social history. Within a PAR process, "communities of inquiry and action evolve and address questions and issues that are significant for those who participate as co-researchers". PAR contrasts with many research methods, which emphasize disinterested researchers and reproducibility of findings. PAR practitioners make a concerted effort to integrate three basic aspects of their work: participation (life in society and democracy), action (engagement with experience and history), and research (soundness in thought and the growth of knowledge). "Action unites, organically, with research" and collective processes of self-investigation. The way each component is actually understood and the relative emphasis it receives varies nonetheless from one PAR theory and practice to another. This means that PAR is not a monolithic body of ideas and methods but rather a pluralistic orientation to knowledge making and social change.

Action Research is a philosophy and methodology of research generally applied in the social sciences. It seeks transformative change through the simultaneous process of taking action and doing research, which are linked together by critical reflection.

Peace Journalism has been developed from research that indicates that often news about conflict has a value bias toward violence. It also includes practical methods for correcting this bias by producing journalism in both the mainstream and alternative media, and working with journalists, media professionals, audiences, and organizations in conflict.

Long-form Journalism is a branch of journalism dedicated to longer articles with larger amounts of content. Typically this will be between 1,000 and 20,000 words. Long-form articles often take the form of creative nonfiction or narrative journalism. Human Interest Story - Public Interest.

Witness is an international organization that trains and supports people using video in their fight for Human Rights.

Global Witness exposes the hidden links between demand for natural resources, corruption, armed conflict and environmental destruction.

Embedded Journalism refers to news reporters being attached to military units involved in armed conflicts.

Americans deserve open, honest, accountable government.

Political Journalism is a broad branch of journalism that includes coverage of all aspects of politics and political science, although the term usually refers specifically to coverage of civil governments and political power. Political journalism aims to provide voters with the information to formulate their own opinion and participate in community, local or national matters that will affect them. According to Edward Morrissey in an opinion article from, political journalism frequently includes opinion journalism, as current political events can be biased in their reporting. The information provided includes facts, its perspective is subjective and leans towards one viewpoint. Political journalism is provided through different mediums, in print, broadcast, or online reporting. The goal of civic journalism, or public journalism, is to allow the community to remain engaged with journalists and news outlets, restore democratic values, and rebuild the public's trust in journalists. The concept of fake news arose due to the fact that it is so easy to manipulate or twist information these days and create a certain narrative that might be entirely incorrect. This has led to an overall decrease in the credibility that people have for journalists and media sources. Certain media sources or news outlets often come under a lot of heat for certain stories or narratives they push which are built upon fallacies. People argue for participatory democracy, but politics now is largely considered a popularity contest, and consists of politicians making decisions to ensure their reelection. Proponents of civic journalism believe that this philosophy will allow individuals to have a greater say in decision-making and in the broader political sphere.

Almost every president throughout history has had a problem with some reporter or some journalist who made them look bad. If a presidents response to criticism is to verbally attack or degrade a journalist, than that's proves the president is bad.

Watch Dogs are guardians or defenders against theft or illegal practices or waste.

United States Agency for Global Media main mission is to inform, engage, and connect people around the world in support of freedom and democracy.

Voice of America provides trusted and objective news and information in 47 languages to a measured weekly audience of more than 280.9 million people around the world. For over 75 years, VOA journalists have told American stories and supplied content that many people cannot get locally: objective news and information about the US, their specific region and the world. VOA uses the devices and platforms target markets use to connect audiences on five continents with the people, thoughts and institutions that make America unique. President Gerald Ford signed the VOA Charter (Public Law 94-350) into law in 1976. It protects the independence and integrity of VOA programming. New CEO Endangers Reporters, Harms U.S. Aims.

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty is a private, nonprofit, multimedia broadcasting corporation that serves as a surrogate media source in 27 languages and in 23 countries, including Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, and Ukraine. With headquarters in Prague, 17 local bureaus (including Moscow, Kabul, Kyiv, and Islamabad), and more than 1,000 journalists throughout its broadcast region, RFE/RL’s proximity to its audiences facilitates the production of compelling, locally-oriented programming in a cost-effective manner. Reaching more than 37.6 million people each week, RFE/RL provides what many people cannot get locally: uncensored local and regional news, responsible discussion, and open debate via radio, television, and digital media.

The Office of Cuba Broadcasting oversees Radio and Television Martí at its headquarters in Miami, Florida. The Martís are a multimedia hub of news, information and analysis that provide the people of Cuba with interactive programs seven days a week through satellite television and shortwave and AM radio, as well as through flash drives, emails, DVDs, and SMS text. Combined with the online platform,, the Martís are a one-of-a-kind service that brings unbiased, objective information to all Cubans.

Radio Free Asia is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with eight bureaus and offices overseas, RFA is a private, nonprofit, multimedia news corporation. RFA brings award-winning, domestic journalism and uncensored content to people in six Asian countries that restrict free speech, freedom of the press, and access to reliable information beyond their borders. RFA also provides educational and cultural programming, as well as forums for audiences to engage in open dialogue and freely express opinions.

Middle East Broadcasting Networks is an Arabic-language news organization with a weekly audience of more than 24.3 million people in 22 countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Freedom House deemed 21 of these countries to be “not free” or “partly free” in 2018. MBN networks expand the spectrum of ideas, opinions and perspectives in the region and engaging audiences to share perspectives.

Reporters Without Borders is an international non-profit and non-governmental organization that safeguards the right to freedom of information. Its advocacy is founded on the belief that everyone requires access to the news and information, inspired by Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that recognizes the right to receive and share information regardless of frontiers, along with other international rights charters. RSF has consultative status at the United Nations, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, and the International Organization of the Francophonie. Public Interest.

Open Technology Fund funds internet freedom technologies at every stage of the development cycle from proof-of-concept, to on-the-ground deployments, to multi-year efforts. This approach ensures that USAGM journalists and audiences have the tools they need right now to safely access the uncensored internet, while investing in innovative solutions to stay ahead of evolving censorship threats. In order to provide comprehensive support to internet freedom projects, OTF provides resources through a variety of implementation mechanisms.

A Purge at the U.S. Agency for Global Media has fueled concerns that broadcasters like Radio Free Europe will be turned into distributors of propaganda on behalf of the Trump administration. A sweeping purge of executives at U.S. government media outlets widened this week. At least six of the top 10 executives at the U.S. Agency for Global Media were removed from their posts on Wednesday. Critics say the housecleaning threatens to destroy the firewall meant to separate government news entities from the White House. They warn it could turn broadcasters such as the Voice of America and Radio Free Europe into distributors of propaganda on behalf of the Trump administration. Censorship by Defunding.

More than 50 local newsrooms have closed since the start of the 2020 pandemic in the United States — many of them the only news source in their community, according to the Poynter Institute.

Occupational Outlook for Reporters, Correspondents, and Broadcast News Analysts.

US Media Layoffs on track for record high in 2020, nearly 8,000 media jobs were lost this year. Freelancers livelihoods have vanished overnight. Roughly 36,000 workers at news companies in the U.S. have been laid off, been furloughed or had their pay reduced. Some publications that rely on ads have shut down. From 2008 to 2019, overall newsroom employment in the U.S. dropped by 23%, according to the new analysis. In 2008, there were about 114,000 newsroom employees – reporters, editors, photographers and videographers – in five industries that produce news: newspaper, radio, broadcast television, cable and “other information services” (the best match for digital-native news publishers). By 2019, that number had declined to about 88,000, a loss of about 27,000 jobs. Funding.


