Musical Intelligence - Music Education - Music Therapy


Music is an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner. Any agreeable, pleasing and harmonious sounds. Musical activity like singing or whistling etc. Sounds produced by singers or musical instruments (or reproductions of such sounds). Music is more then just learning an instrument. Music Smart involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns and rhythms.

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Music Sheet Music Education - Music Instrument Lessons

Reading Sheet Music - Musical Instruments

Music as a Teaching Tool and Learning Tool

Films about Music - Music Therapy - Rhythm

Singing - Singing Lessons - Does my Singing Sound Good?

Sound - Loudness - Hearing Errors

Music Editing Tools

Sound Systems - Speakers - Headphones - Microphones

Music News - Music Shows - Music Museums - Music Online Sources

Music Genre's - Types of Music - How Many Songs have Been Created


Music Education


Music Education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It touches on all learning domains, including the psychomotor domain (the development of skills), the cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge), and, in particular and significant ways, the affective domain (the learner's willingness to receive, internalize, and share what is learned), including music appreciation and sensitivity. Music training from preschool through post-secondary education is common in most nations because involvement with music is considered a fundamental component of human culture and behavior. Music, like language, is an accomplishment that distinguishes humans as a species. Music students do better in school than non-musical peers. High school students who take music courses score significantly better on math, science and English exams than their non-musical peers, according to a new study. Rhythm - Soundtracks.

How Music Works (Video: 48:18, Francis Hanly, David Jeffcock-2006)

History of Music. Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely between times and places. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, it may be concluded that music is likely to have been present in the ancestral population prior to the dispersal of humans around the world. Consequently, the first music may have been invented in Africa and then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life. A culture's music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture, including social and economic organization and experience, climate, and access to technology. The emotions and ideas that music expresses, the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions and periods. Music History is the distinct subfield of musicology and history which studies music (particularly Western art music) from a chronological perspective. The oldest known song was written in cuneiform, dating to 3,400 years ago from Ugarit in Syria.

Evolution of Music. Music evolved as human emotions evolved and as human language evolved and as human intelligence evolved. The sound of music has changed as society has changed over the years, thus the change in the sound of music is really a reflection of our cultural evolution. In Indigenous cultures, music played a role in ceremonies and tradition. Traditional instruments were played, and lyrics were often strongly linked to nature. Rock music began in the early 1950s, relying on various musical genres, including blues, jazz and gospel, as well as country music. One of the oldest-known musical instruments in the world was the flute. Most people love aesthetically pleasing chords and rhythms.

Universal features of Music around the World. United in musical diversity. New research supports the idea that music all around the globe shares important commonalities, despite many differences. Human musicality fundamentally rests on a small number of fixed pillars: hard-coded predispositions, afforded to us by the ancient physiological infrastructure of our shared biology. These 'musical pillars' are then 'seasoned' with the specifics of every individual culture, giving rise to the beautiful kaleidoscopic assortment that we find in world music's.

Music Psychology or Music Cognition is a branch of both psychology and musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life. How playing the Drums changes the Brain.

Music Evokes 13 key Emotions. Amusement, joy, eroticism, beauty, relaxation, sadness, dreaminess, triumph, anxiety, scariness, annoyance, defiance, and feeling pumped up. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from brain scans. Researchers have discovered what type of neural mechanisms are the basis for emotional responses to music. Altogether 102 research subjects listened to music that evokes emotions while their brain function was scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research of music. Musicology is part of the humanities. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.

Musical Language are constructed languages based on musical sounds, which tend to incorporate articulation. Unlike tonal languages, focused on stress, and whistled languages, focused on pitch bends, musical languages distinguish pitches or rhythms. Whistled languages are dependent on an underlying spoken languages and are used in various cultures as a means for communication over distance, or as secret codes. The mystical concept of a language of the birds tries to connect the two categories, since some authors of musical a priori languages have speculated about a mystical or primeval origin of the whistled languages. Lyrics.

Music Therapy - Instruments - Old Records

Sound Art is an artistic discipline in which sound is utilized as a primary medium. Like many genres of contemporary art, sound art may be interdisciplinary in nature, or be used in hybrid forms. Sound art can be considered as being an element of many areas such as acoustics, psychoacoustics, electronics, noise music, audio media, found or environmental sound, soundscapes, explorations of the human body, sculpture, architecture, film or video and other aspects of the current discourse of contemporary art.

Music Lessons can improve children's cognitive skills and academic performance. Cognitive skills developed from music lessons appear to transfer to unrelated subjects, leading to improved academic performance. Improved Digit Span in Children after a 6-Week Intervention of Playing a Musical Instrument - Lifetime Benefits of Musical Training - Scientific Reasons for Learning to Play a Musical Instrument.

Biomusicology is the study of music from a biological point of view. The term was coined by Nils L. Wallin in 1991 to encompass several branches of music psychology and musicology, including evolutionary musicology, neuromusicology, and comparative musicology.

Music Theory concerned with describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning systems and composition methods among other topics. Because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music (see Definition of music), a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as they relate to music.

Music and Mathematics states that the basis of musical sound can be described mathematically in acoustics and exhibits a remarkable array of number properties. Elements of music such as its form, rhythm and metre, the pitches of its notes and the tempo of its pulse can be related to the measurement of time and frequency, offering ready analogies in geometry. The attempt to structure and communicate new ways of composing and hearing music has led to musical applications of set theory, abstract algebra and number theory. Some composers have incorporated the golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers into their work. Even though music theory has no axiomatic foundation in modern mathematics, there still is some interesting work that has recently been done in this direction.

Music and Measure Theory (youtube) - A connection between rational numbers and what makes music harmonious. A musical savant who finds pleasure in all pairs of notes whose frequencies have a rational ratio. 12 notes in the chromatic scale is that powers of the 12th root of have a strange tendency to be within a 1% margin of error of simple rational numbers. The deal with simple ratios sounding pleasant has to do with something called overtones. If you get a drum vibrating at f1 = 220 Hz, it might also tend to vibrate at modes of 2*f1 = 440 Hz and 3*f1 = 660 Hz and so on. Those higher frequencies, multiples of the fundamental, are overtones. A drum vibrating at f2 = 330 Hz will also have a relatively strong mode at 2*f2 = 660 Hz, so the 220 Hz and 330 Hz tones (separated by the simple fraction r = 3/2) together reinforce each other and have a pleasing effect. A square root of 2, it sounds cacophonous.

Musical Form refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. A number of organizational elements may determine the formal structure of a piece of music, such as "the arrangement of musical units of rhythm, melody, and or/ harmony that show repetition or variation, the arrangement of the instruments (as in the order of solos in a jazz or bluegrass performance), or the way a symphonic piece is orchestrated", among other factors. These organizational elements may be broken into smaller units called phrases, which express a musical idea but lack sufficient weight to stand alone. Musical form unfolds over time through the expansion and development of these ideas.

Song Structure in traditional music and popular music are typically sectional, repeating forms used in songs, such as strophic form and is a part of the songwriting process. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, verse-chorus form, and the twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs traditionally use the same music for each verse of stanza of lyrics (as opposed to songs that are "through-composed", an approach used in classical music). Pop and traditional forms can be used even with songs that have structural differences in melodies. The most common format is intro, verse, pre-chorus, chorus (or refrain), verse, pre-chorus, chorus, bridge ("middle eight"), verse, chorus and outro.

Rick Beato is a Music Producer and Multi-Instrumentalist who talks about songs and how they're made. (youtube channel).

Composition is the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole. Something that is created by arranging several things to form a unified whole. A musical work that has been created. A musical creation. A mixture of ingredients. The act of creating written works. Art and technique of printing with movable type.

Musical Composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers in classical music. In popular music and traditional music, the creators of new songs are usually called songwriters; with songs, the person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist. "Composition" is the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music.

Compose is to produce a literary work or to write music. To make up plans or basic details for some arrangement. To arrange something in a pleasing way. To form the substance of something or put something together out of existing material. Composed is to be calm and free from agitation.

Composer is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano, string quartet, wind quintet or orchestra) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song, which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation.

Rendition is a performance of a musical composition or a dramatic role. The act of interpreting something as expressed in an artistic performance. An explanation of something that is not immediately obvious.

Sampling (lyrics)

American Federation of Musicians
The National Association for Music Education
Build Community and make Music in Armenia

Ethnomusicology is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or contexts of musical behavior, instead of only its isolated sound component.

Music Meets Science
Music Books Now
Music Hall
Audimated
Music Machinery
Classical Music (ariama)
Music Ed Links
Konteh Kunda School

A440 Pitch Standard or A4, which has a frequency of 440 hertz, is the musical note A above middle C and serves as both a precise tuning and also a general "ballpark" tuning standard for musical pitch as there is a global controversy concerning the precise definition for A4. The Boston Symphony Orchestra supports A4 having a frequency of 441 Hz, the New York Philharmonic supports A4 having a frequency of 442 Hz, and in Germany, Austria, Sweden, Russia, Spain and continental Europe those symphony orchestras support A4 having a frequency of 443 Hz. C Note.

Do-Re-Mi is a show tune from the 1959 Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The Sound of Music.

Scales

Learning Music by Ear is a term describing the ability of an instrumental musician to reproduce a piece of music they have heard, without having observed another musician play it or having seen the sheet music notation.

Ear Training is a skill by which musicians learn to identify, solely by hearing, pitches, intervals, melody, chords, rhythms, and other basic elements of music. The application of this skill is analogous to taking dictation in written/spoken language. As a process, ear training is in essence the inverse of sight-singing, the latter being analogous to reading a written text aloud without prior opportunity to review the material. Ear training is typically a component of formal musical training.

Musical Aptitude refers to a person's innate ability to acquire skills and knowledge required for musical activity, and may influence the speed at which learning can take place and the level that may be achieved. Study in this area focuses on whether aptitude can be broken into subsets or represented as a single construct, whether aptitude can be measured prior to significant achievement, whether high aptitude can predict achievement, to what extent aptitude is inherited, and what implications questions of aptitude have on educational principles.

You can use the FAO Schwarz Big Piano to teach music, coordination, balance, rhythm and be an exercise too.

FAO Schwarz Big Piano - Toccata und Fugue in D Minor (youtube)

Five Tone Pipes, 30 Physics Sound Tubes (amazon)

Whirly Tube is a musical instrument which consists of a corrugated (ribbed) plastic tube (hollow flexible cylinder), open at both ends, which is swung in a circle to play. The faster the toy is swung the higher the pitch of the note it produces. It produces discrete notes in the harmonic series like a valveless brass instrument.



Soundtracks - Combining Music with Images


Soundtrack is recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program or video game. Soundtrack Collection.

Top 10 Movie Soundtracks of All Time (youtube)
10 beautiful Soundtracks (youtube)
Soundtracks (movies)

Film Score is original music written specifically to accompany a film. (also called background score, background music, film music or incidental music).

Symphony - Editing - Sound Mixer - Composer is a person who creates or writes music.

Musical Performances - Dancing

Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos, love, anger – are communicated through words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, simply, musicals.

How movie music manipulates your emotions (youtube)
How Music Affects Mood in Film (youtube)
How Does Music Affect Your Brain? | Tech Effects | WIRED (youtube)

How music in movies evokes sadness and emotion. The score is the subliminal emotional undercurrent of a film. It can make people cry, laugh, feel displaced, alone, or even awkward. Music affects our mood. When it enters our brain, it triggers different pleasure centers that release dopamine and can stimulate endorphins. Tears and chills – or “tingles” – on hearing music are a physiological response which activates the parasympathetic nervous system, as well as the reward-related brain regions of the brain. Studies have shown that around 25% of the population experience this reaction to music. And when it comes to the violin, the tone frequencies that come with a violin resonate within the echo chambers of our ears and in the depths of our chests. It's no surprise that movies will exploit this power of musical strings when they want to pull on our heart strings. There is no doubt that there is something about the achingly sweet sound of the violin that makes it the ideal means of expressing sorrow and sadness. Other studies suggest that low physical energy, an element of sadness itself, is the essential ingredient.



Visualization of Music


Visual Music refers to the use of musical structures in visual imagery, which can also include silent films or silent Lumia work. It also refers to methods or devices which can translate sounds or music into a related visual presentation. An expanded definition may include the translation of music to painting; Visual music also refers to systems which convert music or sound directly into visual forms, such as film, video or computer graphics, by means of a mechanical instrument, an artist's interpretation, or a computer. The reverse is applicable also, literally converting images to sound by drawn objects and figures on a film's soundtrack, in a technique known as drawn or graphical sound.

Music Visualization is a feature found in electronic music visualizers and media player software, generates animated imagery based on a piece of music. The imagery is usually generated and rendered in real time and in a way synchronized with the music as it is played. Visualization techniques range from simple ones (e.g., a simulation of an oscilloscope display) to elaborate ones, which often include a plurality of composited effects. The changes in the music's loudness and frequency spectrum are among the properties used as input to the visualization.

Auditory Imagery is a form of mental imagery that is used to organize and analyze sounds when there is no external auditory stimulus present.

Seeing with Sound Augmented Reality
Harmony Project

Color Frequency Sound Symbolism is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

Eye Music: Hearing Colored Shapes

Ideophone are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound, movement, color, shape, or action. Ideophones are found in many of the world's languages, though they are claimed to be relatively uncommon in Western languages.

Hearing Incorrectly

Color Knowledge - Color Therapy

Chromesthesia is a type of Synesthesia in which heard sounds automatically and involuntarily evoke an experience of color.

LaserDock: $199 Laser Show System 1W RGB Pure-Diode Laser Projector. 100+ Music Visualizers, Laser Shows, and more.

Spatial Intelligence - Music Therapy

Frequency Color Wavelengths Cymatics is when different patterns emerge in the excitatory medium depending on the geometry of the plate and the driving frequency.

Cymatics (youtube)
Magnetic Machine (video)
Sisyphus
Numbers make Shapes

Blue Spirals Oscilloscope Music Visualized on Hansiraber's Software Oscilloscope (youtube)
Chopin, Etude, opus 25 no. 1, A-flat major (Animated Graphical Score) (youtube)

I would like to see a concert that displays a music's Corresponding Colors and the Hz Measurements during each song.

Pythagorean Tuning is a tuning of the syntonic temperament in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide.

Feng Shui is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment. It is closely linked to Taoism.

Physics (electromagnetic Spectrum)

Sine is a trigonometric function of an angle. The sine of an acute angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle to the length of the longest side of the triangle (the hypotenuse).

Sine Wave is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It is named after the function sine, of which it is the graph. It occurs often in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields.

Can Music make Food taste better? - Listening to music makes food taste better - 10 inspired food and music pairings - Turntable Kitchen - Musical Pairing.



Music Documentaries - Films about Music


Music Video Clips Showing Amazing Skill

Music Instinct: Science and Song (PBS) - Netflix

Music Within (2007) - Trailer

Touch of Sound (youTube) - Buy DVD -MP3's

Eat that Question- Frank Zappa in his own words (2016) | 1h 33min | Documentary, Biography, Music. Frank Zappa was one of the greatest explorers of sound, using music as a medium to open peoples minds to the possibilities. And he was also an activist who was angered and disappointed with our dysfunctional governing systems, as millions are today. Thank you Frank.

10 creative ways to use a musical saw (with effect pedals, synthesizers etc.) (youtube)

"When you're creating your own stuff, even the sky is not the limit" - Miles Davis - So What (youtube)

Evelyn Glennie: How to truly listen (video and text)
Yaybahar by Görkem Şen (New Acoustic Instrument)
Les Paul - Chasing Sound (2007) - Buy DVD - MP3's - PBS
Chuck Berry - Hail! Hail! Rock N' Roll (4 Disc) (amazon)
Jumpin Jive - Cab Calloway and the Nicholas Brothers (youtube)
Reggie Watts: Disorients You (video)
Trombone Silliness (youtube)
Haydn : Trumpet Concerto in E flat, 3rd movement (youtube)
Kid Shreds on Accordion (youtube)
Abigail Washburn: China Relations by Banjo (video)
Andre Rieu - Il Silenzio (Maastricht 2008) DIGITAL TV Beautiful Trumpet Playing
Song Mash-Up by the Highland Trouveres (youtube)
Virtuosos (8 Videos on TED)
Paraorchestra (concert videos)
Music Changes Lives (youtube)  Dublin schools.
Meredith Monk — Dolmen Music (excerpt, 1983) (youtube)
"Iyeza" / "Zabalaza": Thandiswa Mazwai South African musicians (video).

The Ohio State University Marching Band (youtube)
The Whole Gritty City (2013) - New Orleans marching bands prepare students to perform in the Mardi Gras parades. Aired: 10/12/2013 | 1 hr. 28 min. - Synchronized Walking - Choreography.

Mongolian Throat Singing (youtube)
Tuvan Throat Singing (wiki)
Anda Union - From the Steppes to the City Beautiful music from Mongolia, vibrations from the soul.
DakhaBrakha: NPR Music Tiny Desk Concert (youtube)

Alejandro y Maria Laura - Fiesta Para Los Muertos

Homemade Hillbilly Jam (2006) 1 hr. 19 min. - In the 1800s a scrappy group of Scotch-Irish immigrants settled in the Ozark Mountains of Southwestern Missouri. Stereotyped, these isolated hill folk over time became the butt of countless jokes and earned themselves the name of "hillbillies".

Bluegrass Roots (2012) - 47 min - David Hoffman takes viewers on an extraordinary journey to meet singers, musicians and dancers of the bluegrass movement. Filmed in the 1960's.

Brian Wilson: Song Writer 1962-1969 - 2 Part Documentary, 1.5 Hours each, Released in 2010.

Electro-Theremin is an electronic musical instrument that features a tone and portamento similar to that of the theremin, but with a different control mechanism. It consisted of a sine wave generator with a knob that controlled the pitch, placed inside a wooden box. The pitch knob was attached to a slider on the outside of the box with some string. The player would move the slider, thus turning the knob to the desired frequency, with the help of markings drawn on the box.

Glass Harmonica (youtube)

Glass Harmonica is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction (instruments of this type are known as friction idiophones).

Major Scale Musical Wines Glasses (youtube)

Mark Applebaum: Mad Scientist of Music (video)
Music Engraving on Metal Plates (with sound) (youtube)
Wintergatan - Marble Machine (music instrument using 2000 marbles) (youtube)
Johnnyrandom - Bespoken (Music made from Bicycle Parts)
3-D Printing Antique Musical Instruments (Parts & Replicas)
We are KOKOKO (youtube) - Makes Joyful Dance Music From Instruments Made Of Recycled and Repurposed Stuff.

We Are the Halluci Nation - A Tribe Called Red (video)

Color of Noise 2015 A Documentary about the artist HAZE XXL and his notorious record label, Amphetamine Reptile Records. - Aired: 02/26/2015 | Not Rated | 1 hr. 59 min.

"I would like to see certain music videos to be redone and made from movie clips from famous movies. So many songs can be done this way. Music and Movies go great together."

Do Copyrights Kill Creativity?

Jazz: 10 Series by Ken Burns (netflix)
Renzo Ruggieri (youtube)
Jazz Profiles (NPR)
The Pace Report (youtube)
Red Hot Jazz
Joey Alexander: 11 year old performs Old School Jazz
Keith Jarrett- The Köln Concert, January 24, 1975 (youtube) Best-selling solo piano album in jazz history, 3.5 million in sales.
A History Of Blues Pt1 (youtube)

Re: Generation Music Project (hulu)

Trombone Festival
"Bonehemian Rhapsody" 28-Trombone Collaboration! (from ITF 2018!) (youtube)

Eric Whitacre: A Virtual Choir 2,000 Voices Strong (TED)
Eric Whitacre's Virtual Choir 2.0, 'Sleep'  (youtube)

Sleepy Man Banjo Boys: Bluegrass Virtuosity from N.J.

The Song of the Earth (youtube)
Don't Quit Your Daydream (hulu)
I Need That Record! (youtube) 
Punk's Not Dead (youtube) 

Ukulele Heavy Metal (youtube)
Most Incredible GIRLS Playing UKULELE in the world! (youtube)
Nicki Minaj - Super Bass (Cover by Karmin)
Karmin Covers (youtube)

2 CELLOS - Thunderstruck (youtube)
El Chico del Pórtico (youtube)
SRV-Scuttle Buttin Gayageum ver.  Voodoo Child- Hendrix
Gayageum 12 string instrument by Luna
Pipa: “White Snow in Spring,” performed by Wu Man
Pipa (wiki)
Usman Riaz and Preston Reed Guitarists (video)
16 year old girl shreds electric guitar (youtube)
Interview with Eddie Van Halen: Is Rock 'n' Roll All About Reinvention? (youtube) - The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History and Zócalo Public Square.
Jason Becker - Altitude - Tina S Cover
(youtube)
Brushy One String (youtube)
Music for Wood and Strings: Sō Percussion (ted)

Kora instrument is a 21-string lute-bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa.
Toumani Diabaté & Sidiki Diabaté - Jarabi (youtube)
Translating great African composers | Derek Gripper | TEDxTableMountain (videos and text)

2 Girls 3 Harps (Harp Twins) HARP METAL BLACK SABBATH "Iron Man"
Harpist Sheela Bringi uses traditional Indian music and American jazz. Trained in Hindustani classical music.
Distortion Pedal used on Harp (youtube)

Black Violin - "A Flat" (Music Video) (2012) (youtube)
Violinist Lara St. John (Tiny Desk Concert, NPR) Playing Czardashian Rhapsody, Sari Siroun Yar and Oltenian Hora.
Mendelssohn Violin Concerto E Minor OP.64 (Full Length) : Hilary Hahn & FRSO (youtube)
15 Unforgettable Violin Pieces ~ With Exceptional Performances (youtube)
Niccolo Paganini was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for Solo Violin Op. 1 are among the best known of his compositions, and have served as an inspiration for many prominent composers.
The Devil Went Down to Georgia is a song written and performed by the Charlie Daniels Band, released in 1979.

