Learning Methods - Thinking Styles - Teaching Methods
is an experience
. Learning is a
action with a purpose
to extract information
. Learning is the
. Learning is the
new knowledge or
knowledge, or modifying behaviors and preferences, or improving skills, or
obtaining a better understanding of values
Learning is getting to know
becoming more aware
is to come into
of something valid
. To acquire,
or get something through
or physical states
There are many different ways
a person can
work better than
. The bottom line is, you can learn anything you want
, which means
the possibilities are endless. There is no greater source of
than the power of learning
worlds combined knowledge
is waiting for you, so don't
he who hesitates is lost
. Everyone suffers from their own
. And the only cure
for ignorance is knowledge
. A Learning Revolution is upon us.
is a learner who is
studying on their
or learning on their own
or enrolled in a school or an educational institution.
There are many benefits that comes from learning
But learning takes commitment
Learning to understand
about yourself and learning to understand more about the world around you,
will require a commitment to learning
and a promise to yourself that you will
continue to learn
continue to seek more knowledge. If your main goal in learning is to
become more knowledgeable about yourself and become more knowledgeable
about the world around you, then you will
become more knowledgeable about the world that is
inside you. Your thoughts
will become richer,
will become more
meaningful, and new thoughts
become more amazing, all because you now have
more to work from
. Having a larger vocabulary and having more
knowledge gives rise to more ideas
Learning begets learning, knowledge begets knowledge and skills
more skills. Learning
is everything that you are now and everything that you will be in the
future. Learning gives you
better thoughts, better ideas, better solutions, better understanding,
better skills and better awareness, and that's just the beginning.
Learning everything in this website
give you the foundation
need to build on. From there, anything seems possible.
to remember, never stop
. But you also need
what the most important things are that you should be
learning. You need to know exactly what
is, and know
why knowledge is important. You need to know exactly what
know why accurate information is so extremely important. If you want to be
, you have to learn what
intelligence is. The goal of every educational activity should be to
become more intelligent. This requires
. You have to know
what you are trying to know
You have to understand what you are trying to understand. You just can't
go to school or go to college and expect to become educated, especially
when you don't fully understand
what being educated is
If you can't understand
something, that means you're missing something, and that something is
. If you
want to understand things, you have to learn things. Your ability to
understand things in life comes from the amount of knowledge and
information that you have acquired through
, as well as having
many observational experiences
. When you learn to
understand things more and more each day, the more you will understand
things more and more each day. Things that
can Impede Learning or Discourage Learning
Don't take learning for
Everything that you have in life
and everything that you are
, comes from learning,
what you have learned. The
that comes from
is immense. Learning is an
in yourself. And when you
educate yourself to a high degree, you will
find the answers
a lot easier, and you will also
understand things a lot easier. When it comes to learning, you have to be
an active participant
in the process
of learning. No one can learn for
you. Like when going to a doctor, if you're not personally involved with
understanding your health, you will not benefit
from the knowledge and
information that you acquire that would help you to maintain a healthy
mind and strong body. Learning is the single most important
that you have in life. Everything comes from learning. The reason why
is because people learned things before you were born. Living
and learning are connected, and not learning is not living
. If you want to
stay connected to reality, you need to keep learning. And after you become
highly educated, you will
with as many people as possible. This way future generations
will also benefit
knowledge and information in the same way that you did, or maybe even
better. Learning is method of storing information in your brain. So it
makes perfect sense that you would want to
the most valuable
and knowledge that the world has to offer. And it also
makes perfect sense that you would want to learn how to use knowledge and
as possible. Understand your
- Figure it Out
If you're not engaged with learning
in learning something
, then you're not learning effectively.
Learning is not automatic
. And you can't
pretend to understand
something unless you enjoy lying to yourself. Learning needs a
goal. Our brains are designed to learn. But our brains require
of the information input
, because if you're not aware of
what you're learning, or fully understand what you're learning, then
knowledge becomes vague
and your awareness is more
conscious. Learning requires documentation and not just memory, especially
knowing that human memory
occasionally has flaws. Knowledge can be lost and
worthless if you never write your knowledge down for
to benefit from in
the same way that you benefitted from the knowledge of previous
generations. Engaged Learning
. Learning that is not
based on research, investigation and documentation, is not effective
learning. So now that you read this, what have you learned?
something new or learning new things is not without
. A person may not learn
anything valuable if they learn something at the wrong time or in learn
something in the wrong way. Effective learning needs previous knowledge
and information that helps a person to understand new knowledge and
understand new information. Effective learning also needs
on how to use new knowledge and information effectively
and efficiently. But even when you have everything that you need to learn,
you can still sometimes misunderstand something. This is why it is
extremely important that a person fully understands what learning is and
what learning is not. Learning is a focused ability that needs to be
maintained and updated continually in order to be effective and efficient.
Learning is not without risk or without errors. Learning is not just about
processing information and accurately storing information, learning is a
full investigation in how to effectively and efficiently utilize future
potential energy that is derived from learning something valuable.
Learning is like having the worlds greatest battery, a battery that is
always increasing the amount of energy that it can hold and always
increasing the amount of energy and power that it can produce. But that is
only if you do it correctly
People know how to learn
, for the most part.
It's just that a lot of people are not accurately choosing the right
things they should be learning. People don't have a
. People don't have
a learning schedule
don't have learning goals
People don't have effective ways of
what they have learned so far, or
ways of measuring what
they still need to learn. If people had the
necessary tools and technology
also had access to the worlds most valuable knowledge and information,
along with clear instructions
how to use tools, technology and knowledge
, then every person on
earth would have the ability to solve almost any problem in the world and
continually make things better
for each other and for the planet. "When people
only hear what they want to hear
and dangerous, and
the illusion of learning
becomes destructive". If you don't want to learn, then no one can help
you. If you are determined to learn, then no one can stop you, unless
you're a victim of censorship
millions of people are.
You have to have a
when learning something. You have to be
am I trying to understand? What do I want to walk away with? What valuable
information am I trying to acquire? When you learn with purpose you are
more engaged in learning
and you will also
more of what you have learned. If
you're reading with no learning purpose in mind, then you will learn very
little. This is why one of the most important things that you
need to know when it comes to learning is that you have to have particular
in mind, and you also have to document
that you learn that are important to your
, like learning to understand
yourself more accurately, and learning how to
other people more
understanding how the earth sustains life, and how everything that you do,
and don't do, has an effect
on yourself, on the world, and on other
people. Always update and edit your research. Use a diary, a journal, a
that can help you
store and save your knowledge
and research. Writing things
has many benefits.
.You must also fully
understand the learning process
understand the things that disturb or impede learning
things that motivate learning. You need to understand the mental factors
that affect learning and motivation, the
physical factors that affect
, things like pain, fatigue, anxiety or fear. You must also
understand the environmental factors that affect learning, and the
emotional and social factors that affect learning, and the methodology of
instructions that affect learning and motivation. This is why
knowing how to teach yourself
so extremely important. If you know how to effectively and efficiently
teach yourself, then you can never blame the teacher for not wanting to
learn. But in order for you to become the best teacher, you must learn how
to be the best teacher. And when you become a great teacher, then you will
always love going to class, because your teacher is the best.
refers to how likely a
person is to seek out knowledge and participate in the learning process
The person is aware of a problem or is ready to act in solving it.Apply
and Manually Activate
is to put in the effort that is
required to achieve a
. To work hard at something and
take the responsibility
in order to
master a subject
and clearly understand it. To put an action into
and work for a particular
and be pertinent,
Apply can also mean to ask
. What will be your biggest take-away?Take Away
is a key fact,
point, or idea that should be remembered from a lesson, presentation,
discussion or a meeting. Something important that should be learned.
is a conclusion to be made based
on presented facts or information. A main point or key message to be
learned or understood from something experienced or observed.
refers to any learning point
or even teaching moment from a real-life experience. It can also come from
reading or observation, or attending a seminar or conference, or even from
a small talk encounter. "The Key take away here is that Learning is
something to one's advantage in order to be of use to or
as a means of
. Everything is about Learning
. If you
want to be intelligent
, you have to learn
how to be intelligent. If you want to be good at a particular sport, you
have to learn how to be good at a particular
. If you want to be
happy, you have to learn what
is. If you want to be
, you have to learn
what being good is. If you want love
you have to learn what love is and what love is not. And just remembering
is not enough. Memories
of your knowledge and
needs to have instructions
on how to use that knowledge and information effectively and efficiently.
has information and the
instructions. So you see, the process
of learning and applying knowledge is necessary for life. But even though
learning is natural, you must take learning
and use learning
, if not, then you will be
dangers, you will struggle
, and you will keep making the same
over and over again unknowingly
Learning is necessary for living a good life. So please don't take
learning for granted
. Everything hinges on this one thing. Learning might not seem important to you, but
learning is important to everything else in the world. Learning is the
most important responsibility
for all life, without learning, there would be no
because life would not be able
. "Life does not tell you what
to do, you have to learn what to do." You have to
deliberately educate yourself
things that you still don't know, so that you
learn the right things at the right times
and keep progressing
people stop learning
, then the
. What happens when
you don't learn enough
? Every day that you do not move forward is
another day that you will be left behind. If you're not moving forward
then you're falling behind. Even when you're close, you can still be far
behind.You Need to Make Learning Fun and
Make Learning Enjoyable so that you stay Motivated
as you make
progress. Always have a plan, a goal and a purpose when learning. Have
a method and a system that is effective and efficient. But you don't want
to over do it, so you need to pace yourself and you have to find a rhythm,
and also be flexible. Spaced repetition learning
good memory boosting technique and a good way to keep track of your
progress and memory.
First, you have to
collect and accumulate
knowledge and information. Then you have to
knowledge and information,
because understanding what you're learning is important. Then you have to
information, and not just physically organize it, but also
mind, this way you can effectively
use knowledge and information and also
knowledge and information using
. And last but not
least, you have to understand what you're
always have clear goals
yourself of why you are on this path that you have chosen. If you lose
sight of your goals or forget that you have a purpose in life, then you can
easily get discouraged
to depression. So always remember that you're not just
intelligence and acquiring valuable skills, you are on an incredible
journey of discovery. So don't worry about the mistakes that you made or
worry about the mistakes
that other people made, keep learning, keep
and keep moving forward. The world
is going to test you from time to time, so you will
need some quick answers to certain questions when
strikes. And some of those
questions are..What are my priorities
Who do I help
first? What can
I learn from this? How do I solve this
and keep this problem from happening again in the future? And
will I need to adapt
Start Knowing and Stop
Dohing - Knowing is Growing
is an expressing of frustration at the
that you did
have turned out badly or not as
. The expression was made famous by Homer J. Simpson.
The Simpsons: Many
D'ohs of Homer
Learning is The Best Brain Exercise
and the Best Cognitive Brain Training Program
that helps you to stay Mentally Fit
keeps your Brain Staying Sharp.
learning at BK101
Mental Fitness Program
that you can do.
5 Hour Rule
is to invest around
in Deliberate Learning
That's 5 hours of the 168 hours that you have in one week. You have to
learn certain things in order to understand certain things. (Always
continue your studies).
Not learning is like always
living in the past
. You never
live in the present
you think about the future
think about new ways on how to make the future better. You have to keep
updating what you know and keep learning. Learning is one of the reasons
why life even exists. If the cells in your body could not learn and update
, no life would exist. When
your cells DNA is not updated, then a virus could infect the cell and then
damage the cell, or even kill the cell, all because the DNA did not have
the necessary information, or the information that the DNA had was wrong,
which made the cell
the virus. And what you
learn could have an affect on what your cells learn
can can easily say that Learning is in your Blood
does not always
protect you from ignorance
especially your own ignorance. Learn from your past but don't live in the
past. Live in the present and think about the future, because that's how
reality works, life is a continuum
. So you
need to continually learn and go with
the flow of life
. It will be a much smoother ride that way.
is the ability to reflect on
so as to engage in a process of
One of the most
beautiful things that comes from learning is that you don't have to do
something bad, dangerous or risky in order to understand how bad,
dangerous or risky
something is. This saves people from making
they don't have
to make, which also saves time
Even if you feel the need to
something for yourself, you still have to acknowledge the risk
and dangers that are explained by the information passed on from other
people, people who have previous experience with a particular action you
are thinking about doing. Learning is a Time Loop
I'm willing to learn
, even though I will learn things that will break
my heart and disappoint me, but I'm still willing to learn, and that is
something I can never give up. Because learning is the
path to salvation
, and there is
no other path, because not learning is standing still and not learning is
giving up. And the reason why everyone is alive is because humans before
us did not give up and they kept on going and they continued to learn.
That is what a human is, and that is what life is. If it were not, then we
would not be here. Nothing would be here. Adult
willing to be taught
supervised or directed. Someone who is ready and willing to be taught.
Someone who is teachable, gentle and easily handled or managed.
People pretend to know
they also feel like they know enough. But it's only when they start
learning is when they finally
how little they know, which is normal.
Nothing more damaging to the Human Mind than the illusion of learning
Not learning how important learning is can cause serious damage to the
brain by implanting mental disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. There
for, not teaching the importance of learning should be criminal act. It's
negligent child abuse. Schools need to teach "Learning". Students need to
learn how to ask questions
they need to know how to understand things. The importance of learning
must be fully understood. Please Learn, you have
Nothing to Lose and Everything to Gain
in, then the information is
, and then it's stored
this is done without a procedure. But what if you had a
taken in, and then it would be carefully
and compared to already stored information. Then the
information would be carefully
stored in the right places
so that it can be
. This would all be possible because you now have more
knowledge and more information to analyze all new information coming in,
and you also have a procedure. Brain
Knowing how to Read
is a persons greatest
strength and an extremely important skill to have. Once you can
written languages, and then
that's imbedded within the written language
, and, if you can have
access to the worlds most valuable knowledge
, then your potential is endless, and you can
accomplish almost anything that you want and reach any goal you desire.
The value of your life will be enormous. If you can't read and decipher
language, then learning,
. Don't waste your potential, reading and learning are
responsibilities that should never be taken for granted.
Children Love to Learn
. So it's our job to
make sure that The Love of Learning
never impeded or diminished in any way shape or form.
It's not just knowing the best way to learn something new, but also knowing the best state of
to be in.
The Optimal Learning State
, not starving
and being ready
to learn in a
) Being in the
is the mental state of operation in which a person
is fully immersed
in a feeling of
, full involvement, and
enjoyment in the process of the
. In essence, Flow
is characterized by complete
what one does. Being in the Zone
on what you are doing, so much so, that you are
of all the distractions
happening around you. How the information is
can also affect learning.
and knowing the
Best times to learn
If you're not in the right mind to learn, or you feel
that something is unnecessary to learn, then learning
becomes ineffective. And if the
to you is
, out of
, that also makes learning
ineffective. The bottom line is, "You can learn anything
you put your mind to
, but not everything that you
put your mind to can be learned. There is always a
something new, and there is always a preferred
of learning something
new. Did you ever wonder why you did not learn something? You know you can
learn because you have a memory, so what happened? Maybe the message was
not delivered effectively
not understood effectively, or a little both? Do you need to be
inspired to learn
or just understand the
importance of learning and the process
is your greatest strength, but
your memory can also be your greatest
Learning is not just
about remembering, learning is more about
information and knowledge correctly so
that it is used effectively and efficiently, just
is not enough.
what to Learn and When to Learn
is the branch of psychology concerned with the
scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from
perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in
, cognitive development, affect,
, as well as their role in learning. The field of
educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including
testing and measurement
, to enhance educational activities related to
, classroom management, and
, which serve to
facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the
lifespan. Cognitive Load
Philosophy of Education
examines the definition,
of education. Institutions
can refer either to the
application of philosophy
the problem of education, examining the definition, goals and
, or to any particular vision of or approach to education.
comprises the principles and methods used by teachers
to enable student learning
strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly
by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be
appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic
of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about.
Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must
take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how
students learn. In today's school the trend is that it encourages a lot of
creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through
reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity. The
approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into
centered. In a teacher-centered approach to learning,
are the main
authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as "empty vessels"
whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and
direct instruction) with an end goal of
testing and assessment
. It is the
primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their
students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two
separate entities. Student learning is measured through
and assessments. In Student-Centered Approach to Learning, while teachers
are the authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an
equally active role in the learning process. The teacher's primary role is
student learning and
overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through
both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects,
student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and assessments are
connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher
instruction. Commonly used teaching methods may include class
participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, or combinations of
(indoctrination) - Self-Directed Learning
- Active Learning
further scientific understanding of learning as well as to engage in the
design and implementation of learning innovations, and the improvement of
instructional methodologies. Research in the learning science
traditionally focuses on cognitive-psychological, social-psychological,
and cultural-psychological foundations of human learning, as well as on
the design of learning environments. Implicit Learning
- Rote Learning
Learning with understanding is facilitated when new and
existing knowledge is structured
around the major concepts and principles of the discipline. Learners use
what they already know to construct new understandings. Learning is
facilitated through the use of metacognitive strategies that identify,
monitor, and regulate cognitive processes. Learners have different
strategies, approaches, patterns of abilities, and learning styles that
are a function of the interaction between their heredity and their prior
experiences. Learners’ motivation to learn and sense of self affects what
is learned, how much is learned, and how much effort will be put into the
learning process. The practices and activities in which people engage
while learning shape what is learned.
Learning is enhanced through
socially supported interactions.
is a teaching method that
follows a consistent scientific approach or educational style to engage
the student's mind.
is an emerging
scientific field that brings together researchers in
, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational
psychology, educational technology, education theory and other related
disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and
education. Researchers in educational neuroscience investigate the neural
mechanisms of reading
, numerical cognition,
and their attendant
difficulties including dyslexia, dyscalculia and ADHD as they relate to
education. Researchers in this area may link basic findings in cognitive
neuroscience with educational technology to help in
for mathematics education and reading education. The aim of
educational neuroscience is to generate basic and applied research that
will provide a new transdisciplinary
account of learning and teaching,
which is capable of informing education. A major goal of educational
neuroscience is to bridge the gap between the two fields through a direct
dialogue between researchers and educators, avoiding the "middlemen of the
brain-based learning industry". These middlemen have a vested commercial
interest in the selling of "neuromyths" and their supposed remedies.
Theories about Learning
Learning is your
Path to Power
, but only if you learn which
knowledge, information and skills gives you the
You need to define what
is use this ability in
the most effective and most efficient way possible.
You need to
define the knowledge and information that would increase your
understanding of yourself and the world around you.
You need to
what you are
learning, so that you keep moving forward and continue to increase your
potential. Intelligence Testing
- Personalized Learning
have been given a superpower
but just like all powers
, there are inherent
, so please
use your power wisely
Learn to Learn
Self Directed Learning
- Learning is a skill that you
have to understand if you want learning to be effective. There are many
tools to help humans to transfer Information and knowledge into the brain
Organizing Knowledge Cognitively
is a system of grouping and
categorizing our brain to use, sort and store information. System changes
and adapts as the amount of knowledge about a particular subject changes
is intended to mean that the activity is difficult to learn for some
people. A learning curve with a steep start actually represents rapid progress.
E-Learning - Enhanced Learning using Technology
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning
takes place via
using a computer
through the Internet
is an educational method which
uses computers as interactive
teaching devices, and to orchestrate the
allocation of human and mediated resources according to the
of each learner
is a pedagogical approach that incorporates
and urban computing into course
design and delivery
Interactive Learning has evolved out of the hyper-growth in the use of
, particularly by students.
is capable of acting on or
influencing each other. Social Learning
is a student-centered
teaching method that uses online learning resources
outside the constraints of time and place among a
network of people.
Inquiry Based Learning
starts by posing
—rather than simply
facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge.
is learning material in a
kind of textbook or teaching
or computer. The medium presents the material in a logical and
tested sequence. The text is in small steps or larger chunks. After each
step, learners are given a question to test their comprehension. Then
immediately the correct answer is shown. This means the learner at all
stages makes responses, and is given immediate knowledge of results
Secret to more efficient learning
. Order counts when studying just
about any subject. Children and students of all ages learn better when
seeing an object before hearing its description. Object-Label Learning is
when a student sees an object first and then is provided with the label.