Women Reporter Report is a written document describing the facts from an investigation about an individual, group or complex problem. To announce something important as the result of an investigation or from an experience or a finding. Reporting is the act of informing by verbal report, or a short account of the news. To give an accurate account or representation of an event in words without being vague and without adding any propaganda.

Account is a record or narrative description of past events. The act of informing by verbal report A short account of the news. Furnish a justifying analysis or explanation. A story.

Write Up is to produce a full or formal written version of something. A written account. To write a report or description of something. To compose a finished document from some set of notes. To record something completely on paper or on a computer, often using notes that you have made.

To Quote Someone is to tell other people that someone said something. To quote means to repeat someone's words, attributing them to their originator. Quoting out of context is repeating someone's words without the surrounding words or circumstances that would make a statement fully understandable and interpreted correctly. To say, "can I quote you" is to ask someone permission to repeat what they said.

On the Record means that a statement can be used in reference when making an official public announcement. If you are on record as saying something, you have said it publicly and officially and it has been written down. Something recorded or publicly or officially declared or known. For the Record means that you are saying something publicly and officially, and you want it to be written down and remembered.

Off the Record is a confidential statement that is not intended for publication or disclosure. A staement that is not made as an official or attributable statement. If something that you say is off the record, you do not intend it to be considered as official, or published with your name attached to it. If someone says something off the record, they do not want it to be publicly reported.

Correct the Record is to correct a problem, a mistake, or a fault, that you did in order to put something right.

Set the Record Straight is to give the true version of events that have been reported incorrectly. To correct a misapprehension or make the true facts known. To provide the facts about something that people have a false understanding about. Setting something straight is to tell someone the true facts about a situation that the person had previously misunderstood. To correct someone by providing accurate information. To show that something which that has been regarded as true, which in fact is not true. To fix, correct, revise, improve, rectify, remedy and amend.

Get the facts straight is to understand what is true or what is stated to be true

Clean Record is a person who has no recorded problems or has never broken any rules or laws.

Beat Reporting is a genre of journalism focused on a particular issue, sector, organization, or institution over time. Beat reporting is also known as specialized reporting.

Reporter is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information.

News Anchor is a person who presents news during a news program on television, on the radio or on the Internet.

Correspondent is usually a journalist or a commentator for magazines, or an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote, often distant, location. Correspondent also means someone who communicates by means of a written message or letter that is addressed to a person or organization.

Commentator is a person who comments on events or on a text. A person who delivers a live commentary on an event or performance.

Commentary is an expression of opinions, or an offering of possible explanations about an event or situation. A descriptive spoken account of an event or performance as it happens, sometimes on a broadcast.

Information Activists is someone who works to make information available to the general population.

Journalist - Activism - Essay - Argument

Public Information officer is someone who provides information to the media and public as required by law and according to the standards of their profession.

News is information about recent and important events. Informal information of any kind that is not previously known to someone.

News the way it should be - Journalist Hero's

News Conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions. A joint press conference instead is held between two or more talking sides.

Press Conference or news conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions. A joint press conference instead is held between two or more talking sides. Reporting Bias.

Journalism Investigations

Investigation Pin and String Connection Board Investigative Journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching, talking to witnesses and subject experts, and preparing a final report. Practitioners sometimes use the terms watchdog reporting or accountability reporting. The growth of media conglomerates in the U.S. since the 1980s has been accompanied by massive cuts in the budgets for investigative journalism.

Whistle Blowers - Informing the Public - Informant - Source - Freedom of Speech

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

Investigative Reporting - Investigated Reporters - The Bureau Investigates - Authorities

Global Investigative Journalism Network - Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting

Investigate is to study and examine something very carefully. Searching for answers in order to understand something more accurately. To conduct an inquiry or an investigation of someone or something. A systematic investigation of a matter of public interest. A search for knowledge. A careful examination. To study and examine something scientifically in order to understand it.

Investigation is the action of questioning something or questioning someone thoroughly. To do research and a systematic examination of the facts in order to learn as much as you can and understand something more clearly and accurately. To file a report that is objective and factual so that a problem can be clearly understood and be solved intelligently.

Full Investigation refers to the careful search or examination with an intension to discover facts. This may include questioning of witnesses, forensic examination and investigation of financial records. An investigation is a systematic, minute, and thorough attempt to learn the facts about something complex or hidden; it is often formal and official.

Connect the Dots - Mind Maps - Mathematical Structure - Group Theory (categorizing) - Heuristic - Means, Motive and Opportunity

Leave No Stone Unturned means to try every possible course of action in order to achieve something. To look every where and to look for something in every possible place. To be extremely thorough and meticulous in your search or efforts. Sometimes it may be in the only place you didn't check, or it may be in the place that you didn't check thoroughly enough. keep going · persist · press on · proceed · pursue. Think it through, make a choice, learn from the results.

Criminal Investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts that are then used to inform criminal trials. A complete criminal investigation can include searching, interviews, interrogations, evidence collection and preservation, and various methods of investigation. Modern-day criminal investigations commonly employ many modern scientific techniques known collectively as forensic science. Criminal investigation is an ancient science that may have roots as far back as c. 1700 BCE in the writings of the Code of Hammurabi. In the code, it is suggested that both the accuser and the accused had the right to present evidence they collected. In the modern era, criminal investigations are most often done by government police forces. Private investigators are also commonly hired to complete or assist in criminal investigations. An early recorded professional criminal investigator was the English constable. Around 1250 CE, it was recorded that the constable was to "... record...matters of fact, not matters of judgment and law. Murder Book refers to the case file of a murder investigation that include crime scene photographs and sketches, autopsy and forensic reports, transcripts of investigators' notes, and witness interviews. The murder book encapsulates the complete paper trail of a murder investigation, from the time the murder is first reported through the arrest of a suspect. Law enforcement agencies typically guard murder books carefully, and it is unusual for civilians to be given unfettered access to these kinds of records, especially for unsolved cases.

Means, Motive and Opportunity - Discovery in Law - Doxing

Internal Investigation is a formal inquiry conducted by a company to determine whether laws, regulations, or internal policies were violated and, if so, recommend corrective action. internal investigation process is an important risk management tool for employers when faced with a harassment complaint. If internal investigations are done properly, they can aid employers in avoiding lawsuits and offer employers defenses and lessen damages if there is subsequent litigation. First select the investigator, create a plan for the investigation, develop interview questions, conduct interviews, ensure confidentiality and provide interim protection.

Ascertain is to find out, learn, or determine with certainty by making an inquiry or by other efforts. To establish facts after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study. To make certain of something or learn or discover with certainty. Be careful or certain to do something.

Probe is to investigate something thoroughly to see if it's true. An inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities. An exploratory action or expedition. To physically explore or examine something with the hands or an instrument. An investigation conducted using a flexible surgical instrument to explore an injury or a body cavity. A flexible slender surgical instrument with a blunt end that is used to explore wounds or body cavities.

Look Into It is take the time necessary to actively discover the facts about a problem or a crime. To find out and figure out what's going on and report the information back to the public.

Investigator is someone who investigates. A scientist who devotes himself to doing research. And both are vulnerable to rabbit holes.