Bach Cello Suite No.1 - Prelude (Yo-Yo Ma) (youtube)
Bach's famous cello prelude, deconstructed by renowned cellist and McArthur fellow (youtube) - Bariolage, Base Note, Pedal Point, Open Strings, Fermata, Arpeggiating Chords, Gravitas. G cord (Home Key, Tonic, Release) and D cord (Dominant, Tension) Prelude Cello Suite No.1 G major (A chello).
Anna Clyne cello concerto: DANCE, I. when you’re broken open. Inbal Segev, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Marin Alsop.

Michael Tilson Thomas: Music and Emotion through time

Piano

Piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by wooden hammers that are coated with a softer material. (Modern hammers are covered with dense wool felt; some early pianos used leather.) It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. Motor Skills.

Valentina Lisitsa (youtube) Piano
Beethoven "Moonlight" Sonata op 27 # 2 Mov 3 (youtube)
Bach - Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in d-minor, BWV 903(youtube)
Daria van den bercken: Piano in the Air - George Frideric Handel Chaconne in G Major.
The Best of Handel (youtube album)
The Toy Piano Virtuoso (youtube)
This Piano Prodigy Was Born With No Fingers (youtube)
Piano Around dragging a piano out into the wilderness.
Derek Paravicini: Piano Genius (video)
What Does an Ear Pick Piano Sound Like?

Scott Rickard: Beautiful Math Behind the Ugliest Music

Stefon Harris: No Mistakes (video) Percussion Instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.

Xylophone - Drums - Percussion - Effects

Yogi Horton Drum Lesson Funk-R&B
Grandma Drummer (youtube)
Top Secret Drum Corps - Edinburgh Military Tattoo 2012 
Doudou N'Diaye Rose (wiki)
Meytal Cohen Beautiful Female Drummer (youtube)
Tabla is a South Asian membranophone percussion instrument (similar to bongos) consisting of a pair of small drums.
Good Times Bad Times - LED ZEPPELIN / Cover by Yoyoka , 8 year old drummer (vimeo)

Ge Wang: DIY Computer Music Orchestra of the Future.
Stanford Laptop Orchestra.
Stanford Mobile Phone Orchestra.
Chuck Computer Music Software.

From Trash To Triumph: The Recycled Orchestra. Young musicians from a Paraguayan slum have toured the world with instruments made of garbage. The Recycled Orchestra of Cateura has played with Stevie Wonder, Metallica, and Megadeth -- and for Pope Francis.

Top 10 Sound-Alike Songs (youtube)

Amateur Video Clips Get Mashed Up Into An Incredible Song.
Kutiman - Thru Tel Aviv
(youtube)

Alive Inside

Eric P Dollard - The Supernatural Power of Music (youtube)
Ancient Knowledge (youtube)

Beatboxing and Rythm Flute (youtube)
Flute Straw -Talented Man Makes Music Using Only A Straw as a musical instrument.

Remidi T8 is a wearable glove device that turns your hand into a whole new musical instrument. Combining motion and pressure on any surface.

Music Box & Modulin - 2 New Music Instruments (youtube)

Searching for Sugar Man 2012 Full Movie (youtube) Rodriguez (singer-songwriter) Sixto Diaz Rodriguez, (born July 10, 1942), is an American singer-songwriter from Detroit, Michigan. Sixto (pronounced "Seeks-toe") because he was their sixth son.
Searching for Sugar Man (wiki) - Sugarman

Movie Knowledge

Hey you! What song are you listening to? (youtube)
Bydgoszcz, Poland. - Czego sluchaja bydgoszczanie
Ways You Developed Your Taste in Music
Every Noise

Mickey Hart, Innovators In Music (2016) A fascinating and compelling glimpse into Mickey Hart's magical, musical world Aired: 02/19/2016 | Not Rated | 23 min.

Paolo Angeli has a whole toy shop aboard his guitar: He's got hammers, pedals, propellers, springs, drone strings and even a couple of cell-phone ringers at his disposal.

Pink Floyd - The Dark Side of The Moon (youtube) - Making The Dark Side of The Moon in studio. Developed during live performances, an early version was premiered several months before recording began; new material was recorded in two sessions in 1972 and 1973 at Abbey Road in London. The group used some advanced recording techniques at the time, including multitrack recording and tape loops. Analogue synthesizers were prominent in several tracks. (When you realize how much work and skill that goes into making a music album, you have to imagine how much work and skill that goes into making a life. When you listen to the members of Pink Floyd talking about making an album, you have to imagine the analogies when making sense of life.)



Music Therapy


Music Therapy Science Music Therapy uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients improve their physical and mental health, such as cognitive functioning, motor skills, emotional development, social skills, and quality of life, by using music experiences such as free improvisation, singing, and listening to, discussing, and moving to music to achieve treatment goals. It has a wide qualitative and quantitative research literature base and incorporates clinical therapy, psychotherapy, biomusicology, musical acoustics, music theory, psychoacoustics, embodied music cognition, aesthetics of music, sensory integration, and comparative musicology. Lyrics - What Makes Songs Catchy.

Music Psychology is the understanding of musical behavior and experience, including the processes through which music is perceived, created, responded to, and incorporated into everyday life. Music Physiology.

Musicology is the scholarly analysis of and research on music. Music Education.

Musical Intervention works to provide the platform for individuals and groups to help write, record, and perform original music. We believe that there is a song in everyone that can be explored to rediscover our humanity and potential. Spread empathy, transform lives, and inspire the world.

Listening (activity) - The Listening Program - Listening to Music When Learning

Neurologic Music Therapy is the therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor dysfunctions that come from human neurologic diseases.

Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) #musicitsscience.
Neurologic Music Therapy - Stroke Rehabilitation (MedRhythms)
McMaster Institute for Music and the Mind.

Melodic Intonation Therapy is a therapeutic process used by music therapists and speech-language pathologists to help patients with communication disorders caused by damage to the left hemisphere of the brain.

Music Reduces Pain - Pain

Contrapuntal Motion is the general movement of two melodic lines with respect to each other. In traditional four-part harmony, it is important that lines maintain their independence, an effect which can be achieved by the judicious use of the four types of contrapuntal motion: parallel motion, similar motion, contrary motion, and oblique motion. Melodic motion.

Music Therapy - Music Therapy - Music and Memory

Brains work in sync during music therapy. For the first time researchers have been able to demonstrate that the brains of a patient and therapist become synchronized during a music therapy session, a breakthrough that could improve future interactions between patients and therapists.

Senior Citizens and Music Benefits
Progressions

Brain.fm Music for the Brain.
Sync Project a Million Songs to Unlock the Health Benefits of Music.
Go Sync Project a Million Songs to help unlock the health effects of music.

Infinity Music Therapy

Tinni Tracks Treat Tinnitus by Filtering high pitch sound from your favorite music.

The first imaging genetic study linking dopaminergic genes to music. New publication from MIB: Sounds, such as music and noise, are capable of reliably affecting individuals' moods and emotions, possibly by regulating brain dopamine.

Uncovering why Playing a Musical Instrument can Protect Brain Health

Playing a Musical Instrument Improves Audio-Motor Connectivity in the Brain

More than A Feeling - Boston (youtube)
Charles Hazlewood's Paraorchestra (youtube)

Rhythm that's-Waltzed

Cymatic Therapy is based on the notion that human cells, organs, and tissues each have a natural resonant frequency which changes when perturbed by illness. Cymatic therapists apply different audible frequencies and combinations of sound waves which they claim entrain malfunctioning components back to their healthy vibratory state and promote natural healing.

Bio Beats wellbeing and coaching products.

Physiological Data - EEG, ECG, EMG, Blood Pressure, Skin Conductance

Music Visualization - Meditation Sounds - Meridian Tapping

Spiritual Music are generally Christian songs that were created by African slaves in the United States. Spirituals were originally an oral tradition that imparted Christian values while also describing the hardships of slavery. Although spirituals were originally unaccompanied monophonic (unison) songs, they are best known today in harmonized choral arrangements. This historic group of uniquely American songs is now recognized as a distinct genre of music.

Hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. Hymnology is the scholarly study of religious song, or the hymn, in its many aspects, with particular focus on choral and congregational song.

Carol is in modern parlance a festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character.

Chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two main pitches called reciting tones. Chants may range from a simple melody involving a limited set of notes to highly complex musical structures, often including a great deal of repetition of musical subphrases. Mantra.

Choir or Choras is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the Medieval era to the present, and/or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with arm and face gestures.

Sarah Brightman O Mio Babbino Caro (video)
Duke Chapel Choir (video)
The Kremlin Capella sing a beautiful Russian Folk Song (youtube)

Sight-Singing is the reading and performing of a piece of music or song in music notation that the performer has not seen before.

Sing-Along is an event of singing together at gatherings or parties, less formally than choir singing.

Lullaby or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, usually played for or sung to children.

Whistling without the use of an artificial whistle is achieved by creating a small opening with one's lips and then blowing or sucking air through the hole. The air is moderated by the lips, tongue, teeth or fingers (placed over the mouth) to create turbulence, and the mouth acts as a resonant chamber to enhance the resulting sound by acting as a type of Helmholtz resonator. Breathing.

Whistling Championships (youtube)

Whistle is a small wind instrument that produces a whistling sound by blowing into it. Acoustic device that forces air or steam against an edge or into a cavity and so produces a loud shrill sound. The sound made by something moving rapidly or by steam coming out of a small aperture.

Drumming releases endorphins, enkephalins and alpha waves in the brain, which are associated with general feelings of well-being and euphoria. Recent research indicate that drumming accelerates physical healing, boosts the immune system and assists in releasing emotional trauma. Drumming has a positive effect on anxiety, grief, fatigue, depression and behavioral issues. The beating of the drum helps us listen to our soul so we can understand our purpose and our connection to each other in the Circle of Life. In different cultures the drum is a sacred tool connecting heaven and earth, and for maintaining the rhythm of the world order. And when drummers practice their art, it's as if they too are changing the world and touching the human spirit through the rhythm of the drum. Drumming is a great workout for your brain and actually can make you smarter because when you drum you access your entire brain. Research shows that the physical transmission of rhythmic energy to the brain actually synchronizes the left and right hemispheres. Therapeutic Drumming (youtube).

Drum Circle is any group of people playing (usually) hand-drums and percussion in a circle. They are distinct from a drumming group or troupe in that the drum circle is an end in itself rather than preparation for a performance. They can range in size from a handful of players to circles with thousands of participants. Drum circles are related to other community-based music gatherings such as flute circles or vocal improvisation groups. Drum Circles: The Rhythm of Peaceful Protesting.

Drumming up Support is to work to gain or incite something, often interest or support.

The Rhythm of Change: What a drum-beat experiment reveals about cultural evolution.

Living organisms aren't the only things that evolve over time. Cultural practices change, too, and in recent years social scientists have taken a keen interest in understanding this cultural evolution. A new experiment used drum-beats to investigate the role that environment plays on cultural shifts, confirming that different environments do indeed give rise to different cultural patterns. Xylophone - Drums - Percussion.



Music Editing Tools


Mixing Console is an electronic device for combining (also called "mixing"), routing, and changing the volume level, timbre (tone color) and/or dynamics of many different audio signals, such as microphones being used by singers, mics picking up acoustic instruments such as drums or saxophones, signals from electric or electronic instruments such as the electric bass or synthesizer, or recorded music playing on a CD Player.

Audio Mixing is the process of combining Multitrack Recordings into a final mono, stereo or surround sound product. These tracks that are blended together are done so by using various processes such as equalization and compression. Audio mixing techniques and approaches can vary widely, and due to the skill-level or intent of the mixer, can greatly affect the qualities of the sound recording. Audio mixing techniques largely depend on music genres and the quality of sound recordings involved. The process is generally carried out by a mixing engineer, though sometimes the record producer or recording artist may assist. After mixing, a Mastering Engineer prepares the final product for production. Audio mixing may be performed on a mixing console or digital audio workstation. Mercury Mastering - Build & Master Your Home DJ Studio.

Equalization in Audio is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal. The most well known use of equalization is in sound recording and reproduction but there are many other applications in electronics and telecommunications. The circuit or equipment used to achieve equalization is called an equalizer. These devices strengthen (boost) or weaken (cut) the energy of specific frequency bands or "frequency ranges". Equalizers are used in recording studios, radio studios and production control rooms, and live sound reinforcement and in instrument amplifiers, such as guitar amplifiers, to correct or adjust the response of microphones, instrument pick-ups, loudspeakers, and hall acoustics. Equalization may also be used to eliminate or reduce unwanted sounds (e.g., low hum coming from a guitar amplifier), make certain instruments or voices more (or less) prominent, enhance particular aspects of an instrument's tone, or combat feedback (howling) in a public address system. Equalizers are also used in music production to adjust the timbre of individual instruments and voices by adjusting their frequency content and to fit individual instruments within the overall frequency spectrum of the mix.

Recording Studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties (acoustic isolation or diffusion or absorption of reflected sound that could otherwise interfere with the sound heard by the listener).

Sound Design - Sound Effects

Sound Recording and Reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are Analog Recording and Digital Recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Oscillations may also be recorded directly from devices such as an electric guitar pickup or a synthesizer, without the use of acoustics in the recording process, other than the need for musicians to hear how well they are playing during recording sessions via headphones. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of digitization. This lets the audio data be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers (zeros and ones) representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. Digital recordings are considered higher quality than analog recordings not necessarily because they have higher fidelity (wider frequency response or dynamic range), but because the digital format can prevent much loss of quality found in analog recording due to noise and electromagnetic interference in playback and mechanical deterioration or damage to the storage medium. Whereas successive copies of an analog recording tend to degrade in quality, as more noise is added, a digital audio recording can be reproduced endlessly with no degradation in sound quality. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Spire is a one-touch professional-quality recording device.

Music should be professionally mastered for a particular sound system that is played at the right volume and settings and where the person is in the perfect position in relation to the speakers, so the person hears the song in the exact way that the song was intended to be heard. Equalizer enhancement settings for different types of music like classical music, jazz music or rock music should be imbedded in the soundtrack so that the stereo system knows how to automatically adjust the sound.

Record Producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many, varying roles during the recording process. They may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos. Co-write. Propose changes to the song arrangements, and Coach the singers and musicians in the studio. The producer typically supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage. The producer may perform these roles themself, or help select the engineer, and provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may also pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies 'budget.

Synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones. Synthesizers may either imitate instruments like piano, Hammond organ, flute, vocals; natural sounds like ocean waves, etc.; or generate new electronic timbres. They are often played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other input devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, fingerboards, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, and electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are often called sound modules, and are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device, often a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals (sounds). Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Other less common synthesis types (see #Sound synthesis) include subharmonic synthesis, a form of additive synthesis via subharmonics (used by mixture trautonium), and granular synthesis, sample-based synthesis based on grains of sound, generally resulting in soundscapes or clouds.

A Loop-Making Session on the OP-1. (Nicotine) Portable Synthesizer (youtube)
Introducing KORG Minilogue Synthesizer (youtube)
NSynth: Neural Audio Synthesis (magenta tensorflow)
How Machine Learning Is Generating Strange, New Sounds - ft. Andrew Huang (youtube)
Andrew Huang Youtube Channel (youtube)

Audio Editing Software Reviews
Muse Score
Garage Band
Audio Software
Free Audio Software List

Radio Edit is a modification, typically truncated, to make a song more suitable for airplay, whether it be adjusted for length, profanity, subject matter, instrumentation, or form. Radio edits may also be used for commercial single versions, which may be denoted as the 7" version. However, not all "radio edit" tracks are played on radio.

Music Production Center originally MIDI Production Center, now Music Production Controller) are a popular series of electronic musical instruments intended to function as a powerful kind of drum machine, the MPCs drew on design ideas from machines such as the Sequential Circuits Inc.

Music Sampling Station - Mobile Recording interface

Remove Vocals - Lyrics

Audacity Audio Editor is a free open source digital audio editor and recording computer software application, available for Windows, OS X, Linux and other operating systems.

Sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a sound recording in a different song or piece. Dubbing - Copyrights.

Music Information Retrieval is the interdisciplinary science of retrieving information from music. MIR is a small but growing field of research with many real-world applications. Those involved in MIR may have a background in musicology, psychology, academic music study, signal processing, machine learning or some combination of these.

Sound Hound - Music Recognition Search - Exact Audio Copy

Martin & Co. Guitars - Ever Tune

Chordana Compose App 

MP3 Players (amazon) - MP3 Downloads (amazon)

Record Player - Speakers - Headphones

Music for Videos - Sound for Film

Sheet Music

Audio Map Tuneglue
Music Map
Music Roamer
Social Zune Music
Sound Slate
One Track Mind
Music Blogs
The Sixty One
Our Stage

Pure Volume - Live Plasma

Pedal Drum Machine

Hammer Jammers

Microphone (mic or mike)

Puc Plus Universal Bluetooth MIDI Interface

MIDI or Musical Instrument Digital Interface - allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another.



Audio - Sound - Acoustics


Formula Wheel Acoustics Sound is a Vibration that can be Sensed by the Ears when Hearing and Listening. A sound vibration travels and transmits information through the air or water using audible Waves. Humans can hear sound waves with frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. The speed of sound is 767 mph or 1,088 feet per second. Sound waves are mechanical waves generated from vibrations within a medium. Sound can exist as longitudinal mechanical waves, which are also known as compression waves. These waves can travel through solid, liquid, gas or plasma media. Sound waves require a medium to travel. When air is the medium, sound waves transmit by the compression and rarefaction of air particles through increasing and decreasing densities. A longitudinal wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of propagation in which the wave travels. In the case of a solid medium, sound waves can be supported in various directions, meaning that there are various oscillatory patterns of sound waves, such as longitudinal waves, transverse waves, surface waves, etc.. Sound waves can exist as mechanical longitudinal waves, but they are graphed as sine waves to represent the variations in pressure with time. Sound is defined as (a) oscillation in pressure, stress, particle displacement, particle velocity, etc., propagated in a medium with internal forces (e.g., elastic or viscous), or the superposition of such propagated oscillation. (b) Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in (a). Sound can be viewed as a wave motion in air or other elastic media. In this case, sound is a stimulus. Sound can also be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. In this case, sound is a sensation. Sound can propagate through a medium such as air, water and solids as longitudinal waves and also as a transverse wave in solids (see Longitudinal and transverse waves, below). The sound waves are generated by a sound source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium. As the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave. At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure, velocity, and displacement of the medium vary in time. At an instant in time, the pressure, velocity, and displacement vary in space. Note that the particles of the medium do not travel with the sound wave. This is intuitively obvious for a solid, and the same is true for liquids and gases (that is, the vibrations of particles in the gas or liquid transport the vibrations, while the average position of the particles over time does not change). During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium. Pitch is perceived as how "low" or "high" a sound is and represents the cyclic, repetitive nature of the vibrations that make up sound. Duration is perceived as how "long" or "short" a sound is and relates to onset and offset signals created by nerve responses to sounds. Loudness is perceived as how "loud" or "soft" a sound is and relates to the totaled number of auditory nerve stimulations over short cyclic time periods, most likely over the duration of theta wave cycles. Timbre is perceived as the quality of different sounds (e.g. the thud of a fallen rock, the whir of a drill, the tone of a musical instrument or the quality of a voice) and represents the pre-conscious allocation of a sonic identity to a sound (e.g. “it’s an oboe!"). Noise.

Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. Speakers.

Musical Acoustics is a branch of acoustics concerned with researching and describing the physics of music – how sounds are employed to make music. Examples of areas of study are the function of musical instruments, the human voice (the physics of speech and singing), computer analysis of melody, and in the clinical use of music in music therapy. Phonics

Acoustical Engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned with the design, analysis and control of sound.

Nonlinear Acoustics is a branch of physics and acoustics dealing with sound waves of sufficiently large amplitudes. Large amplitudes require using full systems of governing equations of fluid dynamics (for sound waves in liquids and gases) and elasticity (for sound waves in solids). These equations are generally nonlinear, and their traditional linearization is no longer possible. The solutions of these equations show that, due to the effects of nonlinearity, sound waves are being distorted as they travel.

Architectural Acoustics (noise pollution)
Acoustical Meta-Material with near-zero density

Audio Engineer works on the recording, manipulating the record using equalization and electronic effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Sound Mixer is the member of a film crew or television crew responsible for recording all sound recording on set during the filmmaking or television production using professional audio equipment, for later inclusion in the finished product, or for reference to be used by the sound designer, sound effects editors, or foley artists. This requires choice and deployment of microphones, choice of recording media, and mixing of audio signals in real time. Bruce Swedien was an American recording engineer, mixing engineer and record producer. (April 19, 1934 – November 16, 2020).