Label-Object Learning is the reverse order in which a student sees a label
Virtual Learning Environment
is a Web-based platform
for the digital aspects of courses of study,
usually within educational institutions. VLEs typically: allow
participants to be organized into cohorts, groups and roles; present
resources, activities and interactions within a course structure; provide
for the different stages of assessment; report on participation; and have
some level of integration with other institutional systems. For those who
edit them VLEs may have a de facto role as authoring and design
environments. VLEs have been adopted by almost all higher education
institutions in the anglosphere.
can refer to an educational approach, cultural
context, or physical setting
in which teaching
and learning occur. The term is commonly used as a more definitive
alternative to "classroom", but it typically refers to the context of
educational philosophy or knowledge experienced
by the student and may also encompass a variety of learning cultures—its
presiding ethos and characteristics, how individuals interact, governing
structures, and philosophy. In a societal sense, learning environment may
refer to the culture of the population it serves and of their location.
are highly diverse in use, learning styles,
organization, and educational institution. The culture and context of a
place or organization includes such factors as a way of thinking,
behaving, or working, also known as organizational culture. For a
such as an educational institution, it also includes such
factors as operational characteristics of the instructors, instructional
group, or institution; the philosophy or knowledge experienced by the
student and may also encompass a variety of learning cultures—its
presiding ethos and characteristics, how individuals interact, governing
structures, and philosophy in learning styles and pedagogies used; and the
societal culture of where the learning is occurring.
Digital Teaching Platform
is the study and ethical practice of
facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and
managing appropriate technological processes and resources.
describes the cognitive science principles of effective
electronic educational technology. The underlying theoretical premise,
cognitive load theory, describes the amount of mental effort that is
related to performing a task as falling into one of three categories:
germane, intrinsic, and extraneous. Germane cognitive load: the mental
effort required to process the task's information, make sense of it, and
access and/or store it in long-term memory (for example, seeing a math
problem, identifying the values and operations involved, and understanding
that your task is to solve the math problem). Intrinsic cognitive load:
the mental effort required to perform the task itself (for example,
actually solving the math problem). Extraneous cognitive load: the mental
effort imposed by the way that the task is delivered, which may or may not
be efficient (for example, finding the math problem you are supposed to
solve on a page that also contains advertisements for books about math).
Reducing extraneous load by eliminating visual and auditory effects and
elements that are not central to the lesson, such as seductive details
(the coherence principle). Reducing germane load by delivering verbal
information through audio presentation (narration) while delivering
relevant visual information through static images or animations (the
modality principle). Controlling intrinsic load by breaking the lesson
into smaller segments and giving learners control over the pace at which
they move forward through the lesson material (the segmenting principle).
Empirically established principles. Multimedia
: Deeper learning is observed when words and relevant
graphics are both presented than when words are presented alone (also
called the multimedia effect). Simply put, the three most common elements
in multimedia presentations are relevant graphics, audio narration, and
explanatory text. Combining any two of these three elements works better
than using just one or all three. Modality
: Deeper learning occurs when graphics are explained by
audio narration instead of onscreen text. Exceptions have been observed
when learners are familiar with the content, are not native speakers of
the narration language, or when only printed words appear on the screen.
Generally speaking, audio narration leads to better learning than the same
words presented as text on the screen. This is especially true for walking
someone through graphics on the screen, and when the material to be
learned is complex or the terminology being used is already understood by
the student (otherwise see "pre-training"). One exception to this is when
the learner will be using the information as a reference and will need to
look back to it again and again. Coherence
: Avoid including graphics, music, narration, and other
content that does not support the learning. This helps focus the learner
on the content they need to learn, and minimizes cognitive load imposed on
memory by irrelevant and possibly distracting content. The less learners
know about the lesson content, the easier it is for them to get distracted
by anything shown that is not directly relevant to the lesson. For
learners with greater prior knowledge, however, some motivational imagery
may increase their interest and learning effectiveness.
: Keep related pieces
of information together. Deeper learning occurs when relevant text (for
example, a label) is placed close to graphics, when spoken words and
graphics are presented at the same time, and when feedback is presented
next to the answer given by the learner.
: Deeper learning occurs when content is broken
into small chunks. Break down long lessons into several shorter lessons.
Break down long text passages into multiple shorter ones.
: The use of visual,
auditory, or temporal cues to draw attention to critical elements of the
lesson. Common techniques include arrows, circles, highlighting or bolding
text, and pausing or vocal emphasis in narration. Ending lesson segments
after the critical information has been given may also serve as a
signalling cue. Learner control principle: Deeper
occurs when learners can control the rate at which they
move forward through segmented content. Learners tend to do best when the
narration stops after a short, meaningful segment of content is given and
the learner has to click a "continue" button in order to start the next
segment. Some research suggests not overwhelming the learner with too many
control options, however. Giving just pause and play buttons may work
better than giving pause, play, fast forward, reverse buttons. Also, high
prior-knowledge learners may learn better when the lesson moves forward
automatically, but they have a pause button that allows them to stop when
they choose to do so. Personalization principle
Deeper learning in multimedia lessons occur when learners experience a
stronger social presence, as when a conversational script or learning
agents are used. The effect is best seen when the tone of voice is casual,
informal, and in a 1st person ("I" or "we") or 2nd person ("you") voice.
For example, of the following two sentences, the second version conveys
more of a casual, informal, conversational tone: A. The learner should
have the sense that someone is talking directly to them when they hear the
narration. B. Your learner should feel like someone is talking directly to
them when they hear your narration. Also, research suggests that using a
polite tone of voice ("You may want to try multiplying both sides of the
equation by 10.") leads to deeper learning for low prior knowledge
learners than does a less polite, more directive tone of voice ("Multiply
both sides of the equation by 10."), but may impair deeper learning in
high prior knowledge learners. Finally, adding pedagogical agents
(computer characters) can help if used to reinforce important content. For
example, have the character narrate the lesson, point out critical
features in on-screen graphics, or visually demonstrate concepts to the
learner. Pre-training principle: Deeper learning occurs when lessons
present key concepts or vocabulary prior to presenting the processes or
procedures related to those concepts. According to Mayer, Mathias, and
Wetzel, "Before presenting a multimedia explanation, make sure learners
visually recognize each major component, can name each component and can
describe the major state changes of each component. In short, make sure
learners build component models before presenting a cause-and-effect
explanation of how a system works." However, others have noted that
including pre-training content appears to be more important for low prior
knowledge learners than for high prior knowledge learners. Redundancy
principle: Deeper learning occurs when lesson graphics are explained by
audio narration alone rather than audio narration and on-screen text. This
effect is stronger when the lesson is fast-paced and the words are
familiar to the learners. Exceptions to this principle include: screens
with no visuals, learners who are not native speakers of the course
language, and placement of only a few key words on the screen (i.e., labelling critical elements of the graphic image). Expertise effect:
Instructional methods, such as those described above, that are helpful to
domain novices or low prior knowledge learners may have no effect or may
even depress learning in high prior knowledge learners. Such principles
may not apply outside of laboratory conditions. For example, Muller found
that adding approximately 50% additional extraneous but interesting
material did not result in any significant difference in learner
performance. There is ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms underlying
these beneficial principles, and on what boundary conditions may apply.
Social-constructivist – this pedagogy is particularly well afforded by the
use of discussion forums, blogs, wiki and online collaborative activities.
It is a collaborative approach that opens educational content creation to
a wider group including the students themselves. The
One Laptop Per Child
attempted to use a constructivist approach in its project. Laurillard's conversational model is also particularly relevant to
eLearning, and Gilly Salmon's Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach
to the use of discussion boards. Cognitive perspective focuses on the
cognitive processes involved in learning as well as how the brain works.
Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like
motivation, engagement, fun, etc. Behavioural perspective focuses on the
skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and
application to on-the-job settings. Contextual perspective focuses on the
environmental and social aspects which can stimulate learning. Interaction
with other people, collaborative discovery and the importance of peer
support as well as pressure. Mode neutral Convergence or promotion of ‘transmodal’
learning where online and classroom learners can coexist within one
learning environment thus encouraging interconnectivity and the harnessing
of collective intelligence. For many theorists, it’s the interaction
between student and teacher and student and student in the online
environment that enhances learning (Mayes and de Freitas 2004). Pask’s
theory that learning occurs through conversations about a subject which in
turn helps to make knowledge explicit has an obvious application to
learning within a VLE.
E-learning Maturity Model
is a model to assess the
capability of electronic educational technology or e-learning processes.
is the study and ethical practice of
and improving performance by creating, using, and
managing appropriate technological processes and resources. Educational
technology is the use of both physical hardware, software, and educational
theoretic to facilitate learning and improve performance by creating,
using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.
This field, which is also called EdTech
, has been described as
a persisting initiative that seeks to bring learners, teacher, and
technical means together in an effective way. In addition to experiential
knowledge drawn from educational practice, educational technology is based
on theoretical knowledge that emerge out of various disciplines such as
communication, education, psychology, sociology, artificial intelligence,
and computer science, among others. It encompasses several domains
including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and
m-learning, where mobile technologies
is the use of
in general content areas in education in order to allow students to apply
computer and technology skills
to learning and problem-solving. Generally
speaking, the curriculum drives the use of technology and not vice versa.
Technology integration is defined as the use of technology to enhance and
support the educational environment. Technology integration in the
classroom can also support classroom instruction by creating opportunities
for students to complete assignments on the computer rather than with
normal pencil and paper. In a larger sense, technology integration can
also refer to the use of an integration platform and APIs in the
management of a school, to integrate disparate SaaS (Software As A
Service) applications, databases, and programs used by an educational
institution so that their data can be shared in real-time across all
systems on campus, thus supporting students' education by improving data
quality and access for faculty and staff.
refers to several concepts that play major
roles in learning, and which have significant relevance in e-learning. is
one of the domains of self-regulation
, and is aligned most closely with
educational aims. Broadly speaking, it refers to learning that is guided
by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic action
(planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a
standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process
of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior. A
self-regulated learner "monitors, directs, and regulates actions toward
goals of information acquisition, expanding expertise, and
self-improvement”. In particular, self-regulated learners are cognizant of
their academic strengths and weaknesses, and they have a repertoire of
strategies they appropriately apply to tackle the day-to-day challenges of
academic tasks. These learners hold incremental beliefs about intelligence
(as opposed to entity, or fixed views of intelligence) and attribute their
successes or failures to factors (e.g., effort expended on a task,
effective use of strategies) within their control. Finally, students who
are self-regulated learners believe that opportunities to take on
challenging tasks, practice their learning, develop a deep understanding
of subject matter, and exert effort will give rise to academic success
(Perry et al., 2006). In part, these characteristics may help to explain
why self-regulated learners usually exhibit a high sense of self-efficacy.
In the educational psychology literature, researchers have linked these
characteristics to success in and beyond school. Self regulated learners
are successful because they control their learning environment. They exert
this control by directing and regulating their own actions toward their
learning goals. Self regulated learning should be used in three different
phases of learning. The first phase is during the initial learning, the
second phase is when troubleshooting a problem encountered during learning
and the third phase is when they are trying to teach others.
Self-regulation from the social cognitive perspective looks at the triadic
interaction among the person (e.g., beliefs about success), his or her
behavior (e.g., engaging in a task), and the environment (e.g., feedback
from a teacher). Zimmerman et al. specified three important
characteristics of self-regulated learning: self-observation (monitoring
one's activities); seen as the most important of these processes.
self-judgment (self-evaluation of one's performance) and self-reactions
(reactions to performance outcomes). To the extent that one accurately
reflects about one's progress towards a learning goal, and appropriately
adjusts the actions to be performed in order to maximize performance and
foreseeable outcome; effectively, at this point one'self has become
self-regulated. During a student's school career the primary goal of
teachers is to produce self-regulated learners by using such theories as
Information Processing Model (IPM). By storing the information into
long-term memory (or a live document like a Runbook) the learner can
retrieve it upon demand and apply to tasks, becoming a self-regulated
learner. Zimmerman suggested that self-regulated learning process better
with three stages. Forethought, learners' preparing work before
performance on their studying; Volitional control, which is also called
"performance control", occurs in the learning process. It involves
learners attention and willpower; Self-reflection, happens in the final
stage when learners review their performance toward final goals. At the
same time, focusing on their learning strategies during the process is
also efficient for their final outcomes. To increase positive attitudes
and academic performance, expert learners should be created. Expert
learners develop self-regulated learning strategies. One of these
strategies is the ability to develop and ask questions and use these
questions to expand on their own prior knowledge. This technique allows
the learners to test the true understanding of their knowledge and make
correction about content areas that have a misunderstanding. When learners
engage in questioning, it forces them to be more actively engaged in their
learning. It also allows them to self analyze and determine their level of
comprehension. This active engagement allows the learner to organize
concepts into existing schemas. Through the use of questions, learners can
accommodate and then assimilate their new knowledge with existing schema.
This process allows the learner to solve novel problems and when the
existing schema does not work on the novel problem the learner must
reevaluate and assess their level of understanding.
Examples of self-regulated learning strategies in
: Self-Assessment: fosters planning, assess what skills the
learner has and what skills are needed. Allows students to internalize
standards of learning so they can regulate their own learning (Laskey &
Hetzel, 2010). Wrapper Activity: activity based on pre-existing learning
or assessment task. This can be done as a homework assignment. Consist of
self-assessment questions to complete before completing homework and then
after completion of homework. This will allow the learner to draw their
own conclusions about the learning process. Think Aloud: This involves the
teacher describing their thought process in solving a problem.
Questioning: Following new material, student develop questions about the
material. Reciprocal Teaching: the learner teaches new material to fellow
(artificial intelligence) -
- Digital Learning
is the chosen route taken by a learner through a
range of e-learning activities, which allows them to build knowledge
progressively. With learning pathways, the control of choice moves away
from the tutor to the learner. For any particular topic, such a pathway
would provide both a theory of instruction and a guideline for teachers
and curriculum developers. A learning pathway is a designated route
through online classes, courses, and other educational programs that is
designed to help someone achieve a learning goal, for example, prepare for
a specific career or update skills. Interactive courseware aids learners
to access information and tools by which they can construct personalized
transitions between the information to be accessed and their own cognitive
structures. The process of navigation enables learners to experience the
content of interactive courseware. Learning pathways also reveal the
learning trails while learners traverse any interactive environment. Since
learners have unique knowledge structures based upon their experiences and
abilities, the ways that they choose to access, interact, and interrelate
messages in interactive courseware also vary. Studies on pathways help us
to explore and explain human behaviors during learning processes".
Learning Path as the ideal sequence of learning activities that drives
employees to reach proficiency in their job in the shortest possible time.
In the Learning Paths methodology a Learning Path is created for the
entire job done by an employee. By looking at learning as a complete
process rather than a single event, a Learning Path enables employers and
employees to find new ways to drive out time, waste and variability in
training which leads to improved results and reduced costs.
Personalized Learning - Tailored Education
is to Tailor
meet the different needs
learning is more than Knowing all the different ways that a person can
learn knowledge and skills, it's more about knowing what you need to learn
and when you need to learn it. Every student needs to
understand their education goals
and understand why certain knowledge and information is extremely valuable
and important. If a person does not understand the
, then they will not have the
motivation to learn
will not perceive the need to retain certain knowledge and information,
because they will not fully understand how to use it and why it's so
important to have. And this happens to almost every student on the planet.
This is the foundation of learning. You need to
see your future
and how your home will be built and how it will look in the future.
And your heart and mind is your home. Do you want a beautiful home? Do you
want an intelligent home? Do you want a sturdy home? Your home will be
what ever you want your home to be as long as you put in the work and the
investment that's needed to build your home. Students can only have a
future if they are given the necessary knowledge and information that's
needed in order to reach that future. Personalized learning is also about
having the freedom to learn in your own time and
learning at your own pace
. Having the ability to choose the best
time to learn new knowledge and having the ability to adjust the speed at
which you learn new knowledge, will benefit you in many ways. When schools
restrict your freedom to choose what learning time and speed is best for
you, then learning will not be as effective as it can be. And when schools
restrict your freedom to choose what you need to learn, then that too will
also cause learning to be ineffective.
Personalized Learning is more
like a personalized journey
Your learning how to learn and learning how you like to travel physically
and mentally. Whether you travel by vehicle, car, plane, boat, bicycle or
foot, a person will like to learn in a way that is the most enjoyable to
them, and also be the most effective and the most efficient way to learn.
This way every person will always have time to enjoy life. In order to
have a good life you need to learn how to acquire a good life. Learning is
about building up time and energy that's needed for living. If a student
is not happy about what they're learning, then they need to know why. Is
it the right time to learn this? What is the incentive and motivation to
learn this? Every student must be a self directing learning machine that
can solve problems and make changes on their own, and also manage
themselves effectively and efficiently. If a student does not understand
the responsibility of learning, then they will not understand a lot of
things and they will never reach their full potential. This is why every
student must see and understand
their education as a whole
, and not just the parts. To live with
purpose you have to learn with purpose. Know your
is selecting the best way of doing something using various
styles or ideas that are composed of different elements drawn from various
is teaching that involves providing all
students within their diverse classroom community of learners
a range of different avenues for understanding new
(often in the same classroom) in terms of: acquiring
content; processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and
developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students
within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in
ability. Students vary in culture, socioeconomic status, language, gender,
motivation, ability/disability, personal interests and more, and
teachers must be aware of these varieties as they
. By considering varied learning needs, teachers can
develop personalized instruction so that all children in the classroom can
learn effectively. Differentiated classrooms have also been described as
ones that respond to student variety in readiness levels, interests and
learning profiles. It is a classroom that includes all students and can be
successful. To do this, a teacher sets different expectations for task
completion for students based upon their individual needs. By
instructing through multiple learning pathways, more "dendritic pathways
of access" are created. This can be achieved by using several senses (i.e.
sight, sound, smell) or by creating cross-curricular connections. When
more regions of the brain store data about a subject, there is
more interconnection and cross-referencing of
data from multiple storage areas
in response to a single cue, meaning
one has learned rather than memorized.
Computerized Adaptive Testing
is a form of computer-based test that
to the examinee's
ability level. For this reason, it has also been called
. In other words, it is a
form of computer-administered test in which the next item or set of items
selected to be administered depends on the correctness of the test taker's
responses to the most recent items administered.
is a method of language education that combines
various approaches and methodologies to teach language depending on the
aims of the lesson and the abilities of the learners. Different teaching
methods are borrowed and adapted to suit the requirement of the learners.
It breaks the monotony of the class. In addition, It is a conceptual
approach that does not merely include one paradigm or a set of
assumptions. Instead, eclecticism adheres to or is constituted from
several theories, styles, and ideas in order to gain a thorough insight
about the subject, and draws upon different theories in different cases.
‘Eclecticism’ is common in many fields of study such as psychology,
martial arts, philosophy, teaching, religion and drama.
aims to develop
learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the
learning path in the hands of students.
High Performing Students
refers to learning that
is guided by metacognition (thinking about one's thinking), strategic
action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a
standard), and motivation to learn. "Self-regulated" describes a process
of taking control of and evaluating one's own learning and behavior.
measures the correctness of a learner's
knowledge and confidence in that knowledge. It is designed to increase
retention and minimize the effects of guessing
which can skew the results of traditional single-score assessments. It
distinguishes between what individuals think and actually know. The
measurement allows creating a customized learning
plan for each learner
. The process, similar to quality improvement
processes such as Six Sigma, continues until the learner achieves total
mastery – defined as validly achieving confidence and correctness for 100%
of the content twice in a row. Mastery leads to putting the knowledge into
is a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part
through delivery of content and instruction via digital and online media
with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace.
is a learning
process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the
support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs
of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her
learning goals. Instructional scaffolding is the provision of sufficient
support to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first
introduced to students. There are three essential features of scaffolding
that facilitate learning. The first feature has to do with the interaction
between the learner and the expert. This interaction should be
collaborative for it to be effective. The second, learning should take
place in the learner's zone of proximal development. To do that the expert
needs to be aware of the learner's current level of knowledge and then
work to a certain extent beyond that level. The third feature of
scaffolding is that the scaffold, the support and guidance provided by the
expert, is gradually removed as the learner becomes more proficient. These
supports are gradually removed as students develop autonomous learning
strategies, thus promoting their own cognitive, affective and psychomotor
learning skills and knowledge. Teachers help the students master a task or
a concept by providing support. The support can take many forms such as
outlines, recommended documents, storyboards, or key questions. The
support and guidance provided to the learner is compared to the scaffolds
in building construction where the scaffolds provide both "adjustable and
temporal" support to the building under construction. The support and
guidance provided to learners facilitate internalization of the knowledge
needed to complete the task. This support is weaned gradually until the
learner is independent. For
to be effective teachers need to pay attention to the
following: The selection of the learning task: The task should ensure that
learners use the developing skills that need to be mastered. The task
should also be engaging and interesting to keep learners involved. The
anticipation of errors: After choosing the task, the teacher needs to
anticipate errors the learners are likely to commit when working on the
task. Anticipation of errors enables the scaffolder to properly guide the
learners away from ineffective directions. The application of scaffolds
during the learning task: Scaffolds could be organized in "simple skill
acquisition or they may be dynamic and generative". The consideration of
emotive or affective factors: Scaffolding is not limited to a cognitive
skill but it also relates to emotive and affect factors. During the task
the scaffolder (expert) might need to manage and control for frustration
and loss of interest that could be experienced by the learner.