Principal Investigator is the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial. The phrase is also often used as a synonym for "head of the laboratory" or "research group leader." While the expression is common in the sciences, it is used widely for the person or persons who make final decisions and supervise funding and expenditures on a given research project.

Private Investigator is a person who can be hired by individuals or groups to undertake investigatory law services. (private eye, private detective, inquiry agent). Opposition Research - Undercover.

Detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency. Some are private persons, and may be known as private investigators or "private eyes". They often collect information to solve crimes by talking to witnesses and informants, collecting physical evidence, or searching records in databases. This leads them to arrest criminals and enable them to be convicted in court. A detective may work for the police or privately.

Sleuth is a detective or a person who investigates crimes. Someone who carries out a careful investigation into a crime or mystery. Someone who watches, observes, or inquires secretly. Someone who follows a trail. When you seek clues, you sleuth. One type of bloodhound skilled at following trails is called a sleuthhound.

Hounding Someone is to chase someone or to refuse to leave someone alone, especially because you want to get something from them. Someone who eagerly and persistently pursues a person even though their communication is unrequited. To hunt, chase, or pursue someone relentlessly. To hound someone is to relentlessly pursue or pester them. Hound is a type of hunting dog used by hunters to track or chase prey.

Security - Community Policing - Neighborhood Watch

Howard Center For Investigative Journalism. The Howard Center trains the next generation of reporters through hands-on investigative journalism projects.

Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication.

Floodlight News is an independent, nonpartisan newsroom that investigates the corporations and political interests stalling climate action.

Watchman were organized groups of men, usually authorized by a state, government, city, or society, to deter criminal activity and provide law enforcement as well as traditionally perform the services of public safety, fire watch, crime prevention, crime detection, recovery of stolen goods. Watchmen have existed since earliest recorded times in various guises throughout the world and were generally succeeded by the emergence of formally organized professional policing.

Night Watchman is a person whose job is to guard a building at night. Night-Watchman State or minarchy is a model of a state that is limited and minimal, whose only functions are to act as an enforcer of the non-aggression principle by providing its citizens with the military, the police and courts, thereby protecting them from aggression, theft, breach of contract, fraud and enforcing property laws. Its proponents are called minarchists.

Watchdog Journalism informs the public about goings-on in institutions and society, especially in circumstances where a significant portion of the public would demand changes in response. This might involve: Fact-checking statements of public officials and corporate executives. Interviewing public figures and challenging them with problems or concerns. Beat reporting to gather information from meetings that members of the public might not otherwise attend, and to observe "on the ground" in broader society. Investigative journalism involves information-gathering on a single story for a long period of time. Like a literal guard dog that barks when it notices an intruder, a "watchdog" role involves alerting others when a problem is detected. Common subjects are the government decision-making process, corporate fraud, illegal activity, immorality, consumer protection issues, and environmental degradation. Watchdog journalism can be located in a variety of news media, such as radio, television, Internet, and print media where it may be seen as "a unique strength of newspapers", and additional new media and concepts such as weblogs and citizen journalism. Watchdog journalists also are called "watchmen", "agents of social control", or "moral guardians". Government Watchdogs.

Data-Driven Journalism is a process based on analyzing and filtering large data sets for the purpose of creating a news story.

Evidence-Based Journalism (wikitribune)

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists.

Background Check - Research - Questions - The Five W's - Activism

Case Study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case. For example, a case study in medicine may examine a specific patient a doctor treated, and a case study in business might study a particular business's strategy. Generally, a case can be nearly any unit of analysis, including individuals, organizations, events, or actions. ase study research can mean single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Case studies may involve both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. The resulting body of 'case study research' has long had a prominent place in many disciplines and professions, ranging from psychology, anthropology, sociology, and political science to education, clinical science, social work, and administrative science.

Hitting a Wall is when you reach a point where you feel that you're unable to continue. The wall represents a barrier of which you can not cross because you lack the information and knowledge that would allow you move past the wall and to proceed and make progress. What happens when the wall is corruption?

Nothing to Go On means that there is not enough evidence or information that would help start an investigation. The absence of meaning that would influence a direction to take.

Surveillance Programs By the U.S. Government - Investigation is Not the Same thing as Spying - FBI.

Journalism Sourcing is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information.

Sources - Reliable Information

Source is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information. Outside journalism, sources are sometimes known as "news sources". Examples of sources include official records, publications or broadcasts, officials in government or business, organizations or corporations, witnesses of crime, accidents or other events, and people involved with or affected by a news event or issue.

Whistle Blower - Informer - Information Bubble

Reliable Source is someone who provides a thorough, well-reasoned theory, argument, and discussion based on strong evidence. A reliable source is someone who has a good track record of being honest and dependable and has been peer-reviewed by experts and is known to have a good reputation. Someone who can not be bribed or intimidated by the influences of criminals in power. Someone who is not biased or prejudiced in anyway shape or form.

Credible Source is someone who is unbiased and is backed up with evidence. Verifiability - Citations (plagiarism).

Informant is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency.

Don't Shoot the Messenger is a metaphoric phrase used to describe the act of blaming the bearer of bad news. Focus on the message and not the messenger. Far too many people only listen to certain people and they don't listen to other people's opinion or other peoples point of view, which is anti-democratic. Ignoring relevant information creates an information bubble.

Pseudonym or Alias, is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their original or true name.

Reference is a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage. A book to which you can refer for authoritative facts. The act of referring or consulting. The relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to. The most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to. Reference can also mean a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability. Investigations - De-Anonymization.

Reporter's Privilege is a "reporter's protection under constitutional or statutory law, from being compelled to testify about confidential information or sources." Attorney–Client Privilege - Disclosure Agreements.

Protection of Sources is a right accorded to journalists under the laws of many countries, as well as under international law. It prohibits authorities, including the courts, from compelling a journalist to reveal the identity of an anonymous source for a story. The right is based on a recognition that without a strong guarantee of anonymity, many would be deterred from coming forward and sharing information of public interests with journalists. As a result, problems such as corruption or crime might go undetected and unchallenged, to the ultimate detriment of society as a whole. In spite of any such legal protections, the pervasive use of traceable electronic communications by journalists and their sources provides governments with a tool to determine the origin of information. In the United States, the federal government legally contends that no such protection exists for journalists. Sometimes also referred to as the confidentiality of sources or in the U.S. as the reporter's privilege. Expert?

Shield Laws is legislation designed to protect reporters' privilege. This privilege involves the right of news reporters to refuse to testify as to information and/or sources of information obtained during the news gathering and dissemination process. Currently the U.S. federal government has not enacted any national shield laws, but most of the 50 states do have shield laws or other protections for reporters in place.

Declarant is someone who makes a declaration. A formal public statement that is emphatic and explicit and either spoken or written. Declaration in law is an unsworn statement that can be admitted in evidence in a legal transaction.

Declare is to announce something publicly or officially. To state firmly that something is true. To state emphatically and authoritatively. To proclaim one's support, sympathy, or opinion for something or against something.

Back Channel is a secondary or covert route for the passage of information. Back channel can also mean a sound or gesture made to give continuity to a conversation by a person who is listening to another. Backchannel is the practice of using networked computers to maintain a real-time online conversation alongside the primary group activity or live spoken remarks.