Sound Tracks - Editing - Equalizing

Stereo Sound is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position, often ahead in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). In the 2000s, stereo sound is common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema.

Quadraphonic Sound is equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s. It was a commercial failure due to many technical problems and format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo. Playback required additional speakers and specially designed decoders and amplifiers.

Low Fidelity is a type of sound recording which contains technical flaws that make the recording sound different compared with the live sound being recorded, such as distortion, hum, background noise, or limited frequency response. High Fidelity.

Sound Effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. The term often refers to a process applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects, often are called "sound effects".

Beep as a sound is a short, single tone, typically high-pitched, generally made by a computer or other machine. The term has its origin in Onomatopoeia, which is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

Sound Design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs. It involves specifying, acquiring or creating auditory elements using audio production techniques and tools. It is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking, television production, video game development, theatre, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, Sound Art, Post-Production, radio and musical instrument development. Sound design commonly involves performing and editing of previously composed or recorded audio, such as sound effects and dialogue for the purposes of the medium. A sound designer is one who practices sound design. Brainwave Entrainment.

Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including noise, speech and music).  The human ear can nominally hear sounds in the range 20 Hz (0.02 kHz) to 20,000 Hz (20 kHz). The upper limit tends to decrease with age; most adults are unable to hear above 16 kHz. The lowest frequency that has been identified as a musical tone is 12 Hz under ideal laboratory conditions. Tones between 4 and 16 Hz can be perceived via the body's sense of touch. Frequency resolution of the ear is 3.6 Hz within the octave of 1000 – 2000 Hz. That is, changes in pitch larger than 3.6 Hz can be perceived in a clinical setting. However, even smaller pitch differences can be perceived through other means. For example, the interference of two pitches can often be heard as a repetitive variation in volume of the tone. This amplitude modulation occurs with a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies of the two tones and is known as beating. Does it Sound Good - Noise.

Ambience consists of the sounds of a given location or space. It is the opposite of "silence." This term is often confused with presence. Every location has distinct and subtle sounds created by its environment. These sound sources can include wildlife, wind, music, rain, running water, thunder, rustling leaves, distant traffic, aircraft and machinery noise, the sound of distant human movement and speech, creaks from thermal contraction, air conditioning and plumbing noises, fan and motor noises, and harmonics of mains power. Reverberation will further distort these already faint sounds, often beyond recognition, by introducing complex patterns of peaks and nulls in their frequency spectrum, and blurring their temporal characteristics. Finally, sound absorption can cause high frequencies to be rolled off, dulling the sound further. Ambience is normally recorded in stereo by the sound department during the production stage of filmmaking. It is used to provide a movie location with sonic space and normally occupies a separate track in the sound edit.

Modulation is a musical passage moving from one key to another. Rise and fall of the voice pitch . A manner of speaking in which the loudness, pitch or tone of the voice is modified. The act of modifying or adjusting according to due measure and proportion (as with regard to artistic effect).

Modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. This may or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature. Modulations articulate or create the structure or form of many pieces, as well as add interest. Treatment of a chord as the tonic for less than a phrase is considered tonicization. Requirements. Harmonic: quasi-tonic, modulating dominant, pivot chord. Melodic: recognizable segment of the scale of the quasi-tonic or strategically placed leading-tone. Metric & rhythmic: quasi-tonic and modulating dominant on metrically accented beats, prominent pivot chord. The quasi-tonic is the tonic of the new key established by the modulation. The modulating dominant is the dominant of the quasi-tonic. The pivot chord is a predominant to the modulating dominant and a chord common to both the keys of the tonic and the quasi-tonic. For example, in a modulation to the dominant, ii/V–V/V–V could be a pivot chord, modulating dominant, and quasi-tonic. "Modulation is the essential part of the art. Without it there is little music, for a piece derives its true beauty not from the large number of fixed modes which it embraces but rather from the subtle fabric of its modulation." —Charles-Henri Blainville (1767).

Amplitude Modulation is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted. A Bell that Rings Two Notes at Once (youtube)

The most elegant key change in all of pop music (youtube) - All By Myself features an incredible key change from G major to Cb major, let’s talk about it! An abrupt key change is a device sometimes found in popular song, in which a verse might be repeated but with melody and harmony all moved up a step. The key changes, but it's not really a modulation.

Rhythm - Pitch - Loudness

Pulse in music consists of beats in a (repeating) of identical yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time occurring at the mensural level. "This pulse is typically what listeners entrain to as they tap their foot or dance along with a piece of music (Handel, 1989), and is also colloquially termed the 'beat,' or more technically the 'tactus' (Lerdahl & Jackendoff, 1983)." "Even a person untrained in music, can generally sense the pulse and may respond by tapping a foot or clapping."

Pulse-Amplitude Modulation is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulse. It is an analog pulse modulation scheme in which the amplitudes of a train of carrier pulses are varied according to the sample value of the message signal. Demodulation is performed by detecting the amplitude level of the carrier at every single period.

Harmonic describes any member of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music and acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, etc.

Reverberation is the persistence of sound after a sound is produced. A reverberation, or reverb, is created when a sound or signal is reflected causing a large number of reflections to build up and then decay as the sound is absorbed by the surfaces of objects in the space – which could include furniture, people, and air. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue, decreasing in amplitude, until they reach zero amplitude. Combination of Frequencies.

Reverberation Room is a room designed to create a diffuse or random incidence sound field.

Anechoic Chamber is a room designed to completely absorb reflections of either sound or electromagnetic waves. (non-echoing or echo-free).

Echo Chamber is a hollow enclosure used to produce reverberated sounds, usually for recording purposes.

Reverberation time of a balloon pop: reverb room vs. anechoic chamber (youtube)

Echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound. The delay is proportional to the distance of the reflecting surface from the source and the listener. Moving without seeing - Echo in the Canyons (youtube).

Sound Localization refers to a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording, wave field synthesis).

Audio Signal Flow is the path an audio signal takes from source to output. The concept of audio signal flow is closely related to the concept of audio gain staging; each component in the signal flow can be thought of as a gain stage.

Fourier Transform decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes. The Fourier transform of a function of time itself is a complex-valued function of frequency, whose absolute value represents the amount of that frequency present in the original function, and whose complex argument is the phase offset of the basic sinusoid in that frequency. The Fourier transform is called the frequency domain representation of the original signal. The term Fourier transform refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a function of time. The Fourier transform is not limited to functions of time, but in order to have a unified language, the domain of the original function is commonly referred to as the time domain. For many functions of practical interest, one can define an operation that reverses this: the inverse Fourier transformation, also called Fourier synthesis, of a frequency domain representation combines the contributions of all the different frequencies to recover the original function of time.

Variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form. The changes may involve harmony, melody, counterpoint, rhythm, timbre, orchestration or any combination of these.

Circulator is a passive non-reciprocal three- or four-port device, in which a microwave or radio frequency signal entering any port is transmitted to the next port in rotation (only). A port in this context is a point where an external waveguide or transmission line (such as a microstrip line or a coaxial cable), connects to the device.

Auditory Cortex (senses) - Singing (voice)

Virtual Acoustic Space is a technique in which sounds presented over headphones appear to originate from any desired direction in space. The illusion of a virtual sound source outside the listener's head is created.

Chord Progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition.

Linear Progression is a passing note elaboration involving stepwise melodic motion in one direction between two harmonic tones. "The compositional unfolding of a specific interval, one of the intervals of the chord of nature, which denotes any periodic sound, especially as opposed to simple periodic sounds (sine tones). Non-Linear is something that does not progress or develop smoothly from one stage to the next in a logical way. Instead, it makes sudden changes, or seems to develop in different directions at the same time.

Nonchord Tone is a note (i.e., a pitch) in a piece of music or song that is not part of the implied or expressed chord set out by the harmonic framework.

Steps and Skips is the difference in pitch between two consecutive notes of a musical scale. In other words, it is the interval between two consecutive scale degrees. Any larger interval is called a skip (also called a leap), or disjunct motion.

Recapitulation is one of the sections of a movement written in sonata form. The recapitulation occurs after the movement's development section, and typically presents once more the musical themes from the movement's exposition. This material is most often recapitulated in the tonic key of the movement, in such a way that it reaffirms that key as the movement's home key.

Hearing Problems - Noise

Acoustical Society of America
Society for Music Perception and Cognition
Acoustics and Vibrations Animations
SoftSynth – Music and Computers
Music Cognition Resource Center
The Basics of Acoustics
Every Noise At Once Music Genre Map
Everyday Listening Sound Art
The Basics of Acoustics
Every Noise At Once Music Genre Map
Everyday Listening Sound Art
Avisoft Bioacoustics

Wall of Sound is a music production formula intended to exploit the possibilities of studio recording to create an unusually dense orchestral aesthetic that came across well through radios and jukeboxes of the era. Arrangements called for large ensembles (including some instruments not generally used for ensemble playing, such as electric and acoustic guitars), with multiple instruments doubling or tripling many of the parts to create a fuller, richer tone. Often duplicating a part played by an acoustic piano with an electric piano and a harpsichord. Mixed well enough, the three instruments would then be indistinguishable to the listener. Sampling - Dubbing.


Pitch


Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

Repetition Pitch is an unexpected sensation of tonality or pitch that often occurs in nature when a sound is reflected against a sound-reflecting surface (for example: a brick wall), and both the original and the reflected sound arrive at the ear of an observer, but with a short time delay between the two arrivals. Scales.

Absolute Pitch, perfect pitch, is a rare auditory phenomenon characterized by the ability of a person to identify or re-create a given musical note without the benefit of a reference tone. Speaking Tone - Modulation.

Portamento is a pitch sliding from one note to another or a slide from one note to another, especially in singing or playing a bowed string instrument. Piano playing in a manner intermediate between legato and staccato. Legato indicates that musical notes are played or sung smoothly and connected. Staccato signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the note that may follow by silence.

Overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound. Using the model of Fourier analysis, the fundamental and the overtones together are called partials. Harmonics, or more precisely, harmonic partials, are partials whose frequencies are numerical integer multiples of the fundamental (including the fundamental, which is 1 times itself). These overlapping terms are variously used when discussing the acoustic behavior of musical instruments. (See etymology below.) The model of Fourier analysis provides for the inclusion of inharmonic partials, which are partials whose frequencies are not whole-number ratios of the fundamental (such as 1.1 or 2.14179). When a resonant system such as a blown pipe or plucked string is excited, a number of overtones may be produced along with the fundamental tone. In simple cases, such as for most musical instruments, the frequencies of these tones are the same as (or close to) the harmonics. Examples of exceptions include the circular drum, – a timpani whose first overtone is about 1.6 times its fundamental resonance frequency, gongs and cymbals, and brass instruments. The human vocal tract is able to produce highly variable amplitudes of the overtones, called formants, which define different vowels.

Tone in a musical instrument refers to the audible characteristics of a player's sound. Tuning.

Musical Tone is characterized by its duration, pitch, intensity (or loudness), and timbre (or quality). Tone of Voice.

Key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a music composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music.

Tone Quality is timbre sense or the character of musical tones with reference to their richness or perfection. The character of the effect produced by a harmonic combination of musical tones.

Timbre also known as tone color or tone quality (from psychoacoustics), is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone. Timbre distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments. It also enables listeners to distinguish different instruments in the same category (e.g., an oboe and a clarinet, both woodwind instruments).

Musical Note is a notation representing the pitch and duration of a musical sound. Rhythm - Beat

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. If a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats).

Electricity (waves) - Hz - Resonance

Fundamental Frequency is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform. In music, the fundamental is the musical pitch of a note that is perceived as the lowest partial present. Instrument Tuner.

Missing Fundamental when its overtones suggest a fundamental frequency but the sound lacks a component at the fundamental frequency itself. The brain perceives the pitch of a tone not only by its fundamental frequency, but also by the periodicity implied by the relationship between the higher harmonics; we may perceive the same pitch (perhaps with a different timbre) even if the fundamental frequency is missing from a tone. For example, when a note (that is not a pure tone) has a pitch of 100 Hz, it will consist of frequency components that are integer multiples of that value (e.g. 100, 200, 300, 400, 500.... Hz). However, smaller loudspeakers may not produce low frequencies, and so in our example, the 100 Hz component may be missing. Nevertheless, a pitch corresponding to the fundamental may still be heard. The Phenomenon of the Missing Fundamental (youtube).

Harmonic is any member of the harmonic series. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency. The original wave is also called the 1st harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics. As all harmonics are periodic at the fundamental frequency, the sum of harmonics is also periodic at that frequency. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, a common AC power supply frequency, the frequencies of the first three higher harmonics are 100 Hz (2nd harmonic), 150 Hz (3rd harmonic), 200 Hz (4th harmonic) and any addition of waves with these frequencies is periodic at 50 Hz.

Equalization

Stochastic Resonance is a phenomenon where a signal that is normally too weak to be detected by a sensor, can be boosted by adding white noise to the signal, which contains a wide spectrum of frequencies. The frequencies in the white noise corresponding to the original signal's frequencies will resonate with each other, amplifying the original signal while not amplifying the rest of the white noise (thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio which makes the original signal more prominent). Further, the added white noise can be enough to be detectable by the sensor, which can then filter it out to effectively detect the original, previously undetectable signal.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power, often expressed in decibels. A ratio higher than 1:1 (greater than 0 dB) indicates more signal than Noise. Filtering.

White Noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. Sleeping Sounds.

Consonance - Dissonance is a form a structural dichotomy in which the terms define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and reciprocally. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. Consonance is associated with sweetness, pleasantness and acceptability and dissonance with harshness, unpleasantness, or unacceptability.

Dynamic Range Compression is an audio signal processing operation that reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds thus reducing or compressing an audio signal's dynamic range. Compression is commonly used in sound recording and reproduction, broadcasting, live sound reinforcement and in some instrument amplifiers. A dedicated electronic hardware unit or audio software that applies compression is called a compressor. In the 2000s, compressors became available as software plugins that run in digital audio workstation software. In recorded and live music, compression parameters may be adjusted to change the way they affect sounds. Compression and limiting are identical in process but different in degree and perceived effect. A limiter is a compressor with a high ratio and, generally, a fast attack time. Dynamic Range is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.

Convert the Sound Waves into an Electrical Signal

Sound is the generalized name given to “acoustic waves”. These acoustic waves have frequencies ranging from just 1Hz up to many tens of thousands of Hertz with the upper limit of human hearing being around the 20 kHz, (20,000Hz) range.

The sound that we hear is basically made up from mechanical vibrations produced by an Audio Sound Transducer used to generate the acoustic waves, and for sound to be “heard” it requires a medium for transmission either through the air, a liquid, or a solid.

Transducer is a device that converts one form of energy to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. Transducers are often employed at the boundaries of automation, measurement, and control systems, where electrical signals are converted to and from other physical quantities (energy, force, torque, light, motion, position, etc.). The process of converting one form of energy to another is known as transduction.

Also, the actual sound need not be a continuous frequency sound wave such as a single tone or a musical note, but may be an acoustic wave made from a mechanical vibration, noise or even a single pulse of sound such as a “bang”.

Audio Sound Transducers include both input sensors, that convert sound into and electrical signal such as a microphone, and output actuators that convert the electrical signals back into sound such as a loudspeaker.

We tend to think of sound as only existing in the range of frequencies detectable by the human ear, from 20Hz up to 20kHz (a typical loudspeaker frequency response), but sound can also extend way beyond these ranges.

Sound transducers can also both detect and transmit sound waves and vibrations from very low frequencies called infra-sound up to very high frequencies called ultrasound. But in order for a sound transducer to either detect or produce “sound” we first need to understand what sound is.

What is Sound?


electrical waveform Sound is basically a waveform of energy that is produced by some form of a mechanical vibration such as a tuning fork, and which has a “frequency” determined by the origin of the sound for example, a bass drum has a low frequency sound while a cymbal has a higher frequency sound.

A sound waveform has the same characteristics as that of an electrical waveform which are Wavelength (λ), Frequency (ƒ) and Velocity (m/s). Both the sounds frequency and wave shape are determined by the origin or vibration that originally produced the sound but the velocity is dependent upon the medium of transmission (air, water etc.) that carries the sound wave. The relationship between wavelength, velocity and frequency is given below as.

Where: Wavelength – is the time period of one complete cycle in Seconds, (λ). Frequency – is the number of wavelengths per second in Hertz, (ƒ). Velocity – is the speed of sound through a transmission medium in m/s-1.


Microphones


Microphone, sometimes called a mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphones), capacitance change (condenser microphones) or piezoelectricity (piezoelectric microphones) to produce an electrical signal from air pressure variations. Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced. The Microphone can be classed as a “sound sensor”. This is because it produces an electrical analogue output signal which is proportional to the “acoustic” sound wave acting upon its flexible diaphragm. This signal is an “electrical image” representing the characteristics of the acoustic waveform. Generally, the output signal from a microphone is an analogue signal either in the form of a voltage or current which is proportional to the actual sound wave. Acoustical Engineering.

The most common types of microphones available as sound transducers are Dynamic, Electret Condenser, Ribbon and the newer Piezo-electric Crystal types. Typical applications for microphones as a sound transducer include audio recording, reproduction, broadcasting as well as telephones, television, digital computer recording and body scanners, where ultrasound is used in medical applications. An example of a simple “Dynamic” microphone is shown below.

Sphere - Precision Microphone Modeling System Real 3D Sounds of the Finest Microphones in Recording History.

Mikme: Wireless Recording Microphone

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), also written as micro-electro-mechanical systems (or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems) and the related micromechatronics and microsystems is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts. It merges at the nanoscale into nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nanotechnology. MEMS are also referred to as micromachines in Japan and microsystem technology (MST) in Europe. MEMS are made up of components between 1 and 100 micrometers in size (i.e., 0.001 to 0.1 mm), and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometres to a millimetre (i.e., 0.02 to 1.0 mm), although components arranged in arrays (e.g., digital micromirror devices) can be more than 1000 mm2. They usually consist of a central unit that processes data (an integrated circuit chip such as microprocessor) and several components that interact with the surroundings (such as microsensors). Because of the large surface area to volume ratio of MEMS, forces produced by ambient electromagnetism (e.g., electrostatic charges and magnetic moments), and fluid dynamics (e.g., surface tension and viscosity) are more important design considerations than with larger scale mechanical devices. MEMS technology is distinguished from molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics in that the latter must also consider surface chemistry. The potential of very small machines was appreciated before the technology existed that could make them. MEMS became practical once they could be fabricated using modified semiconductor device fabrication technologies, normally used to make electronics. These include molding and plating, wet etching (KOH, TMAH) and dry etching (RIE and DRIE), electro discharge machining (EDM), and other technologies capable of manufacturing small devices. MEMS microphones offer high SNR, low power consumption, good sensitivity, and are available in very small packages that are fully compatible with surface mount assembly processes. MEMS microphones exhibit almost no change in performance after reflow soldering and have excellent temperature characteristics. MEMS microphones use acoustic sensors that are fabricated on semiconductor production lines using silicon wafers and highly automated processes. Layers of different materials are deposited on top of a silicon wafer and then the unwanted material is then etched away, creating a moveable membrane and a fixed backplate over a cavity in the base wafer. The sensor backplate is a stiff perforated structure that allows air to move easily through it, while the membrane is a thin solid structure that flexes in response to the change in air pressure caused by sound waves. Changes in air pressure created by sound waves cause the thin membrane to flex while the thicker backplate remains stationary as the air moves through its perforations. The movement of the membrane creates a change in the amount of capacitance between the membrane and the backplate, which is translated into an electrical signal by the ASIC. The ASIC inside a MEMS microphoneuses a charge pump to place a fixed charge on the microphone membrane. The ASIC then measures the voltage variations caused when the capacitance between the membrane and the fixed backplate changes due to the motion of the membrane in response to sound waves. Analog MEMS microphones produce an output voltage that is proportional to the instantaneous air pressure level. Analog mics usually only have 3 pins: the output, the power supply voltage (VDD), and ground. Although the interface for analog MEMS microphones is conceptually simple, the analog signal requires careful design of the PCB and cables to avoid picking up noise between the microphone output and the input of the IC receiving the signal. In most applications, a low noise audio ADC is also needed to convert the output of analog microphones into digital format for processing and/or transmission. As their name implies, digital MEMS microphones have digital outputs that switch between low and high logic levels. Most digital microphones use pulse density modulation (PDM), which produces a highly oversampled single-bit data stream. The density of the pulses on the output of a microphone using pulse density modulation is proportional to the instantaneous air pressure level. Pulse density modulation is similar to the pulse width modulation (PWM) used in class D amplifiers. The difference is that pulse width modulation uses a constant time between pulses and encodes the signal in the pulse width, while pulse density modulation uses a constant pulse width and encodes the signal in the time between pulses. In addition to the output, ground, and VDD pins found on analog mics, most digital mics also have inputs for a clock and a L/R control. The clock input is used to control the delta-sigma modulator that converts the analog signal from the sensor into a digital PDM signal. Typical clock frequencies for digital microphones range from about 1 MHz to 3.5 MHz. The microphone’s output is driven to the proper level on the selected clock edge and then goes into a high impedance state for the other half of the clock cycle. This allows two digital mic outputs to share a single data line. The L/R input determines which clock edge the data is valid on. The digital microphone outputs are relatively immune to noise, but signal integrity can still be a concern due to distortion created by parasitic capacitance, resistance, and inductance between the microphone output and the SoC. Impedance mismatches can also create reflections that can distort the signals in applications with longer distances between the digital mic and the SoC. Although codecs are not required for digital MEMS microphones, in most cases the pulse density modulated output must be converted from single-bit PDM format into multibit pulse code modulation (PCM) format. Many codecs and SoCs have PDM inputs with filters that convert the PDM data into PCM format. Microcontrollers can also use a synchronous serial interface to capture the PDM data stream from a digital mic and convert it into PCM format using filters implemented in software.