Encouragement is also an important scaffolding strategy.
is a software environment to help
promote students' understanding of metacognitive skills and to reinforce
river ecosystem knowledge as part of a science curriculum. It is a
qualitative constraint system, using node-link diagrams to represent
models for teaching complex scientific and engineering domains in high
school. The system specifically focuses on reinforcing so called
self-regulatory skills that promote both self monitoring and self
assessment as one might expect of an independent learner.
Active Learning - Engaged - Involved
is a teaching method that
strives to directly involve students
. Active Learning is a
form of learning in which teaching strives to involve students in the
more directly than in other methods. principles of active
: the relevance of the
task to the students' concerns. Reflective
students' reflection on the meaning of what is learned.
: negotiation of goals and
methods of learning between students and teachers.
: students appreciate different ways and means of learning
the content. Complex
: students compare
learning tasks with complexities existing in real life and making
reflective analysis. Situation-driven
need of the situation is considered in order to establish learning tasks.
: real life tasks are reflected in
the activities conducted for learning. Active learning requires
appropriate learning environments through the implementation of correct
strategy. Characteristics of learning environment
: Aligned with constructivist strategies and evolved from
traditional philosophies. Promoting research based learning through
investigation and contains authentic scholarly content. Encouraging
leadership skills of the students through self-development activities.
Creating atmosphere suitable for collaborative learning for building
knowledgeable learning communities. Cultivating a dynamic environment
through interdisciplinary learning and generating high-profile activities
for a better learning experience
. Integration of prior with new knowledge
to incur a rich structure of knowledge among the students. Task-based
performance enhancement by giving the students a realistic practical sense
of the subject matter learnt in the classroom.
Maxim I: Think it
1. Evoking deep processing: extending thinking beyond “face
value” of information (Craig et al., 2006; Craik & Lockhart, 1972).
Using desirable difficulty: ensuring that the activity is neither too easy
nor too hard (Bjork, 1988, 1999; VanLehn et al., 2007).
the generation effect: requiring recall of relevant information (Butler &
Roediger, 2007; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006).
4. Engaging in deliberate
practice: promoting practice focused on learning from errors (Brown,
Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014; Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Romer, 1993).
Using interleaving: intermixing different problem types.
dual coding: presenting information both verbally and visually (Kosslyn,
1994; Mayer, 2001; Moreno & Valdez, 2005).
7. Evoking emotion:
generating feelings to enhance recall (Erk et al., 2003; Levine & Pizarro,
2004; McGaugh, 2003, 2004).
Maxim II: Make and Use Associations.
Promoting chunking: collecting information into organized units (Brown,
Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014; Mayer & Moreno, 2003).
9. Building on prior
associations: connecting new information to previously stored information
(Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Glenberg & Robertson, 1999; Mayer,
10. Presenting foundational material first: providing basic
information as a structural “spine” onto which new information can be
attached (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Wandersee, Mintzes, & Novak,
11. Exploiting appropriate examples: offering examples of the
same idea in multiple contexts (Hakel & Halpern, 2005)
12. Relying on
principles, not rote: explicitly characterizing the dimensions, factors or
mechanisms that underlie a phenomenon (Kozma & Russell, 1997; Bransford,
Brown, & Cocking, 2000)
13. Creating associative chaining: sequencing
chunks of information into stories (Bower & Clark, 1969; Graeser, Olde, &
14. Using spaced practice: spreading learning out over
time (Brown, Roediger, & McDaniel, 2014; Cepeda et al., 2006, 2008; Cull,
15. Establishing different contexts: associating material with a
variety of settings (Hakel & Halpern, 2005; Van Merrienboer et al., 2006)
16. Avoiding interference: incorporating distinctive retrieval cues to
avoid confusion (Adams, 1967; Anderson & Neely, 1996).
typically draws on combinations of these principles. For example, a
well-run debate will draw on virtually all, with the exceptions of dual
coding, interleaving, and spaced practice. In contrast, passively
listening to a lecture rarely draws on any.
Examples of "active learning" activities include
: A class
discussion may be held in person or in an online environment. Discussions
can be conducted with any class size, although it is typically more
effective in smaller group settings. This environment allows for
instructor guidance of the learning experience. Discussion requires the
learners to think critically on the subject matter and use logic to
evaluate their and others' positions. As learners are expected to discuss
material constructively and intelligently, a discussion is a good
follow-up activity given the unit has been sufficiently covered already.
Some of the benefits of using discussion as a method of learning are that
it helps students explore a diversity of perspectives, it increases
intellectual agility, it shows respect for students’ voices and
experiences, it develops habits of collaborative learning, it helps
students develop skills of synthesis and integration (Brookfield 2005). In
addition, by having the teacher actively engage with the students, it
allows for them to come to class better prepared and aware of what is
taking place in the classroom. A think-pair-share activity is when
learners take a minute to ponder the previous lesson, later to discuss it
with one or more of their peers, finally to share it with the class as
part of a formal discussion. It is during this formal discussion that the
instructor should clarify misconceptions. However students need a
background in the subject matter to converse in a meaningful way.
Therefore, a "think-pair-share" exercise is useful in situations where
learners can identify and relate what they already know to others. So
preparation is key. Prepare learners with sound instruction before
expecting them to discuss it on their own. If properly implemented, it
saves instructor time, keeps students prepared, helps students to get more
involved in class discussion and participation and provide cumulative
assessment of student progress. The "think-pair-share" method is useful
for teachers to hear from all students even those who are quiet in class.
This teaching method functions as a great way for all the students in the
class to get involved and learn to work together and feel comfortable
sharing ideas. It can also help teachers or instructors to observe
students and see if they understand the material being discussed. This is
not a good strategy to use in large classes because of time and logistical
constraints (Bonwell and Eison, 1991). Think-pair-share is helpful for the
instructor as it enables organizing content and tracking students on where
they are relative to the topic being discussed in class, saves time so
that he/she can move to other topics, helps to make the class more
interactive, provides opportunities for students to interact with each
other (Radhakrishna, Ewing, and Chikthimmah, 2012). A learning cell is an
effective way for a pair of students to study and learn together. The
learning cell was developed by Marcel Goldschmid of the Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology in Lausanne (Goldschmid, 1971). A learning cell is
a process of learning where two students alternate asking and answering
questions on commonly read materials. To prepare for the assignment, the
students read the assignment and write down questions that they have about
the reading. At the next class meeting, the teacher randomly puts students
in pairs. The process begins by designating one student from each group to
begin by asking one of their questions to the other. Once the two students
discuss the question, the other student ask a question and they alternate
accordingly. During this time, the teacher goes from group to group giving
feedback and answering questions. This system is also called a student
dyad. A short written exercise that is often used is the "one-minute
paper." This is a good way to review materials and provide feedback.
However a "one-minute paper" does not take one minute and for students to
concisely summarize it is suggested that they have at least 10 minutes to
work on this exercise. A collaborative learning group is a
successful way to learn different material for different classes. It is
where you assign students in groups of 3-6 people and they are given an
assignment or task to work on together. This assignment could be either to
answer a question to present to the entire class or a project. Make sure
that the students in the group choose a leader and a note-taker to keep
them on track with the process. This is a good example of active learning
because it causes the students to review the work that is being required
at an earlier time to participate. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active
Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) To
create participation and draw on the wisdom of all the learners the
classroom arrangement needs to be flexible seating to allow for the
creation of small groups. (Bens, 2005). A student debate is an active way
for students to learn because they allow students the chance to take a
position and gather information to support their view and explain it to
others. These debates not only give the student a chance to participate in
a fun activity but it also lets them gain some experience with giving a
verbal presentation. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal,
IL. Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) A reaction to a video is
also an example of active learning because most students love to watch
movies. The video helps the student to understand what they are learning
at the time in an alternative presentation mode. Make sure that the video
relates to the topic that they are studying at the moment. Try to include
a few questions before you start the video so they pay more attention and
notice where to focus at during the video. After the video is complete
divide the students either into groups or pairs so that they may discuss
what they learned and write a review or reaction to the movie. (McKinney,
Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL. Center for Teaching,
Learning & Technology.) A small group discussion is also an example of
active learning because it allows students to express themselves in the
classroom. It is more likely for students to participate in small group
discussions than in a normal classroom lecture because they are in a more
comfortable setting amongst their peers, and from a sheer numbers
perspective, by dividing the students up more students get opportunities
to speak out. There are so many different ways a teacher can implement
small group discussion in to the class, such as making a game out of it, a
competition, or an assignment. Statistics show that small group
discussions is more beneficial to students than large group discussions
when it comes to participation, expressing thoughts, understanding issues,
applying issues, and overall status of knowledge. Just-in-time teaching
promotes active learning by using pre-class questions to create common
ground among students and teachers before the class period begins. These
warmup exercises are generally open ended questions designed to encourage
students to prepare for class and to elicit student's thoughts on learning
goals. A class game is also considered an energetic way to learn because
it not only helps the students to review the course material before a big
exam but it helps them to enjoy learning about a topic. Different games
such as Jeopardy! and crossword puzzles always seem to get the students'
minds going. (McKinney, Kathleen. (2010). Active Learning. Normal, IL.
Center for Teaching, Learning & Technology.) Learning by teaching is also
an example of active learning because students actively research a topic
and prepare the information so that they can teach it to the class. This
helps students learn their own topic even better and sometimes students
learn and communicate better with their peers than their teachers. Gallery
Walk is also an example of active learning where students in groups move
around the classroom or workshop actively engaging in discussions and
contributing to other groups and finally constructing knowledge on a topic
and sharing it.
is an approach to
. It involves taking action
and reflecting upon the results. This helps improve the problem-solving
process as well as simplify the solutions developed by the team. Since
action learning has proven to be very effective in developing a number of
individual leadership and team problem-solving skills, it has become a
component in corporate and organizational leadership development programs.
This strategy is different from the "one size fits all" curriculum that is
characteristic of many training and development programs. Confucius once
said, "I hear and I forget; I see and I remember; I do and I understand,"
and action learning is a cycle of doing and reflecting.
is the ability to reflect on
so as to engage in a process of
is a form of active learning that starts by
problems or scenarios. It contrasts with traditional education, which
generally relies on the teacher presenting facts and their own knowledge
about the subject. Inquiry-based learning is often
assisted by a facilitator
rather than a
. Inquirers will identify
and research issues and questions to develop knowledge or solutions.
Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally
used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research. The
inquiry-based instruction is principally very closely related to the
development and practice of thinking and problem solving skills.
is an approach to education
that draws on positive psychology's
to promote learning. Unlike traditional school
approaches in which teachers attempt to tailor their material
mythical "average" student, and move the class altogether using the
material through one teaching and testing style,
teachers use techniques that focus on the well-being of individual
. Teachers use methods such as developing
student to engaged learning
and working with them to
develop the plans
to reach their goals. Rather than pushing students to
achieve at a set grade level, seen through the emphasis of standardized
testing, this approach attempts to customize learning goals
students' levels. Instead of setting students to compete against one
another, learning is viewed as a cooperative process
where teachers learn
to respect their students and each student's input is valued.
- Problem Based Learning
Response to Intervention
is an approach to
academic and behavioral intervention
used in the United States to provide
early, systematic, and appropriately intensive assistance to children who
are at risk for or already underperforming as compared to appropriate
grade- or age-level standards. RTI seeks to prevent academic and
behavioral failure through universal screening, early intervention,
frequent progress monitoring, and increasingly intensive research-based
instruction or interventions for children who continue to have difficulty.
RTI is a multileveled approach for aiding students that is adjusted and modified as needed.
Response to intervention
Self Directed Learning
- Learning Procedure
is an inquiry-based form of learning, or
pedagogy, that is based on integration of design thinking and the design
process into the classroom at the K-12 and post-secondary levels. The
design process is an iterative process that has a variety of sequential
steps: Investigate context. Identify needs. Develop criteria. Generate
alternatives. Select alternative. Prototype/test. Produce. Evaluate. A
similar approach is the ADDIE Model of instructional design, a framework
of generic processes used by instructional designers and training
developers. It represents a descriptive guideline with five distinct
phases: Analysis. Design. Development. Implementation. Evaluation.
Social Learning - Group Learning - Collaborative
is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.
Collaborative Information Seeking
is a field of
research that involves studying situations, motivations, and methods for
people working in collaborative groups
for information seeking projects,
as well as building systems for supporting such activities. Such projects
often involve information searching
. Beyond that, CIS can
extend to collaborative information synthesis and
Collaborative Problem Solving
- Crowd Learning
Social Learning Theory
is a cognitive process
that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through
observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor
reproduction or direct reinforcement. Social Learning
is a process of developing
and maintaining connections with people
in such a way so as to support one another's learning
. The central term in
this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which
learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to
is an educational practice in which
with other students
to attain educational goals." In this context, it can
be compared to the practices that go by the name cooperative learning.
Peers can inspire more people to learn than teachers do.
On the Job Training
is a form of
that usually takes place
between a person who has lived through a specific experience (peer mentor)
and a person who is new to that experience (the peer mentee).
is given by
one student to another
to provide students more
opportunities to learn from each other. Two or more students work together
to check each other's work and give comments to the peer partner. Comments
from peers are called as peer feedback. Peer feedback can be in the form
of corrections, opinions, suggestions, ideas to each other. Thus, peer
feedback is a two-way process in which one cooperates with the other.
Learning by Observation reduces Cognitive Bias
. Research suggests that
observing others' decision-making
can teach people to make better
themselves. The research tested the effectiveness of a new
training strategy and
reports first evidence that watching others make decisions can improve our
own decision making.
is an instructional activity that takes the form
of a dialogue
teachers and students
regarding segments of text for
the purpose of constructing the meaning of text. Reciprocal teaching is a
reading technique which is thought to promote students' reading
comprehension. A reciprocal
approach provides students with four specific
reading strategies that are actively and consciously used to support
comprehension: Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing, and Predicting. Palincsar (1986) believes the purpose of reciprocal teaching is to
facilitate a group effort between teacher and students as well as among
students in the task of bringing meaning to the text. Reciprocal teaching
is best represented as a dialogue between teachers and students in
which participants take turns assuming the role of teacher. Reciprocal
teaching is most effective in the context of small-group collaborative
investigation, which is maintained by the teacher or reading tutor.
Learning by Teaching
is a method of teaching in which students are
made to learn material and prepare lessons to teach it to the other
students. There is a strong emphasis on acquisition of life skills along
with the subject matter. After preparation by the teacher, students become
responsible for their own learning and teaching. The new material is
divided into small units and student groups of not more than three people
are formed. Students are then encouraged to experiment to find ways to
teach the material to the others. Along with ensuring that students learn
the material, another goal of the method, is to teach students life skills
like respect for other people, planning, problem solving, taking chances
in public, and communication skills. The teacher remains actively
involved, stepping in to further explain or provide support if the
teaching-students falter or the learning-students do not seem to
understand the material. The method is distinct from tutoring in that LdL
is done in class, supported by the teacher, and distinct from student
teaching, which is a part of teacher education.
is a process whereby students or their peers
or tests based
on a teacher’s benchmarks
. The practice
is employed to save teachers time and improve students' understanding of
course materials as well as improve their metacognitive skills.
are often used in
conjunction with Self- and Peer-Assessment
is an approach to Health
, in which Community Members
are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their
education is the teaching or sharing of health information, values and
behavior in educating others who may share similar social backgrounds or
life experiences. Rather than Health
educating members of
the public, the idea behind peer education is that ordinary lay people are
in the best position to encourage healthy behaviour to each other.
refers to a model wherein
spend most or all of their time with non-special (general education) needs
students. Inclusive education means different and
learning side by
side in the same classroom. They enjoy field trips and after-school
activities together. They participate in student government together. And
they attend the same sports meets and plays.
Community Learning Methods
Personal Learning Network
is an informal
learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and
derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a
person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent
that some type of learning will occur because of that connection.
is a process of developing
and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating
in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in
this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which
learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to
Open Study - Social Studying
is an educational approach that
combines learning objectives with community service in order to provide a
pragmatic, progressive learning experience while meeting societal needs.
Experience Learning - Problem Based Learning
a person gets by
doing something themselves
is learning through actions.
and a method used to
increase your understanding of yourself and the world around you.
- Real Life Examples
On the Job Training
is the process of
learning through experience
, and is more specifically defined as "learning
through reflection on doing".
People don't always Experience the Same Thing in the Same Way
instruction to real-world applications that gives meaning to learning,
makes it practical, and can help to develop connections with the greater
becomes more authentic to students because they will be able to
connect the learning to the bigger picture
than just the classroom. Students construct meaning and produce knowledge,
students use disciplined inquiry to construct meaning, and students aim
their work toward production of discourse, products, and performances that
have value or meaning beyond success in school.
builds on the concept of
“learning by doing
” to increase a student’s engagement. To succeed, this
method needs to have meaning or value to the student, embody in-depth
is the ability to reflect on
an action so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According
to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical
values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice
reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key
rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not
necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is
an active process
in which learners are active sense
makers who seek to build coherent and organized knowledge.”Students
co-construct their learning, with the teacher serving as a guide or
facilitator (oftentimes using technology as a facilitating tool). The
teacher doesn’t function in a purely didactic manner. Constructivism helps
students develop problem-solving skills, critical thinking and creative
skills and apply them in meaningful ways.
a type of constructivist learning, has students identify real world
problems and then pose and find answers to their own questions.
is when learners construct
mental models to understand the world around them
advocates student-centered, discovery learning where students use
information they already know to acquire more knowledge. Students learn
through participation in project-based learning where they make
connections between different ideas and areas of knowledge facilitated by
the teacher through coaching rather than using lectures or step-by-step
guidance. Further, constructionism holds that learning can happen most
effectively when people are active in making tangible objects in the real
world. In this sense, constructionism is connected with experiential
learning and builds on Jean Piaget's epistemological theory of
constructivism. Constructionist learning involves students drawing their
own conclusions through creative experimentation and the making of social
objects. Instead of having students memorize geography facts, a teacher
could give students blank maps that show unlabeled rivers, lakes, and
mountains, and then ask the students to decipher where major cities might
be located without the help of books or maps. This would require students
to locate these areas without using prepared resources, but their prior
knowledge and reasoning ability instead.
is a constructionist method which allows
students to learn about a subject by exposing them to multiple problems
and asking them to construct their understanding of the subject through
these problems. This kind of learning can be very effective in mathematics
classes because students try to solve the problems in many different ways,
stimulating their minds. The following five strategies make problem-based
learning more effective: The learning activities should be related to a
larger task. The larger task is important because it allows students to
see that the activities can be applied to many aspects of life and, as a
result, students are more likely to find the activities they are doing
useful. The learner needs to be supported to feel that they are beginning
to have ownership of the overall problem. An authentic task should be
designed for the learner. This means that the task and the learner's
cognitive ability have to match the problems to make learning valuable.
Reflection on the content being learned should occur so that learners can
think through the process of what they have learned. Allow and encourage
the learners to test ideas against different views in different contexts.
is a student-centered pedagogy in which
students learn about a subject through the experience
of solving an
open-ended problem. Students learn both thinking strategies and domain
(real life examples).
Learner-driven self-identified goals and outcomes.
Students do independent, self-directed study before returning to
larger group. Learning is done in small groups of 8–10 people, with a
tutor to facilitate discussion. Trigger materials such as paper-based
clinical scenarios, lab data, photographs, articles or videos or patients
(real or simulated) can be used. The Maastricht 7-jump process helps to
guide the PBL tutorial process. Based on principles of adult learning
theory. All members of the group have a role to play. Allows for knowledge
acquisition through combined work and intellect. Enhances teamwork and
communication, problem-solving and encourages independent responsibility
for shared learning - all essential skills for future practice. Anyone can
do it as long it is right depending on the given causes and scenario.
Learning from Mistakes
Project Based Learning
is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach
in which students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of
real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by
working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a
complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning
and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote
memorization, or teacher-led instruction that simply presents established
facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions,
problems or scenarios.
is a technique of inquiry-based learning and is
considered a constructivist based approach to education. It is also
referred to as problem-based learning, experiential learning and 21st
is a multidisciplinary, constructivist form
of learning or pedagogy where students study a topic or concept in a
holistic approach instead of in a subject-based approach.
bases each part of an
educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational
experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single
specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes,
opportunities, and assessments should all help students achieve the
specified outcomes. The role of the faculty adapts into instructor,
trainer, facilitator, and/or mentor based on the outcomes targeted.