Independent News Resources - Government Agencies

American Civil Liberties - Reporters Committee - Media Law Resource - Professional Journalists

Shattered Glass is a 2003 biographical drama film about journalist Stephen Glass and his scandal at The New Republic when they discovered that 27 of Glass's 41 stories were either partially or completely fabricated. From 1995 to 1998, Glasses' articles generally relied on unnamed or partially identified sources, and several of his pieces prompted denials from their subjects. In December 1996, the Center for Science in the Public Interest was the target of a hostile article by Glass titled "Hazardous to Your Mental Health". CSPI wrote a letter to the editor and issued a press release pointing out numerous inaccuracies and distortions and hinting at possible plagiarism. The organization Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) accused Glass of falsehoods in his March 1997 article "Don't You D.A.R.E". In May 1997, Joe Galli of the College Republican National Committee accused Glass of fabrications in "Spring Breakdown", his lurid tale of drinking and debauchery at the 1997 Conservative Political Action Conference. A June 1997 article called "Peddling Poppy" about a Hofstra University conference on George H. W. Bush drew a letter from Hofstra reciting errors in the story. In the May 18, 1998, issue, The New Republic published a story by Glass (by then an associate editor) entitled "Hack Heaven", purportedly telling the story of a 15-year-old hacker who had penetrated a company's computer network, then been hired by that company as a security consultant. Following the journalism scandal, Glass pursued a career in law. Although he earned a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University Law Center and passed the bar exam in New York and California, he was unable to become a licensed attorney in either state over concerns derived from his scandal.

Freedom of Speech - Freedom of the Press

Freedom of the Press is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials. While such freedom mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state, its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections. Watch-Dogs.

First Amendment - Freedom of Speech - Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press

Freedom of the Press Foundation - Free Speech TV - Freedom Forum

Fiefdom of Speech (youtube)

Free Speech Zone are areas set aside in public places for the purpose of political protesting. The First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that "Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." The existence of free speech zones is based on U.S. court decisions stipulating that the government may regulate the time, place, and manner, but not content of expression. Civil liberties advocates argue that free speech zones are used as a form of censorship and public relations management to conceal the existence of popular opposition from the mass public and elected officials. According to the opinion of the court, campus areas such as parks, sidewalks, streets and other areas are designated as public forums, regardless of whether the university has chosen to officially designate the areas as such.

Freedom of Assembly - Civil Rights - Public Interest Law

Speakers Corner is an area where free speech open-air public speaking, debate, and discussion are allowed. The original and best known is in the north-east corner of Hyde Park in London, England. Historically there were a number of other areas designated as Speakers' Corners in other parks in London, such as Lincoln's Inn Fields, Finsbury Park, Clapham Common, Kennington Park, and Victoria Park. Areas for Speakers' Corners have been established in other countries and elsewhere in the UK.

Trevor Timm, How free is our freedom of the press? (video Interactive text)

Article 19. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 19.

Principles of a Free Society - Public Forum

Freedom of Information Act is a federal freedom of information law that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government. The Act defines agency records subject to disclosure, outlines mandatory disclosure procedures and grants nine exemptions to the statute. Petitions - Investigate.

Marine National Facility Investigator News Embargo is a request by a source that the information or news provided by that source not be published until a certain date or certain conditions have been met. Ocean Protectors.

State Freedom of Information Laws - Information Laws by Country (wiki)

Information Protection - Rights to Information

Gag Order - Suppression - Censorship

Injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts. A party that fails to comply with an injunction faces criminal or civil penalties, including possible monetary sanctions and even imprisonment. They can also be charged with contempt of court. Counterinjunctions are injunctions that stop or reverse the enforcement of another injunction. Sanctions - Boycotts.

Temporary Restraining Orders is a short-term civil order issued by a judge or magistrate in state or federal court. The order forbids a person from engaging in some threatened action against someone else (typically having contact with someone else). Information Leaks.

Journalism Hero's - Violence Against Journalists

Killings of journalists up 50% in 2022, half targeted off duty. 86 journalists and media workers were killed around the world in 2022 – one every four days, according to UNESCO data, highlighting the grave risks and vulnerabilities that journalists continue to face in the course of their work.

Violence Against Journalists Reached 'Unprecedented Levels' In 2018. In the first 11 months of the year, 348 journalists were detained and 60 were held hostage, the organization found. Eighty were killed.

Journalists killed in 10 years Info-Graph (image) - Committee to Protect Journalists.

Protect Journalists - 67 journalists killed worldwide in 2012. Bloggers Killed 2015.

Killing the Messenger: The Deadly Cost of News | Full Documentary - Kurio (youtube) - Kill the Messenger (2014 film) (wiki) - Media Ownership

For the second year in a row, a record number of journalists were imprisoned worldwide in 2017, and more than half of those jailed for their work are behind bars in Turkey, China, and Egypt. Censorship.

More than 300 Human Rights Activists were killed in 2019. Colombia was the bloodiest nation with 103 murders and the Philippines was second, followed by Brazil, Honduras and Mexico More than 300 human rights defenders working to protect the environment, free speech, LGBTQ rights and indigenous lands in 31 countries were killed in 2019. Whistle Blowing.

Murdered Political Dissidents and Human Rights Activists (wiki)

The Belmarsh Tribunal D.C. — "Free the Truth" — The Case of Julian Assange (youtube - Dec 9, 2023)

Lara Logan Calls Out How the U.S. Government Funds NGO's to be their Political Assassins.

Environmental Hero's being Murdered - Journalism Activists - Ignorant criminals are murdering people who are trying to protect the land, air and water, as well as, protecting human rights and freedoms, from destructive industries.

2021 was a record high for imprisoned journalists. At least 293 journalists are behind bars worldwide, with China as the worst jailer. At least 24 journalists were killed because of their coverage, and 18 others died in circumstances that make it too difficult to determine whether they were targeted because of their work.

Kloop is a media organization based in Kyrgyzstan known for its news website and journalism investigations. Founded in 2007, Kloop gained prominence in Kyrgyzstan three years later, when it investigated criminal activities of the son of the president of Kyrgyzstan. Today Kloop is one of the most popular news websites in Kyrgyzstan.

Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project is a consortium of investigative centers, media and journalists operating in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Central America. It was founded in 2006 and specializes in organized crime and corruption. OCCRP publishes its stories through local media and in English and Russian through its website. In 2017, NGO Advisor ranked it 69th in the world in their annual list of the 500 best non-governmental organizations (NGO).

George Seldes was an American investigative journalist, foreign correspondent, editor, author, and media critic best known for the publication of the newsletter In Fact from 1940 to 1950. He was an investigative reporter-- what the early 20th century called a muckraker. Like them he used his journalism to fight injustice and justify reform. But the public mood had changed, and the demand for muckraking was much weaker on the part of the readership. His career, according to historian Helen Fordham, demonstrates that those who crusaded too vehemently crossed a line and seemed to violate new standards of impartiality and objectivity. His work was often criticized as too radical. (November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995).

Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press (1996) (youtube, 1:51mins.)

Lords of the Press Hardcover – 1938 (amazon)

International Center for Journalists - Wiki Leaks

Public Integrity investigative journalism on issues of public concern. International Consortium

Global Integrity - Ocean Protectors - Global Issues

Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organization's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year. It intends to reflect the degree of freedom that journalists, news organizations, and netizens have in each country, and the efforts made by authorities to respect this freedom. Reporters Without Borders is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom and does not measure the quality of journalism nor does it look at human rights violations in general.