Speakers


Dynamic Moving-coil Microphone Sound TransducerDynamic Moving-coil Microphone Sound Transducer: The construction of a dynamic microphone resembles that of a loudspeaker, but in reverse. It is a moving coil type microphone which uses electromagnetic induction to convert the sound waves into an electrical signal. It has a very small coil of thin wire suspended within the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. As the sound wave hits the flexible diaphragm, the diaphragm moves back and forth in response to the sound pressure acting upon it causing the attached coil of wire to move within the magnetic field of the magnet.

The movement of the coil within the magnetic field causes a voltage to be induced in the coil as defined by Faraday’s law of Electromagnetic Induction. The resultant output voltage signal from the coil is proportional to the pressure of the sound wave acting upon the diaphragm so the louder or stronger the sound wave the larger the output signal will be, making this type of microphone design pressure sensitive. Speakers - High Fidelity.

As the coil of wire is usually very small the range of movement of the coil and attached diaphragm is also very small producing a very linear output signal which is 90o out of phase to the sound signal. Also, because the coil is a low impedance inductor, the output voltage signal is also very low so some form of “pre-amplification” of the signal is required.

As the construction of this type of microphone resembles that of a loudspeaker, it is also possible to use an actual loudspeaker as a microphone.

Obviously, the average quality of a loudspeaker will not be as good as that for a studio type recording microphone but the frequency response of a reasonable speaker is actually better than that of a cheap “freebie” microphone. Also the coils impedance of a typical loudspeaker is different at between 8 to 16Ω. Common applications where speakers are generally used as microphones are in intercoms and walki-talkie’s.

Loudspeaker is an electroacoustic transducer; a device which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

Parts of a Loudspeaker
Diaphragm (cone): Moves in and out to push air and make sound.
Dust cap (dome): Protects the voice coil from dust and dirt.
Surround: A piece of elastic rubber, foam, or textile that flexibly fastens the diaphragm to the basket (outer frame).
Basket: The sturdy metal framework around which the speaker is built.
Spider (suspension): A flexible, corrugated support that holds the voice coil in place, while allowing it to move freely.
Magnet: Typically made from ferrite or powerful neodymium.
Bottom plate: Made of soft iron.
Pole piece: Concentrates the magnetic field produced by the voice coil.
Voice coil: The coil that moves the diaphragm back and forth.
Former: A cylinder of cardboard or other material onto which the coil is wound.
Top plate: Also made of soft iron.
Cables: Connect stereo amplifier unit to voice coil.

Amplifier is an electronic component that can increase the power of a signal.

Preamplifier is an electronic amplifier that prepares a small electrical signal for further amplification or processing. They are typically used to amplify signals from microphones, instrument pickups, and phonographs to line level. Preamplifiers are often integrated into the audio inputs on mixing consoles, DJ mixers, and sound cards. They can also be stand-alone devices.

Electromagnetic Induction is the production of an electromotive force or voltage across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.

The Loudspeaker Output Transducer; Sound can also be used as an output device to produce an alert noise or act as an alarm, and loudspeakers, buzzers, horns and sounders are all types of sound transducer that can be used for this purpose with the most commonly used audible type output sound actuator being the “Loudspeaker”.
speaker woofer
Loudspeaker Transducer: Loudspeakers are audio sound transducers that are classed as “sound actuators” and are the exact opposite of microphones. Their job is to convert complex electrical analogue signals into sound waves being as close to the original input signal as possible.

Loudspeakers are available in all shapes, sizes and frequency ranges with the more common types being moving coil, electrostatic, isodynamic and piezo-electric. Moving coil type loudspeakers are by far the most commonly used speaker in electronic circuits, kits and toys, and as such it is this type of sound transducer we will examine below.

The principle of operation of the Moving Coil Loudspeaker is the exact opposite to that of the “Dynamic Microphone” we look at above. A coil of fine wire, called the “speech or voice coil”, is suspended within a very strong magnetic field, and is attached to a paper or Mylar cone, called a “diaphragm” which itself is suspended at its edges to a metal frame or chassis. Then unlike the microphone which is pressure sensitive input device, this type of sound transducer can be classed as a pressure generating output device.

Moving Coil LoudspeakerThe Moving Coil Loudspeaker: When an analogue signal passes through the voice coil of the speaker, an electro-magnetic field is produced and whose strength is determined by the current flowing through the “voice” coil, which in turn is determined by the volume control setting of the driving amplifier or moving coil driver. The electro-magnetic force produced by this field opposes the main permanent magnetic field around it and tries to push the coil in one direction or the other depending upon the interaction between the north and south poles.

As the voice coil is permanently attached to the cone/diaphragm this also moves in tandem and its movement causes a disturbance in the air around it thus producing a sound or note. If the input signal is a continuous sine wave then the cone will move in and out acting like a piston pushing and pulling the air as it moves and a continuous single tone will be heard representing the frequency of the signal. The strength and therefore its velocity, by which the cone moves and pushes the surrounding air produces the loudness of the sound.

As the speech or voice coil is essentially a coil of wire it has, like an inductor an impedance value. This value for most loudspeakers is between 4 and 16Ω’s and is called the “nominal impedance” value of the speaker measured at 0Hz, or DC.

Remember that it is important to always match the output impedance of the amplifier with the nominal impedance of the speaker to obtain maximum power transfer between the amplifier and speaker. Most amplifier-speaker combinations have an efficiency rating as low as 1 or 2%.

Although disputed by some, the selection of good speaker cable is also an important factor in the efficiency of the speaker, as the internal capacitance and magnetic flux characteristics of the cable change with the signal frequency, thereby causing both frequency and phase distortion. This has the effect of attenuating the signal. Also, with high power amplifiers large currents are flowing through these cables so small thin bell wire type cables can overheat during extended periods of use, again reducing efficiency.

The human ear can generally hear sounds from between 20Hz to 20kHz, and the frequency response of modern loudspeakers called general purpose speakers are tailored to operate within this frequency range as well as headphones, earphones and other types of commercially available headsets used as sound transducers.

However, for high performance High Fidelity (Hi-Fi) type audio systems, the frequency response of the sound is split up into different smaller sub-frequencies thereby improving both the loudspeakers efficiency and overall sound quality as follows:

Frequency Ranges Generalized Frequency Ranges: In multi speaker enclosures which have a separate Woofer, Tweeter and Mid-range speakers housed together within a single enclosure, a passive or active “crossover” network is used to ensure that the audio signal is accurately split and reproduced by all the different sub-speakers.

This crossover network consists of Resistors, Inductors, Capacitors, RLC type passive filters or op-amp active filters whose crossover or cut-off frequency point is finely tuned to that of the individual loudspeakers characteristics and an example of a multi-speaker “Hi-fi” type design is given below.

Multi-speaker (Hi-Fi) DesignMulti-speaker (Hi-Fi) Design: In this tutorial, we have looked at different Sound Transducers that can be used to both detect and generate sound waves. Microphones and loudspeakers are the most commonly available sound transducer, but other lots of other types of sound transducers available which use piezoelectric devices to detect very high frequencies, hydrophones designed to be used underwater for detecting underwater sounds and sonar transducers which both transmit and receive sound waves to detect submarines and ships.

World's Second Best Speakers! (Tech Ingredients - youtube channel)

Voigt Pipe is a type of loudspeaker enclosure that embodies a combination of transmission line, ported enclosure and horn characteristics. It is highly regarded by some speaker designers, as evidenced by established manufacturers such as Castle. Due to its relatively high efficiency the design is frequently employed in full-range loudspeaker designs. The concept is that the sound emitted from the rear of the loudspeaker driver is progressively reflected and absorbed along the length of the tapering tube, almost completely preventing internally reflected sound being retransmitted through the cone of the loudspeaker. The lower part of the pipe acts as a horn while the top can be visualized as an extended compression chamber. The entire pipe can also be seen as a tapered transmission line in inverted form, that is, widening rather than narrowing from top to bottom. The driver is usually positioned close to the middle of the baffle or slightly lower. Its relatively low adoption in commercial speakers can mostly be attributed to the large resulting dimensions of the speaker produced and the expense of manufacturing a rigid tapering tube. The Voigt pipe was designed in 1934 by Paul G. A. H. Voigt and is also referred to as a tapered quarter-wave pipe (TQWP) or tapered quarter-wave tube (TQWT).

Radiated Sound power value is often used to evaluate the sound radiation of a machine or a product. Since its estimation requires the sound pressure on a surrounding surface of the radiating object, the sound power value is mostly computed under high numerical costs due to the acoustic field that has to be modeled.

Sound Power is the rate at which sound energy is emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time. It is defined as "through a surface, the product of the sound pressure, and the component of the particle velocity, at a point on the surface in the direction normal to the surface, integrated over that surface." The SI unit of sound power is the watt (W). It relates to the power of the sound force on a surface enclosing a sound source, in air. For a sound source, unlike sound pressure, sound power is neither room-dependent nor distance-dependent. Sound pressure is a property of the field at a point in space, while sound power is a property of a sound source, equal to the total power emitted by that source in all directions. Sound power passing through an area is sometimes called sound flux or acoustic flux through that area.

Acoustic Transmission is the transmission of sounds through and between materials, including air, wall, and musical instruments. The degree to which sound is transferred between two materials depends on how well their acoustical impedances match.

Acoustic Impedance are measures of the opposition that a system presents to the acoustic flow resulting from an acoustic pressure applied to the system. The SI unit of acoustic impedance is the pascal second per cubic metre (Pa·s/m3) or the rayl per square metre (rayl/m2), while that of specific acoustic impedance is the pascal second per metre (Pa·s/m) or the rayl. In this article the symbol rayl denotes the MKS rayl. There is a close analogy with electrical impedance, which measures the opposition that a system presents to the electrical flow resulting from an electrical voltage applied to the system.

Cone and Edge on the Acoustic Characteristics.

Impedance Matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.


Record Player - Vinyl Record


Gramophone or Phonoraph Record Player Gramophone or Phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound, invented in 1877. The sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, etched, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is similarly rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it, very faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones. The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound. His phonograph originally recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder. A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an up and down or hill-and-dale groove in the foil. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders, and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zig zag groove around the record. In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center. Later improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, and the sound and equalization systems. The disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. From the mid-1980s on, phonograph use on a standard record player declined sharply because of the rise of the cassette tape, compact disc and other digital recording formats. Records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles and by DJs and turntablists in hip hop music, electronic dance music and other styles. Vinyl records are still used by some DJs and musicians in their concert performances. Some electronic dance music DJs and music producers continue to release their recordings on vinyl records. The original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl.

Vinyl Record or Phonograph Record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac; starting in the 1950s polyvinyl chloride became common. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or simply vinyl. Knowledge Preservation - Voyager Gold Record.

HD Vinyl offers better sound quality, higher frequency response, 30% more playing time, and 30% more amplitude than current vinyl records. It also eliminates the toxic chemicals currently used in the vinyl mastering process, while completely removing tangential/radial error. there’s also no quality gap between the first and last copy produced (no stamper wear). 100% backward compatibility that can be played on any existing turntable, while still delivering major fidelity improvements. HD Vinyl perfectly matches the intended shape of the analog groove, regardless of whether it’s the first or last copy manufactured from the stamper set. That allows needle manufacturers to create needles that perfectly fit into HD Vinyl’s laser-inscribed grooves.

Compact Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982. CD Player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs.

Optical Disc is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces. The encoding material sits atop a thicker substrate (usually polycarbonate) which makes up the bulk of the disc and forms a dust defocusing layer. The encoding pattern follows a continuous, spiral path covering the entire disc surface and extending from the innermost track to the outermost track. The data is stored on the disc with a laser or stamping machine, and can be accessed when the data path is illuminated with a laser diode in an optical disc drive which spins the disc at speeds of about 200 to 4,000 RPM or more, depending on the drive type, disc format, and the distance of the read head from the center of the disc (inner tracks are read at a higher disc speed). Most optical discs exhibit a characteristic iridescence as a result of the diffraction grating formed by its grooves. This side of the disc contains the actual data and is typically coated with a transparent material, usually lacquer. The reverse side of an optical disc usually has a printed label, sometimes made of paper but often printed or stamped onto the disc itself. Unlike the 3½-inch floppy disk, most optical discs do not have an integrated protective casing and are therefore susceptible to data transfer problems due to scratches, fingerprints, and other environmental problems.

MP3 is a coding format for digital audio.

Digital Audio is sound that has been recorded in, or converted into, digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is encoded as numerical samples in continuous sequence. For example, in CD audio, samples are taken 44100 times per second each with 16 bit sample depth. Digital audio is also the name for the entire technology of sound recording and reproduction using audio signals that have been encoded in digital form. Following significant advances in digital audio technology during the 1970s, it gradually replaced analog audio technology in many areas of audio engineering and telecommunications in the 1990s and 2000s.


HD Sound Systems - Speakers - Headphones


Is the sound on vinyl records better than on CDs or DVDs? - Record Player
Headphones
High-Resolution Audio is a technical and marketing term used by some recorded-music retailers and high-fidelity sound reproduction equipment vendors. It refers to higher than 44.1 kHz sample rate and/or higher than 16-bit linear bit depth. It usually means 96 kHz (or even much higher), sometimes informally written as "96k", meaning a Nyquist frequency of 48 kHz. However, there also exist 44.1 kHz/24-bit recordings that are labeled HD Audio. Speakers - Editing.

High-End Audio is a class of consumer home audio equipment marketed to audiophiles on the basis of high price or quality, and esoteric or novel sound reproduction technologies. The term can refer simply to the price, to the build quality of the components, or to the subjective or objective quality of sound reproduction.

High Fidelity is a term used by listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound. This is in contrast to the lower quality sound produced by inexpensive audio equipment, or the inferior quality of sound reproduction that can be heard in recordings made until the late 1940s. Ideally, high-fidelity equipment has inaudible noise and distortion, and a flat (neutral, uncolored) frequency response within the human hearing range.

Audiophile is a person who is enthusiastic about high-fidelity sound reproduction. An audiophile seeks to reproduce the sound of a live musical performance, typically in a room with good acoustics. It is widely agreed that reaching this goal is very difficult and that even the best-regarded recording and playback systems rarely, if ever, achieve it.

Remaster refers to changing the quality of the sound or of the image, or both, of previously created recordings, either audiophonic, cinematic, or videographic.

Mastering is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master), the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication). In recent years digital masters have become usual, although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are still being used by the manufacturing industry, notably by a few engineers who have chosen to specialize in analog mastering. Mastering requires critical listening; however, software tools exist to facilitate the process. Results still depend upon the intent of the engineer, the accuracy of the speaker monitors, and the listening environment. Mastering engineers may also need to apply corrective equalization and dynamic compression in order to optimise sound translation on all playback systems. It is standard practice to make a copy of a master recording, known as a safety copy, in case the master is lost, damaged or stolen.

HD Audio Systems
High Resolution Audio
HD Tracks
High Res Audio
Distortion of Sound 
Geek Pulse

AV Receiver is an electronics component made to receive audio and video signals from a number of sources, and to process them to drive loudspeakers and displays such as a television, monitor or video projector. Inputs may come from a satellite receiver, Radio, DVD players, Blu-ray Disc players, VCRs or video game consoles. The AVR source selection and settings such as volume, are typically set by a remote controller.

Audio File Format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. The bit layout of the audio data (excluding metadata) is called the audio coding format and can be uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size, often using lossy compression. The data can be a raw bitstream in an audio coding format, but it is usually embedded in a container format or an audio data format with defined storage layer.

Vi High Performance Audio System
Da Vinci Dac
Seiun Players: Hi-Res Audio meets 4K Video
How well can you Hear Audio Quality?
Zuperdac Portable Hifi Music anytime anywhere
Geek Audio Crowd Sourced High-Rez Sound System 
Hidden-HUB - Wireless HD Audio, Timeless Design
Hidden Radio 2 Wireless Multi-Speaker
Beautiful Secrets Behind Vinyl Records

32 bit / 384 kHz Digital to Analog Converter Da Vinci DAC MKII decodes PCM music files with up to 768 kHz sample rates in true 32 bit depth. It also decodes all DSD files up to 11.289 MHz (DSD256).

Aftermaster Pro: Make Your Audio Sound Incredible Audio Re-Mastering Device Fixes your TV audio & virtually any audio device–phone, laptop, gaming unit. Lightweight & portable.

MegaMini by HIFIMAN New Affordable High-Res Portable Music Player for Every Pocket. Hearing.

Bluetooth Speakers
Peri-Duo Wifi-Bluetooth Speaker and Charge Case
LSTN: Premium Bluetooth Speakers With A Purpose 
UE BOOM Wireless Bluetooth Speaker (amazon)
SPRITZ: High Definition Wireless Music in an App-Controlled Rugged Sport Water Bottle with Hydration Tracker
TuneBox2: Turn your speakers into wireless players
'A' Speaker : The speaker that only YOU can hear
Sonic Blocks: World's 1st Modular Wireless Speaker
M24 Powered Speakers from Peachtree Audio
ARCHT mini - Wireless 360 Degree Speaker with Bass Impact Technology that fits in the palm of your hand.
Bumpboxx Freestyle - Nostalgic Bluetooth Boombox
S-Series: The most compact, mighty Wireless sound system
raD Wireless Multi-Room Speaker
Pebble, World's Smallest True Wireless Speaker
BumpOut: The Truly Portable Speaker that Bumps
Cisor: The Smallest Most Powerful Speaker
Upstage 360 Speaker
Music Tools

Headphones - Earphones - Earbuds - Always in the stereo sweetspot.
Hybratech Headphones
Encore Headphones 
Echobox - The Evolution of Personal Audio 
OSSIC X: Immersive 3D Audio Headphones
Bluetooth earphones with tips that mold to the unique shape of your ears in 60 seconds
Phazon : Wireless Earbuds Guaranteed Not to Fall Out 
Air: Acoustically Stunning Wireless Headphones Audiophile Hi-Fi Sound , Bluetooth 4.2, Single Button Control, In-Ear Mic with Portable Charging Pod.
SonaBuds: Smallest Stereo Earbuds w HD Audio & Mic 4 hours of listening time on one charge.
KUAI: The World’s Smartest Multi-Sport Headphones
M4 : Earphones for Musicians
SenCbuds: World’s 1st Smart Sensing Tech Earbuds
FireFlies - Truly Wire-Free Ear Buds
Nuheara IQbuds: Super Intelligent Wireless Earbuds
Treblab X11 Wireless HD Bluetooth Earbuds
AirLink: Wireless Headphones Bluetooth adapter with Hi-Fi Sound. Built-in Mic. Camera Shutter. Sync & Share function.
Keyhole bluetooth earbud Dot - World's Smallest Bluetooth Headset
Nura: Headphones with unique Soundwave Technology that Automatically Measures your Hearing for Great Sound
ROPES USA Earphones: Join Our Audio Revolution wearable Bluetooth earphones with built-in amplifier and EQ Engine.
Jay Bird Gear Headphones.

Noise Cancelation
CAPE Headphones: Convert your stereo audio into a simulated 3D sound space, Spatial-active Noise cancelling technology with Bluetooth.
Sound by Human - Audio Evolved securely attaches over each ear wirelessly, Noise cancelation and more.
Stages Audio: Wired or Wireless Noise Cancelling Headphones
Bravo Headphones: 10x Better Sound Quality Hybrid Electrostatic Headphones® with Hi-Fi sound, power bass, and Noise isolation.
Thunder: The Smartest Noise-Cancelling Earphones
Ximalaya: 3D Wireless Noise-Cancelling Headphones.
HeadSpace: XD Audio Noise-Cancelling Headphones.
Active Noise Cancellation is a method for reducing unwanted sound by the addition of a second sound specifically designed to cancel the first.

Bone Conduction
Bone Conduction is the conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull. Bone conduction transmission can be used with individuals with normal or impaired hearing.
Cynaps Bluetooth Bone Conduction Headset in a Hat
AfterShokz: Trekz Bone Conduction Headphones
The Dipper Audio Necklace by Tinsel
Beker: waterproof bone conduction music player
ZUNGLE Sunglasses with bone conduction speakers enables to transmit sound waves to the skull via vibrations.
BATBAND bone conduction system, Sleek Ear-Free Headphones.

(After Beethoven went deaf, he found he could affix a metal rod to his piano and bite down on it while he played, enabling him to hear perfectly through vibrations in his jawbone. The process is called bone conduction.)