Outcomes Driven Model.
usually refers to organized
learning that takes place in
act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Experience Sampling Method
is when a person
stops at certain times and make notes of their experience in real time.
The point is for them to record temporal things like feelings while in the
moment (right then, not later; right there, not elsewhere).
includes various structured learning situations
which do not either have the level of curriculum, syllabus, accreditation
and certification associated with 'formal learning', but have more
structure than that associated with 'informal learning', which typically
take place naturally and spontaneously as part of other activities. These
form the three styles of learning recognised and supported by the OECD.
Examples of non-formal learning include swimming sessions for toddlers,
community-based sports programs, and programs developed by organisations
such as the Boy Scouts, the Girl Guides, community or non-credit adult
education courses, sports or fitness programs, professional conference
style seminars, and continuing professional development. The learner's
objectives may be to increase skills and knowledge, as well as to
experience the emotional rewards associated with increased love for a
subject or increased passion for learning.
differs from standard
supervised learning in that correct input/output pairs are never
presented, nor sub-optimal actions explicitly corrected. Further, there is
a focus on on-line performance, which involves finding a balance between
exploration (of uncharted territory) and exploitation (of current
is the dependency of human conduct, learning, or performance
on prior experience. Educational transfer of learning involves one's own
transferring of knowledge and skills from one problem solving situation to
"I remember the experiences in my life more then the thoughts and ideas
that I had. I remember the class experiences that I had more then I
remember the tests that I took. You see, experience is a stronger memory.
We need to combine tests with experience."
is knowledge gained
, as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge:
it can also be contrasted both with propositional (textbook) knowledge,
and with practical knowledge.
describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that
infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content.
Experience Curve Effects
relationship between equations for
and efficiency or between
efficiency gains and investment in the effort.
is the knowledge or
event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Kids want to know things and learn about things
and they also want to experience things. And kids want to experience
things that other people experienced, they want to be that person. A
person may be envious
jealous of them so they want experience more than the other person did so
they will not feel inadequate
or left out. People like to prove that they are special too. Some people
want others to envy them and to be jealous of their success. But this is
illogical behavior and an unhealthy form of competition that degrades
society and degrades relationships. Don't have experiences for the wrong
is a unit of measurement used in many tabletop
and role-playing video games to quantify a player character's progression
through the game. Experience points are generally awarded for the
completion of quests, overcoming obstacles and opponents, and for
theory which believes that all
is the experience that can accumulate the most knowledge).
errors are not necessary for
learning to occur
. Errors are not a function of learning or vice versa
nor are they blamed on the learner. Errors are a function of poor analysis
of behavior, a poorly designed shaping program, moving too fast from step
to step in the program, and the lack of the prerequisite behavior
necessary for success in the program." Errorless learning can also be
understood at a synaptic level, using the principle of Hebbian learning,
which says Neurons that fire together wire
is a style in which a learner
utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams.
is the phenomenon of thinking
through visual processing. Described as seeing words as a series of
sequence of steps that information takes as it flows from visual sensors
to cognitive processing.
is a concept of how people learn from experience. A
learning cycle will have a number of stages or phases, the last of which
can be followed by the first. In 1933, John Dewey described five phases or
aspects of reflective thought: In between, as states of thinking, are (1)
suggestions, in which the mind leaps forward to a possible solution; (2)
an intellectualization of the difficulty or perplexity that has been felt
(directly experienced) into a problem to be solved, a question for which
the answer must be sought; (3) the use of one suggestion after another as
a leading idea, or hypothesis, to initiate and guide observation and other
operations in the collection of factual material; (4) the mental
elaboration of the idea or supposition as an idea or supposition
(reasoning, in the sense in which reasoning is a part, not the whole of
inference); and (5) testing the hypothesis by overt or imaginative action.
John Dewey, How We Think, 1933. In the 1940s, Kurt Lewin developed action
research and described a cycle of: Planning, Action, Fact finding, about
the result of the action. In the early 1970s, David A. Kolb and Ronald E.
Fry developed the experiential learning model (ELM), composed of four
elements: Concrete experience, Observation of and reflection on that
experience, Formation of abstract concepts based upon the reflection,
Testing the new concepts, Testing the new concepts gives concrete
experience which can be observed and reflected upon, allowing the cycle to
continue. Peter Honey and Alan Mumford developed Kolb and Fry's ideas into
slightly different learning cycle. The stages are: Doing something, having
an experience, Reflecting on the experience, Concluding from the
experience, developing a theory, Planning the next steps, to apply or test
the theory. While the cycle can be entered at any of the four stages, a
cycle must be completed to give learning that will change behaviour. The
cycle can be performed multiple times to build up layers of learning. The
5E learning cycle was developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study,
specifically for use in teaching science. The learning cycle has four
phases: Engage, in which a student's interest is captured and the topic is
established. Explore, in which the student is allowed to construct
knowledge in the topic through facilitated questioning and observation.
Explain, in which students are asked to explain what they have discovered,
and the instructor leads a discussion of the topic to refine the students'
understanding. Extend, in which students are asked to apply what they have
learned in different but similar situations, and the instructor guides the
students toward the next discussion topic. The fifth E stands for
Evaluate; in which the instructor observes each student's knowledge and
understanding, and leads students to assess whether what they have learned
is true. Evaluation should take place throughout the cycle, not within its
own set phase. In the 1990s, Alistair Smith developed the Accelerated
Learning Cycle, also for use in teaching. The phases are: Create the
supportive learning environment - safe but stimulating. Connect the
learning - useful knowledge we already have. Give the big picture.
Describe the learning outcomes we want to achieve. Input - new information
to enable the activity. Activity. Demonstrate the findings of the
activity. Review for recall and retention. Unlike other learning cycles,
step 8 is normally followed by step 2, rather than step 1. In the 2000s,
Fred Korthagen and Angelo Vasalos (and others) developed the ALACT model,
specifically for use in personal development. The five phases of the ALACT
cycle are: Action, Looking back on the action, Aspects of essential
awareness, Creating alternative methods of action, Trial. As with Kolb and
Fry, trial is an action that can be looked back on. Korthagen and Vasalos
listed coaching interventions for each phase and described "levels of
reflection" inspired by Gregory Bateson's hierarchy of logical types. In
2010, they connected their model of reflective learning to the practice of
mindfulness and to Otto Scharmer's Theory U, which, in contrast to a
learning cycle, emphasizes reflecting on a desired future rather than on
entails the modification of goals or
decision-making rules in the light of experience. The first loop uses the
goals or decision-making rules, the second loop enables their
modification, hence "double-loop". Double-loop learning recognizes that
the way a problem is defined and solved can be a source of the problem.
This type of learning can be useful in organizational learning since it
can drive creativity and innovation, going beyond adapting to change to
anticipating or being ahead of change. Double-loop learning is contrasted
with "single-loop learning": the repeated attempt at the same problem,
with no variation of method and without ever questioning the goal.
Double-loop learning is used when it is necessary to change the mental
model on which a decision depends. Unlike single loops, this model
includes a shift in understanding, from simple and static to broader and
more dynamic, such as taking into account the changes in the surroundings
and the need for expression changes in mental models. It is required if
the problem or mismatch that starts the organizational learning process
cannot be addressed by small adjustments because it involves the
organization's governing variables. Organizational learning in such cases
occurs when the diagnosis and intervention produce changes in the
underlying policies, assumptions, and goals. According to Argyris, many
organizations resist double-loop learning due to a number of variables
such as resistance to change, fear of failure, and overemphasis on
is a unit of progress process and describes
learnings generated by trying out an initial idea and then measuring it
against potential customers to validate the effect. Each test of an idea
is a single iteration in a larger process of many iterations whereby
something is learnt and then applied to succeeding tests. Typical steps in
validated learning: Specify a goal, Specify a metric that represents the
goal, Act to achieve the goal, Analyze the metric – did you get closer to
the goal? Improve and try again.
is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as
to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition
it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and
theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively
and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight". A key rationale for
reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to
learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential. Gibbs presents
the stages of a full structured debriefing as follows: (Initial
. "What happened?
Don't make judgments yet or try to draw conclusions; simply describe."
. "What were your reactions and
feelings? Again don't move on to analyzing these yet."
. "What was good or bad about the
experience? Make value judgments." Analysis
"What sense can you make of the situation? Bring in ideas from outside the
experience to help you." "What was really going on?" "Were different
people's experiences similar or different in important ways?"
(general). "What can be
concluded, in a general sense, from these experiences and the analyses you
have undertaken?" Conclusions (specific). "What can be concluded about
your own specific, unique, personal situation or way of working?"
Personal action plans
. "What are you going
to do differently in this type of situation next time?" "What steps are
you going to take on the basis of what you have learnt?" Gibbs'
suggestions are often cited as "Gibbs' reflective cycle" or "Gibbs' model
of reflection", and simplified into the following six distinct stages to
assist in structuring reflection on learning experiences: Description,
Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusions, Action plan. Benefits to
reflective practice include: Increased learning from an experience or
situation. Promotion of deep learning. Identification of personal and
professional strengths and areas for improvement. Identification of
educational needs. Acquisition of new knowledge and skills. Further
understanding of own beliefs, attitudes and values. Encouragement of
self-motivation and self-directed learning. Could act as a source of
feedback. Possible improvements of personal and clinical confidence.
Limitations to reflective practice include
Not all practitioners may understand the reflective process. May feel
uncomfortable challenging and evaluating own practice. Could be
time-consuming. May have confusion as to which situations/experiences to
reflect upon. May not be adequate to resolve clinical problems. David
Somerville and June Keeling suggested eight simple ways that professionals
can practice more reflectively: Seek feedback: Ask "Can you give me some
feedback on what I did?" Ask yourself "What have I learnt today?" and ask
others "What have you learnt today?" Value personal strengths: Identify
positive accomplishments and areas for growth. View experiences
objectively: Imagine the situation is on stage and you are in the
audience. Empathize: Say out loud what you imagine the other person is
experiencing. Keep a journal: Record your thoughts, feelings and future
plans; look for emerging patterns. Plan for the future: Plan changes in
behavior based on the patterns you identified. Create your own future:
Combine the virtues of the dreamer, the realist, and the critic.
is the process of learning
improved skills of perception. These improvements range from simple
sensory discriminations (e.g., distinguishing two musical tones from one
another) to complex categorizations of spatial and temporal patterns
relevant to real-world expertise (e.g., reading, seeing relations among
chess pieces, knowing whether or not an X-ray image shows a tumor).
Sensory modalities may include visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and
taste. Perceptual learning forms important foundations of complex
cognitive processes (i.e., language) and interacts with other kinds of
learning to produce perceptual expertise. Underlying perceptual learning
are changes in the neural circuitry. The ability for perceptual learning
is retained throughout life.
is a learning style in which a
person learns through listening. An auditory learner depends on hearing
and speaking as a main way of learning. Auditory learners must be able to
hear what is being said in order to understand and may have difficulty
with instructions that are drawn but if the writing is in a logical order
it can be easier to understand . They also use their listening and
repeating skills to sort through the information that is sent to them.
Whole Body Learning
Dual Education System
in a company and vocational education
at a vocational school in one
is a structured method of
combining classroom-based education with practical work experience. A
cooperative education experience, commonly known as a "co-op", provides
academic credit for structured job experience.
is an educational approach
which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social
is the relationship
between learning and the social situation in which it occurs.
planning curriculum that
focuses on being responsive to children's interests to create meaningful
learning experiences. It can be practiced at any grade level.
is the ability to modify acoustic and
, acquire new
, and produce
vocalizations. "Vocalizations" in this case refers only to sounds
generated by the vocal organ
(mammalian larynx or avian syrinx) as opposed to by the lips, teeth, and
tongue, which require substantially less motor control. A rare trait,
vocal learning is a critical substrate for spoken
and has only been detected in eight animal groups despite the
wide array of vocalizing species; these include humans, bats, cetaceans,
pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), elephants, and three distantly related
bird groups including songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Vocal learning
is distinct from auditory learning
or the ability to form memories of sounds heard
a relatively common trait which is present in all vertebrates tested. For
example, dogs can be trained to understand the word "sit" even though the
human word is not in its innate auditory repertoire (auditory learning).
However, the dog cannot imitate and produce the word "sit" itself as vocal
occurs only when students
process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to
them in their own frames of reference (their own inner worlds of memory,
experience, and response). The mind naturally seeks meaning in context by
searching for relationships that make sense and appear useful.
Brain circuit helps us learn by watching others
. Scientists pinpoint
neural interactions that are necessary for observational learning.
Simultaneous Subject Teaching
On the Job Training
Passion Based Learning
Standards-based education stifles engagement and
in students. We
must switch from a control narrative in the classroom to a passion
narrative. Passion-based learning is about finding a “hero,” learning what
makes him/her successful, and acquiring the practices and the norms of
established practitioners in that field. The Schoolwide Enrichment Model
identifies student strengths, nurtures skills, and creates authentic
opportunities for students to utilize these skills not just as students,
but as practicing professionals providing experiences and opportunities to
work and learn with others in the fields in which they are interested.
referred to as
or just as experience.
is walking while you learn.
employing students and school staff in
solving community problems
community as one of the primary resources for learning.
Learning Outside the Classroom
is an on-demand learning technique where the
environment adapts to the
. By providing remediation on-demand, learners can gain greater
understanding of a topic while stimulating discovery and learning.
Total Physical Response
is a language
teaching method based on the coordination of language and physical
movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target
language, and students respond with whole-body actions.
is learning to earn or
maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal
coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in
Vicarious Observational Learning
that occurs through observing the behavior of others
which needs to be selective in order to be accurate.
You need to be Careful what you Learn.
an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the
traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content,
often online, outside of the classroom. It moves activities, including
those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the
classroom. In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures,
collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and
engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance of a mentor.
is the idea of having students consume learning content (i.e. ‘the
lecture’) outside of the classroom, usually as homework, thereby freeing
up valuable face-to-face classroom time to reinforce materials and work on
assigned work (work that may have been homework in the traditional
classroom). This approach is also referred to as “flipping the classroom”.
Learning by Teaching
allows pupils and students to prepare and to teach
lessons, or parts of lessons. Choosing their own methods and didactic
approaches in teaching classmates that subject.
Show and Tell
is a common expression about
showing an audience something and telling them about it. It is used to
teach young children the skills of
Social Emotional Learning
is the process through which children and adults acquire and effectively
apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to understand and
manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for
others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make
Language and Thought
Breakthrough in Decoding Brain Function
. New research advances
understanding of the function of the brain’s
anterior cingulate cortex
and its tie to human learning.
Applied Behavior Analysis
is analyzing the
principles of learning theory and systematically applying this technology
to change behavior of social significance.
refers to a range of
differences in individuals' learning abilities.
7 Styles of Learning
An Explanation of Learning Styles
is a model-free Reinforcement Learning
. It works by learning an action-value function that
ultimately gives the expected utility of taking a given action in a given
state and following the optimal policy thereafter.
Movement in Learning
is a teaching method based on the concept that humans
learn better through
is the relationship between
cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor learning is
demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination,
manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate
the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools.
Practice Learning - Repetition - Rote
is the act of
behavior over and over
, or engaging in an
activity again and again
the purpose of improving or mastering it, as in the phrase "practice makes
". Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games.
Power Law of Practice
states that the logarithm
of the reaction time for a particular task decreases linearly with the
logarithm of the number of practice trials taken. It is an example of the
learning curve effect on performance.
is a form of practicing, to ensure that all details of the subsequent
performance are adequately prepared and coordinated.
is a form of learning in which an
organism decreases or ceases to respond to a
presentations. Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a
stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant.
is a learning technique that
incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of
previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing
is an event that repeats
repeated use of the same word
or word pattern
. The act of doing or performing something over and over
Learn without Memorizing
is a memorization technique based
on repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the
meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Better alternatives
to just rote learning include meaningful learning
“Too often we give children answers to remember rather than problems
to solve.” -
is broken up
into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time.
refers to the use of a
schedule that includes frequent changes of task so that the performer is
constantly confronting novel representations of the to-be-learned
teach and impress
frequent repetitions or admonitions or cautionary advice about something
Just because people can
remember facts and details about a person, place or an event
for a test
, that does
not mean that they understand what that something means as a whole. Just
remembering facts and details is almost useless if you can't explain what
those facts and details mean. It's like having words without definitions.
You're not processing anything valuable, you're just recalling information
without any purpose, without any intent and without any understanding.
Another good reason why education needs to improve and start providing
more knowledge and information that every person in the world needs. When
you dumb down schools, colleges and universities, then people end not even
knowing what dumbing down means.
Repetition as a rhetorical device
simple repeating of a word
, within a short space of words (including
in a poem), with no particular placement of the words to secure emphasis.
It is a multilinguistic written or spoken device, frequently used in
English and several other languages, and so rarely termed a figure of
is a decline in reading ability and other academic skills
that can occur over the summer months.
Summer Learning Loss
is the loss of academic skills and knowledge over
the course of summer holidays. (This happens because schools don't
understand teaching and learning, if kids can
forget what they learn, then they're not learning
. Summer schools
indicators that schools are failing).
is a set of cards bearing information,
as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or
in private study. One writes a question on a card and an answer overleaf.
Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulas or any subject
matter that can be learned via a question-and-answer format. Flashcards
are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization by way of spaced
refers to information that is
expressed more than once.
models for representing
purported structural and/or functional relationships between data,
information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in
terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of
vs. Classroom Learning
are the mental categories that
help us classify objects, events, or ideas, building on the understanding
that each object, event, or idea has a set of common relevant features.
Thus, concept learning is a strategy which requires a learner to compare
and contrast groups or categories that contain concept-relevant features
with groups or categories that do not contain concept-relevant features.
is when each person finds
identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the
community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as
compassion and peace. Holistic education aims to call forth from people an
intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning.
Implicit Learning - Explicit Learning
is the learning of complex
information as a chance consequence,
of what has
been learned. Learning how to ride a bicycle or how to swim, are cited as
demonstrations of the nature of implicit learning and its mechanism. It
has been claimed that implicit learning differs from explicit learning by
the absence of consciously accessible knowledge. Evidence supports a clear
distinction between implicit and explicit learning; for instance, research
on amnesia often shows intact implicit learning but impaired explicit
learning. Another difference is that brain areas involved in working
memory and attention are often more active during explicit than implicit
learning. Explicit Knowledge
- Implicit Knowledge
is something precisely and
clearly communicated or readily observable and leaving nothing to
implication. In accordance with fact or the primary meaning of a term.
individual's threshold for conscious perception
. A recent review of
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal
stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being
unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can
process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the
processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by
other stimuli. Brain Washing
is one of the two main types of
long-term human memory
. It is acquired
and used unconsciously
and can affect thoughts and behaviours. One of its most common forms is
procedural memory, which helps people performing certain tasks without
conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Implicit memory's
counterpart is known as explicit memory or declarative memory, which
refers to the conscious, intentional recollection of factual information,
previous experiences and concepts. Evidence for implicit memory arises in
priming, a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved
their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously
prepared. Implicit memory also leads to the
, which suggests that subjects are more
likely to rate as true those statements that they have already heard,
regardless of their truthfulness. In daily life, people rely on implicit
memory every day in the form of procedural memory, the type of memory that
allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without
consciously thinking about these activities. Research into implicit memory
indicates that it operates through a different mental process from
Purposes of Learning
Music as a Teaching Tool
Teaching and Learning are the same subject
. You can't teach
unless you learn and you can't learn unless you teach, even
if you are teaching yourself. Teaching and learning are part
of the same process that's needed to transfer information.
And you need to be conscious of the process of transferring
information, you need to ask
these 5 questions, What am I learning? (define the
information?) Why am I learning this? (the importance and
value of this information?) Where am I learning this?
(options and choices?) When am I learning this? (options and
choices?) How am I learning this? (options and choices?)
These Retention Rates are not
Normal, you can remember a 100% of what you have read, hear and see, you just
have to learn how. You don't want to limit the ways that you can learn.
teachers had always depended on jugyokenkyu, which translates
literally as “Lesson
,” a set of practices that Japanese teachers use to
hone their craft. A teacher first plans lessons, then teaches in
front of an audience of students and other teachers along with
at least one university observer. Then the observers talk with
the teacher about what has just taken place. Each public lesson
poses a hypothesis, a new idea about how to help children learn.