Reporters Without Borders is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press. The organization, with a head office in Paris, France, has consultant status at the United Nations. Reporters Without Borders has two primary spheres of activity: one is focused on Internet censorship and the new media, and the other on providing material, financial and psychological assistance to journalists assigned to dangerous areas. Its missions are to: continuously monitor attacks on freedom of information worldwide; denounce any such attacks in the media; act in cooperation with governments to fight censorship and laws aimed at restricting freedom of information; morally and financially assist persecuted journalists, as well as their families; and offer material assistance to war correspondents in order to enhance their safety. Reporters without Borders

Whistle Blowers (if you see something, say something)

Coalition against Censorship - Censorship

Journalism Resources - Society of News Editors - Reporter - Journalism News - Journalism All Top - Power Reporting - Ushahidi - TPMmuckraker - Secrecy News - Greg Palast - Robert Niles - Bryan Christy - The Well - Webcasters - Radio TV Digital News.

Daily Show's Hasan Minhaj White House Correspondents' Dinner full monologue (youtube, Published on April 29th, 2017). This comedian is absolutely brilliant. Not only were the satirical jokes funny, but the looks on the faces in the crowd were incredibly funny, almost as funny as the jokes, almost. It's funny because it's true. The White House Press Corps are as pathetic as the administration they claim to investigate in order to keep the public informed. Yes it is extremely difficult to report on our government that considers lying a form of communication, but still that is not an excuse to become accessories to the crimes being committed by our government. When people have to get the truth from satirical comedy, we are all in serious  trouble. It's funny, but at the same time, it's so pathetic. I understand that some people don't have a sense of humor, but most don't see how pathetic they really are. Afraid to laugh, afraid to admit your flaws, or just plain arrogant or ignorant. This is a sad reminder that free speech is useless if you never say anything relevant or important. Free speech is useless if ignorant people control the media and the dialog. Censorship is as poisonous as propaganda.

Seth Meyers remarks at the 2011 White House Correspondents' Dinner: C-SPAN (youtube)

"WHITE HOUSE PRESS BRIEFING" — A Bad Lip Reading (youtube) - How White House press briefings sound in Sarah Huckabee Sanders' head.

White House Press Corps is the group of journalists, correspondents, or members of the media usually stationed at the White House in Washington, D.C., to cover the President of the United States, White House events, and news briefings. Their offices are located in the West Wing.

Crooked Media

Henry Anatole Grunwald (December 3, 1922 – February 26, 2005) was an Austrian-born journalist and diplomat perhaps best known for his position as managing editor of TIME magazine and editor in chief of Time, Inc. In 2001, he was awarded the Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art, 1st class.

Journalism Awards

George Polk Awards are American Journalism Awards, one of only a couple of journalism prizes that means anything. List of George Polk Award Winners (wiki)

Nierenberg Prize for Science in the Public Interest is given annually by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Ridenhour Prizes - Pulitzer Prize - Nobel Peace Prize (wiki)

The American Mosaic Journalism Prize is awarded for excellence in long-form, narrative, or deep reporting on stories about underrepresented and misrepresented groups in the present American landscape. The prize recognizes journalism’s critical ability to foster greater understanding, and aims to recognize and support freelance journalists with an unrestricted cash award of $100,000 per recipient. The prize is intended to call attention to the recipients’ great promise, and to give them the freedom to continue their work. Public Interest.

Right Livelihood Award recognizes the efforts of those who are tackling these issues more directly, coming up with practical answers to challenges like the pollution of our air, soil and water, the danger of nuclear war, the abuse of basic human rights, the destitution and misery of the poor and the over-consumption and spiritual poverty of the wealthy”. An award for the people and their work and struggles for a better future. The Laureates come from all walks of life: they are farmers, teachers, doctors, or simply, concerned citizens. The Right Livelihood Award is an international award to "honour and support those offering practical and exemplary answers to the most urgent challenges facing us today. Awards in such fields as environmental protection, human rights, sustainable development, health, education, and peace. Right Livelihood Award is usually shared by four Recipients.

American Humanist Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity. The American Humanist Association was founded in 1941 and currently provides legal assistance to defend the constitutional rights of secular and religious minorities, lobbies Congress on church-state separation and other issues, and maintains a grassroots network of 250 local affiliates and chapters that engage in social activism, philosophical discussion and community-building events. The AHA has several publications, including the bimonthly magazine The Humanist, quarterly newsletter Free Mind, peer-reviewed semi-annual scholastic journal Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, and daily online news site The organisation states that it has over 34,000 members.

Humanist of the Year Award was established in 1953 to recognize a person of national or international reputation who, through the application of humanist values, has made a significant contribution to the improvement of the human condition. Selection of the awardee is based on research derived from biographical data, writings, studies, and contributions to humanity.

Victorian Premier's Literary Awards were created by the Victorian Government with the aim of raising the profile of contemporary creative writing and Australia's publishing industry. As of 2013, it is reportedly Australia's richest literary prize with the top winner receiving A$125,000 and category winners A$25,000 each.

Whiting Foundation provides targeted support for writers, scholars, and the stewards of humanity’s shared cultural heritage. The Whiting Awards are given annually to ten emerging writers in fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama.

Films about Journalism

Tell the Truth and Run: George Seldes and the American Press (1996) (youtube, 1:51mins.)

Reporter is a 2009 documentary film about the work of New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Executive produced by Ben Affleck and directed by Eric Daniel Metzgar, the HBO movie captures life in the war-ravaged African country and specifically focuses on the challenges faced by international correspondents in covering the region's crises.

John Pilger: Real Journalism (youtube)

Kill the Messenger (2014) (wiki) - focuses on CIA involvement in Contra cocaine trafficking.

The Trouble with the Truth - A Documentary film about South Africa's Apartheid, when Journalists were Activists.

Finding Hillywood

Journalism: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) (youtube)

War Photographer Film (amazon) - Website - James Nachtwey (wiki)

Shooting Robert King is a 2008 documentary film directed by Richard Parry. It documents photojournalist Robert King over 15 years and through 3 different war zones. The films splices footage from his time working in war zones with footage of him home with his family in Tennessee.

Inspirational video about how extremely important Journalism is in reporting injustices around the world. America and Lewis Hine (1984) (video) - Lewis Hine (wiki) - Historic child Labor Photos by Lewis Hine - Hine Photos

Child Labor in the United States - Help (watchdogs)

A horrific look at some of the worlds most abused workers on the planet. Workingman's Death (2005) 127:17 (video) - Working Mans Death.

Oren Yakobovich: Hidden Cameras that film injustice in the world's most dangerous places (video) - Videre

An AP investigation helps free slaves in the 21st century. Over the course of 18 months, Associated Press journalists located men held in cages, tracked ships and stalked refrigerated trucks to expose the abusive practices of the fishing industry in Southeast Asia. The reporters’ dogged effort led to the release of more than 2,000 slaves and traced the seafood they caught to supermarkets and pet food providers across the U.S. For this investigation, AP has won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. The articles are presented here in their entirety.

How the Panama Papers journalists broke the biggest leak in history: Gerard Ryle (video and interactive text)

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists is an active global network of 185 reporters in more than 65 countries who collaborate on in-depth investigative stories.