LG’s HBS-760 headset - Moto Surround

Mighty - Streaming Music Without Your Phone

Geek Out v2 Portable Headphone Amplifier.

DACportable The world's smallest, self-powered headphone amp that improves the sound of headphones, tablets and computers, and features sonic shaping!



Music Museums


Music MuseumMusical Instrument Museum
Musical Instrument Museum
Rock Hall of Fame
Rock & Roll Fantasy Camp
School of Rock
Music History (wiki)
Recording Registry
History of Heavy Metal Book
Heavy Metal
National Recording Registry
LOC Collections
Simonetti Tuba Collection

Top 100 Bands
100 Greatest Artists

100 Greatest Songs
Bring our Music Back

Direct Stream Digital (wiki)

Films about Music - Galleries - Museums - Art Websites



Musical Instruments


Musical Instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. Musical Instruments List (wiki). Piano.

Organology is the science of musical instruments and their classification.

Voice (singing) - Musician - Music Education

Violin is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. The violin typically has four strings, usually tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato) and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow (col legno).

Cello is a bowed string instrument of the violin family. Its four strings are usually tuned in perfect fifths: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, an octave lower than the viola. Music for the cello is generally written in the bass clef, with tenor clef and treble clef used for higher-range passages.

Viol is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments that first appeared in Spain in the mid to late 15th century and was most popular in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Guitar Making Academy where you learn to make your own personal guitar. Bailey Guitars: A Guitar Making Revolution.

Idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes.

Aerophone is any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. Aerophones categorically comprise "the largest and most complex group of instruments in the Americas".

Chordophone is a musical instrument that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use. The term xylophone may be used generally, to include all such instruments such as the marimba, balafon and even the semantron. However, in the orchestra, the term xylophone refers specifically to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba, and these two instruments should not be confused. The term is also popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types. For example, the Pixiphone and many similar toys described by the makers as xylophones have bars of metal rather than of wood, and so are in organology regarded as glockenspiels rather than as xylophones. The metal bars found on a glockenspiel generally produce higher high-pitched tones than a xylophone's wooden bars. Octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with double its frequency. Diatonic Scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other (i.e. separated by at least two whole steps).The seven pitches of any diatonic scale can also be obtained by using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitches that form the C-major scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F: F—C—G—D—A—E—B Any sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C–D–E–F–G–A–B, and any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale. Modern musical keyboards are designed so that the white notes form a diatonic scale, though transpositions of this diatonic scale require one or more black keys. A diatonic scale can be also described as two tetrachords separated by a whole tone. Vibraphone is a musical instrument in the struck idiophone subfamily of the percussion family. The vibraphone resembles the xylophone, marimba, and glockenspiel. Marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with yarn or rubber mallets to produce musical tones. Resonators or pipes suspended underneath the bars amplify their sound. The bars of a chromatic marimba are arranged like the keys of a piano, with the groups of two and three accidentals raised vertically, overlapping the natural bars to aid the performer both visually and physically. This instrument is a type of idiophone, but with a more resonant and lower-pitched tessitura than the xylophone. A person who plays the marimba is called a marimbist or a marimba player. Modern uses of the marimba include solo performances, woodwind and brass ensembles, marimba concertos, jazz ensembles, marching band (front ensembles), drum and bugle corps, indoor percussion ensembles, and orchestral compositions. Contemporary composers have used the unique sound of the marimba more and more in recent years. WGI 2018: Petal High School - IN THE LOT (youtube). Meditation Bell Sounds.

Percussion Instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles struck, scraped or rubbed by hand or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice. The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion. On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not normally part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone (which do not have piano keyboards) are included. Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch, and unpitched percussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch. Beatboxing.

Drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments. In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophone. Drums consist of at least one membrane, called a drumhead or drum skin, that is stretched over a shell and struck, either directly with the player's hands, or with a percussion mallet, to produce sound. There is usually a resonance head on the underside of the drum, typically tuned to a slightly lower pitch than the top drumhead. Other techniques have been used to cause drums to make sound, such as the thumb roll. Drums are the world's oldest and most ubiquitous musical instruments, and the basic design has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years. Drums may be played individually, with the player using a single drum, and some drums such as the djembe are almost always played in this way. Others are normally played in a set of two or more, all played by the one player, such as bongo drums and timpani. A number of different drums together with cymbals form the basic modern drum kit. Drum Therapy.

Theremin is an electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer). The instrument's controlling section usually consists of two metal antennas that sense the relative position of the thereminist's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude (volume) with the other. The electric signals from the theremin are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker.

The untouchable music of the Theremin: Pamelia Kurstin (video and interactive text)

Strange Musical Instruments Never Seen Before - Man Invents Hundreds of them - The Anarchestra (youtube)
The Apprehension Engine - Horror Movie Musical Instrument (youtube)
Mega Marvin Video (spooky sounding instrument) (youtube)

Stylophone Retro Pocket Synth | LOOTd Unboxing (youtube)

Electronic Musical Instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digital audio signal that ultimately is plugged into a power amplifier which drives a loudspeaker, creating the sound heard by the performer and listener.

Music Workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of: a sound module, a music sequencer and (usually) a musical keyboard. It enables a musician to compose electronic music using just one piece of equipment.

Lumen: the Electro-Acoustic Handpan
ACPAD Electronic Orchestra For Your Guitar
Women Who Rock
Making Music from Everyday Sounds (youtube)

Mellotron is an electro-mechanical, polyphonic tape replay keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England, in 1963. It evolved from a similar instrument, the Chamberlin, but could be mass-produced more effectively. The instrument is played by pressing its keys, each of which presses a length of magnetic tape against a capstan, drawing it across a playback head. Then as the key is released, the tape is retracted by a spring to its initial position. Different portions of the tape can be played to access different sounds. The first models were designed to be used in the home and contained a variety of sounds, including automatic accompaniments. The Mellotron use the same concept as a sampler, but generates its sound using analogue samples recorded on audio tape rather than digital samples. When a key is pressed, a tape connected to it is pushed against a playback head, as in a tape deck. While the key remains depressed, the tape is drawn over the head, and a sound is played. When the key is released, a spring pulls the tape back to its original position,

Sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument which uses sound recordings (or "samples") of real instrument sounds (e.g., a piano, violin or trumpet), excerpts from recorded songs (e.g., a five-second bass guitar riff from a funk song) or found sounds (e.g., sirens and ocean waves). The samples are loaded or recorded by the user or by a manufacturer. These sounds are then played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device (e.g., electronic drums) to perform or compose music. Because these samples are usually stored in digital memory, the information can be quickly accessed. A single sample may often be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Often samplers offer filters, effects units, modulation via low frequency oscillation and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways. Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities – they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are also polyphonic – they are able to play more than one note at the same time.

Drum Machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion. Drum machines may imitate drum kits or other percussion instruments, or produce unique sounds. Most modern drum machines allow users to program their own rhythms. Drum machines may create sounds using analog synthesis or play prerecorded samples.

Music Genera's - Videos about Music

Hang Instrument is a musical instrument in the idiophone class created by Felix Rohner and Sabina Schärer in Bern, Switzerland. The instrument is constructed from two half-shells of deep drawn, nitrided steel sheet glued together at the rim leaving the inside hollow and creating a distinct 'UFO shape'. The top ("Ding") side has a center 'note' hammered into it and seven or eight 'tone fields' hammered around the center. The bottom ("Gu") is a plain surface that has a rolled hole in the center with a tuned note that can be created when the rim is struck. Hangin Balance.

Horn is any of a family of musical instruments made of a tube, usually made of metal and often curved in various ways, with one narrow end into which the musician blows, and a wide end from which sound emerges. In horns, unlike some other brass instruments such as the trumpet, the bore gradually increases in width through most of its length—that is to say, it is conical rather than cylindrical. In jazz and popular-music contexts, the word may be used loosely to refer to any wind instrument, and a section of brass or woodwind instruments, or a mixture of the two, is called a horn section in these contexts. Musical instruments: Animal horn used as an instrument, e.g. Swedish cowhorn, Shofar, Vuvuzela, Long straight instruments like Alphorn, Steerhorn, Tibetan horn. Coiled brass instruments: Natural horn, Post horn and their derivatives: French horn, German horn and Vienna horn ("horn" in classical music). The Saxhorn, including Baritone horn in B♭, Alto horn in E♭, and Flugel horn in B♭(soprano). Other horn shaped instruments include: Basset horn, a clarinet pitched in F (less often in G), Crumhorn, a Renaissance capped-reed instrument, English horn, an oboe pitched in F, Hornpipe (instrument), a single-reed instrument.

Blowing Horn is a sound device that is usually made of or shaped like an animal horn, arranged to blow from a hole in the pointed end of it. This rudimentary device had a variety of functions in many cultures, in most cases reducing its scope to exhibiting, celebratory or group identification purposes (signal instrument). On the other hand, it has kept its function and profile in many cattle raising, agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies.

Bugle is one of the simplest brass instruments, normally having no valves or other pitch-altering devices. All pitch control is done by varying the player's embouchure. Consequently, the bugle is limited to notes within the harmonic series. See bugle call for scores to standard bugle calls, all consisting of only five notes. These notes are known as the bugle scale.

Brass Instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips. Brass instruments are also called labrosones or labrophones, from Latin and Greek elements meaning 'lip' and 'sound'. There are several factors involved in producing different pitches on a brass instrument. Slides, valves, crooks (though they are rarely used today), or keys are used to change vibratory length of tubing, thus changing the available harmonic series, while the player's embouchure, lip tension and air flow serve to select the specific harmonic produced from the available series. The view of most scholars is that the term "brass instrument" should be defined by the way the sound is made, as above, and not by whether the instrument is actually made of brass. Thus one finds brass instruments made of wood, like the alphorn, the cornett, the serpent and the didgeridoo, while some woodwind instruments are made of brass, like the saxophone.

Trumpet Motion Gif (image)

Wind Instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube) in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual modifications of the effective length of the vibrating column of air. In the case of some wind instruments, sound is produced by blowing through a reed; others require buzzing into a metal mouthpiece, while yet others require the player to blow into a hole at an edge, which splits the air column and creates the sound.

Conch is a wind instrument that is made from a conch, the shell of several different kinds of sea snails. Their natural conical bore is used to produce a musical tone. Conch shell trumpets have been played in many Pacific Island countries, as well as South America and Southern Asia. The shells of large marine gastropods are blown into as if it were a trumpet, as in blowing horn. A completely unmodified conch may be used, or a mouth hole may be created. Wooden, bamboo, or metal mouthpieces may be inserted into the end of the shell. Embouchure is used to produce notes from the harmonic series. A tone hole may be added to change the fundamental frequency but globally this is extremely rare, thus most conches are natural horns. Various species of large marine gastropod shells can be turned into "blowing shells", but some of the more commonly used species include triton ('trumpet shell'), cassis ('helmet shell') and strombus ('true conch').

Didgeridoo is a wind instrument, played with continuously vibrating lips to produce a continuous drone while using a special breathing technique called circular breathing. The didgeridoo was developed by Aboriginal peoples of northern Australia at least 1,500 years ago, and is now in use around the world, though still most strongly associated with Indigenous Australian music. The Yolŋu name for the instrument is the yiḏaki, or more recently by some, mandapul; in the Bininj Kunwok language of West Arnhem Land it is known as mako. A didgeridoo is usually cylindrical or conical, and can measure anywhere from 1 to 3 m (3 to 10 ft) long. Most are around 1.2 m (4 ft) long. Generally, the longer the instrument, the lower its pitch or key. However, flared instruments play a higher pitch than unflared instruments of the same length. A termite-bored didgeridoo has an irregular shape that, overall, usually increases in diameter towards the lower end. This shape means that its resonances occur at frequencies that are not harmonically spaced in frequency. This contrasts with the harmonic spacing of the resonances in a cylindrical plastic pipe, whose resonant frequencies fall in the ratio 1:3:5 etc. The second resonance of a didgeridoo (the note sounded by overblowing) is usually around an 11th higher than the fundamental frequency (a frequency ratio of 8:3). The vibration produced by the player's lips has harmonics, i.e., it has frequency components falling exactly in the ratio 1:2:3 etc. However, the non-harmonic spacing of the instrument's resonances means that the harmonics of the fundamental note are not systematically assisted by instrument resonances, as is usually the case for Western wind instruments (e.g., in the low range of the clarinet, the 1st, 3rd, and 5th harmonics of the reed are assisted by resonances of the bore). Sufficiently strong resonances of the vocal tract can strongly influence the timbre of the instrument. At some frequencies, whose values depend on the position of the player's tongue, resonances of the vocal tract inhibit the oscillatory flow of air into the instrument. Bands of frequencies that are not thus inhibited produce formants in the output sound. These formants, and especially their variation during the inhalation and exhalation phases of circular breathing, give the instrument its readily recognizable sound. Other variations in the didgeridoo's sound can be made by adding vocalizations to the drone. Most of the vocalizations are related to sounds emitted by Australian animals, such as the dingo or the kookaburra. To produce these sounds, the players simply have to use their vocal folds to produce the sounds of the animals whilst continuing to blow air through the instrument. The results range from very high-pitched sounds to much lower sounds involving interference between the lip and vocal fold vibrations. Adding vocalizations increases the complexity of the playing.

Vuvuzela is about 65 centimetres or 2 feet long, which produces a loud monotone note, typically around B♭ 3 (the B♭ below middle C). Some models are made in two parts to facilitate storage, and this design also allows pitch variation. Many types of vuvuzela, made by several manufacturers, may produce various intensity and frequency outputs. The intensity of these outputs depends on the blowing technique and pressure exerted. Traditionally made and inspired from a kudu horn, the vuvuzela was used to summon distant villagers to attend community gatherings. The vuvuzela is commonly used at football matches in South Africa, and it has become a symbol of South African football as the stadiums are filled with its sound. The intensity of the sound caught the attention of the global football community during the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup in anticipation of South Africa hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The vuvuzela has been the subject of controversy when used by spectators at football matches. Its high sound pressure levels at close range can lead to permanent hearing loss for unprotected ears after exposure, with a sound level of 120 dB(A) (the threshold of pain) at one metre (3.3 ft) from the device opening.

Foghorn is a device that uses sound to warn vehicles of navigational hazards such as rocky coastlines, or boats of the presence of other vessels, in foggy conditions. The term is most often used in relation to marine transport. When visual navigation aids such as lighthouses are obscured, foghorns provide an audible warning of rock outcrops, shoals, headlands, or other dangers to shipping. All foghorns use a vibrating column of air to create an audible tone, but the method of setting up this vibration differs. Some horns, such as the Daboll trumpet, used vibrating plates or metal reeds, a similar principle to a modern electric car horn. Others used air forced through holes in a rotating cylinder or disk, in the same manner as a siren. Semi-automatic operation of foghorns was achieved by using a clockwork mechanism (or "coder") to sequentially open the valves admitting air to the horns; each horn was given its own timing characteristics to help mariners identify them. Audible fog signals have been used in one form or another for hundreds of years, initially simply bells or gongs struck manually. Foghorns have very low pitches because sounds with low pitches have a long wavelength. This is important because a long wavelength means that the sound wave can pass around barriers, like rocks, easily. This property of a wave is called diffraction. The longer the wave's length the easier it is for the wave to do this.

International Maritime Organization regulations specify that ships' horn frequencies be in the range 70–200 Hz (corresponding to C#2-G3) for vessels that are over 200 m (660 ft) in length. For vessels between 75 m (246 ft) and 200 m the range is 130–350 Hz and for vessels under 75m it is 70–700 Hz.

Vehicle Horn is a sound-making device that can be equipped to motor vehicles, buses, bicycles, trains, trams (otherwise known as streetcars in North America), and other types of vehicles. The sound made usually resembles a "honk" (older vehicles) or a "beep" (modern vehicles). The driver uses the horn to warn others of the vehicle's approach or presence, or to call attention to some hazard. Motor vehicles, ships and trains are required by law in some countries to have horns. Like trams, trolley cars and streetcars, bicycles are also legally required to have an audible warning device in many areas, but not universally, and not always a horn.

Train Horn train horn is a loud, powerful air horn that serves as an audible warning device on electric and diesel locomotives, electric or diesel power cars, and in electric and diesel multiple units. The horn's primary purpose is to alert persons and animals to an oncoming train, especially when approaching a level crossing. The horn is also used for acknowledging signals given by railroad employees, such as during switching operations.

Air Horn air horn is a pneumatic device designed to create an extremely loud noise for signaling purposes. It usually consists of a source which produces compressed air, which passes into a horn through a reed or diaphragm. The stream of air causes the reed or diaphragm to vibrate, creating sound waves, then the horn amplifies the sound making it louder. Air horns are widely employed as vehicle horns, installed on large buses, semi-trailer trucks, fire trucks, trains, and some ambulances as a warning device, and on ships as a signaling device.


Tuning - Sound Calibration


Tuning is calibrating something like an instrument or electronic circuit to a standard frequency. Adjust the pitches or to adjust something for better functioning.

Electronic Tuner is a device that detects and displays the Pitch of musical notes played on a musical instrument. "Pitch" is the highness or lowness of a musical note, which is typically measured in Hertz. Simple tuners indicate—typically with an analog needle-dial, LEDs, or an LCD screen—whether a pitch is lower, higher, or equal to the desired pitch. In the 2010s, software applications can turn a smartphone, tablet, or personal computer into a tuner. More complex and expensive tuners indicate pitch more precisely. Tuners vary in size from units that fit in a pocket to 19" rack-mount units. Instrument technicians, piano tuners, and violin-family luthiers typically use more expensive, accurate tuners. The simplest tuners detect and display tuning only for a single pitch—often "A" or "E"—or for a small number of pitches, such as the six used in the standard tuning of a guitar (E,A,D,G,B,E). More complex tuners offer chromatic tuning for all 12 pitches of the equally tempered octave. Some electronic tuners offer additional features, such as pitch calibration, temperament options, the sounding of a desired pitch through an amplifier plus speaker, and adjustable "read-time" settings that affect how long the tuner takes to measure the pitch of the note. Among the most accurate tuning devices, strobe tuners work differently than regular electronic tuners. They are stroboscopes that flicker a light at the same frequency as the note. The light shines on a wheel that spins at a precise speed. The interaction of the light and regularly-spaced marks on the wheel creates a stroboscopic effect that makes the marks for a particular pitch appear to stand still when the pitch is in tune. These can tune instruments and audio devices more accurately than most non-strobe tuners. However, mechanical strobe units are expensive and delicate, and their moving parts require periodic servicing, so they are used mainly in applications that require higher precision, such as by professional instrument makers and repair experts.

Chromatic Scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another. On a modern piano or other equal-tempered instrument, all the semitones have the same size (100 cents). In other words, the notes of an equal-tempered chromatic scale are equally spaced. An equal-tempered chromatic scale is a nondiatonic scale having no tonic because of the symmetry of its equally spaced notes. The most common conception of the chromatic scale before the 13th century was the Pythagorean chromatic scale. Due to a different tuning technique, the twelve semitones in this scale have two slightly different sizes. Thus, the scale is not perfectly symmetric. Many other tuning systems, developed in the ensuing centuries, share a similar asymmetry. Equally spaced pitches are provided only by equal temperament tuning systems, which are widely used in contemporary music.

Musical Tuning has two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice. Tuning systems, the various systems of pitches used to tune an instrument, and their theoretical bases. Tuning is the process of adjusting the pitch of one or many tones from musical instruments to establish typical intervals between these tones. Tuning is usually based on a fixed reference, such as A = 440 Hz. Out of tune refers to a pitch/tone that is either too high (sharp) or too low (flat) in relation to a given reference pitch. While an instrument might be in tune relative to its own range of notes, it may not be considered 'in tune' if it does not match A = 440 Hz (or whatever reference pitch one might be using). Some instruments become 'out of tune' with damage or time and must be readjusted or repaired. Different methods of sound production require different methods of adjustment: Tuning to a pitch with one's voice is called matching pitch and is the most basic skill learned in ear training. Turning pegs to increase or decrease the tension on strings so as to control the pitch. Instruments such as the harp, piano, and harpsichord require a wrench to turn the tuning pegs, while others such as the violin can be tuned manually. Modifying the length or width of the tube of a wind instrument, brass instrument, pipe, bell, or similar instrument to adjust the pitch.

Guitar Tunings assign pitches to the open strings of guitars, including acoustic guitars, electric guitars, and classical guitars. Tunings are described by the particular pitches denoted by notes in Western music. By convention, the notes are ordered from lowest-pitched string (i.e., the deepest bass note) to highest-pitched (thickest string to thinnest). Standard tuning defines the string pitches as E, A, D, G, B, and E, from lowest (low E2) to highest (high E4). Standard tuning is used by most guitarists, and frequently used tunings can be understood as variations on standard tuning. The term guitar tunings may refer to pitch sets other than standard tuning, also called nonstandard, alternative, or alternate. Some tunings are used for particular songs, and might be referred to by the song's title. There are hundreds of such tunings, often minor variants of established tunings. Communities of guitarists who share a musical tradition often use the same or similar tunings.