And each discussion offers a chance to determine whether it
worked. Without jugyokenkyu, it was no wonder the American
teachers’ work fell short of the model set by their best
thinkers. Without jugyokenyku, Takahashi never would have
learned to teach at all. Neither, certainly, would the rest of
Japan’s teachers. -
The goal is to create personalized programs of instruction and
custom lesson plans that are based on the students skill level
and learning style.
tend to perform better on memory tasks,
particularly involving color, abstract patterns or words and
this can also be transferred to creative disciplines such as
Hattie Ranking Influences Effect Sizes Achievement Rangliste
(Image Chart) -
An overview of the Hattie effect size list that contains 138
influences and effect sizes across all areas related to student
"Anyone who can learn can eventually become
a teacher, but not every teacher will continue to learn, Why?"
Time Loop - Learning
Groundhog Day Time Loop Film with Bill Murray
is a great example of the power of
. We are not living the exact same day over and over again, but we
are living day by day in succession
, and living
day by day requires learning. Everyone has second chances in
life, it's called tomorrow, which begins today. You have a memory, so
feed it effectively
and use it effectively.
Time will Tell
Time Loop Stories are nothing new:
1892 — "Christmas Every Day"
by William Dean Howells*, adapted for film in 1996
1904 — "The Defence
of Duffer's Drift" by Ernest Dunlop Swinton*
1941 — "Doubled and
Redoubled" by Malcolm Jameson
1950 — "Friday, the Nineteenth" by
Elisabeth Sanxay Holding
1973 — "12:01 PM" by Richard A. Lupoff
— "One Fine Day" by Leon Arden
1990 — "12:01 PM," short film adaptation
directed by Jonathan Heap
1992 — "Cause and Effect," episode of "Star
Trek: The Next Generation"
1993 — "Groundhog Day," story by Danny Rubin
and directed by Harold Ramis
1993 — "12:01," TV movie adaptation
directed by Jack Sholder
1998 — "Run, Lola, Run" directed by Tom Tykwer*
1998 — "Same Time Last Week," episode of "The Angry Beavers"
1999 — "Deja
vu All Over Again," episode of "Charmed"
1999 — "Monday," episode of
2000 — "Window of Opportunity," episode of "Stargate SG-1"
2004 — "All You Need Is Kill" by Hiroshi Sakurazaka
2006 — "Day Break,"
ABC television drama
2010 — "Before I Fall" by Lauren Oliver, adapted
for film in 2017
2011 — "Source Code," directed by Duncan Jones*
2014 — "Edge of Tomorrow" a.k.a. "Live. Die. Repeat.," directed by Doug
2016 — "ARQ," directed by Tony Elliott
2017 — "Hot Mess Time
Machine," episode of "The Mindy Project"
2017 — "Happy Death Day,"
directed by Christopher B. Landon
2017 — "Naked," directed by Michael
Tiddes, Netflix remake of "Naken" (2000)
2017 — "A Day," directed by
2017 — "Magic To Make The Sanest Man Go Mad," episode of
"Star Trek: Discovery"
in which periods
of time are repeated and re-experienced by the characters, and there is
often some hope of breaking out of the cycle of repetition. Time loop is
sometimes used to refer to a
although they appear similar, causal loops are unchanging and
self-originating, whereas time loops are constantly resetting: when a
certain condition is met, such as a death of a character or a clock
reaches a certain time, the loop starts again, with one or more characters
retaining the memories from the previous loop.
with time loops commonly
center on the character learning from each successive loop through time.
Time Loop can be seen as a type of metaphor for
. If you never learn
anything new, everyday will seem like the same day, because you're living
life through the same eyes and through the same knowledge. You're just
spinning round and round
and never progressing
. You're not advancing, only slowly decaying.
Theories about Learning
seeks to know, understand and
prescribe educational policy
are instructional design
principles and how they relate to teaching and
Science of Learning
Science of Learning
Scientific Methods for Learning
Learning Theory Education
frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained
during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as
well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world
view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
is a set of three hierarchical models
used to classify educational
learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three
lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory domains.
studies the nature of
, the rationality of belief, and justification.
is a precise and systematic method of evaluating instructional tactics and curricula.
Education Reform Teaching Styles
How to Study Tips
Unlearning - Relearning
is an attempt to
information to a sleeping person
, typically by playing a sound recording
to them while they sleep. Research on this has been inconclusive. Some
early studies tended to discredit the technique's effectiveness, while
others have found that the brain indeed reacts to stimuli and processes
them while we are asleep.
is when the stimulation of one
pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or
is "a collection of content
items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a
single learning objective.
Theory of Mind
is the ability to attribute
mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to
oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires,
intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Hybrid Education Models
Innovative Learning Designs
is a philosophical
viewpoint about the nature of knowledge. Specifically, it represents an
also known as imperative
knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See
below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and
intellectual property law.Lateral Thinking
Learning Management System
encompasses many different
pedagogical approaches differing from that of the mainstream pedagogy
employed in a culture. Such alternative learning environments may be found
within state, charter, and independent schools as well as home-based
learning environments. Many, but not all
emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and
teachers and a sense of community.
curricula and examinations
to high school students.
offers four educational
programmes for children aged 3–19. The learner profile concisely describes
the aspirations of a global community that shares the values underlying
the IB’s educational philosophy. The IB learner profile describes the
attributes and outcomes of education for international-mindedness.
Teach Learning Styles
Whole Brain Teaching
A Robot Which Children Can Teach to Write - The
Computer-Human Interaction in Learning and
Games and Toys for
Brain Based Learning
Constructivist Teaching Methods
is based on
constructivist learning theory. Constructivist teaching is based on the
belief that learning occurs as learners are
actively involved in a process
of meaning and knowledge construction
as opposed to passively receiving
information. Learners are the makers of meaning and knowledge.
Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning
The following list presents the basic principles that
underlie effective learning. These principles are distilled from research
from a variety of disciplines.
Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning
Limiting a key chemical messenger Adenosine in the brain helps extend
efficient auditory learning much later in life.
Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning
Students come into courses with knowledge, beliefs, and
attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life. As students
bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they
filter and interpret what they are learning. If students’ prior knowledge
is robust and accurate and activated at the appropriate time, it provides
a strong foundation for building new knowledge. However, when knowledge is
inert, insufficient for the task, activated inappropriately, or
inaccurate, it can interfere with or impede new learning.
Stages of Learning
How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.
Students naturally make connections
between pieces of knowledge.
When those connections form
that are accurately and
organized, students are better able to retrieve and apply their
effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when knowledge is
connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it appropriately.
Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.
As students enter college and gain greater autonomy over what,
when, and how they study and learn,
plays a critical role in
guiding the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning behaviors in
which they engage. When students find positive value in a learning goal or
activity, expect to successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and perceive
support from their environment, they are likely to be strongly motivated to learn.
To develop mastery
, students must acquire component skills,
practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.
Students must develop not only the component
knowledge necessary to perform complex tasks, they must also practice combining and
integrating them to develop greater fluency and automaticity. Finally, students must
learn when and how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn. As
instructors, it is important that we develop conscious awareness of these elements
of mastery so as to help our students learn more effectively.
coupled with targeted feedback enhances
the quality of students’ learning.
Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage
in practice that focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate
level of challenge, and is of sufficient quantity and frequency to meet
the performance criteria. Practice must be coupled with feedback that explicitly
communicates about some aspect(s) of students’ performance relative to
specific target criteria, provides information to help students progress in
meeting those criteria, and is given at a time and frequency that allows it to
Students’ current level of development interacts with the
social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.
Students are not only intellectual but also social and emotional
beings, and they are still developing the full range of intellectual,
social, and emotional skills. While we cannot control the developmental process, we
can shape the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical aspects of
classroom climate in developmentally appropriate ways. In fact, many studies have
shown that the climate we create has implications for our students. A negative
climate may impede learning and performance, but a positive climate can
energize students’ learning.
To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor
and adjust their approaches to learning.
Learners may engage in a variety of metacognitive processes to
monitor and control their learning—assessing the task at hand, evaluating
their own strengths and weaknesses, planning their approach, applying and
monitoring various strategies, and reflecting on the degree to which their
current approach is working. Unfortunately, students tend not to engage in these
processes naturally. When students develop the skills to engage these
processes, they gain intellectual habits that not only improve their performance but
also their effectiveness as learners.
Anderson, J. R., Conrad, F. G., Corbett, A. T. (1989).
Skill acquisition and the LISP tutor. Cognitive Science, 13(4), 467-505.
Bandura, A. (1989). Self-regulation of motivation and action
through internal standards and goal systems. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Goal
concepts in personality and social psychology (pp. 19-85). Hillsdale, NJ:
Carver, C.S. & Scheier, M.F. (1998). On the self-regulation of
behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clement, J.J. (1982). Students’ preconceptions in introductory
mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50, 66-71.
DiSessa, A. (1982). Unlearning Aristotelian physics: A study of
knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science, 6, 37-75.
Dweck, C.S. (2002). Beliefs that make smart people dumb. In R.J.
Sternberg (Ed.), Why smart people can be so stupid (pp. 24-41). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Ford, M.E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions and
personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Healy, A. F., & Sinclair, G. P. (1996). The long-term retention
of training and instruction (pp. 525-564).
n E. L. Bjork, & R. A. Bjork (Eds.) Memory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Hidi, S. & Renninger K.A. (2004). Interest, a motivational
variable that combines affective and cognitive functioning.
In D. Y. Dai & R. J. Sternberg
(Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on
intellectual functioning and development
(pp. 89-115). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Holyoak, K. J. (1984). Analogical thinking and human intelligence. In R.
J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol. 2
(pp. 199-230). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J.H., Whitt, E.J. & Associates. (2005).
Student Success in College: Creating Conditions That Matter. San
Matlin, M. W. (1989). Cognition. NY, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Janovich.
National Research Council (2001). Knowing What Students Know:
The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press.
Nelson, T. A. (1992). Metacognition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Pascarella, E.T. & Terenzini, P. (2005). How College Affects
Students. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Schommer, M. (1994). An emerging conceptualization of
beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Barner & P. Alexander
(Eds.), Beliefs about text and instruction with text
(pp. 25-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Singley, M. K., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The Transfer of
Cognitive Skill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Steele, C.M. & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the
intellectual test performance of African Americans.
Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 69 (5), 797-811.
Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). A question of belonging:
race, social fit, and achievement.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 (1), 82-96.
Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments
to Inform and Improve Student Performance, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
Teaching Adults - Adult Education
"It's easier to educate a child correctly the first time than it is to
"It's easier to build strong children than to repair broken men."
Do it Right the First Time...it's a lot easier, it's more effective,
and it also saves a lot of time, no need to repair.
"It never ceases to surprise me at the infinite capacity
of the human mind to resist the introduction of useful knowledge'" -
Thomas Raynesford Lounsbury
It is almost as difficult to make a man unlearn his
errors as his knowledge. Mal-information is more hopeless than
non-information; for error is always more busy than ignorance. Ignorance
is a blank sheet, on which we may write; but error is a scribbled one, on
which we must first erase. Ignorance is contented to stand still with her
back to the truth; but error is more presumptuous, and proceeds in the
same direction. Ignorance has no light, but error follows a false one. The
consequence is, that error, when she retraces her footsteps, has further
to go, before she can arrive at the truth, than ignorance.
Charles Caleb Colton
methods and principles used in adult education.
Learner is self-directed
and moves towards independence.
Learner is responsible for the learning
Self-evaluation is seen. Six assumptions related to the motivation of
adult learning: Need to know
: Adults need
to know the reason for learning something. Foundation: Experience
(including error) provides the basis for learning activities.
Self-concept: Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on
education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their
instruction. Readiness: Adults are most interested in learning subjects
having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives.
Orientation: Adult learning is problem-centered rather than
content-oriented. Motivation: Adults respond better to internal versus
external motivators. Adult learning is based upon comprehension,
organization and synthesis of knowledge rather than rote memory. There are
seven Principles of Adult Learning: Adults must want to learn – They learn
effectively only when they are free to direct their own learning and have
a strong inner and excited motivation to develop a new skill or acquire a
particular type of knowledge, this sustains learning. Adults will learn
only what they feel they need to learn – Adults are practical in their
approach to learning; they want to know, "How is this going to help me
right now? – Is it relevant (Content, Connection and Application) and does
it meet my targeted goals." Adults learn by doing – Adolescents learn by
doing, but adults learn through active practice and participation. This
helps in integrating component skills into a coherent whole. Adult
learning focuses on problem solving – Adolescents tend to learn skills
sequentially. Adults tend to start with a problem and then work to find a
solution. A meaningful engagement, such as posing and answering realistic
questions and problems is necessary for deeper learning. This leads to
more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger representations of the
knowledge (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). Experience affects adult learning –
Adults have more experience than adolescents. This can be an asset and a
liability, if prior knowledge is inaccurate, incomplete, or naive, it can
interfere with or distort the integration of incoming information
(Clement, 1982; National Research Council, 2000). Adults learn best in an
informal situation – Adolescents have to follow a curriculum. Often,
adults learn by taking responsibility by the value and need of content
they have to understand and the particular goals it will achieve. Being in
an inviting, collaborative and networking environment as an active
participant in the learning process makes it efficient. Adults want
guidance and consideration as equal partners in the process – Adults want
information that will help them improve their situation. They do not want
to be told what to do and they evaluate what helps and what doesn't. They
want to choose options based on their individual needs and the meaningful
impact a learning engagement could provide. Socialization is more
important among adults.
Adult Education needs to be improved
. It's difficult to educate
someone starting in the middle. You have to educate someone from the
beginning. Where does this story begin? A teacher must investigate and see
the student as a patient that is in their care. To help someone, you have
to know them and know their history. You have to have a plan and a
procedure to follow, one that is flexible and easy to
. You you need accurate methods to measure progress. And
you have to have milestones and goals. These requirements are absolutely
necessary if you want to succeed and
The main reason why people do not want to learn is because
they don't fully understand what learning is or how extremely important
learning is. Every person wants to be
and more aware
. But most people
don't know what knowledge they need to learn or where to find it. And
there's no instructions or guides that would help them to learn valuable
knowledge and information in the most effective and efficient way
possible. If you were given a laptop computer that had most of the
valuable knowledge and information available in the world, along with a
AI teaching assistant
becomes your own personal assistant who helps you through all the learning
stages of human intelligence, then everyone could learn on there own time
where ever they are on the planet. A complete education with preschool,
high school and college courses. And if you
paid people to learn
, then you can
solve several problems at once. There are a lot of
different reasons why people don't think it's necessary to learn
It could be physical problems or it could be cognitive issues or the lack
of skills and knowledge that could impede a persons ability to learn or
want to learn and disrupt a persons motivation to keep learning. We need
to make learning easy and self motivating. People may not understand how
important learning is. People may not understand the need to learn, they
may under-value learning because of misconceptions. But every human has
responsibilities, and learning is one of the most important
responsibilities that every human has. Becoming more knowledgeable should
be everyone's favorite pastime. If you don't enjoy learning, then you
probably don't enjoy living
Everyone alive today has the ability to learn anything they want, and understand
things. But if you don't have access, or if you don't pursue knowledge and
information, you will never truly understand life, or will you ever know
how much you're missing.
is the practice of
in a way
characteristic of a responsible
adult. A person who is always learning.
The reasons why most people don't want to learn is because most people don't fully
understand what learning is, and also, they have never learned anything
valuable, like understanding the power that some knowledge gives you,
power that you can carry with you your entire life. Please don't stop
learning, it's the most important ability that you have, don't waste it.
People can sometimes feel that learning is perceived as a chore.
Things like fatigue, hunger, environmental stresses can diminish the need
to learn. This is a learning disability that everyone should be aware of.
If people understood what learning is, and also know what is needed to
learn, then learning would be natural, effective and efficient without
spending too much effort or time. If you can set times for eating and
sleeping, then you could set times for learning, even though you can have
flexibility. And you have to have learning goals that are in order, with
each new subject learned is progressing you forward.
It's not just that people are ignorant, it's the knowledge that
people do have that keeps them from learning and becoming more
knowledgeable. If a person can not understand what they hear, read or
feel, then you will have a very difficult time educating them. This is why
90% of all humans are ignorant to some degree in 2018. That's because they
learned very little when young and then they were fooled into believing
that what they knew was enough to understand themselves and the world
around them. A lie that is the cause of almost every problem on the planet
throughout our history and present time.
Everyone has a Learning Disability
. It's not that people can't
learn or have problems learning, it's just that they don't want to learn
or feel the need to learn or feel the need to ask questions, and that is a
learning disability because people are not learning anything new so they
are not becoming more knowledgeable about themselves and the world around
them. So people will never fully understand themselves or understand the
world around them. People with learning disabilities always need extra
help, but the public gets very little help from the schools, from the
universities, from the media, from the corporations, from public services
and even from Hollywood. Not one institution is helping the public with
their learning disabilities. We have to stop living in denial. When people
are not learning, then problems will continue to happen and get worse,
just as they are now all over the world. If we
incentivize people to learn
, and if
people learn how to improve their lives and the world around them, then we
would solve every problem in the world.
"You can lead a horse to water, but
you can't make it drink. You can present someone with an opportunity, but
you cannot force him or her to take advantage of it. You can’t teach
someone who doesn’t want to learn or grow personally."
Helping Adults Learn
Teaching Adults is Challenging
is the theory and practice of
education of adults.
and ImpedimentsSocial Learning
Learning is Fun and Easy
, but you have
to make learning fun and easy because learning is not fun and easy for
everyone all the time. Learning needs to be
, and the
process of learning
must be understood.
Learning is an innate
that is natural for everyone. But just because learning is an
instinct that you were born with, learning does not come with instructions
and procedures that would help you fully utilize the power of learning.
You can make a horrible
, but if you don't realize the mistake because of your
lack of knowledge
, then you will
not learn anything valuable and you will miss a chance to progress. And
learning is all about progress
Learning is about increasing the quality of life and increasing the
quality of living. The power of learning is similar to the power of money.
If you always have enough money, but if you spend the money on things that
do more harm than good, then having money is a
and you will not
benefit from having enough money the way you should. Learning is a power,
but if you learn the wrong things or don't learn enough, then the power of
learning may do you more harm than good. Learning needs to be deliberate,
and the process
of learning must be
understood. You don't have to remind yourself to breathe, but do do have
to remind yourself to breathe deliberately
don't have to remind yourself to learn, but you do have to remind yourself
to learn deliberately. It's like having all the money in the world, you
can use the money wisely, effectively and efficiently to bring wealth and
prosperity to everyone, or you can be selfish,
and wasteful with the
money and watch millions of people die, like they do every year. Learning
needs to be deliberate, and if you are not learning what's important and
valuable or learn the right things at the right time, then learning may do
you more harm than good.
"Some things are easy to learn, and some
things are hard to learn, but they are never impossible to
"There is always
incentives and rewards
when it comes to
learning, but only if you are aware of them."
They say that
Adults cannot be made to learn. But that is exactly what they do
to children in schools, and you wonder why adults don't want to learn.
They also say that Adults will only learn when they
are internally motivated
so, which is false. Motivation is not needed to learn. And
need to be accurately measured and calculated so they fully explain the
inputs and outputs as well as the
cause and effects
at each step. Money is not a reason
, things need
to be fully explained. Remember, we are "Learning".
Four Basic Requirements for Learning
, a person needs clearly understood reasons why the knowledge is
necessary and valuable. Second
, people need the time to acquire new
knowledge and information. Third
, people need easy access to valuable
knowledge and information. Forth
, people need a way to accurately measure
their performance and have the necessary tools to test themselves.
people need to see that all their time and effort pays off, and that their
lives will continually improve. This way other people will also be
encouraged to take part in this learning journey. (Perquisites
that can help:
Understands learning. Knows several learning techniques. Knows how to
accurately identify valuable knowledge and information. Knows how to
manage Life and Time. Has read BK101.)
People have difficulty
learning and progressing
because they are to busy processing old information
over and over again
. And they are
also not aware of the importance of acquiring new information, or do
people have the skills to access valuable knowledge and information. This
learning disability is the direct result of our dysfunctional education
systems and the media. For humans, processing information and thinking is
good and natural, but not learning new information is really bad and
extremely unnatural. And it's not just bad for you, it's bad for everyone.
If you keep pretending to know
, you will never progress or overcome your ignorance, the same
ignorance that you have no idea even exists because you have been
neglecting the responsibility
is the power to learn or retain
; in law
the ability to understand the
and significance of your
Capability to perform
. The maximum production
possible. The amount that can be contained.
(computer science) the amount of information (in
) that can
on a disk drive, or in this case,
The Human Brain
Adults will only learn what they feel they need to learn. But
it's a bad idea to rely on your feelings when it comes to learning.