Whistle Blowers Unite

Fifth Estate is a socio-cultural reference to groupings of outlier viewpoints in contemporary society, and is most associated with bloggers, journalists, and non-mainstream media outlets. The "Fifth" Estate extends the sequence of the three classical Estates of the Realm and the preceding Fourth Estate, essentially the mainstream press. The use of "fifth estate" dates to the 1960s counterculture, and in particular the influential The Fifth Estate, an underground newspaper first published in Detroit in 1965.

The Fifth Estate is a 2013 film directed by Bill Condon, about the news-reporting website WikiLeaks. The film stars Benedict Cumberbatch as its editor-in-chief and founder Julian Assange, and Daniel Brühl as its former spokesperson Daniel Domscheit-Berg. WikiRebels - The Documentary (1/4) (youtube) - Documentaries.

Citizen Journalism - News Reporting Apps

Citizen Journalism is when public citizens play an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information. Citizen Journalism is a form of activism and an independent form of newsgathering and reporting that functions outside the usual mainstream media institutions, often as a response to the shortcomings in the professional journalistic field. Citizen Journalism uses traditional journalistic practices, but is sometimes driven by different objectives and ideals that relies on alternative sources of legitimacy, other than the traditional or mainstream journalism channels. When the people, formerly known as the audience, employ the press tools that they have in their possession to inform one another, they will have more accuracy and have more facts to work with. (citizen journalism is also known as "public journalism", "participatory journalism", "democratic journalism", "guerrilla journalism" or "street journalism").

Public Service - Public Interest - Investigative Journalism - Citizen Science - List of Citizen Journalism Websites - Citizen Journalism

Alternative Media are media sources that differ from established or dominant types of media such as mainstream media or mass media in terms of their content, production, or distribution. Sometimes the term independent media is used as a synonym, referencing independence from large media corporations, but this term is also used to indicate media enjoying freedom of the press and independence from government control.

As more publishers monopolize, the harder it will be for small independent publishers to survive and will give little chance for smaller or startup publishers to break through. Big Five Publishers: Penguin Random House, Simon & Schuster, HarperCollins Publishing, Macmillan and Hachette.

Censorship - Trolling - Fair Use - Media Ownership - Decline of Newspapers - Anti-Trust Laws

Small Press is a publisher with annual sales below a certain level or below a certain number of titles published. The terms "indie publisher" and "independent press" and others are sometimes used interchangeably. Independent press is generally defined as publishers that are not part of large conglomerates or multinational corporations. Many small presses rely on specialization in genre fiction, poetry, or limited-edition books or magazines, but there are also thousands that focus on niche non-fiction markets.

Independent Media refers to any form of media, such as radio, television, newspapers or the Internet, that is free of influence by government or corporate interests. The term has varied applications. Within the United States and other developed countries, it is often used synonymously with alternative media to refer to media that specifically distinguish themselves in relation to the mainstream media. In international development, the term independent media is used in relation to the development of new media outlets, particularly in areas where there is little to no existing media presence. Research has found that independent media plays an important role in improving government accountability and reducing corruption and eliminating a conflict of interest.

Non-profit journalistic outlets are not driven by commercial concerns but are instead dedicated to furthering a public-service mission, filling gaps resulting from market failures, or advancing a particular social cause. Non-profit outlets have long been a part of many media systems.

Freelance Journalist is a writer who is self-employed. They complete contract work, single pieces or regular assignments for newspapers, magazines, companies and other organizations. Freelance journalists curate information and news to inform or entertain other people. Freelancers.

Independent News - Third Party - Watchdogs

Media Roots is a citizen journalism project that reports the news from outside of party lines while providing a collaborative forum for conscious citizens.

Substack makes it simple for a writer to start an email newsletter that makes money from subscriptions. Substack is an online platform that provides publishing, payment, analytics, and design infrastructure to support subscription newsletters. Funding.

The Empire Files - Youtube Channel

acTVism Munich (youtube channel)

Filming Police - Filming Crimes

Mobile Reporting is a trend emerging in the field of news and content generation. The term describes the use of a mobile phone as a reporting tool. The user creates text, photo and video that combined produces a multimedia based report. The content is edited on the phone before being uploaded to the internet via mobile network or Internet connection. Usually mobile reporting is used for publishing to the web. This is particularly the case with video as the technology does not yet allow for the production of high end video. However, the low quality is suitable for Internet. Mobile reporting is particularly relevant in areas that lack modern Internet infrastructure (Sub Sahara Africa, Central Asia, South America, Latin America). The mobile phone is low in cost when compared to more traditional reporting equipment.

Civil is a Marketplace for Sustainable Journalism. Building a newsroom platform using blockchain technology and cryptoeconomics to create an open marketplace for journalists and citizens.

User-Generated Content is defined as "any form of content such as blogs, wikis, discussion forums, posts, chats, tweets, podcasts, digital images, video, audio files, advertisements and other forms of media that was created by users of an online system or service, often made available via social media websites". It is also called user-created content (UCC).

Global Citizen organizes massive global campaigns to amplify the actions of Global Citizens from around the world.

Top Android apps for citizen journalists and mobile reporters in tough environments

Atavist Make a story, design it your way, share it.

Cover it Live live-event publishing platform since 2007.

Live Leak

Live Stream Video Chat is the best way to discover talented broadcasters, watch live streams and video chat live with people from around the world.

Bambuser is a mobile video technology for organizations and app developers. Mobile live video capabilities using robust and proven SDKs, APIs, a turnkey app, scalable infrastructure and video delivery.

Witness makes it possible for anyone, anywhere to use video and technology to protect and defend Human Rights.

The Power of Citizen Video to create Undeniable Truths - Yvette Alberdingk Thijm at TEDxSkoll (video and text) - Proof Mode Metadata shows the date, the location, the temperature, the weather.

Mobilize Us Send & manage group text messages from our web app or phone and get people the information they need, when they need it.

Guardian Project creates easy to use secure apps, open-source software libraries, and customized mobile devices that can be used around the world by any person looking to protect their communications and personal data from unjust intrusion, interception and monitoring.

Lab Witness Media Lab is dedicated to unleashing the potential of eyewitness video as a powerful tool to report, monitor, and advocate for human rights.

Hardbound mobile-based storytelling.

Digital Citizen refers to a person utilizing information technology (IT) in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation. K. Mossberger, et al. define digital citizens as "those who use the Internet regularly and effectively." Digital Citizenship.

Facebook Live Videos

Solocam selfie stick that integrates a new and improved stick design with a high definition sound and recording system.

MeCam NeoMe Mini Wearable Video Camera gives you the option for the first time to shoot in first person POV (Clip Mount/Magnet Mount) or shoot yourself in third person POV(magnet, suction, sticky mount). Additionally, our waterproof case (compatible with all third party action camera mounts) lets you capture any action sports and activities. So wear it, stick it somewhere or mount it….the possibilities are endless like your life! Our high-quality Sony sensor makes sure that everything you capture is in crisp HD resolution (Full 1080P and 8MP). Our fully integrated smart phone app gives you the ability to shoot time lapse photography (5 options), one touch 15 second capture and social sharing, and the option to shoot in Wide Angle.

Stringer is a freelance journalist, photographer, or videographer who contributes reports, photos, or videos to a news organization on an ongoing basis but is paid individually for each piece of published or broadcast work. As freelancers, stringers do not receive a regular salary and the amount and type of work is typically voluntary. However, stringers often have an ongoing relationship with one or more news organizations, to which they provide content on particular topics or locations when the opportunities arise.