Piano Tuning is the act of adjusting the tension of the strings of an acoustic piano so that the musical intervals between strings are in tune. The meaning of the term 'in tune', in the context of piano tuning, is not simply a particular fixed set of pitches. Fine piano tuning requires an assessment of the vibration interaction among notes, which is different for every piano, thus in practice requiring slightly different pitches from any theoretical standard. Pianos are usually tuned to a modified version of the system called equal temperament. (See Piano key frequencies for the theoretical piano tuning. In all systems of tuning, every pitch may be derived from its relationship to a chosen fixed pitch, which is usually A440, the note A above middle C (261.626 Hz). Piano tuning is done by a wide range of independent piano technicians, piano rebuilders, piano-store technical personnel, and hobbyists. Professional training and certification is available from organizations or guilds, such as the Piano Technicians Guild. Many piano manufacturers recommend that pianos be tuned twice a year.

432hz and 440hz Visual The True Schumann Tuning is not 432 HZ/The Human Effect (youtube)

The two hemispheres of the Human Brain synchronize at 8 HZ, which is also the frequency of DNA replication. 432 HZ resonates with the frequency of 8 HZ (7.86 HZ). If you use 8 HZ as the starting point and work upwards by 5 octaves (i.e. by the seven notes in the scale 5 times) you reach a frequency of 256 HZ in whose scale note "A" has a frequency of 432 HZ. 432 squared = 186,624, which is within 1 percent of the speed of light. 432/12=36 3=6=9.

Scientific Pitch is an absolute concert pitch standard which is based on middle C (C4) being set to 256 Hz rather than 261.62 Hz, making it approximately 37.594 cents lower than the common A440 pitch standard. It was first proposed in 1713 by French physicist Joseph Sauveur, promoted briefly by Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi in the 19th century, then advocated by the Schiller Institute beginning in the 1980s.



Lessons - Reasons for Learning to Play a Musical Instrument


Musical Instruments Musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is also known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, and some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, conducting, singing, rapping, producing, composing, arranging, and the orchestration of music. Ambidextrous.

Session Musician are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. Session musicians are usually not permanent members of a musical ensemble or band. They work behind the scenes and rarely achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders. Backup Band (wiki).

Playing a Musical Instrument helps builds hand-eye coordination, it helps strengthen math skills through counting notes and rhythms, and learning music theory. Playing a musical instrument improves reading and comprehension skills, and enhances concentration by requiring you to focus on pitch, rhythm, tempo and notes. Playing a musical instrument can also benefit your memory. "Kids who learn how to play musical instruments may have an easier time paying attention and focusing."

Music is a Science. It is exact, specific; and it demands exact acoustics. A sheet of music is a chart, a graph which indicates frequencies, intensities, volume changes, melody and harmony all at once and with the most exact control of time.

Music is Mathematical. Rhythm is based on the subdivisions of time into fractions which must be done in one's head, not worked out on paper. Students involvement in instrumental music show higher levels of math proficiency. Music education helps with the development of spatial-temporal reasoning. Highly developed spatial-temporal faculties are imperative for working through solutions to the complex problems in fields such as architecture, engineering, science and, obviously, mathematics.

Music is a Foreign Language. Most of the terms are in Italian, German or French; and the notation is certainly not English but a highly developed kind of shorthand that uses symbols to represent ideas. Music is the most complete and universal language. Music education also does major work on the language-processing parts of our brains. To learn to read, children need to have "good working memory, the ability to disambiguate speech sounds and make quick sound-to-meaning connection.

Music is History. Music usually reflects the environment and times of its creation, often even the country and / or cultural feeling.

Music is Physical Education. It requires fantastic coordination of fingers, hands, arms, lip, cheek and facial muscles, in addition to extraordinary control of diaphragmatic, back, stomach, and chest muscles, which respond instantly to the sound the ear hears and the mind interprets. Music training helps improve cognitive and non-cognitive skills.

Music touches every human being from infancy to adulthood. The power of musical sound can be the vehicle for expression of a wide variety of human emotions. And not only does music move us emotionally, it activates our intellect.

Arts and Human Development Benefits (PDF)
Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function

"Music is a excellent vehicle for learning many different things, you're not just teaching music, you're teaching everything in life that's connected to music."

Surgery patients who listen to music may have lower levels of pain and anxiety as well as lower blood pressure and heart rate than people who don't, according to the analysis music was linked to about 31 percent less pain, 29 percent lower odds of using pain medication, and 34 percent less anxiety. Music was tied to 40 percent lower blood pressure and 27 percent lower heart rate.

Music Cognition Lab employs a variety of behavioral and physiological methods in their research, including Electroencephalography, eye-tracking, speech analysis, neuroimaging, genetics, standardized and experimental assessment measures, and behavioral coding. Our Lab is a central hub for the Program for Music, Mind, and Society at Vanderbilt, a trans-institutional program that aims to understand the role of music from molecules to the brain to behavior to culture and society.

Can music training help children develop language and learning skills? M.I.L.E.Stone (Music Impacting Language Expertise).

Musical rhythm discrimination explains individual differences in grammar skills in children. Study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities

Study of Rhythm Production and Perception

Rhythm Perception in Early Infancy. The chief characteristic of rhythm perception is the subjective grouping of objectively separate events. In a rhythmic sequence of identical tone-bursts, adults do not perceive the repetition of a single sound, but a recurring configuration which has temporal form. Such a sequence is organized according to the Gestalt law of proximity1,2. Organization of temporal form has never been studied systematically in pre-verbal infants. We present here results suggesting a precocious achievement of this function and contrasting with previous research which failed to demonstrate organization of spatial form by babies in accordance with the proximity law.

El Sistema is a publicly financed voluntary sector music education program in Venezuela, founded in 1975 by Venezuelan educator, musician and activist José Antonio Abreu which later adopted the motto "Music for Social Change". El Sistema-inspired programs provide "free classical music education that promotes human opportunity and development for impoverished children," as quoted from the International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies. By 2015, according to official figures, El Sistema consisted of over 400 music centers and 700,000 young musicians. The original program in Venezuela provides 4 hours of musical training and rehearsal per week day after school, as well as work on the weekends. Most El Sistema-inspired programs in the United States provide 7 or more hours of instruction each week, as well as an instrument.

José Antonio Abreu was a Venezuelan orchestra conductor, pianist, economist, educator, activist, and politician best known for his association with El Sistema. He was honored with the 2009 Latin Grammy Trustees Award, an honor given to people who have contributed to music by the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences. (May 7, 1939 – March 24, 2018).

Fund a Musical

The Mariani Foundation for Paediatric Neurology announces The Neurosciences and Music - VI

How Music Hijacks our Perception of Time - Time

Math can be Expressed by Sounds to make Music

What does the universe sound like? A musical tour: Matt Russo (video and text)

School students identify sounds caused by solar storm. School students have successfully identified sounds caused by a solar storm in the Earth's magnetic shield. The group of students identified a series of waves whose pitch decreased over the course of several days. They found that this event occurred after a Coronal Mass Ejection or 'solar storm' caused a great disturbance to Earth's space environment.

Video Music Lessons - Virtual Music Teacher

Free Guitar Videos - Guitar Tunings (wiki) - Bohemian Guitars - Justin Guitar - Jamstik - Ultimate Picking

FRETX adds Lights to the Fretboard of YOUR own Guitar.

Populele 72-LED smart Fretboard connects with our app via Bluetooth to show exactly how to play your favorite songs.

Guitar Neck (image)

MI Guitar Magic Instruments

JamStack is an Attachable Guitar Amp that uses your smartphone for effects, loops and more.

What Is A Chordelia? video

Play Piano (youtube)
Online Piano Lessons
Piano Practice 
Piano 88 keys, 52 white keys and 36 black keys.
Bluetooth Mobile Keyboard
Smart Piano Light-keyboard
iKeybo: World's Most Advanced Projection Keyboard and Piano virtual laser projection multilingual keyboard, virtual piano, and portable charger. All Together.
Piano for All

Drum Lessons

Virtual Violin Lessons - Violin Online - Violin Course (youtube) - Play Bass Now

Musical Training Software - Musical Instruments

An early start is key to developing musical skill later in life. But there is no clear developmental period early in life when the brain is especially receptive to musical training. It is a common observation that successful musicians often start their musical training early. So it's mostly just a matter of practicing more or having more time to practice.



Reading Sheet Music - Musical Notations


Score or sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms and/or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece. Like its analogs – printed books or pamphlets in English, Arabic or other languages – the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier centuries, papyrus or parchment), although the access to musical notation since the 1980s has included the presentation of musical notation on computer screens and the development of scorewriter computer programs that can notate a song or piece electronically, and, in some cases, "play back" the notated music using a synthesizer or virtual instruments.

How to Read Music (wikihow) - Sheet Music - Reading Music

Music Symbols (image) - Musical Notes (image) - List of Musical Symbols (wiki)

Read Musical Notes (youtube) - Read Musical Notes (youtube)

It's amazing that someone can read symbols on a page and then translate them into intricate physical movements.

Musical Notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols, including ancient symbols or modern musical symbols and including ancient symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets or made using a pen on papyrus, parchment or manuscript paper; printed using a printing press (ca. 1400s), a computer printer (ca. 1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology. Ancient Greek musical notation was in use from at least the 6th century BC until approximately the 4th century AD.

Using the same sheet music to play different instruments. Some instruments read in different clefs (treble, bass, alto, tenor, for the most part) and some instruments are “transposing” instruments, like clarinet, saxophone, many trumpets, horns, etc., so they need the SAME part written in a different key or clef, but using the same symbology. But in an orchestra or band, everyone isn’t playing the same thing. They play complimentary parts that are different pitches and rhythms, so they each need their own part. The only person who sees all the parts at once is the conductor, reading the conductor’s score, also called a “partitur”, which has the parts for all instruments on it. Some groups, like many jazz combos, all read off the same master part, called a “lead sheet”. It has the melody and chord symbols, and probably an indication of the tempo, feel, and form, including how to introduce it and finish it. They aren’t all playing the same thing, but they use the lead sheet as a guide to make up their own parts.

Sound Tracks - Why do I think I sound good when Singing?

Symphony is a musical composition or musical score that is written by composers for an orchestra that has many musicians playing different instruments together and at different times.

Songwriter is an individual who writes the lyrics, melodies and chord progressions for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music. A songwriter can also be called a composer, although the latter term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre.



Music Genre's - Music Styles


Music Genres Word Cloud Music Genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated.

List of Popular Music Genres (wiki) - Over 1,200 Genres of Popular Music.

Music Style is a way of expressing something in language or art or music etc. that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period. An artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner.

Ancient Music refers to the musical systems before 500 AD that were developed in past, literate cultures, including Mesopotamia, India, Persia, Egypt, China, Greece, and Rome, which replaced prehistoric music. Designated by the characterization of the basic notes and scales, ancient music was transmitted through oral or written systems. Written musical notation was the first mark of a literate society. During the time of prehistoric music, people had a tendency to primarily convey their music and ideas through oral means. However, with the rise of social classes, many European and Asian societies regarded literacy as superior to illiteracy which caused people to begin writing down their musical notations. This made music evolve from simply hearing music and transmitting it orally, to keeping records and personal interpretations of musical themes.

Early Music generally comprises Medieval music (500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music (1600–1750). Early music is a broad musical era in the history of Western art music.

Classical Music is music written in the European tradition during a period lasting approximately from 1750 to 1830, when forms such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata were standardized. A serious or conventional music following long-established principles. An art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. Also used to refer to the Classical period from 1750 to 1820. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period. Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about the year 1730 and the year 1820.

Blue Danube Johann Strauss II (youtube)
Mozart's Symphony no 40 - 1st movement (youtube)
Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 - I. Allegro con brio (youtube)
Classical - Richard Wagner - Ride of the Valkyries (youtube)
The Classical Period of Music (youtube)
The Best of Classical Music (youtube)
Violin Videos - Piano Videos

Ambient Music is a genre of music that puts an emphasis on tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. Ambient music is said to evoke an "atmospheric", "visual", or "unobtrusive" quality. Able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting.

Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance. Anna Netrebko - "Pie Jesu" (youtube) - Hayley Westenra - Pie Jesu (live) (youtube) - Schubert - Ave Maria (youtube) - Giacomo Puccini - Aria of Lauretta from Opera "Gianni Schicchi" (youtube).

Rock Opera is a collection of rock music songs with lyrics that relate to a common story. Rock operas are typically released as concept albums and are not scripted for acting, which distinguishes them from operas, although several have been adapted as rock musicals. The use of various character roles within the song lyrics is a common storytelling device. The success of the rock opera genre has inspired similar works in other musical styles, such as rap opera.

Jesus Christ Superstar is a 1970 rock opera with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Tim Rice. It started as a rock opera album musical before its Broadway on-stage debut in 1971. The musical is sung-through, with no spoken dialogue. The story is loosely based on the Gospels' accounts of the last week of Jesus's life, beginning with the preparation for the arrival of Jesus and his disciples in Jerusalem and ending with the crucifixion. It depicts political and interpersonal struggles between Judas Iscariot and Jesus that are not present in the Bible.

Orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which features string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, grouped in sections.

Glenn Miller - In The Mood [HQ] (youtube)
"SING, SING, SING" BY BENNY GOODMAN (youtube)
Bobby Darin - Beyond the Sea (youtube)
Mack the Knife-Bobby Darin (youtube)

Mariachi is a musical expression that dates back to at least 18th century Western Mexico. It is a tradition that can be defined by eight socio-musical elements: mariachi instrumentation and texture, musical genres and subgenres, performance methods and styles, singing styles and forms, dance styles, performative space, performance clothing, and the word "mariachi". Each element has its own history, originated at varying moments in time and in different regions of the Western Mexican countryside, and some, if not all, had to converge in order for the mariachi tradition to become what it is. Mariachi Flor de Toloache is the first and only established all female mariachi band.

Calypso Music is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century. Its rhythms can be traced back to West African Kaiso and the arrival of French planters and their slaves from the French Antilles in the 18th century.

Electronic Music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production, an electronic musician being a musician who composes and/or performs such music. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar. Purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as the theremin, sound synthesizer, and computer.

MIDI - Monome - Instruments - Digital Guitar - Moog - Akai-Pro - Korg - Zoom - M-Audio - Audio
Morton Subotnick - Morton Subotnick: Silver apples of the Moon (1967) (youtube)

Polyphony and Monophony in instruments is a property of musical instruments that means that they can play multiple notes simultaneously. Instruments featuring polyphony are said to be polyphonic. Instruments that are not capable of polyphony are monophonic or paraphonic.

Roland Juno-60 is a popular 61-key polyphonic synthesizer introduced by Roland Corporation in September 1982 as a successor to the similar Roland Juno-6, which had been on the market since February that year. Like its predecessor, the Juno-60 is essentially an analog synthesizer with digitally controlled oscillators.

Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion primarily involving the art of mimicking drum machines using one's mouth, lips, tongue, and voice. It may also involve vocal imitation of turntablism, and other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip-hop culture, often referred to as "the fifth element" of hip-hop, although it is not limited to hip-hop music. The term "beatboxing" is sometimes used to refer to vocal percussion in general.

Tom Thum: The orchestra in my mouth (video)
Beardyman: Polyphonic Me (video)
Electronically Modified Didgeridoo Kyle Evans (youtube)

Live Looping is the recording and playback of a piece of music in real-time using either dedicated hardware devices, called loopers or phrase samplers, or software running on a computer with an audio interface. Musicians can loop with either laptop software or loop pedals, which are sold for tabletop and floor-based use. DMG Audio - 800 PRODUCERS FLIP THE SAME SAMPLE (youtube).

House Music is a genre of electronic music created by club DJs and music producers that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s. Early house music was generally dance-based music characterized by repetitive 4/4 beats, rhythms mainly provided by drum machines, off-beat hi-hat cymbals, and synthesized basslines. While house displayed several characteristics similar to disco music, it was more electronic and minimalistic, and the repetitive rhythm of house was more important than the song itself.

Progressive House is a style (subgenre) of house music. The progressive house style emerged in the early 1990s. It initially developed in the United Kingdom as a natural progression of American and European house music of the late 1980s.

Electronic Dance Music also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals. EDM is generally produced for playback by disc jockeys (DJs) who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix, by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers also perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In the United Kingdom and in continental Europe, EDM is more commonly called 'dance music' or simply 'dance'. Electronic Music Guide - Lost in Sound - Digitally Imported.

Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno in reference to a specific genre of music was in 1988. Many styles of techno now exist, but Detroit techno is seen as the foundation upon which a number of subgenres have been built.

Top House-Electro Songs (youtube)

New Age Music is a genre of music intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, reading as a method of stress management to bring about a state of ecstasy rather than trance, or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is associated with environmentalism and New Age spirituality.

Ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Soundtracks (movies)

Sentimental Ballad is an emotional style of music that often deals with romantic and intimate relationships, and to a lesser extent, loneliness, death, war, drug abuse, politics and religion, usually in a poignant but solemn manner. Ballads are generally melodic enough to get the listener's attention. Rock Ballads (wiki).

Fantasia is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. Because of this, like the impromptu, it seldom approximates the textbook rules of any strict musical form.

Aficionado is a serious devotee of some particular music genre or musical performer.

Big Band is a type of musical ensemble that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section. Big bands originated during the early 1910s and dominated jazz in the early 1940s when swing was most popular. The term "big band" is also used to describe a genre of music. One problem with this usage is that it overlooks the variety of music played by these bands. Big bands started as accompaniment for dancing. In contrast to the typical jazz emphasis on improvisation, big bands relied on written compositions and arrangements. They gave a greater role to bandleaders, arrangers, and sections of instruments rather than soloists.

Marching Band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform for entertainment, and prepare for a competition. Instrumentation typically includes brass instruments, woodwind instruments, percussion instruments, and color guard. Most marching bands wear some kind of uniform (often of a military style) that includes the school or organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands are accompanied by a colorguard, a group of performers, who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most often flags and rifles. Marching bands are generally categorized by function, size, age, gender, instruments and by the style of show they perform. In addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands also perform field shows at special events like competitions. Increasingly, marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs, traditions, and flair from outside performances.

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States. It originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms". Jazz and Punk Mix.

Swing Music is a form of popular music developed in the United States that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the 'swing feel' where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music. Swing bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement. The danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, a period known as the swing era. The verb "to swing" is also used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the swing era include Louis Armstrong, Louis Prima, Larry Clinton, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller, Woody Herman, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Harry James, Louis Jordan, and Cab Calloway.

Bebop is a style of jazz developed in the early to mid-1940s in the United States, which features songs characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key, instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure, the use of scales and occasional references to the melody.

American Rock has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, rhythm and blues, and country music, and also drew on folk music, jazz, blues, and classical music. American rock music was further influenced by the British Invasion of the American pop charts from 1964 and resulted in the development of psychedelic rock. From the late 1960s and early 1970s, American rock music was highly influential in the development of a number of fusions, including blending with folk music to create folk rock, with blues to create blues rock, with country music to create country rock, roots rock and southern rock and with jazz to create jazz rock, all of which contributed to psychedelic rock. In the 1970s, rock developed a large number of subgenres, such as soft rock, hard rock, heavy metal, glam rock, progressive rock and punk rock. New subgenres that were derived from punk and important in the 1980s included new wave, hardcore punk, post-punk, thrash, and alternative rock. In the 1990s, alternative rock broke through into the mainstream with grunge, and other significant subgenres included indie rock and nu metal. In the 2000s genres that emerged into the mainstream included emo, metalcore and there was a Garage rock/post-punk revival. The development of digital technology led to the development of new forms of digital electronic rock.

Psychedelic Music covers a range of popular music styles and genres influenced by the 1960s psychedelic culture, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations, synesthesia and altered states of consciousness. Psychedelic music attempted to replicate the hallucinogenic experience of using these drugs or enhance the experience of using them. Psychedelic music emerged during the mid-1960s among folk rock and blues rock bands in the United States and Britain.

Psychedelic Rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, or intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often used indiscriminately. A term usually deployed interchangeably with "psychedelic rock" is "acid rock", which can also refer to the more extreme ends of the genre.

Psychedelic Sight - Psychedelic Music - Genre Psychedelic - Inter Chill - Hz (electricity)

Punk Rock is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through independent record labels. The term "punk rock" was first used by American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and certain subsequent acts they perceived as stylistic inheritors. When the movement now bearing the name developed from 1974 to 1976, acts such as Television, Patti Smith, and the Ramones in New York City; the Sex Pistols, the Clash, and the Damned in London; The Runaways in Los Angeles; and the Saints in Brisbane formed its vanguard. As 1977 approached, punk became a major cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment (such as deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, studded or spiked bands and jewellery, safety pins, and bondage and S&M clothes) and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. In 1977, the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive, spreading worldwide, especially in England. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that often rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk (e.g. Minor Threat), street punk (e.g. the Exploited), and anarcho-punk (e.g. Crass) became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, and later indie pop, alternative rock, and noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged into the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, Rancid, The Offspring, and Blink-182.