End of History illusion
is a psychological illusion in which
individuals of all ages believe that they have experienced significant
personal growth and changes in tastes up to the present moment, but will
not substantially grow or mature in the future. Despite recognizing that
their perceptions have evolved, individuals predict that their perceptions
will remain roughly the same in the future. The illusion is based on the
fact that at any given developmental stage, an individual can observe a
relatively low level of maturity in previous stages. The phenomenon
affects teenagers, middle-aged individuals, and seniors. In general,
people tend to see significant changes in hindsight, but fail to predict
that these changes will continue. For example, a 20-year-old's impression
of how great a change they will undergo in the next ten years will not be
as extreme as a 30-year-old's recollection of the changes they underwent
between the ages of 20 and 30. The same phenomenon is true for people of
any age. The reason for the illusion has not been studied, although
researchers speculate that a resistance or fear of change may be causal.
Adults learn by doing. Active participation
important to adult learners in comparison to children. But we
should be teaching children the same way since we all ready know this.
Adult learning is problem-based and these problems must be
realistic. Adult learners like finding solutions to problems.
Adult learning is affected by the experience each adult brings.
Adults learn best informally. Adults learn what they feel they
need to know whereas children learn from a curriculum, which is stupid,
children should have the right to learn what they need to know and want to
know, within reason of course.
Children want guidance. Adults want information that will help
them improve their situation or that of their children. Now
you're getting it. You're still a child.
People don't seek knowledge and skills they don't use, or rarely
use. If you rarely use a particular knowledge and or skill, then
people will have no incentive to learn something new. But if you
guaranteed a job to that person, and fully explain the estimated income
and the benefits from that job, then people will have the incentive to
learn new knowledge and the incentive to learn new skills.
Pay people to go to school and give them on the Job Training
just like the Military does. Except this war is a
What knowledge and skills do you use everyday? Can you read? Can
you operate a telephone? Can you operate a computer? Can you
write? Can you communicate? What increased benefits would you
get if you improved these skills?
is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an
individual or society encompassing the entirety of the
individual or society's knowledge and point of view. A world
view can include natural philosophy; fundamental, existential,
and normative postulates; or themes, values, emotions, and
Your world view depends on how much relevant knowledge and
information that you have and understand, knowledge that is accurate and
up to date. You are what you know, and if what you know is distorted and
incomplete, then your world view will become distorted and incomplete. And
the only way to overcome this
is to continually
educate yourself so that the knowledge and information you
acquire gives you a more accurate and complete understanding of
yourself and the world around you, which is one of the main
goals of BK101.To many people
make the mistake
in believing that they know the answers to certain
, which usually stops a person from learning more, thus
people will never have any conformation or proof that their answers are
accurate, which is dangerous because it leaves a person vulnerable to
mistakes and also vulnerable to being
. Don't Stop
Characteristics of Adult Learners.
Adult learners have characteristics that set them apart from
'traditional' school or college learners. All adults come to
courses with a variety and range of experiences, both in terms
of their working life and educational backgrounds. This impacts
on how and why they participate in learning. While each student
has individual learning needs, there are some characteristics
that are common to adult learners:
Adults have accumulated life experiences. Adults come to courses
with experiences and knowledge in diverse areas. They tend to
favor practical learning activities that enable them to draw on
their prior skills and knowledge. Adults are realistic and have
insights about what is likely to work and what is not. They are
readily able to relate new facts to past experiences and enjoy
having their talents and knowledge explored in a teaching
Adults have established
been built up over time and arrived at following experience of
families, relationships, work, community, politics, etc. These
views cannot be dismissed and must be respected.
is theory regarding human memory.
occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the
new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or
thoughts that have a negative influence
comprehending the new material. Bringing to memory old knowledge has the
effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance.
There are two main kinds of interference:
is when past memories inhibit an individual’s
full potential to retain new memories. And
occurs when newly learned information
interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information.
This is because most people never learned what
, so most people don't have the knowledge or skills to
learn things, so they will never continue to learn, and gradually become
more and more intelligent each day. This is why schools fail. They don't
teach students what learning is, or do they teach what valuable knowledge
is. You learn how to swim so that you don't have to worry about
. You learn how to ride a bike so that you have the freedom to
travel anytime that you want. You learn how learn so that you can
understand more about yourself and the world around you, so you never have
to worry about your ignorance keeping you from having a life that you
choose, or stopping you from pursuing your dreams.
are intrinsically motivated. But just being born with motivation will not
help you until you learn things that are valuable and important. When
you're hungry you are motivated to eat, but it f you eat unhealthy food,
then you will suffer and die early.
Learners increase their
effort when motivated
by a need, an interest, or a desire to
learn. They are also motivated by the relevance of the material
to be addressed and learn better when material is related to
their own needs and interests. For learners to be fully engaged
in learning their attention must be fully focused on the
Individual differences. Adults learn at various rates and in
different ways according to their intellectual ability,
educational level, personality and cognitive learning styles.
Teaching strategies must anticipate and accommodate differing
comprehension rates of learners.
Adults learn best in a democratic, participatory and
collaborative environment . Adults need to be actively involved
in determining how and what they will learn, and they need
active, not passive, learning experiences.
Adult students are mature people and prefer to be treated as
such. Being 'lectured at' causes resentment and frustration.
Adults are goal oriented / relevancy oriented. Adults need to
know why they are learning something. Adults have needs that are
concrete and immediate. They can be impatient with long
discussions on theory and like to see theory applied to
practical problems. They are task or
subject-centered. Adults tend to be more interested in theory
when it is linked to practical application.
Adults are autonomous and
. They are self-reliant
learners and prefer to work at their own pace. Individuals learn
best when they are ready to learn and when they have identified
their own learning needs. Where a student is directed by someone
else to attend a course, e.g. by an employer, then that
individual may not be ready to learn or may not see the value in
participating on that course. This can lead to a mismatch of
goals between all parties - student, employer and trainer.
Adults are practical and problem-solvers. Adults are more
impatient in the pursuit of learning objectives. They are less
tolerant of work that does not have immediate and direct
application to their objectives. Problem based learning
exercises are welcomed as they build on prior experience and
provide opportunity for practical application of
Adults are sometimes tired when they attend classes. Many
students are juggling classes with work, family, etc. They,
therefore, appreciate varied teaching methods that add interest
and a sense of liveliness to the class.
Adults may have logistical
Family and caring responsibilities including childcare and/or
Social commitments, Time
Transportation, Lack of knowledge and skills.
frequently worry about being the oldest person in a class and are
concerned about the impact this may have on their ability to participate
with younger students. Creating an environment where all participants feel
they have a valuable contribution can work to allay such concerns.
is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about
learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing
learning and the environments in which it occurs. A related field is
educational data mining.
Adults may have insufficient
. Students come to class
with varying levels of confidence. Some may have had poor prior
experiences of education leading to feelings of inadequacy and
fear of study and failure. This can manifest itself in many
ways, as indicated in the next section.
Feral - Not Educated - Deprived - A World Without Words
is a human child who has lived
human contact from a very young age where they have little or no
experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of
feral children have been confined by people or by their own parents,
and in some cases this child abandonment was due to the parents’ rejection
of a child's severe intellectual or physical impairment. Feral children
may have experienced severe abuse or trauma before being abandoned or
Disturbing Cases Of Feral Children
Even when we knew very little about learning, we were still able to reach the minds of some of the most
who were denied
. They have taught us so much about how we
learn, and we still have a lot more to learn.
Victor of Aveyron
was a French feral child who was found at
the age of around twelve. (c. 1788 – 1828).
The Wild Child
tells the story of a child who spends the
first eleven or twelve years of his life with little or no human contact.
Genie Feral Child
is the pseudonym for a feral child who was
a victim of severe abuse
, and social isolation. Her circumstances
are prominently recorded in the annals of linguistics and abnormal child
psychology. (born 1957).
A Man Without Words
is a book and case study of a
27-year-old deaf man whom Schaller teaches to
for the first time,
challenging the Critical Period Hypothesis that humans cannot
after a certain age.
is associated with the lack of linguistic stimuli that are
necessary for the language acquisition processes in an individual, usually
in a very impoverished environment. Experiments involving language
deprivation are very scarce due to the ethical controversy associated with
it. Sign Language
was an American author, political activist, and
lecturer. She was the first deaf-blind person to earn a bachelor of arts
degree. The story of how Keller's teacher,
, broke through the isolation imposed by
a near complete lack
, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate,
has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and
The Miracle Worker
. Her birthplace in West Tuscumbia, Alabama, is now
a museum and sponsors an annual "Helen Keller Day". Her birthday on June
27 is commemorated as Helen Keller Day in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
and was authorized at the federal level by presidential proclamation by
President Jimmy Carter
in 1980, the 100th anniversary of her birth. A
prolific author, Keller was well-traveled and outspoken in her
convictions. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial
Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage
, labor rights,
socialism, antimilitarism, and other similar causes. She was inducted into
the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1971 and was one of twelve inaugural
inductees to the Alabama Writers Hall of Fame on June 8, 2015. Helen
proved to the world that deaf people could all learn to communicate
that they could survive in the hearing world. She also taught that deaf
people are capable of doing things that hearing people can do. She is one
of the most famous deaf people in history and she is an idol to many
in the world. (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968).
Martin Pistorius: How my mind came back to life — and no one
Severe childhood deprivation has longstanding impacts on brain size in
. Researchers have shown that the brains of young adult
Romanian adoptees who were institutionalized as children are around 8.6%
smaller than the brains of English adoptees who have not suffered this
form of deprivation.
(humans need more then just experiences)Brain
In the 1994 Movie
they showed how corrupt leaders can enslave people and
control people by making reading
against the law. America did
something similar, they controlled what schools were teaching students
that students never had enough knowledge to understand that they are still
slaves and that they are still being controlled and manipulated. And
people have no idea that this is happening because they lack the knowledge
and information to see it. Ignorance is
, please come back to earth. I would travel the universe and
live on almost any planet to have your love, but earth is pretty nice.
refers to the
idea that individuals are born without
built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes
from experience or perception. I believe that people are born
with a certain amount of information, just not enough. Thus they
can never overcome being abandoned or left alone.
is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine
that holds that the mind is born with
and that therefore the
is not a "blank slate" at birth. The mind may not be a
blank slate, but there is still not enough knowledge and
information that would allow you to learn enough on your own.
Don't Ever Underestimate the Power of Learning
Everything can be learned, which means that
everything can be improved
The power to learn
is our greatest gift. Learning is something that we
are born with
. We learned to walk, and we learned to talk, and we did this without anyone having to explain to us how learning
works, because we are
. But even though learning is a natural ability, and a
natural skill in itself, in order to maximize the enormous
amount of benefits that come from learning, you have to learn
the right things at the right time, and in the right way.
Learning is a powerful tool when its used effectively and
efficiently. But if learning is
neglected or abused
by learning the wrong things at the
wrong time, and in the wrong ways, then the benefits, and the
power and the potential of learning, is minimized. And this
is when people struggle and make mistakes, which causes all the
problems that we see today, and all the problems that we have
observed throughout human history. When we finally understand
our gift to learn, we will then see improvements all over the
planet, continually for as long as we live. And we can easily
confirm this fact by observing all the advancements that we have
made in the last 100 years, all because we used our gift to
learn. If you keep learning a little each day, then you will
become a little smarter each day, and you will become a little
more aware each day, and become a little more happier each day,
and you will have a little more control each day, you will have
a little more freedom each day, a little more power each day,
you will have a little more potential each day, and eventually,
you will have endless possibilities from which to choose from,
for the rest of your life.
You could say that
Learning is a Gift from God
, or you could even say that
learning is a gift from life itself
, because Life itself
wanted to survive, as it has from the beginning. So maybe life figured it
out that if we can quickly learn to adapt to changes, we will have a much
better chance avoiding extinction. Because 99% of all life has gone
extinct since the beginning of our planet. And after each extinction life
has always bounce back a little stronger, and a little smarter. And here
we are today. Let us not forsake our gift to learn, we have it for a reason.
Learn How to Learn
There's a lot that you need to know about learning
. Learning does not always
come natural. Most of the time you have to choose to learn
and initiate the process of learning. And if
you don't understand the process of learning
, you will
not learn effectively
. Learning is
. Though at times learning may seem effortless, it does not mean
that you have learned effectively or
correctly. So just knowing that you can learn, and then trying
to prove it with
, says absolutely nothing about your
understanding of learning, or how effective you are as a
learner. We have to create a test that would be a measurement of
learning, and not just your ability to remember facts
. So not
only will you understand How to Learn, you will also know Why
you Learn, When you Learn, and Where you Learn.
Logically Ordered Steps
Feed the Mind
Everyone has the Ability to Learn. The Power to Learn is within Everyone.
Everyone has the Power to Learn.
You're very capable of learning
anything that you want. Anything that you put your mind to, you can learn.
That means that you have the ability to solve every problem in
your life and have the ability to solve every problem that this
world is currently suffering from. So never underestimate the
importance of knowledge
not only gives you more
options and more opportunities, it will also give you an endless
supply of happiness. And remember that learning only begins with
school, the real important learning happens outside school where
you can explore and learn whatever you want, whenever you want
and learn as much as you want. And you'll want to learn as much
as you can, because knowledge is power and potential all rolled
up into one.
- Principles of Learning
"Learning is like climbing a mountain, the higher you climb the more you can see, and the more
you can see the more you can learn, and the more you can learn about what is
beyond the horizon, the more visible things will become."
Hacking Knowledge: 77 Ways to Learn Faster, Deeper, and Better
It's like when talking to someone who speaks a different
language than you, you don't understand a word they say.
That's because you don't have the necessary knowledge,
information and experience with that particular language in
order to understand it. But anyone can learn to understand a new
language, because the brain has the ability to learn new
languages, and learn anything. Anything that can be communicated
through language can be learned. That is why knowing how to
is so extremely important.
Learning works best when you can
request information and knowledge as you need it.
But what if you don't know what information and knowledge is
needed? That is why having a teacher, mentor or tutor can be so valuable.
It's great when you
learn something new for the first time
, specially when you learn something that you know is valuable or beneficial,
that's a great feeling. Now imagine learning something valuable everyday. Imagine always having something to look forward to everyday.
Something that will make your day. Something that will give you a better understanding of yourself and the world around you.
Imagine becoming a little smarter each day, a little more wiser each day, a little more intelligent each day, and become more aware, with more abilities, and more possibilities.
Imagine being able to solve every problem on the planet.
Imagine having more freedom and more control over your life.
Imagine a world full of endless possibilities. Imagine that you are starting your learning journey today.
Visit this website once a day, or visit this website once a week and copy
and paste a weeks worth of reading, or link to a few films to watch.
Convert Webpage to Read Offline
to read webpages offline later
. If using Firefox Browser,
Right Click on the page that you want to read later, and
then click on Save Page As, and then download folder to
smartphone to read later.
Please remember that there is a
sequence to learning
chronological order. Something's you
have to learn first before you can understand new knowledge and new information.
Sometimes you will find yourself going back to read something again because you now
have more information and knowledge to understand it more. This is normal. But you
always have to remember that learning the right things at the right time is extremely
important. Like first understanding what learning is and knowing how to be an
effective learner. And then learning how to read. And then learning how to comprehend
what you are reading. And then reading the most valuable knowledge and information
that you can find. And then learning what things you need to learn first and what things you
need to learn second, and so on. Learning should never be a chore or a burden.
Just like eating healthy food everyday, you need to consume healthy knowledge everyday. Having a healthy mind and a healthy body
gives you incredible potential. And you will also be intelligent as you can possibly be. Imagine the possibilities.
"If you can learn anything you want, then you can be anything you want, learn to be."
so easy a
caveman can do it
"Learning can be as easy as learning a new
"When learning, you don't always feel
the benefits when it's happening. Sometimes there is a delayed
reaction. Because we have to process information."
"Everyone can learn, but not everyone
learns in the same way, or at the same speed, or at the same
time, or do they learn the same things as you."
take learning for granted, and too many people
don't even understand how important learning is, that is the
failure of our education system. Our ability to learn is one of
the most important aspects of human life."
“if reading itself is a skill, it must
be possible to break this down into different level of component
"Everything can be explained, maybe not
in the same amount of time that was used for other people, or in
the same way as other people, but everything that is explained
can be explained. So if you don't understand it now, don't
worry, because you will eventually understand it because that is
a fact of learning, but only if you keep learning."
"Not wanting to learn is a learning
disability, but luckily it's one of the easiest learning
disabilities to correct."
"Learning should never be a chore. It
should always be about learning to be more valuable and learning
to be more productive in your life. The rewards are endless."
"Most people love to have experiences,
but not many people enjoy the experience of learning,
why?..they're both extremely important."
"Sometimes people don't know what
questions to ask
, and other times,
people believe they know the
, so they don't bother asking questions."
"Learning benefits you in similar ways
that eating healthy
benefits you. When you eat good food you are
rewarded with energy and good health. When you learn something
new that improves your abilities and your understanding, you are
rewarded with a more potential and a more improved life. And
learning accumulates, so it will continue to be rewarding, just
like always eating healthy."
Though there are many
different ways that a person can learn, the important thing is,
to be able to learn in multiple ways. So no matter how the
information is presented, you will still have the ability to
analyze the information correctly, so that you can maximize the
benefits and increase your potential.
The fact is
You can learn anything you want
As long as you are given the time and the necessary information
in the correct sequence, you can learn anything. So whether
you're learning in a classroom, online, or anywhere, the place
where you learn is not so important, what's important is before you
start learning 'anything' is knowing
will the information be Presented?
the information be in the correct sequence based upon your current level
of knowledge and understanding? Can you correctly analyze if the
information presented needs to be reorganized to match your
current level of knowledge and understanding?
Can you correctly
identify what related information is needed that would help you
better understand the information presented so that you can use
this information effectively and efficiently? And, do you have
access to related information that you will need that is not
presented in this particular course, book or lecture? If you
have struggled with learning in your past it's because you have
not understood the questions above. And when you have understood
the questions above there are still a few more questions you
need to answer because
Knowing How to Learn
is just one thing. You have to know
what to learn? When to learn it? Where to learn it? And you have
to know, Why you need to learn it? And after that you should
also know the answers to these other important questions too...
Is the information relevant to your current needs? Do you know
what your current needs are?
Education Questions to Ask
Does obtaining this new skill set match your current
Is the information relevant to the current needs of your family
Is the information relevant to the current needs of your
What problems are you planning to solve with this information
that you will gain from this particular course, book or lecture?
If you were the teacher how would you present this information
differently, and Why would you present this information differently?
Purposes of Education
So now you are ready to learn, and you are also now ready to
improve yourself and improve the world around you.
"Learning can be as easy as
breathing, you don't need to think about it, you just do it.
Breathing keeps you alive, and so does continually learning."
"Learning on your own is not easy, but
going to a University or an expensive school is not a guarantee
that you will learn the right things at the right time, or even
learn anything useful for your needs. A good teacher helps,
that's if you can find one. But learning to
is really the only sure way that you will be
successful on all your learning journeys."
Learning should not be a chore or be
. The only time that learning is boring is when you're in
school. Outside of school learning is awesome because you're
learning things that you want to learn, and you're learning
things when you want to learn them. 80% of the most valuable
knowledge and information is outside schools, this is why
continually learning is absolutely necessary. But you're not
going to learn much outside school unless you know how to find
the most valuable information and knowledge. So you have to be
active everyday in your search for knowledge. When you wake up
you should be saying "what new and interesting things will I
learn today?" But remember, knowledge and information is not
looking for you, or will it magically appear, so you have to be
actively explore all the right sources of information you can
find. So no more
worrying about passing a test that proves very little, because
Life is the test of your knowledge, and when life is a struggle,
or when life becomes to good to be true, then that means that
more learning is necessary. Don't associate learning with being
in school because you learn very little in school, and also,
schools give learning a bad name because they make learning seem
boring, which it isn't. You should associate learning as an
opportunity to acquire a new skill that gives you more
abilities. Learning is a gift that keeps on giving long after
you have learned something new, because you can recall it from
your memory. Learning is supposed to be fun, if it isn't, then
you're probably not doing it right, or you're not learning
something important, or you have
that are more important to learn first
Learning is supposed to be exhilarating and fun
if learning is not fun for you, then you most likely have a
or you are a
victim of some kind of abused from either bad schools or bad parenting or
a little of both.
"If the brain becomes more connected and
integrated after learning, and as a result, the person also
becomes a more effective learner, then what should a person be
learning? What knowledge and information would the brain best
utilize as it becomes more connected and more integrated?"
"People usually want to learn things
that are important to them, but that's only when people
accurately understand what's important to them. It's not just
knowing how to learn, it's knowing what to learn and when to
learn it. When learning is fragmented it becomes more difficult
to learn, and this is one of the reasons why too many people get
discourage from learning because it becomes to much of a chore for them.
This is what our current education is doing, and this is why we
need to improve education."