Video Monitoring

Video Tools - Audio Tools

News Deeply is an online journalism and technology company, based in New York City, specializing in single-issue news websites and building online databases of stakeholders. Its flagship site, Syria Deeply, was founded by Lara Setrakian and Azeo Fables in 2012 to cover the Syrian Civil War. On May 15, 2018, News Deeply merged Syria Deeply into the broader Peacebuilding Deeply. Since 2012, the company built and operated seven other sites with similar single-issue formats: Malnutrition Deeply, Oceans Deeply, Refugees Deeply, Water Deeply, Women's Advancement Deeply, Arctic Deeply and Ebola Deeply. News Deeply has ceased publishing content on any of its sites. Ebola Deeply officially stopped publishing soon after Guinea was declared free of ebola in December, 2015. In 2018, three other News Deeply sites stopped publishing: Oceans Deeply, Malnutrition Deeply and Peacebuilding Deeply. Since then, all of News Deeply's sites have "paused regular publication". The last article posted to any News Deeply site was to Refugees Deeply on April 1st, 2019.

Wochit is a video creation platform using thousands of stock video clips to choose from, and all you have to do is add the text.

Video Bolt Quickly and easily produce logo animations for your youtube channel.

Collaboration Tools

Writing With Fire - A news outlet, Khabar Lahariya, India’s only all-female news network. some of the most inspiring and fearless reporters you will ever encounter.

Blogs - Bloggers - Blog Search - Blog Creator - Blog Creator - Fair Blog - Blog Herald - Word Press - Temps

Eyewitness Video on YouTube - YouTube Newswire (youtube)

Attn delivers engaging content to a mobile-first audience. Every day we produce videos, articles and commentary telling stories worth your attention.

Man with Binoculars AJ Plus Al Jazeera Media Network. Vyclone.

A Pocket Guide on Verifying Details of a Video - Verification Handbook - Citizen Evidence Verifying - Investigative Dashboard

Think Progress news site dedicated to providing our readers with rigorous reporting and analysis from a progressive perspective. Founded in 2005.

Press Reference

Online News Association’s “Hack Curriculum” Fund for Innovation in Journalism Education.

High School Journalism

Independent News Sources

Relevance Today (new concept for news reporting in the early stages of development)

Open Data

Haven App Protection. Haven App turns any Android phone into a motion, sound, vibration and light detector, watching for unexpected guests and unwanted intruders by combining the array of sensors found in any smartphone. You can configure Haven to send you real-time encrypted alerts of what it detects to your other phone, the one you carry with you, when an intrusion is detected. You can choose to get encrypted Signal notifications, and you can also configure Haven to run a Tor onion service website (that is, a darknet site), and use Tor Browser on another device to connect in and view all of the alerts — all without giving anyone else access to these evidence logs unless you choose to share them. Haven also supports SMS text notifications, which can be intercepted but which might be more reliable in some situations. You definitely need a separate Android device to use Haven effectively. You could choose to not get notifications on your other phone at all, and instead just check the local Haven logs once you get back to the room you’re monitoring. You could connect to a wifi network (like the hotel’s network) on your Haven phone, and configure Haven to run a Tor onion service website directly on the phone. You can then use Tor Browser on a computer, Orfox on an Android phone, or Onion Browser on an iPhone to load this website to check for intrusion alerts. To do this, you need to install the Orbot app, which is Tor for Android, on your Haven phone as well. You could also connect to wifi and configure Haven to send you real-time Signal notifications as intrusion events happen. This is the most user friendly way of getting alerts. However, without phone service, it’s not trivial to set up because you’ll need to obtain an extra phone number to register a new Signal account with, like described in this article. If you do pay for phone service for your Haven phone: If your phone plan includes mobile data, you don’t have to worry about wifi being available. In fact, I’d recommend disabling wifi and only using mobile data. You can use the Haven app to register a Signal account using your spare phone’s phone number, to send encrypted notifications to your normal phone via Signal. You can also choose to have Haven send SMS notifications to your normal phone on intrusion events, instead of using Signal. If you’re going to be gone for a long period of time, you might need to keep your Haven phone plugged in so that it doesn’t run out of battery and power off. This means you can’t keep your laptop and Haven phone in a hotel safe for too long before the battery dies. But, considering hotel safes are not very secure, it’s not too different to just leave your laptop and Haven phone on the desk or bedside table, plugged in. Another thing to consider is the the security of your Haven phone itself. A clever attacker who knows that you’re using Haven could jam the wifi, mobile data, and SMS wireless frequencies, preventing Haven from sending you notifications. The attacker could then attempt to access the phone to delete the local evidence logs from the device as well. For this reason, it’s important to lock down your Haven phone. Lock your phone with a strong passcode or password, and make sure your phone is encrypted. You can change your lockscreen and security settings from the Settings app. Also, install all updates for Android and for all of your apps, and turn off all radios that you aren’t using, like bluetooth and NFC. If you can, use mobile data and turn off wifi as well. This will reduce the attack surface of the phone, making it more difficult for an attacker to hack it once they’ve entered your room. Rutkowska said she “absolutely” believes there is a need for technology like Haven, and suggested that the developers add “a hearbeat signal… for remote logging.” That would help warn users when the device loses a network connection, for example due to signal jamming. She also thinks most users will disable real-time notifications because “getting lots of Signal messages is annoying” — better to have a log that can be consulted later. To protect it from tampering, such a log could be cryptographically signed. It could also be pushed to a remote location, like a git version-control repository running on a distant server. If an attacker can both jam your Haven phone’s radio signals and also hack into it to delete the evidence of intrusion, it’s possible for them to then still do an evil maid attack on your laptop without getting caught. However, Haven makes such an attack considerably more expensive, with less certainty of success, than if all they had to deal with was tampering with your laptop. Another thing to keep in mind is that Haven can only monitor for intrusions if you actually use it. During my time testing it, more than once I positioned my Haven phone in the right place, made sure it was connected to wifi so I could get notifications, and plugged in so the battery wouldn’t die, but then forgot to actually activate the app. Several hours later when I returned to my room and found the Haven phone deactivated, I had no way of knowing if an intrusion occurred or not. Finally, Haven is still in early development. There are still kinks that need to be worked out, plenty of bugs that need to be fixed, and plenty of features that would make it more useful and more reliable. There are false positives; once, I came back to find over 80 intrusion alerts, all of them the sounds of loud cars or sirens driving by my Manhattan hotel room. And sometimes, actual events don’t get logged when they should — I ran into issues where camera motion events weren’t getting triggered at all on my device, but that bug has been resolved for me now. It would be prudent to wait for the Haven app to mature before relying on it in high security situations. But even now, it’s much better than leaving your laptop exposed to physical attacks without any monitoring while you’re heading out for drinks after a long day at a conference.

Photography - Visual Journalism

Visual Journalism is the practice of strategically combining words and images to convey information. Visual Journalist

Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. Drones.