Punk: Attitude - Punk Rock Documentary [2005] (youtube) - Punk: Attitude is a film by Don Letts. It explores the "punk" revolution, genre and following from its beginning in the mid-1970s up to its effect on modern rock music and other genres. The cast is a veritable list of alternative musicians and directors offering their opinions on what may have been the largest music revolution ever. The film begins showing the roots of punk music with many views on various artists and genres who accentuated the beginning of the genre, like the MC5 and the Velvet Underground. Punk: Attitude then proceeds chronologically to sort through the various artists and alumni who were central to the movement, drawing light on the general idea or "Attitude" of the punk movement, which spoke out for a generation. Bands such as The Ramones, The Stooges, The Clash and The Sex Pistols feature prominently throughout. The movie offers a canvas of praise and respect given from many interviewees as these bands are heralded commonly as the beginning of Punk progressively through the movie. Rare concert footage and personal accounts of gigs and band meetings highlight the aggression and destructive entities with surprising accuracy. The movie wraps up by emphasizing the influence that punk has on modern music. David Johansen, Thurston Moore, Henry Rollins, Captain Sensible, Jim Jarmusch, Mick Jones, Jello Biafra, Siouxsie Sioux, Darryl Jenifer.

Popular Music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training. It stands in contrast to both Art Music and traditional or Folk Music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early Blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences.



Singing Knowledge - Range - Scale


Singing is the creation of musical sounds made of pleasing tunes and melodies using the voice or vocal cords, which are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. Singing is way to make words sound beautiful and a pleasure to listen to. Our vocal cords don't produce sound like a violin string or a guitar string, it's a valve at the top of our throat that, under pressure from the lungs, vibrates in this way that chops the air into these pulses.

Vocalist or Singers perform music (arias, recitatives, songs, etc.) that can be sung with or without accompaniment by musical instruments.

Lead Vocalist in popular music is typically the member of a group or band whose voice is the most prominent melody in a performance where multiple voices may be heard.

Backing Vocalist or backup singers are singers who provide vocal harmony with the lead vocalist or other backing vocalists. In some cases, a backing vocalist may sing alone as a lead-in to the main vocalist's entry or to sing a counter-melody. Backing vocalists are used in a broad range of popular music, traditional music and world music styles.

Voice Types (PDF) - Singing Lessons

Soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.

Alto refers to the second highest part of a contrapuntal musical texture and is also applied to its associated vocal range, especially in choral music. More rarely it describes the highest male solo voice type (usually designated countertenor), and it is also the root word of contralto, the lowest standard female voice type. When designating instruments, "alto" likewise can refer either to the corresponding vocal range (alto flute and alto trombone) or to musical role (alto recorder and alto clarinet).

Tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is one of the highest of the male voice types. Breathing - Choir. Luciano Pavarotti (wiki).

Baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types.

Bass Voice is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types.

Figured Bass is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.

Contralto is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range is the lowest female voice type. The contralto has the lowest vocal range of the female voice types, with the lowest tessitura. The contralto's vocal range is fairly rare; similar to the mezzo-soprano, and almost identical to that of a countertenor, typically between the F below middle C (F3 in scientific pitch notation) to the second F above middle C (F5), although, at the extremes, some voices can reach the D below middle C (D3) or the second B? above middle C (B?5). The contralto voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, lyric, and dramatic contralto. Contralto" is primarily meaningful only in reference to classical and operatic singing, as other traditions lack a comparable system of vocal categorization. The term "contralto" is only applied to female singers; men singing in a similar range are called "countertenors". The Italian terms "contralto" and "alto" are not synonymous, "alto" technically denoting a specific vocal range in choral singing without regard to factors like tessitura, vocal timbre, vocal facility, and vocal weight;However, there exists some French choral writing (including that of Ravel and Poulenc) with a part labeled "contralto", despite the tessitura and function being that of a classical alto part. The Saracen princess Clorinde in André Campra's 1702 opera Tancréde was written for Julie d'Aubigny and is considered the earliest major role for bas-dessus or contralto voice.

Vocal Range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate. Vocal folds work as a combination of muscle tension, stiffness, airflow and pressure. They are also physical objects that have mass and length. Just as some people are tall, some folks have thinner or longer vocal folds than others. And this will determine how low you can go. Regardless of training, you cannot change your physical make-up. But you can maximize the effectiveness of your voice. Your Larynx height determines your basic vocal tone. A high Larynx will make your voice brighter but will also make it sound child like because the resonant spaces are so much smaller. So you need to lower your larynx.

Vocal Resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air.

Human Voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc..

Prima Donna is the leading female singer in the company, the person to whom the prime roles would be given. The prima donna was normally, but not necessarily, a soprano. The corresponding term for the male lead (almost always a tenor) is primo uomo. Prime donne often had grand off-stage personalities and were seen as demanding of their colleagues. From its original usage in opera, the term has spread in contemporary usage to refer to anyone behaving in a demanding or temperamental fashion or having an inflated view of oneself and a narcissistic attitude.

Roughness is studied by examining how textures are perceived and encoded by an individual's somatosensory system.

Human Screams

Larynges is an organ in the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration. It manipulates pitch and volume. The larynx houses the vocal folds (vocal cords), which are essential for phonation. The vocal folds are situated just below where the tract of the pharynx splits into the trachea and the esophagus.

Counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour. It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque. The term originates from the Latin punctus contra punctum meaning "point against point".

Electricity - Hz - Microphones

Overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

Overtone Singing is a type of singing in which the singer manipulates the resonances (or formants) created as air travels from the lungs, past the vocal folds, and out of the lips to produce a melody. Also known as overtone chanting, harmonic singing,  Polyphonic Singing or throat singing. Overtone Singing (youtube).

Octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency. It is defined by ANSI as the unit of frequency level when the base of the logarithm is two. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems.

Overdubbing is a technique used in audio recording where a passage (typically musical) has been pre-recorded, and then during replay, another part is recorded to go along with the original. The overdub process can be repeated multiple times. This technique is often used with singers, as well as with instruments, or ensembles/orchestras. Overdubbing is typically done for the purpose of adding richness and complexity to the original recording. For example, if there is only one or two artists involved in the recording process, overdubbing can give the effect of sounding like many performers. In vocal performances the performer usually listens to an existing recorded performance (usually through headphones in a recording studio) and simultaneously plays a new performance along with it, which is also recorded. The intention is that the final mix will contain a combination of these "dubs". Another kind of overdubbing is the so called 'tracking' (or "laying the basic tracks"), where tracks containing the rhythm section (usually including drums) are recorded first, then following up with overdubs (solo instruments, such as keyboards or guitar, then finally vocals). This method has been the standard technique for recording popular music since the early 1960s. Today, overdubbing can be accomplished even on basic recording equipment, or a typical PC equipped with a sound card, using digital audio workstation software. Because the process of overdubbing involves working with pre-recorded material, the performers involved do not have to ever have physically met each other, nor even still be alive. In 1991, decades after her father Nat King Cole had died, Natalie Cole released a "virtual duet" recording of Unforgettable where she overdubbed her vocals onto her father's original recording from the 1960s. As there is no limit in timespan with overdubbing, there is likewise no limit in distance, nor in the number of overdubbed layers. Perhaps the most wide-reaching collaborative overdub recording was accomplished by Eric Whitacre in 2013, where he edited together a "Virtual Choir" of 8,409 audio tracks from 5,905 people from 101 countries. Choir (chorus) - Sampling.

Dubbing is the transfer or copying of previously recorded audio material from one medium to another of the same or a different type. It may be done with a machine designed for this purpose, or by connecting two different machines: one to play back and one to record the signal. The purpose of dubbing may be simply to make multiple copies of audio programs, or it may be done to preserve programs[clarification needed] on old media which are deteriorating and may otherwise be lost. One type of dubbing device combines two different storage media, such as an audio cassette deck that incorporates a Compact Disc recorder. Such a device enables the transfer of audio programs from an obsolete medium to a widely used medium. It may also simply be used to transfer material between two types media which are popular in different settings, so that material originating in one type of environment can be used in another. An example of the latter would be the dubbing of a Digital BetaCam videocassette to DVD. Another type of dubbing device is designed to rapidly produce many copies of a program. It may combine a single playback unit with multiple recording units to simultaneously create two, four, eight, sixteen, or more copies during the playback of a single original program. This type of device can often perform the copying process at many times the standard playback speed. Typical multiplexed dubbing decks of either analog (cassette) or digital (CD) programs can operate at 48 times the standard playback speed, thus producing complete copies of a program in sixty or ninety seconds. Sometimes this high-speed dubbing incurs some loss of quality compared to the best normal (1×) speed dub. The verb "dub" as used here long predates and is unrelated to the Jamaican musical style dub music; the origin of both words stems from the dubplate. It is also different with the term dubbing, which is mostly a type of frottage dance usually found in the Caribbean clubs. Lip Dub is a type of music video that combines lip synching and audio dubbing to make a music video. Lip Synching is a technical term for matching a speaking or singing person's lip movements with prerecorded sung or spoken vocals that listeners hear.

Troll is to sing loudly and without inhibition. Praise or celebrate in song. To speak or recite rapidly or in a rolling voice. To sing the parts of (a round) in succession. A partsong in which voices follow each other; one voice starts and others join in one after another until all are singing different parts of the song at the same time. Troll in Scandanavian folklore is a supernatural creature either a dwarf or a giant that is supposed to live in caves or in the mountains. Troll can also mean a fisherman's lure that is used in trolling. Angling by drawing a baited line through the water. Cause to move round and round. Circulate, move around. Internet Troll.


Scales


Scale in music is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending. For example, the Melodic minor scale. Sounds.

Musical Scales is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. Some scales contain different pitches when ascending than when descending. For example, the Melodic minor scale. Musical Instruments.

Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge  EGBDF Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (E-G-B-D-F) - Mnemonic Memory Technique.

Chromatic Scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below its adjacent pitches. As a result, in 12-tone equal temperament (the most common temperament in Western music), the chromatic scale covers all 12 of the available pitches. Thus, there is only one chromatic scale. Moreover, in equal temperament, all the semitones have the same size (100 cents) and there are twelve semitones in an octave (1200 cents). As a result, the notes of an equal-tempered chromatic scale are equally-spaced. The chromatic scale...is a series of half steps which comprises all the pitches of our [12-tone] equal-tempered system.

Diatonic Scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale. This pattern ensures that, in a diatonic scale spanning more than one octave, all the half steps are maximally separated from each other (i.e. separated by at least two whole steps). The seven pitches of any diatonic scale can also be obtained by using a chain of six perfect fifths. For instance, the seven natural pitch classes that form the C-major scale can be obtained from a stack of perfect fifths starting from F: F—C—G—D—A—E—B. Any sequence of seven successive natural notes, such as C–D–E–F–G–A–B, and any transposition thereof, is a diatonic scale. Modern musical keyboards are designed so that the white notes form a diatonic scale, though transpositions of this diatonic scale require one or more black keys. A diatonic scale can be also described as two tetrachords separated by a whole tone. The term diatonic originally referred to the diatonic genus, one of the three genera of the ancient Greeks. In musical set theory, Allen Forte classifies diatonic scales as set form 7–35. This article does not concern alternative seven-note scales such as the harmonic minor or the melodic minor which, although sometimes called "diatonic", do not fulfill the condition of maximal separation of the semitones indicated above.

Heptatonic Scale is a musical scale that has seven pitches (a.k.a. tones) per octave. Examples include the major scale or minor scale; e.g., in C major: C D E F G A B C—and in the relative minor, A minor, natural minor: A B C D E F G A; the melodic minor scale, A B C D E F♯G♯A ascending, A G F E D C B A descending; the harmonic minor scale, A B C D E F G♯A; and a scale variously known as the Byzantine, and Hungarian, scale, C D E♭ F♯ G A♭ B C. Indian classical theory postulates seventy-two seven-tone scale types, whereas others postulate twelve or ten (depending on the theorist) seven-tone scale types collectively called thaat.

Locrian Mode is either a musical mode or simply a diatonic scale. On the white piano keys, it is the scale that starts with B. Its ascending form consists of the key note, a half step, two whole steps, a further half step, and three more whole steps.

Whole Tone Scale is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a whole tone. There are only two complementary whole tone scales, both six-note or hexatonic scales.


Beat


Beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse or regularly repeating event, of the mensural level or beat level. The beat is often defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect, often the first multiple level. In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including: tempo, meter, specific rhythms, and groove. We Got the Beat (the beat goes on).

Tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece or subsection thereof, how fast or slow. Tempo is related to meter and is usually measured by beats per minute, with the beats being a division of the measures, though tempo is often indicated by terms which have acquired standard ranges of beats per minute or assumed by convention without indication. Tempo may be separated from articulation, or articulation may be indicated along with tempo, and tempo contributes to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a desirable skill, tempo is changeable, and often indicated by a conductor or drummer. While practicing, an electronic or mechanical device, a metronome, may indicate the tempo, as one usually works one's way up to being able to perform at the proper tempo. In other words it is the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played.

Duration is an amount of time or a particular time interval: how long or short a note, phrase, section, or composition lasts. A note may last less than a second, while a symphony may last more than an hour. One of the fundamental features of rhythm, or encompassing rhythm, duration is also central to meter and musical form. Bridge.

Metronome is a device that produces an audible click or other sound at a regular interval that can be set by the user, typically in beats per minute (BPM). Musicians use the device to practice playing to a regular pulse. Metronomes typically include synchronized visual motion (e.g., swinging pendulum or blinking lights).

Music Box is an automatic musical instrument in a box that produces musical notes by using a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc to pluck the tuned teeth (or lamellae) of a steel comb. They were developed from musical snuff boxes of the 18th century and called carillons à musique (French for "chimes of music"). Some of the more complex boxes also contain a tiny drum and/or bells in addition to the metal comb.

Time Signature is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats (pulses) are to be contained in each measure (bar) and which note value is equivalent to one beat.

Meter of music is its rhythmic structure, the patterns of accents heard in regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed beats (arsis and thesis) at the frequency of the music's pulse.

Harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches (tones, notes), or chords. The study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Harmony is often said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect. Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony. Dubbing.

Homophony is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast. This differentiation of roles contrasts with equal-voice polyphony (in which similar lines move with rhythmic and melodic independence to form an even texture) and monophony (in which all parts move in unison or octaves). Historically, homophony and its differentiated roles for parts emerged in tandem with tonality, which gave distinct harmonic functions to the soprano, bass and inner voices. A homophonic texture may be homorhythmic, which means that all parts have the same rhythm. Chorale texture is another variant of homophony. The most common type of homophony is melody-dominated homophony, in which one voice, often the highest, plays a distinct melody, and the accompanying voices work together to articulate an underlying harmony. Initially, in Ancient Greece, homophony indicated music in which a single melody is performed by two or more voices in unison or octaves, i.e. monophony with multiple voices. Homophony as a term first appeared in English with Charles Burney in 1776, emphasizing the concord of harmonized melody.

Melody is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color. It may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody.

Contrapuntal Motion is the general movement of two melodic lines with respect to each other. In traditional four-part harmony, it is important that lines maintain their independence, an effect which can be achieved by the judicious use of the four types of contrapuntal motion: parallel motion, similar motion, contrary motion, and oblique motion. See also melodic motion.

Ostinato is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently in the same pitch. Well-known ostinato-based pieces include both classical compositions such as Ravel's Boléro and the Carol of the Bells, and popular songs such as Donna Summer and Giorgio Moroder's "I Feel Love" (1977), Henry Mancini's theme from Peter Gunn (1959), The Verve's "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (1997), and April Ivy's "Be Ok" (1997).

Chord is any harmonic set of usually three or more notes, also called pitches, that is heard as if sounding simultaneously. In everyday use by musical ensembles such as bands and orchestras, the three or more notes of a chord are often sounded together. However, the notes of a chord do not have to be played together at the same time.

Chord Progression is a succession of chords. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles (e.g., pop music, rock music) and traditional music (e.g., blues and jazz). In these genres, chord progressions are the defining feature on which melody and rhythm are built.

Bassline may simply be played in the lower register of any instrument such as guitar or piano while melody and/or further accompaniment is provided in the middle or upper register. In solo music for piano and pipe organ, these instruments have an excellent lower register that can be used to play a deep bassline. On organs, the bass line is typically played using the pedal keyboard and massive 16' and 32' bass pipes. Bassline is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).

Groove in drumming is a repeated phrase that sets and maintains the rhythm and tempo of the piece. Grooves and fills are the main components of the music played on a drum kit, and together with basic techniques or rudiments such as flams make up the curriculum for learning to play the drum kit. To a drummer, a groove is the drumming equivalent of a riff to a guitarist.


Rhythm


Rhythm is the timing of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm is also seen as a regular recurring motion at regular intervals, symmetry, movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions. The word rhythm originally derives from the Greek word 'rhuthmos', which relates to the word 'rhein' meaning 'to flow'. It became popularly used in English from the mid-16th century onwards, and at first the word shared the same meaning as the word 'rhyme'.

Clave Rhythm is a rhythmic pattern used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music. Scales.

Entrainment in biomusicology is the synchronization of organisms to an external perceived rhythm, such as human music and dance such as foot tapping. Biomusicology is the study of music from a biological point of view. Brain Waves.

Polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms, that are not readily perceived as deriving from one another, or as simple manifestations of the same meter. Cycles - Beat - Metronome - Modulation.

Rhythm Game is a genre of music-themed action video game that challenges a player's sense of rhythm. Games in the genre typically focus on dance or the simulated performance of musical instruments, and require players to press buttons in a sequence dictated on the screen.

Staccato is a form of musical articulation. In modern notation, it signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the note that may follow by silence. It has been described by theorists and has appeared in music since at least 1676.

Polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony.

Texture in music is how the tempo, melodic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece. Texture is often described in regard to the density, or thickness, and range, or width, between lowest and highest pitches, in relative terms as well as more specifically distinguished according to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship between these voices (see Common types below). For example, a thick texture contains many 'layers' of instruments. One of these layers could be a string section, or another brass. The thickness also is changed by the amount and the richness of the instruments playing the piece. The thickness varies from light to thick. A piece's texture may be changed by the number and character of parts playing at once, the timbre of the instruments or voices playing these parts and the harmony, tempo, and rhythms used. The types categorized by number and relationship of parts are analyzed and determined through the labeling of primary textural elements: primary melody (PM), secondary melody (SM), parallel supporting melody (PSM), static support (SS), harmonic support (HS), rhythmic support (RS), and harmonic and rhythmic support (HRS).

Polychord consists of two or more chords, one on top of the other. In shorthand they are written with the top chord above a line and the bottom chord below, for example F upon C.

Legato is without breaks between notes. Connecting notes in music to make it flowing and smooth.

Slur in music is a curved line spanning notes that are to be played legato.

Ligature in music is a group of notes connected by a slur. Ligature can also mean something used for tying or binding things together.

Pythagorean Tuning is a tuning of the syntonic temperament in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide.

Lambic Pentameter is a commonly used type of metrical line in traditional English Poetry and verse drama. The term describes the rhythm that the words establish in that line, which is measured in small groups of syllables called "feet". The word "iambic" refers to the type of foot that is used, known as the iamb, which in English is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The word "pentameter" indicates that a line has five of these "feet". Iambic rhythms come relatively naturally in English. Iambic pentameter is the most common meter in English poetry; it is used in many of the major English poetic forms, including blank verse, the heroic couplet, and some of the traditional rhymed stanza forms. William Shakespeare used iambic pentameter in his plays and sonnets.

Timbre is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as choir voices and musical instruments, such as string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments, and which enables listeners to hear even different instruments from the same category as different (e.g. a viola and a violin).

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies. Pitch can be determined only in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise. Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones, along with duration, loudness, and timbre. The Neuroscience of Human Vocal Pitch.

Perception of musical pitch varies across cultures. How people interpret musical notes depends on the types of music they have listened to. The findings suggest that although there is a natural mathematical relationship between the frequencies of every "C," no matter what octave it's played in, the brain only becomes attuned to those similarities after hearing music based on octaves, Western listeners, especially those who were trained musicians, tended to reproduce the tune an exact number of octaves above or below what they heard, though they were not specifically instructed to do so. In Western music, the pitch of the same note doubles with each ascending octave, so tones with frequencies of 27.5 hertz, 55 hertz, 110 hertz, 220 hertz, and so on, are all heard as the note A. Noise Perception.

Note has three primary meanings: A sign used in musical notation to represent the relative duration and pitch of a sound. A pitched sound itself. A pitch class.


Loudness


Loudness is the characteristic of a Sound that is primarily a psycho-physiological correlate of physical strength or amplitude. More formally, it is defined as "that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds can be ordered on a scale extending from Quiet to Loud". The relation of physical attributes of sound to perceived loudness consists of physical, physiological and psychological components. The three components should be taken separately to permit a balanced understanding of the phenomenon. Volume is the energy level of sound or the amount of sound being generated.

Decibel is a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another, and may be used to express a change in value or an absolute value. (e.g., +1 dB or -1 dB). Noise Pollution - Hearing.

Sound Pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave. In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, and in water with a hydrophone. The SI unit of sound pressure is the pascal (Pa).

Sound Level Meter is used for acoustic (sound that travels through air) measurements. It is commonly a hand-held instrument with a microphone. The diaphragm of the microphone responds to changes in air pressure caused by sound waves. That is why the instrument is sometimes referred to as a Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Meter. This movement of the diaphragm, i.e. the sound pressure deviation (pascal Pa), is converted into an electrical signal (volts V).