Your mind is something that you can
fully control, but you have to
learn how to control your mind, and that takes time and knowledge.
language is the same
, but some of the words will have
different meanings because they are internally translated into
the correct chemical responses or electrical signals in the
brain, signals that will be used to activate the correct
response or activate the correct action that is needed.
Holistic learners work through
most thoroughly and efficiently in "fits and starts."
They may often feel overwhelmed with confusion for a while, but
understanding will often suddenly click
. When the material does
suddenly click in understanding
, the holistic learner will
usually not only see the big picture
, but in a more clear and
creative perspective that other learners may not. Often,
holistic learners will take more time to understand information
than their peers
. This can often be so discouraging, that a
holistic learner may be more tempted to give up on a particular
subject. However, when holistic learners do finally understand
the material given, more extensively. Holistic learners are
usually extremely creative
Authoritarian vs Authoritative Teaching Polya and Lakatos
Effective Learning and Teaching
Objective of Education Is Learning, Not Teaching
Teacher's In-Depth Content Knowledge
Teaching Knowledge Test
The Research Council on Mathematics Learning
you are not slow or stupid
; rather, you
just think differently than other students. Maintain confidence!
If you stick to it, you will get it, and most likely retain the
information and be able to practically apply the subject matter
the rest of your life. Read all the subheadings, summaries, and
glossary or bold-face terms before reading the chapter. Pay
special attention to the chapter outline or overview. Set aside
an entire evening for one subject and plunge into that subject.
Once you have finished with that subject, move on to the next
subject. Do not try to study one chapter of one subject, and
then one chapter of another. Try taking subjects that are hard
for you in summer school when you are juggling fewer courses.
Relate the subject matter to the other subjects, concepts, or
ideas of which you are understand or in which you are confident.
Personalize and apply the subject matter to your world.
Presentation - Presenting
The way information and knowledge is presented to a person
is one of the most important elements of the teaching process. It's
part logic and part mind mapping
. It's showing relevant and
related information by grouping them together
categories and subcategories, so that the person can quickly and
easily determine if more information is needed that would give
an overall better understanding of the information and knowledge
presented. But certain knowledge described in a certain
way may not match your understanding. So you have to arrange the
information in a way that helps you to understand it better. So
you must learn that when information is presented to you, you
might have to rearrange that particular knowledge in order to
help you personally understand it better.
You need a brief introduction
and you need to
visualize your decision tree
in writing is a method of presenting
information which splits concepts into small pieces or "chunks
" of information to make reading and
understanding faster and easier
. Chunking is especially useful for
material presented on the web because readers tend to scan for specific
information on a web page rather than read the page sequentially. Chunked
content usually contains: bulleted lists, short subheadings, short
sentences with one or two ideas per sentence, short paragraphs, even
one-sentence paragraphs, easily scannable text, with bolding of key
phrases, inline graphics to guide the eyes or illustrate points which
would normally require more words. Advantages of chunking: Chunking helps
technical communicators or marketers convey information more efficiently.
Chunking helps readers find what they are looking for quickly. Chunking
allows material to be presented consistently from page to page, so users
can apply previous knowledge of page layout and navigation and focus on
the content rather than the presentation. The bite, snack and meal is a
popular phrase for a specific means of chunking content.
is the arrangement of visual elements on a page, generally
involves organizational principles of composition to achieve
specific communication objectives. Deciding on the overall
arrangement of text and images, and possibly on the
. It requires intelligence, sentience, and
, and is informed by
culture, psychology, and what the document authors and editors
wish to communicate
emphasize. Document Writing
is an example of
, in which
people react to a particular choice in different ways depending
on how it is presented.
of information according to
. Determine the arrangement of information for
Organized Personalized Education
, it's a great way to learn. You
may hear the terms Learning Menus, Customizing Content and
, but remember the most important factors
are, is the information and knowledge relevant to your learning
needs and priorities?
Personal Learning Environments
and managing appropriate technological processes and resources
to enhance learning.
is a physical setting in which teaching
and learning occur.
Student Approaches to Learning
is a theory that students
will take a different approach to how they study, depending upon
the perceived objectives of the course they are studying.
Sometimes you need to change your learning methods and
thinking styles in order to understand a particular knowledge. It's up to
you to find out which learning method, or methods, works best.
are the properties of an
which relate to the amount of computational
resources used by the algorithm. An algorithm must be analysed
to determine its resource usage. Algorithmic efficiency can be
thought of as analogous to engineering productivity for a
repeating or continuous process.
is the process of modifying a software
system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use
fewer resources. In general, a computer program may be optimized
so that it executes more rapidly, or is capable of operating
with less memory storage or other resources, or draw less power.
"If something feels over whelming
and you can't understand something enough, don't worry, that's
normal. It's just your minds way of saying "Hey we need more
information", in order to understand this correctly. So that
feeling you get from not knowing is not to alarm you, it's just
a way of making you aware so you can ask questions like "How
important is this new void of information?", and, what would be
the first step towards understanding this new information?"
The Power of Learning
"if you teach something that can be
interpreted in the wrong way, then that is ineffective teaching.
Many things can be interpreted in the wrong way, so defining the
interpretation, and also defining the misinterpretations, will
make knowledge and information a higher chance of being
understood more accurately."
Breathing Exercises for Learning Improvement
Take Several deep breaths
almost every hour that
, especially when
you're not physically active enough
, and especially when you are
learning. This will help increase oxygen levels
in your blood
and in your
. It will also help to relax your body and clear the
mind. It will also help increase your brain waves, or cycles per
second, into the
also enhance the performance of students. Changing the
state of mind
operate Beta, Alpha and Theta can also enhance learning, cognition and
creativity, while at the same time staying in a relaxed state.
observed in the hippocampus.
for a few moments, then take a deep breath
at a count of 4, hold that breath for 4 seconds, then exhale
that breath for a count of 4 seconds, and then repeat these deep
breaths 4 more times.
There are other
that may work better for you, so you will have to do some
is a simple breathing technique to alleviate stress
Breathing through the nose aids Memory Storage
. When breathing through
the nose between the time of learning and recognition, they remembered
the smells better. Receptors in the
detect not only smells but also variations in the
airflow itself. In the different phases of inhalation and exhalation,
different parts of the brain are activated. But how the
breathing and brain activity happens and how it affects the brain and
therefore our behaviour is unknown.
Now that you have done your deep
breathing exercise, it's time to quite your thoughts. Now
focus and keep
on breathing normally through the nose.
Calmly and comfortably breath in and out. Your brain will
that bring you into a tranquil and alert state of mind. (7 cps).
Music for Enhancing Learning and Focus
Music can stimulate learning. The music should be playing in the background so that
not too loud
that it becomes distracting. Listening
to music with 50 to 80 beats per minute
the mind that is conducive to logical thought, allowing the
brain to learn and remember new facts. Studies have shown that
classical music targets the part of the brain that stimulates
spatial-temporal reasoning, which is useful in solving math
problems. But remember learning takes
. I like my learning area to be
, even though
that's impossible. I can tune out most
unusual happens that distracts
. So if your music does not
you, then that is the type of music you should listen to when
reading or studying. But remember, remembering is not a guarantee,
is a skill
that you have to use deliberately
in order to have an effective
memory. And when reading, writing or learning, you have to be able to
in order to stay focused, just as long as you are not
Lyric-Free Music can be less distracting.
are a set of research results indicating that
listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the
performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal
For some the best sound for
. Or take a
break every few hours and listen to music for 15 minutes.
is the scientific study of sound perception
specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and
physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and
). It can be further categorized as a branch
of psychophysics. Psychoacoustics received its name from a field within
psychology—i.e., recognition science—which deals with all kinds of human
perceptions. It is an interdisciplinary field of many areas, including
psychology, acoustics, electronic engineering, physics, biology,
physiology, and computer science. Hearing
have to experiment with different types of music to see which ones inspire
learning without distracting you.
Lo-Fi Hip Hop Beats
Are So Effective For Focus - How Focus Music Hacks Your Brain - Cheddar
Study Music: Brain
Music for Studying, Brain Power Focus Music, Concentration Music for
SAMUEL BARBER -
Adagio for Strings, Op. 11
Chet Baker ~ Every
Time We Say Goodbye
Study Music Alpha
Waves: Relaxing Studying Music, Brain Power, Focus Concentration Music,
Study Music for
Concentration, Instrumental Music, Classical Music, Work Music, Relax,
Music | Mozart with Alpha Study Aid Embedded - Alpha BiNaural Beats
Space Sound Odyssey
| Deep White Noise For Focus, Power Naps or Sleep
Philip Glass -
Music - STUDY FOCUS CONCENTRATE - HELP YOU WORK FAST
Jurassic Park Theme 1000 percent Slower
Beiber - U Smile (800% Slower) [HQ]
Bach - Cello Suite
No. 1 in G Major BWV1007 - Mov. 1-3/6
Roger & Brian Eno –
Brian Eno - New
Space Music (Visualizer)
Nils Frahm - Says
(Live on KEXP)
Nils Frahm -
Fundamental Values (Live)
as a Learning and Teaching Tool
: I am now ready to learn, I am relaxed, focused and
I have a
Heightened Sense of Curiosity
right before you go to sleep, and learning one hour before you
go to Sleep
Activation of the
Ventral Tegmental Area
is essential to motivation, performance,
measures brain waves to produce a
signal that can be used as feedback to teach
Real Life Examples
are powerful, as long as you learn them in the right order
at the right time. Just like computer code
it has to be in the
right order and at the right time
but I also like knowing the details and the
of different learning methods.
Passing the Baton
You have to be patient with peoples lack of knowledge and
. But your patience should not be passive because
you still need to communicate effectively and at least try to
educate that person or persons. You don't want to miss an
opportunity to teach someone even if that person is not
receptive to learning. This is when the teacher needs to get
creative in their teaching methods, There is always a way in.
Like a 4 number combination lock, you have to try the right
combination of teaching methods in order to unlock the brains
ability to understand the information that you are trying to
communicate. There is always a way in, the brain was built this
way, I guess it was the only way to insure its survival. The
genius of its design still amazes me today.
"We all have brains, but not everyone has enough
knowledge in order to use the brain correctly so that would it
fully utilize the brains incredible potential." -
Keep Learning My Friends
"Remember that schools and colleges are mostly just basic job skills. The real education is outside school. 80% of the worlds most
important information and knowledge is
beyond the classroom walls
Thinking - Thoughts
is the process
of using your mind
The activity of processing
. Endowed with the capacity
or regard something.
To look upon
or suppose. To use or exercise the mind or one's power of
reason in order to make inferences
, or arrive at a
. To recall
and have a recollection. To
To Focus one's
on a certain state.
To have in mind
reflecting. To dispose the mind in a certain way.
To have or formulate
in the mind. To
To bring into a given condition by mental
Seeing the Whole Picture
Thinking About Something
is to have
something on one's mind, and to think about it actively. To take something
into consideration or to have in view.
- One Thought Leads to
- Thinking to
- Freedom of Thought
can refer to the ideas or arrangements of
that result from thinking, the
act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts.
You are what you think
is the main thing that you are
thinking about and the content of
. The process of using your mind to consider something
carefully. The organized beliefs
period, group or individual. A personal
or a judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty. An
is exhibiting careful thought
and having intellectual depth
. Acting with
good sense. Taking heed
giving close and thoughtful attention
the feelings or well-being of others.
Language and Thought
states that we think in the language
we speak. Can you think without using words or
Language of Thought Hypothesis
states that thinking takes
place in a language of thought. Cognition and cognitive processes
are only remotely plausible when expressed as a system of
representations that is tokened by a linguistic or semantic structure
and operated upon by means of a combinatorial syntax. Linguistic tokens
used in mental language describe elementary concepts which are operated
upon by logical rules establishing causal connections to allow for complex
thought. Syntax as well as semantics have a causal effect on the
properties of this system of mental representations. These
are not present in the brain in the same way as symbols are present on
paper; rather, the LOT is supposed to exist at the cognitive level, the
level of thoughts and concepts. The LOTH has wide-ranging significance for
a number of domains in cognitive science. It relies on a version of
functionalist materialism, which holds that mental representations are
actualized and modified by the individual holding the propositional
attitude, and it challenges eliminative materialism and connectionism. It
implies a strongly rationalist model of cognition in which many of the
fundamentals of cognition are innate. This describes the nature of thought
as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure (sometimes known
as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways
(akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most
basic form, the theory states that thought, like language, has syntax.
Language of Thought Hypothesis describes the nature of thought as
" or compositional
(sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in systematic ways (akin
to the rules of grammar in language) to build thoughts. In its most basic
form, the theory states that
language, has syntax
, which is a
orderly arrangement, or the
arrangement of words in
Outline of Thought
are the mental
process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the
world. Thinking is manipulating information, as when we form concepts,
engage in problem solving, reason and make decisions. Thought, the act of
thinking, produces thoughts. A thought may be an idea, an image, a sound
or even an emotional feeling that arises from the brain.
List of Thought Processes
of thinking in a particular
way, using particular assumptions
Perception, Attention, Learning, and Memory.
as opposed to physical
is profound thinking
about something. In a religious sense, contemplation is usually a type of
is to think intently about
something or think deeply about a subject or question over a period of
Observe deep in thought. To look at
consider something as a possibility. (mulling it over,
over, studying, pondering).
is to think about something carefully or to
something carefully in
order to determine the weight or the importance of something. To study
something to find a solution. To judge or regard. To look upon something
or look at something attentively and perceive or think about it in a
particular way. Focus
as an example.
is reflecting deep or serious thought.
Navigating our Thoughts: Fundamental Principles of Thinking
. When we
navigate our environment
two important cell types are active in our brain
. Place cells in the
and grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex form a
circuit that allows orientation and navigation. The team of scientists
suggests that our inner navigation system
does much more. They propose
that this system is also key to 'thinking', explaining why our knowledge
seems to be organized
is the thought processes involved in
formulating a problem
and expressing its
solution(s) in such a way that a computer
carry out. Computational Thinking is an iterative process based on three
stages (captured by the figure to the right): Problem formulation
(abstraction); Solution expression (automation); Solution execution and
"cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking
", or "knowing about
" and higher order thinking skills. It comes from the root word
"meta", meaning beyond. It can take many forms; it includes knowledge
about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for
problem solving. There are generally two components of metacognition:
knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition.
, defined as knowing about memory
and mnemonic strategies
, is an
especially important form of metacognition. Academic research on
metacognitive processing across cultures is in the early stages, but there
are indications that further work may provide better outcomes in
cross-cultural learning between teachers and students. Some evolutionary
psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a
which would make metacognition the same across cultures. Writings on
metacognition can be traced back at least as far as On the Soul and the
Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher
Train of Thought
refers to the interconnection in the
of ideas expressed during a
connected discourse or thought, as well as the sequence itself, especially
in discussion how this sequence leads from one idea to another.
is to explore the potential consequences of the
principle in question: "A thought experiment is a device with which one
performs an intentional, structured process of intellectual deliberation
in order to speculate, within a specifiable problem domain, about
(or antecedents) for a designated antecedent (or consequent).
are fundamental axiomatic rules upon which rational
discourse itself is often considered to be based. The formulation and
clarification of such rules have a long tradition in the history of
philosophy and logic
. Generally they
are taken as laws that guide and underlie everyone's thinking, thoughts,
expressions, discussions, etc. However, such classical ideas are often
questioned or rejected in more recent developments, such as intuitionistic
logic, dialetheism and fuzzy logic.
is a device, system or object of inputs and outputs (or transfer
characteristics), in which a person has no knowledge of its internal
workings. Almost anything might be referred to as a black box: a
transistor, an algorithm, or the human brain
Divergent Thinking - Convergent Thinking
is tending to
apart in different directions
from another or from a standard
To have no limits as a mathematical series. Extend in a different
direction. Be at variance with; be out of line with.
is a thought process
or method used to generate
exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with
its cognitive colleague, convergent thinking, which follows a particular
set of logical steps
to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a
‘correct’ solution. By contrast, divergent thinking typically occurs in a
, free-flowing, 'non-linear' manner, such that many ideas are
generated in an emergent cognitive
fashion. Many possible solutions are
explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn.
After the process of divergent thinking has been completed, ideas and
information are organized and structured using convergent thinking.
follows a particular set of
logical steps to arrive at one solution
, which in some cases is a
‘correct’ solution. Generally means the ability to give the "correct"
answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity.
is tending to
from different directions. Direct one's
on something. Bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge;
of ideas or emotions. Become focused or come into
Lineal Thinking - Lateral Thinking
is to arranged in a line
something to move towards a certain goal. Give directions to; point somebody into a certain direction. Direct the course.
Straightforward in means or manner or behavior or language or
Similar in nature or effect or relation to another quantity
something that does not progress or develop smoothly from one stage to the
next in a logical way. Instead, it makes sudden changes, or seems to
develop in different directions at the same time.
through an indirect and
that is not
immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by
using only traditional step-by-step logic. Lateral
is situated at or extending to the side.
a mathematical model of a system based on the use of a
. Linear systems typically exhibit features and properties
that are much simpler than the nonlinear case. As a mathematical
abstraction or idealization, linear systems find important applications in
automatic control theory, signal processing, and telecommunications. For
example, the propagation medium for wireless communication systems can
often be modeled by linear systems. Quantum Computing
is the process of giving careful thought to something.
that should be kept in mind when making a
is a further development of
the well known lateral thinking processes, focusing even more on
explorations—looking for what can be rather than for what is.
- Parallel Wiring
Modes of thinking:
abstract, analytic, conceptual, concrete, convergent, creative,
critical, deductive, divergent, strategic, synthetic, tactical,
and also computational and procedural. How you approach a
problem and how you see it. Having step-by-step set of
directions are important, but sometimes you need a different
approach. One heuristic way for solving a complex problem is to
break the problem into smaller, more manageable problems, where
you can utilize brainstorming and collaboration.
“I think, therefore I'll think.”
"We rarely give much thought to certain things, even though our
brains never stop thinking. Why?"
- Problem Solving
- Thinking Styles
Thinking Outside the Box
is a metaphor that
means to think differently
, unconventionally, or from a new perspective.
This phrase often refers to novel or creative thinking
Linear learners learn most
thoroughly and efficiently, when material is presented
in a logical, ordered progression
. They will often attack
problem solving with a series of ordered steps. They often will
understand in part before understanding the whole. They prefer
to start off with the simplest concept or part of a problem, and
work through to the more difficult parts until the whole
solution is found. Many teachers and instructors follow a linear
If your instructor moves from one topic to another,
make sure you rewrite your notes, and fill in the gaps in your
notes. This may require borrowing another student's notes, or
actually visiting the professor outside of the classroom. If the
instructor skips around and does not follow a logical or
chronological progression, you may want to rewrite the subject
matter according to a logical progression that makes sense to
you. Always outline the subject matter.
Linear vs. Non-linear Learning
Right Brain Parallel
Left Brain Serial
- Lineal Thinking
refers to finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point.
In the study of dynamical systems, linearization is a method for assessing
the local stability of an equilibrium point of a system of nonlinear
differential equations or discrete dynamical systems.
Seeing the Whole Picture - Seeing Beneath the Surface
Being able to see all the different
in our world can give us a much better
and the world around us. But most people just see the
and most people just see life as being
. This type of low
level thinking and shallow view
is fine if you're
. But if
you really want to fully understand yourself and the world around you, you
need to learn more about all the different things that are happening
inside you, and learn more
about all the different things that are
happening around you in the environment and in other
Not being aware
of all the
in life is extremely risky and dangerous. And not being aware of your full
potential will reduce your odds of having a good life. Every problem that
we see in the world is directly related to people
not having enough
knowledge and information
. We understand all the negative side effects
that comes from having a poor education
, and we can clearly see all the
benefits that comes from having a good education, but we still can't see
below the surface of things in order to live life to its full potential.
Let the truth
There's more than what meets the eye
not just your
field of view
, it's more about your
depth of knowledge
. You can't
fully see what you don't know and you can't clearly understand
have never learned. If you don't know something
, then you
it or be
thus things can be invisible
you. You need X-Ray Eyes
. Connecting the Dots
Pyramid of Complexity
Reading Between the Lines
Two Sides to a
is a large range of
values, qualities, ideas or activities. An
of an emission
or wave. Full Spectrum is having all
proportions covering an entire range or
shows different colors in white light
that you normally don't see.Grand Scheme
of the situation
. The big picture. All
The Grand Scheme
is the complete picture of something. The
in general; the way the world is. It means that when you
things in perspective
, taking everything into account, sometimes what has
previously been considered significant isn't quite significant. Describes
how important one thing is when compared
to everything else in a situation
or how one thing relates to the other things in a situation.