Candid Photography is a photograph captured without creating a posed appearance. This is achieved in many ways, for example: when the subject is in motion, by avoiding prior preparation of the subject, by surprising the subject, by not distracting the subject during the process of taking photos. Thus, the candid character of a photo is unrelated to the subject's knowledge about or consent to the fact that photos are being taken, and unrelated to the subject's permission for further usage and distribution. The crucial factor is the actual absence of posing. However, if the subject is absolutely unaware of being photographed and does not even expect it, then such photography is secret photography, which is a special case of candid photography. People Watching - Citizen Journalism

Crowd Funded Visual Journalism

Find a Photographer - American Society of Media Photographers

Missouri Photo Journalism - Photography Knowledge and Lessons

Photography Services

Press Photographers Association

Professional Photographers association

Photographing Police - Legal Help

Knowledge Based Reporting - Fairness & Accuracy Reporting

What is the News supposed to be - Social Documentary

Film Schools - Media Literacy

Documentary Photography usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle events or environments both significant and relevant to history and historical events as well as everyday life. It is typically covered in professional photojournalism, or real life reportage, but it may also be an amateur, artistic, or academic pursuit.

Editing - Proof Reading

Editing Spelling Mistakes Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual, audible, and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation, organization, and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate and complete work. Corrections.

Copy Editing is the process of taking raw material (the "copy": anything from a novel to a web page) and improving the formatting, style, and accuracy of the text. The goal of copy editing is to ensure that content is accurate, easy to follow, fit for its purpose, and free of error, omission, inconsistency, and repetition. In the context of publication in print, copy editing is done before typesetting and again before proofreading, the final step in the editorial cycle.

Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to detect and correct production errors of text or art. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication. Noise Reduction.

Speech Error commonly referred to as a slip of the tongue or misspeaking, is a deviation (conscious or unconscious) from the apparently intended form of an utterance. They can be subdivided into spontaneously and inadvertently produced speech errors and intentionally produced word-plays or puns. Another distinction can be drawn between production and comprehension errors. Errors in speech production and perception are also called performance errors.

Spelling Errors - Writers Blindness

Typoglycemia are cognitive processes behind reading written text. The word appears to be a portmanteau of "typo", as in typographical error, and "hypoglycemia". It is an urban legend/Internet meme that appears to have an element of truth to it. The legend, propagated by email and message boards, purportedly demonstrates that readers can understand the meaning of words in a sentence even when the interior letters of each word are scrambled. As long as all the necessary letters are present, and the first and last letters remain the same, readers appear to have little trouble reading the text.

Copyrights - Plagiarism

Galley Proof are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra-wide margins. Galley proofs may be uncut and unbound, or in some cases electronically published. They are created for proofreading and copyediting purposes, but may be used for promotional and review purposes also.

Fact Checking is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in the text. This may be done either before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text has been published or otherwise disseminated.

Editing Resources - Editing Help - Copy Editor - Scribendi - Editage - Editing - Proofreading - Proof Read My File - Global Writers - Proof Reading - Grammar Checking - All Correct - Spell Checking Software

Writing Tips - Linguistic intelligence

Communication Skills - Resources for Writers

Use Google Translator to hear what you have written, copy and paste and listen for errors.

Translation Tools (google) - Translations

I Universe - Journal Experts - Authors Guild

Online Writing Jobs - I Freelance - Macmillan

Copyright Information - Online Books

Cold Reading is often mistaken for proofreading outside of the publishing world. A cold read is a read-through of the final material to check for any errors that a consumer may notice. Typos, spelling, missing punctuation, duplicate words, missing words, and so on, are all things a cold reader will look for as they review the material. Cold reads are typically focused strictly on egregious errors rather than style issues, incorrect nonessential punctuation, etcetera. A heavier cold read can be done to include more types of errors; however, if there is an excessive number of errors, a copy edit might be in order instead. It is recommended that proofreads and cold reads be done by an editor who has not been involved in the editorial process at previous stages (or at least has not done more than two passes on the project already). That way, the editor can come to the material with fresh eyes and catch things that may have been overlooked at previous stages. Maintenance.

Film Editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film which increasingly involves the use of digital technology. The film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots and combining them into sequences which create a finished motion picture. Film editing is described as an art or skill, the only art that is unique to cinema, separating filmmaking from other art forms that preceded it, although there are close parallels to the editing process in other art forms such as poetry and novel writing. Film editing is often referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that they are not aware of the editor's work. On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence. The job of an editor is not simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates or edit dialogue scenes. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, story, dialogue, music, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to effectively "re-imagine" and even rewrite the film to craft a cohesive whole. Editors usually play a dynamic role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteurist film directors edit their own films, for example, Akira Kurosawa, Bahram Beyzai, Steven Soderbergh, and the Coen brothers. With the advent of digital editing in non-linear editing systems, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture. Sound, music, and (more recently) visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process, usually under the direction of the picture editor and director. However, digital systems have increasingly put these responsibilities on the picture editor. It is common, especially on lower budget films, for the editor to sometimes cut in temporary music, mock up visual effects and add temporary sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are usually replaced with more refined final elements produced by the sound, music and visual effects teams hired to complete the picture. Video editing software is software used performing the post-production video editing of digital video sequences on a non-linear editing system (NLE). It has replaced traditional flatbed celluloid film editing tools and analog video tape-to-tape online editing machines.

Journalism Education Resources

Film Editing Journalism School is a school or a department at a school or college, where students complete university-level training, which incorporates both technical skills such as research skills, interviewing techniques and shorthand and academic studies in media theory, cultural studies and ethics. There are only three graduate-only journalism schools in the United States, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Craig Newmark Graduate School of Journalism, and the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism.

Online Journalism Review - Online Journalism Training.

Knight Digital Media Center - Helping good journalism and good journalists thrive in the Digital Now.

Journalism Education - News University

Journalism & Women Symposium

Megan Kamerick: Women Should Represent women in Media (video) 

Eman Mohammed (video)

Online News Association - Inter News Media Training - American Press Institute

National Press Club - Poynter

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication is a major international membership organization for academics in the field, offering regional and national conferences and refereed publications. It has numerous membership divisions, interest groups, publications and websites.

High School Journalism - Student News Website

Teenage Generated News - Student Press Review - Student Press Law Center

Scholastic Press Assoc - Collegiate Press Assoc -

School of Communication - Frontline Club

Kansas Student Newspaper's Fact Check Results In New Principal's Resignation

J Ideas - Know your Rights

Digital Journalist

Media Literacy Education - Writing Tips - Talking

News Lab - News 21 - Public Media

Day Life Cloud Publishing

10,000 Words - Resource for Journalists

Pen 3,400 Professional Members who represent the most distinguished writers, translators, and editors in the United States.

Future of Journalism - Experiential Journalism - Bright Future for Journalism

Saving American Journalism - Journalism Crisis - Media Ownership - Propaganda

Our Blook - Save the News - Charles Lewis

Reconstruction of Journalism

Project Report (youtube)

History Commons summaries of 16,054 events.

British Library holds 14 million books, 920,000 journal and newspaper titles, 58 million patents, 3 million sound recordings, 40 million news pages to go digital and more.

Library's (information sources) - - Media Literacy Education - Media Literacy Info 

Eppy Awards - Honoring the best Websites offered by newspapers, television, magazine and radio companies.

Free Publicity - Public Relations - Public Relations Society

PR Newswire - Provoke Media - Associated Press

National Travel Writers Association - Travel Advice - Travel Tools

Internet Searching Tips - Problem Solving Skills - Information Sources

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