Look Beneath the Surface
of something, and not
just the traits
most easily identified. Look beneath
the surface of the text
. Just Scratching the Surface
is when you know that
there's a lot more below the surface
of something that you cannot see, and
that you need to learn more and
in order to understand the situation more accurately, and
thus find a solution
or an answer.
Peeling Back the Layers of the Onion
to go beyond the outside appearances when judging something or someone.
People have a great many facets to their personalities that will not
always be readily seen. To observe
these traits requires that you observe
more than just what is on the
is something that has many
or many aspects, sides, faces or nuances. A complicated issue that have
lots of contributing factors. Facet
side of something that has many sides. A particular aspect or feature of
forming a composite image, which is a picture that is made from the
images merged into a single surface. A mosaic in art
consists of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass.
(you have to
the pieces together
in order to see the whole picture).
up of complicated and related
. Consisting of separate interconnected parts.
is a material made from two or more constituent
materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties
that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different
from the individual components.Depth
is the intellectual ability
deeply into ideas. Degree of psychological or intellectual
. The extent
downward, backward or inward. The attribute or quality of being deep,
strong, extreme or intense. The deepest and most remote part. depth can
also mean a measurement of the distance from the top or
to the bottom
is extending far
down from the top or
. very intense or extreme.
Standing too Close to an Elephant
you miss the entire picture of the situation because your
focus is to
, you can't actually see the elephant, all you see is it's skin and
the enormity of the elephant close up overwhelms the entire picture. So
You need to stand back in order to see the whole picture.
You Can't See the Forest for the Trees
an expression used when someone is too involved
with certain details
problem that they can't
see the situation as a whole
. It means that if you look at things one at a
time, you might not realize that a branch of separate "trees" go together
to make a "forest". When you are too close to a situation you need to step
back and get a little
. When you do you will notice there was a
whole forest you couldn't see before because you were too close, and
focusing on the trees. Simply that you have
on the many details and
have failed to see the overall view, impression or key point.
seeing the trees for the wood maybe from suppression by higher brain
. Researchers have shown how it is possible that objects stand
out less when they are surrounded by similar objects. This
surroundings-suppressing effect is caused by feedback from higher visual
brain areas. The results of this research are important for a better
understanding of the way in which the brain transforms incoming light into
a cohesive image.
can give us the ability to
gain a greater and higher perspective. For example, if we’re irritated and
angered by something or someone, and we step back from that experience, we
can explore how the experience was created, what triggered it, what went
on inside of us that generated our response, how it fits or doesn’t fit
with our larger purposes and values, how useful or ecological the
experience is, and what we could do to alter our response. The
mental-emotional step back gives us new
insight, and choice.Higher-Order Thinking
is when a person takes new information and information stored in memory
and extends this information to achieve
a purpose or find possible answers in perplexing situations. This
challenges the student to interpret, analyze, or manipulate information
through multiple levels
in order for them to
gain a better understanding of the content.
- Replacing Bad
.Half Truth is like Seeing only Half of
, or hearing only half of a sentence or reading only half of a
book. Black Box
"Look Beneath to See Things for What They Truly Are." -
Building Blocks of Life
Everyone needs a full spectrum of knowledge and
information in order to fully understand themselves and the world around
them. Being good at only one or two things will leave you
mistakes and give you a false sense of security. Your
needs to be strong and level, if not, your house of
knowledge will be on shaky ground and could eventually collapse and come
crumbling down, as it has for millions of people
throughout human history
, and everyday
in the 21st century. It's time to
lift the veil
and see everything that we have been missing.
Thinking in Levels - Seeing all the Layers
Life is made up of Layers
that you can
, and the
more layers that you can understand
, the better your
and actions will be. In order to see the bigger picture
or see the full spectrum
, you need to learn and gain knowledge that will give you the skills
and the ability to see the entire picture, and thus, have a better
understanding of yourself and the world around you. You have to see
beneath the surface
You need to Extrapolate
all the Layers of Information
and see all the
layers of information beyond or beneath the
. Don't just see
the surface, and don't limit things to a
or to a single
refers to the things
that are below or beneath what we can see or understand, things that are
hidden but important, things that shape the meaning or the effect of
something else, without being explicit itself.
Cause and Effect
in computer science is a
technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. It works by
establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the
the more complex details below the current level. The
programmer works with an idealized
(usually well defined) and
can add additional levels of functionality that would otherwise be too
complex to handle.
is a series of
people or things within a system
The organization of people at different levels of responsibilities
Need to Know Basis
is a way of hiding the implementation details
of a particular
set of functionality
, allowing the
separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and
Examples of software models that use layers of abstraction include the OSI
model for network protocols, OpenGL and other graphics libraries.
Principle of Abstraction
is the amount of
complexity by which a system is viewed or programmed. The higher the
level, the less detail. The lower the level, the more detail.
level of abstraction is the entire system
. The next level would be a
handful of components, and so on, while the lowest level could be millions
should have primary top-level thinking that keeps the mind from
too far from your main
objectives and from becoming unaware of it self or your surroundings.
Stack Data Structure
is an abstract data
type that serves as a
collection of elements
, with two principal operations: push, which
adds an element to the collection, and pop, which removes the most
recently added element that was not yet removed.
is a stack data structure that
stores information about the active
of a computer program.
is a sheet, quantity,
or thickness of material, typically one of several, covering a surface or
body. Single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance. A relatively
thin sheet like expanse or region lying over or under another. An abstract
place usually conceived as having depth. Thin structure composed of a
single thickness of cells
Multi-Dimensional Universe in Brain Networks
Data Link Layer
is the second layer of the
seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol
layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area
network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN)
segment. The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means
to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to
detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the physical layer.
is the lowest layer in the
, commonly known as TCP/IP, the networking architecture of
the Internet. It is described in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The link layer is
the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the
link that a host is physically connected to. The link is the physical and
logical network component used to interconnect hosts or nodes in the
network and a link protocol is a suite of methods and standards that
operate only between adjacent network nodes of a local area network
segment or a wide area network connection.
In the seven-layer OSI model
, the physical
layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be
implemented by a
. The physical layer consists of the
transmission technologies of a network. It is a
fundamental layer underlying the higher level functions in a network. Due
to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying
characteristics, this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI
architecture. The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw
bits rather than logical data packets over a physical data link connecting
network nodes. The bitstream may be grouped into code words or symbols and
converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a transmission
medium. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and
procedural interface to the transmission medium. The shapes and properties
of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the line
code to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified here. Within
the semantics of the OSI model, the physical layer translates logical
communications requests from the
data link layer
into hardware-specific operations to cause
transmission or reception of electronic signals.
There are levels of
and levels of
understanding. (Quick thinking but not quick to Judge).
High and Low Level
are terms used to
classify, describe and point to specific goals of a systematic operation,
though its uses also vary depending on the context. high-level is used to
describe operations that are more abstract in nature, where overall goals
and systemic features are typically more concerned with the wider, macro
system as a whole. Alternatively, a low-level description is one that
describes more specific individual components of a systematic operation,
focusing on the details of rudimentary micro functions rather than macro,
complex processes. Low-level classification is typically more concerned
with individual components within the system and how they operate.
is a position on a scale
or amount or Quality
. A relative position
or Degree of Value
in a graded
group. A specific identifiable
in a continuum or series or especially in a
. Height above ground. A flat
surface at right angles
to a plumb line. An
conceived as having depth. A structure consisting of a room or set of
rooms at a single position along a vertical scale. Make level, even or
straight. Having a surface without slope, tilt in which no part is higher
or lower than another. Not showing abrupt variations. Being on a precise
. Direct into a position
that the brain operates on many dimensions
not just the 3 dimensions that we are accustomed to. Scientists have
uncovered a universe of multi-dimensional geometrical structures and
spaces within the
of the brain.
is a branch of mathematics
that uses tools from abstract algebra
study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants
that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most
classify up to homotopy equivalence. Although algebraic
primarily uses algebra to study
topological problems, using topology to solve algebraic problems is
sometimes also possible. Algebraic topology, for example, allows for a
convenient proof that any subgroup of a free group is again a free group.
Algebraic topology is like a telescope and microscope at the same time. It
can zoom into networks to find hidden
is a layer of rock or soil
with internally consistent characteristics.
is one of two or more layers one atop
another. A Relative Position
of value in a
is a layer within a body of water
where the temperature
changes rapidly with depth.
in digital image editing are used to separate different elements of an image. A layer can be
compared to a transparency on which imaging effects or images are applied
and placed over or under an image. Today they are an integral feature of
in object-oriented design is a group of classes that have the
same set of link-time module dependencies to other modules. In other
words, a layer is a group of reusable components that are reusable in
similar circumstances. In programming languages, the layer distinction is
often expressed as "import" dependencies between software modules.
in chemistry is the reversible inclusion or insertion of
(or ion) into materials with layered
are found in graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides.
. This is not the same thing as
being on a different level then someone else or
being level headed. This also does not imply
that always being conscious is always
having an understanding of many things. But the
true beauty of Awareness is that it is an
endless sea of
Everyone is on
. Even though you may feel
on the top level
, there are always levels above
you that are undiscovered. Computers have all
these layers of information
or code. And you can interact with different levels while working on a
single plane. Desktop Windows is one example, or when using imaging
software where you can work on many layers of information all at once.
On the Same Level
is when people think
similarly and get along and have the same long term goals and moral values
in life that you have. Equal
Not On the Same Level
is when people
are not educated in the same way and one person may have more education
and skills than another person.
.Over Your Head
that something is beyond your ability to understand.
Nerve Cells are
Arranged in Layers
How many files do you have open?
random or organized? Do things on your desktop
last longer then they should?
"I always liked thinking. I
love to spend hours just thinking. And one of
the things I learned about thinking is that the
more I learned the more enjoyable my thoughts
became, and also the more productive my thoughts
Learning is extremely important to
Serial Arrangements of Sensory
- Functional Aspects
Flow of Thought
and Bottom-Up Design
are both strategies of
information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields
including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics),
and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style
of thinking, teaching, or leadership.
in the peripheral nervous system, the myelin sheath of
each axon in a nerve is wrapped in a delicate protective sheath known as
the endoneurium. Within the nerve, axons targeting the same anatomical
location bundled together into groups known as fascicles, each surrounded
by another protective sheath known as the perineurium. Several fascicles
may be in turn bundled together with a blood supply and fatty tissue
within yet another sheath, the epineurium. This grouping structure is
analogous to the muscular organization system of epimysium, perimysium and
Conscious Competence Model
Conscious Competence Ladder
- Four Stages of Competence
Assessing Higher Order Thinking Skills
The Measurement of Perceptual Load and Reserve
Modularity of Mind
is the notion that a mind may, at least in part,
be composed of innate neural structures
or modules which have distinct established evolutionarily developed
Modular brains help organisms learn new skills
without forgetting old skills
Levels of Understanding:
is the active acquisition of
primary source. In living beings, observation
science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of
. The term may also refer to any data collected during the
scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, only the
absence or presence of a property is noted, or quantitative if a numerical
value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring
is a quotation that is encapsulated inside
, forming a hierarchy with multiple levels. When focusing
on a certain quotation, one must interpret it within its scope. Nested
quotation can be used in literature (as in nested narration), speech, and
computer science (as in "meta"-statements that refer to other statements
as strings). Nested quotation can be very confusing until evaluated
carefully and until each quotation level is put into perspective.
is an area in which something acts or
operates or has power or control. The
state of the environment
in which a
Visible Light Communication
is a data communications
variant which uses visible
between 400 and 800 THz (780–375 nm). VLC is a subset of
wireless communications technologies
Levels of Processing Effect
describes memory recall of
stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of
analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger
than shallow levels of analysis. Depth of
falls on a
shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing (e.g., processing based on
phonemic and orthographic components) leads to a fragile memory trace that
is susceptible to rapid decay. Conversely, deep processing (e.g., semantic
processing) results in a more durable memory trace.
surfaces are triangular
and converge to a single point at the top, making
the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid
can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a
pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces
including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four
triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.
for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships
between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information
is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and
in terms of knowledge".
in software is an abstraction in which
generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional
user-written code, thus providing application-specific software. A
software framework is a universal, reusable software environment that
provides particular functionality as part of a larger software platform to
facilitate development of software applications, products and solutions.
Software frameworks may include support programs, compilers,
, tool sets, and application programming
bring together all the different components to enable development of a
project or system.
Levels in video gaming
is the total space available to the
during the course of completing a discrete objective.
specifies the shared protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a
communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both
of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite
(TCP/IP) and the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model).
is a conceptual model that
characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a
or computing system without regard to their underlying
internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of
diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model
partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original
version of the model defined seven layers.
is a comprehensive computer model
of the human mind.
is an analytical tool
with several variations and contexts. It is used to make conceptual
distinctions and organize ideas. Strong conceptual frameworks capture
something real and do this in a way that is easy to remember and apply.
Functional Software Architecture
architectural model that identifies enterprise functions, interactions and
corresponding IT needs. These functions can be used as reference by
different domain experts to develop IT-systems as part of a co-operative
information-driven enterprise. In this way both software engineers and
enterprise architects are able to create an information-driven, integrated
Language of Thought Hypothesis
nature of thought as possessing "language-like" or compositional structure
(sometimes known as mentalese). On this view, simple concepts combine in
systematic ways (akin to the rules of grammar in language) to build
thoughts. In its most basic form, the theory states that
language, has syntax
Human Operating System
is the thought processes
involved in formulating a problem and expressing its solution(s) in such a
way that a computer—human or machine—can effectively carry out. 1: Problem
Formulation (abstraction). 2: Solution Expression (automation). 3:
Solution Execution and Evaluation (analyses).
is a category that expresses
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
The Restless Mind
7 Distinct Layers of the
Manas = Instinctual body
Manas = Instinctual breath
Manas = Instinctual mind
Buddhi = Discriminative intellect
Smriti = memory
Ahamkara = ego
Purusha = self
is a concept of education reform based on
learning taxonomies (such as Bloom's taxonomy). The idea is that some
types of learning require more cognitive processing than others, but also
have more generalized benefits. In Bloom's taxonomy, for example, skills
involving analysis, evaluation and synthesis (creation of new knowledge)
are thought to be of a higher order than the learning of facts and
concepts which requires different learning and teaching methods.
Higher-order thinking involves the learning of complex judgmental skills
such as critical thinking and problem solving. Higher-order thinking is
more difficult to learn or teach but also more valuable because such
skills are more likely to be usable in novel situations (i.e., situations
other than those in which the skill was learned).
is a set of three hierarchical models used to
classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and
specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive,
affective and sensory domains. The cognitive domain list has been the
primary focus of most traditional education and is frequently used to
structure curriculum learning objectives, assessments and activities.
Knowledge involves recognizing or remembering facts, terms, basic
concepts, or answers without necessarily understanding what they mean. Its
characteristics may include: Knowledge of specifics—terminology, specific
facts. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics—conventions,
trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria,
methodology. Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a
field—principles and generalizations, theories and structures.
Comprehension involves demonstrating an understanding of facts and ideas
by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions,
and stating the main ideas. Application involves using acquired
knowledge—solving problems in new situations by applying acquired
knowledge, facts, techniques and rules. Learners should be able to use
prior knowledge to solve problems, identify connections and relationships
and how they apply in new situations. Analysis involves examining and
breaking information into component parts, determining how the parts
relate to one another, identifying motives or causes, making inferences,
and finding evidence to support generalizations. Its characteristics
include: Analysis of elements. Analysis of relationships. Analysis of
organization. Synthesis involves building a structure or pattern from
diverse elements; it also refers to the act of putting parts together to
form a whole. Its characteristics include: Production of a unique
communication. Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations.
Derivation of a set of abstract relations. Evaluation involves presenting
and defending opinions by making judgments about information, the validity
of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Its
characteristics include: Judgments in terms of internal evidence.
Judgments in terms of external criteria. The taxonomy is set out as
follows: 1.00 Knowledge. 1.10 Knowledge of specifics. 1.11 Knowledge of
terminology. 1.12 Knowledge of specific facts. 1.20 Knowledge of ways and
means of dealing with specifics. 1.21 Knowledge of conventions. 1.22
Knowledge of trends and sequences. 1.23 Knowledge of classifications and
categories. 1.24 Knowledge of criteria. 1.25 Knowledge of methodology.
1.30 Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field. 1.31
Knowledge of principles and generalizations. 1.32 Knowledge of theories
Hierarchy - Series of Ordered Groupings
refers to the arrangement or
in a way that implies importance. Visual hierarchy influences the
order in which the human eye perceives what it sees. This order is created
by the visual contrast between forms in a
field of perception
with highest contrast to their surroundings are recognized first by the
human mind. The term visual hierarchy is used most frequently in the
discourse of the visual arts fields, notably so within the field of
structure) - Levels of Thinking
is an arrangement of items (objects,
etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above,"
"below," or "at the same level as" one another.
Cognitive Hierarchy Theory
is a behavioral
model originating in behavioral economics and
that attempts to
describe human thought processes in strategic games. CHT aims to improve
upon the accuracy of predictions made by standard analytic methods
(including backwards induction and iterated elimination of dominated
strategies), which can deviate considerably from actual experimental
Neural top down control of physiology
the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition
to smooth muscle and glandular ones) This regulation occurs through the
sympathetic and parasympathetic system
(the autonomic nervous system), and
their direct innervation of body organs and tissues that starts in the
brainstem. There is also a noninnervation hormonal control through the
hypothalamus and pituitary (HPA). These lower brain areas are under
control of cerebral cortex ones. Such cortical regulation differs between
its left and right sides. Pavlovian conditioning shows that brain control
over basic cell level physiological function can be learnt.
Top-down modulation of
attention by emotion
is a data model in which the data is
The data is stored as records
which are connected to one another through
. A record is a
collection of fields
, with each field containing only
for representing purported
structural and/or functional relationships
between data, information,
knowledge, and wisdom. "Typically information is defined in terms of data,
knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge" (wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy).
Hierarchical Temporal Memory Interaction of Pyramidal Neurons in the
Neocortex. Pyramidal is something that resembles a pyramid. A top down
structure where your most important priorities reside.
over looks your decisions. So you have to make sure that you are not a
Real-time Control System
is a reference model
architecture, suitable for many software-intensive, real-time
problem domains. RCS is a reference model architecture that defines the
types of functions that are required in a real-time intelligent control
system, and how these functions are related to each other.
is the powerful and compelling
process for producing everyday business documents – to-the-point memos,
clear reports, successful proposals, or dynamic presentations.
is the examination of one's
own conscious thoughts and feelings
the process of
introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state,
while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's
. Introspection is closely related to human self-reflection and is
contrasted with external observation.
is the ease with which
information is processed. Perceptual fluency is the ease of
stimuli based on manipulations to perceptual quality. Retrieval fluency is
the ease with which information can be retrieved from
is the ensemble of activities of planning and
of a business process
. The term usually refers to the management of
business processes and manufacturing processes. Business process
management (BPM) and business process reengineering are interrelated, but
Levels of Processing Effect
refers to models and
tools for supporting the management
at the individual or at
the collective level (cf. attention economy), and at the short-term (quasi
real time) or at a longer term (over periods of weeks or months).
are a set of
including attentional control
, as well as reasoning
– that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and
successfully monitoring behaviors
that facilitate the
attainment of chosen
. Executive functions gradually
develop and change across the
of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course
of a person's life. Similarly, these cognitive processes
can be adversely
affected by a variety of events which affect an individual.
Human Operating System
Mind over Body
is a person
. Having the
of carrying out
orders. Someone who manages
a government agency or department.
that organizes categories
among them. It can also be described as a mental
ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a
and perceiving new information. Schemata influence attention
and the absorption of new knowledge
: people are more likely to notice
things that fit into their schema, while re-interpreting
the schema as exceptions or distorting them to fit. Schemata have a
tendency to remain unchanged, even in the face of
. Schemata can help in understanding the world and the rapidly
changing environment. People can organize new perceptions into schemata
quickly as most situations do not require complex thought when using
schema, since automatic thought is all that is required.Higher-Order Thinking
is when a person takes new information and information stored in memory
and extends this information to achieve
a purpose or find possible answers in perplexing situations. This
challenges the student to interpret, analyze, or manipulate information
through multiple levels
in order for them to
gain a better understanding of the content.
- Replacing Bad
Synchronizing specific brain oscillations enhances executive function
Two brain regions -- the medial frontal and lateral
-- control most
executive function. Researchers used high-definition transcranial
alternating current stimulation (HD-tACS) to synchronize oscillations
between them, improving brain processing. De-synchronizing did the opposite.
Related Subjects -
Simultaneous Subject Learning
(people smart) -
- Very Low Frequency