Pythagorean Hammers is when Pythagoras discovered the foundations of musical tuning by listening to the sounds of four blacksmith's hammers, which produced consonance and dissonance when they were struck simultaneously.

Musica Universalis is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music). This "music" is not usually thought to be literally audible, but a harmonic, mathematical or religious concept. The idea continued to appeal to thinkers about music until the end of the Renaissance, influencing scholars of many kinds, including humanists. Further scientific exploration has determined specific proportions in some orbital motion, described as orbital resonance.

Boethius De Institutione musica composed his Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages.

Musical Similarity implies a repetition of the first occurring fragment. As well, eventually, the similarity does not occur by direct repetition, but by presenting in two (or more) set of relations, some common values or patterns. Objective musical similarity can be based on musical features.

Phrasing is a unit of musical meter that has a complete musical sense of its own, built from figures, motifs, and cells, and combining to form melodies, periods and larger sections.

Lattice in music is a way of modeling the tuning relationships of a just intonation system. It is an array of points in a periodic multidimensional pattern. Each point on the lattice corresponds to a ratio (i.e., a pitch, or an interval with respect to some other point on the lattice). The lattice can be two-, three-, or n-dimensional, with each dimension corresponding to a different prime-number partial" or chroma. (Note that "partial" in the above quote is a misnomer, because partials are sinusoidal components of complex tones, as defined by Helmholtz.).


Singing Lessons


Singing LessonsA Cappella is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment. Video (youtube)

Singing Knowledge
How to Sing High Notes (youtube)
How To Sing Low Notes (youtube)
Vocal Exercises (youtube)
Vocal Exercises (youtube)
Singing & Songwriting for Beginning Pianists (youtube)
Vocal Coach (youtube)

Vocal Coach also known as voice coach, though this term generally applies to those working with speech and communication rather than singing) is a music teacher who instructs singers on how to improve their singing technique, take care of and develop their voice, and prepare for the performance of a song or other work. Vocal coaches may give private music lessons or group workshops or masterclasses to singers. They may also coach singers who are rehearsing on stage, or who are singing during a recording session. Vocal coaches are used in both Classical music and in popular music styles such as rock and gospel. While some vocal coaches provide a range of instruction on singing techniques, others specialize in areas such as breathing techniques or diction and pronunciation.

Personal Singing Guide
Singing Warm-Ups and Range (youtube)
Train Your Voice to Sing Better (youtube)
About Singing Lessons (youtube)
History of Lyrics (youtube)

Music Articulation refers to the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.

Aesthetics of Music explores the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization.

Vocal Range is the measure of the breadth of pitches that a human voice can phonate, which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasi-periodic vibration. Singing Knowledge.

Vocal Folds or vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx. They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. Open when breathing and vibrating for speech or singing, the folds are controlled via the vagus nerve.

Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

Solfege is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music.

Acting (art schools) - Memory Tips

Raspy Voice - Hoarse

Dysphonia commonly referred to as hoarse voice, refers to dysfunction in the ability to produce voice. For voice to be classified as "dysphonic", abnormalities must be present in one or more vocal parameters: pitch, loudness, quality, or variability. Perceptually, dysphonia can be characterised by hoarse, breathy, harsh, or rough vocal qualities, but some kind of phonation remains. Tom Waits - No Visitors After Midnight (youtube)

Laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx (voice box). Symptoms often include a hoarse voice and may include fever, cough, pain in the front of the neck, and trouble swallowing. Typically, these last under two weeks.

Pentatonic Scale - Demonstration by Bobby McFerrin (youtube)
Tutorials
Music Notation
Inara George (youtube)
Blue Mic

67-year-old lead vocalist
GRINDMOTHER "Age of Destruction"
(Video)
SHEL - Enter Sandman (Official Video)

Kulning is a domestic Scandinavian music form, often used to call livestock (cows, goats, etc.) down from high mountain pastures where they have been grazing during the day. It is possible that the sound also serves to scare away predators (wolves, bears, etc.), but this is not the main purpose of the call. The song form is often used by women, as they were the ones tending the herds and flocks in the high mountain pastures, but there are recordings of these calls sung by men. The knowledge about it today originates, however, from regions near mid-Fennoscandia.

Singing Reduces Anxiety. Singing releases feel-good brain chemicals called endorphins. It also draws more oxygen into the blood and causes better circulation, reducing stress.


Does My Singing Sound Good - I think I Sound Great


Why do some people believe that their singing sounds good when it's actually not so great? First lets put aside your personal perceptions, and your personal preferences, and your metacognition and your ego. Second, you have to understand that you sound different to yourself than you do to other people, mostly because you hear less than 40 percent of what comes out of your mouth, due to the resonance inside your head. So sounding good to yourself does not mean that you will sound good to others, unless you are focusing just on your recorded voice. To hear yourself singing accurately you need a good voice recorder and a good sound system. Try to mimic beautiful notes by singers you sound like and record yourself singing that same song. And then play them both back and compare each recording. But you still need to know the difference between a live singing voice and a studio singing voice, because a studio can add effects and other sound editing techniques that can make a singers voice sound amazing. Then you will need someone else's opinion who has knowledge and experience with analyzing singing. Then you should have your friends and family give opinions too, especially people who are not afraid to be honest, not that other people have the skill and knowledge in order to analyze what good singing is, but the more input the better because the reasons why other people have for liking or not liking your singing might give you some good insight. Try a Karaoke Machine because that could also help with analyzing your singing. Learn to understand pitch, tone and rhythm and other key elements of good singing, good singing that is pleasant to the ear. Why can't people smell themselves?

Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch but also encompasses musical memory and recognition. Two main classifications of amusia exist: acquired amusia, which occurs as a result of brain damage, and congenital amusia, which results from a music-processing anomaly present since birth. Tone (language)

Auditory Agnosia is a form of agnosia that manifests itself primarily in the inability to recognize or differentiate between sounds. Phonics.

Phonagnosia is a type of agnosia, or loss of knowledge, that involves a disturbance in the recognition of familiar voices and the impairment of voice discrimination abilities in which the affected individual does not suffer from comprehension deficits. Phonagnosia is an auditory agnosia, an acquired auditory processing disorder resulting from brain damage, other auditory agnosias include cortical deafness and auditory verbal agnosia also known as pure word deafness.

Auditory Verbal Agnosia is the inability to comprehend speech. Individuals with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, repeat words, and write from dictation. However, spontaneous speaking, reading, and writing are preserved.

Misophonia is being irritated or annoyed by certain sounds. A condition in which negative emotions, thoughts, and physical reactions are triggered by specific sounds, such as the sound of people chewing or noisy eating. It is also called "select sound sensitivity syndrome" and "sound-rage". A trigger sound. Bias - Unable Recognize Common Tunes.

Brain structure determines individual differences regarding music sensitivity. The white matter structure in the brain reflects music sensitivity, according to a new study.

Face the Music means to admit and accept the unpleasant consequences of one's actions. Come Clean is to be completely honest and keep nothing hidden.

Homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning. A homophone may also differ in spelling. The two words may be spelled the same, such as rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as carat, caret, and carrot, or to, two, and too. The term "homophone" may also apply to units longer or shorter than words, such as phrases, letters, or groups of letters which are pronounced the same as another phrase, letter, or group of letters. Any unit with this property is said to be "homophonous". Homophones that are spelled the same are also both homographs and homonyms. Homophones that are spelled differently are also called heterographs.
Homograph is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning.
Homonym are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings. Puns (word play)

Why people hear two totally different words in a song? When listening to an audio clip of a song or speech that is acoustically ambiguous or has poor quality of the audio or improper pronunciation, then two words that have similar patterns that could be easy to be confused. Sometimes people fill in the gaps of their hearing. Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory

Mondegreen is a mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase as a result of near-homophony, in a way that gives it a new meaning. Mondegreens are most often created by a person listening to a poem or a song; the listener, being unable to clearly hear a lyric, substitutes words that sound similar and make some kind of sense.

Malapropism is the use of an incorrect word in place of a word with a similar sound, resulting in a nonsensical, sometimes humorous utterance. Phonics

Soramimi is interpreting lyrics in one language as similar-sounding lyrics in another language. A bilingual soramimi word play contrasts with a monolingual mondegreen or homophonic transformation, and is usually caused by pareidolia. Soramimi transcription is also commonly used in animutations for comic effect.

Homophonic Translation renders a text in one language into a near-homophonic text in another language, usually with no attempt to preserve the original meaning of the text.

Tone Deafness is the lack of relative pitch, or the inability to distinguish between musical notes that is not due to the lack of musical training or education. Tone deafness is the congenital form of amusia. It is also known as tune deafness, "tin ear", dysmelodia and dysmusia.

Beat Deafness is a form of congenital amusia characterized by a person's inability to feel musical rhythm or move in time to it.

Ear Problems - Senses - How the Brain Encodes Sounds

Cacophony is loud confusing disagreeable sounds. A loud harsh or strident noise. Harshness in the sound of words or phrases.

Hyperacusis is a debilitating hearing disorder characterized by an increased sensitivity to certain frequency and volume ranges of sound (a collapsed tolerance to usual environmental sound). A person with severe hyperacusis has difficulty tolerating everyday sounds, some of which may seem unpleasantly or painfully loud to that person but not to others.

Phonophobia is a fear of or aversion to loud sounds—a type of specific phobia. It can also mean a fear of voices, or a fear of one's own voice. It is a very rare phobia which is often the symptom of hyperacusis. Sonophobia can refer to the hypersensitivity of a patient to sound and can be part of the diagnosis of a migraine. Occasionally it is called acousticophobia.

Our brains appear uniquely tuned for musical pitch.

What would be useful is having a way for people to analyze their singing using a computer software program so they can do a side by side comparison that shows them how the notes should sound when compared to a professional singer.
Combine a Pitch Analyzer and a Detector Software.

Speech Analyzer Software
Sing Snap
Sygyt
Skore.bmat

It's not just Autotune - how singers cheat today (Pop Theory) (youtube) Make singers sound great.

Why you don't like the sound of your own voice: Rébecca Kleinberger (video and text) - Your voice is a very complex phenomenon. It requires a synchronization of more than 100 muscles in your body. The mechanism for this projection is well understood. Your lungs contract your diaphragm and that creates a self-sustained vibration of your vocal fold, that creates a sound. And then the way you open and close the cavities in you mouth, your vocal tract is going to transform the sound. So to perceive this voice, it first has to travel to your ears. And your outward voice travels through the air while your inward voice travels through your bones. This is called bone conduction. Because of this, your inward voice is going to sound in a lower register and also more musically harmonical than your outward voice. Once it travels there, it has to access your inner ear. And there's this other mechanism taking place here. It's a mechanical filter, it's a little partition that comes and protects your inner ear each time you produce a sound. So it also reduces what you hear. And then there is a third filter, it's a biological filter. Your cochlea -- it's a part of your inner ear that processes the sound -- is made out of living cells. And those living cells are going to trigger differently according to how often they hear the sound. It's a habituation effect. So because of this, as your voice is the sound you hear the most in your life, you actually hear it less than other sounds. Finally, we have a fourth filter. It's a neurological filter. Neurologists found out recently that when you open your mouth to create a sound, your own auditory cortex shuts down. So you hear your voice but your brain actually never listens to the sound of your voice. Well, evolutionarily that might make sense, because we know cognitively what we are going to sound like so maybe we don't need to spend energy analyzing the signal. And this is called a corollary discharge and it happens for every motion that your body does. The exact definition of a corollary discharge is a copy of a motor command that is sent by the brain. This copy doesn't create any motion itself but instead is sent to other regions of the brain to inform them of the impending motion. And for the voice, this corollary discharge also has a different name. It is your inner voice. It's really hard to look at the text written in your native language, without having this inner voice read it. People sometimes have a different voice for each person you talk to. And for male voices there's a big change at puberty. And then for female voices, there is a change at each pregnancy and a big change at menopause. Phonics.

Corollary Discharge is characterized as an efference copy of an action command used to inhibit any response to the self generated sensory signal which would interfere with the execution of the motor task. The inhibitory commands originate at the same time as the motor command and target the sensory pathway that would report any reafference to higher levels of the CNS. This is unique from the efference copy, since the corollary discharge is actually fed into the sensory pathway to cancel out the reafferent signals generated by the movement. Alternatively, corollary discharges briefly alters self-generated sensory responses to reduce self-induced desensitization or help distinguish between self-generated and externally generated sensory information.

Pre-Recorded Audio for Live Performances, or Playing Live with PreRecorded Tracks, or a Playback of pre-recorded vocals to augment the live performance.

Backing Track is an audio recording on audiotape, CD or a digital recording medium or a MIDI recording of synthesized instruments, sometimes of purely rhythmic accompaniment, often of a rhythm section or other accompaniment parts that live musicians play along with or sing along to. Backing tracks enable singers and bands to add parts to their music which would be impractical or impossible to perform live, such as string section or choir parts which were recorded in the studio. A backing track can be used by a one person band (e.g., a singer-guitarist) to add any one or more of bass, drums and keyboards to their live shows without the cost of hiring extra musicians. A small pop group or rock band (e.g., a power trio) can use backing tracks to add a string section, horn section, drumming or backing vocals to their live shows.

How do Singers on Stage Hear themselves Sing?

In-Ear Monitor are devices used by musicians, audio engineers and audiophiles to listen to music or to hear a personal mix of vocals and stage instrumentation for live performance or recording studio mixing. They are often custom fitted for an individual's ears to provide comfort and a high level of noise reduction from ambient surroundings. Hearing Aids.

Stage Monitor System is performer-facing loudspeakers known as monitor speakers or stage monitors on stage during live music performances in which a PA system or sound reinforcement system is used to amplify the performers' singing, music, speech and other sounds for the audience. Foldback Sound Engineering is often used to describe the system. Monitor speakers are useful when amplified instruments are used with acoustic instruments and voice. Monitor speakers often include a single full-range loudspeaker and a horn in a cabinet. Monitor speakers have numerous features which facilitate their transportation and protection, including handles, metal corner protectors, sturdy felt covering or paint and a metal grille to protect the speaker. There are two types of monitors: passive monitors consist of a loudspeaker and horn in a cabinet (they must be plugged into an external power amplifier); active monitors have a loudspeaker, horn and a power amplifier in a single cabinet, which means the signal from the mixing board can be plugged straight into the monitor speaker. Interruptible Foldback is a monitoring and cueing system used in television, filmmaking, video production, and radio broadcast for one-way communication from the director or assistant director to on-air talent or a remote location.

Live Sound Mixing is the process of electrically or digitally blending together multiple sound sources at a live event by an audio engineer using a mixing console or software. Sounds that are mixed include those from instruments and voices which are picked up by microphones (for drum kit, lead vocals and acoustic instruments like piano or saxophone and pickups for instruments such as electric bass) and pre-recorded material, such as songs on CD or a digital audio player. Individual sources are typically equalised to adjust the bass and treble response and routed to effect processors to ultimately be amplified and reproduced via a loudspeaker system. The live sound engineer balances the various audio sources in a way that best suits the needs of the event.

Auto-Tune is an audio processor created by Antares Audio Technologies which uses a proprietary device to measure and alter pitch in vocal and instrumental music recording and performances. It was originally intended to disguise or correct off-key inaccuracies, allowing vocal tracks to be perfectly tuned despite originally being slightly off-pitch. Autotune.

Song Lyrics Generator

Perfect Pitch: The World's Greatest Ear!! (youtube)

Sing A Song - Carpenters (youtube, 1971) - Sing, sing a song, Sing out loud, Sing out strong, Sing of good things not bad, Sing of happy not sad, Sing, sing a song, Make it simple to last Your whole life long, Don't worry that it's not Good enough for anyone Else to hear, Just sing, sing a song, Sing, sing a song, Let the world sing along, Sing of love there could be, Sing for you and for me, Sing, sing a song, Make it simple to last Your whole life long, Don't worry that it's not Good enough for anyone Else to hear, Just sing, sing a song, (Just sing, sing a song), Just sing, sing a song.



Internet Music Sources


Online Radio Stations - Radio Locator - Radio - Radio Tower - Radio Garden - Rdio

Live 365 - Zeno Radio - Sound Cloud - Audio Music Sharing

Jango - WNIU - Pandora - Last.fm

I Like - Napster - I Tunes - E Music - Vevo - Spotify

Groove Shark - Youtube - Music Video Sites

Never Ending Playlist - Cd Baby (Indie Music) - The Sound You Need

All Music - Play Lists - Music Score Library Project

Light in the Attic - Share Your Own Mix Online

Historical Recordings from the Library of Congress - National Jukebox

Archive of Contemporary Music more than three million recordings. Bob George founded the archive in 1985 with his own albums — 47,000 of them. His mission was to collect vinyl LPs and 45s, as well as CDs. But when 78s from the 1920s started to roll in along with cassettes and 8-track tapes from the 1970s, George just couldn't say no.



Music Shows - Music Festivals


Music Festivals - Music Festivals - Festivals - Festival

SXSW (South by Southwest) - Coachella

Concert Listings - Concert Vault

SOLATE - Hearing protection from load music, but still hear. Hearing Problems.

Set List (Songs Played at Concerts)

Battle of Bands is a contest in which two or more bands compete for the title of "best band". The winner is determined by a voice vote of the audience or the band who brings the most people to support them. Traditionally, battles of bands are held at live music events and forums. Popular examples include the yearly Live and Unsigned contest in the United Kingdom and the annual SoundWave Music Competition.

Woodstock 94 - Concert Tickets Stubbs of past Concerts

Solar Powered Portable Concert Stages - Brushfire Records

Rough Trade Record Store - Music Video Sites

Time Lapse of setting up a huge Concert Stage - Rammstein - Europe Stadium Tour (youtube)


Music News


Music News (VH1) - Music News (Universal) - VEVO Music News

Billboard - Rolling Stone - MTV - Music News - NPR Music News

AOL Music News - Music News Net - Heavy Metal News - 350-BPM (Heavy Metal)

Ana Logik - Namm - The Current - Pop Matters - Stereo Gum

Live About - Paste Magazine - Spin - Damn The Radio - Ergonomic Guitar

Statistical Universals reveal the structures and functions of human music

Phonographic Industry - Classical TV

Girl Talk - Rock & Roll Concert Story

Old Concert Stubs Photo (image)

Using math to blend musical notes seamlessly. Algorithm enables one audio signal to glide into another, recreating the 'portamento' effect of some musical instruments. Researchers have invented an algorithm that produces a real-time portamento effect, gliding a note at one pitch into a note of another pitch, between any two audio signals, such as a piano note gliding into a human voice.



What Makes Some Songs Catchy - But Not Necessarily Good


Ear Candy is light popular music that has an instant appeal but no lasting impact or significance.

Hook is a musical idea, often a short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to "catch the ear of the listener. The term generally applies to popular music, especially rock, R&B, hip hop, dance, and pop. In these genres, the hook is often found in, or consists of, the chorus. A hook can be either melodic or rhythmic, and often incorporates the main motif for a piece of music. Song Structure.

Earworm is when that song gets stuck in your head. Mantra. Can chewing gum get rid of earworms? Is it just being biased, or is it just being unaware of will power?

Something Grows On You will happen sometimes when you are exposed to something several more times that you gradually begin to like it, especially after not being interested in it the first or second time that you were exposed to it.

Catchiness is how easy it is for one to remember a song, tune or phrase. It is often taken into account when writing songs, catchphrases, advertising slogans, jingles etc. Alternatively, it can be defined as how difficult it is for one to forget it. Songs that embody high levels of remembrance or catchiness are literally known as "catchy songs" or "earworms". While it is hard to scientifically explain what makes a song catchy, there are many documented techniques that recur throughout catchy music, such as repetition, hooks and alliteration. Selling Sounds: The Commercial Revolution in American Music says that "although there was no definition for what made a song catchy, all the songwriting guides agreed that simplicity and familiarity were vital". The physical symptoms of listening to a catchy song include "running [it] over in our heads or tapping a foot". According to Todd Tremlin, catchy music "spread[s] because [it] resonates similarly from one mind to the next".

Drop in popular music, especially electronic music styles, is a point in a music track where a switch of rhythm or bass line occurs and usually follows a recognizable build section and break. The term "drop" comes from the composer or producer "dropping in" the primary rhythmic and foundational elements previously hinted at into the mix more or less at once. Related terms, typically describing certain types of drops, include "beat-up" (so named because it is a point where the producer brings up the foundational kick drum beat after having faded it down during a break or buildup) and "climax" (typically describing a single particularly striking drop heard late in the track).

Bass Drop sound effect (youtube)
Cinematic Bass Drop, trailer, sound effect (youtube)
The TRUTH Why Modern Music Is Awful (youtube)

The "millennial whoop" is taking over pop music (youtube) - They do the same thing with movies and the news. Stimulation.

Time of Our Lives: Songs from EVERY YEAR (1970-2020) DJ Earworm (youtube)

Seventh Chord is a chord consisting of a triad plus a note forming an interval of a seventh above the chord's root. When not otherwise specified, a "seventh chord" usually means a dominant seventh chord: a major triad together with a minor seventh. However, a variety of sevenths may be added to a variety of triads, resulting in many different types of seventh chords.

The Science of Music: Why your brain gets hooked on hit songs | Derek Thompson (youtube)

How Every Pop Song Has Just Four Chords - C-G-A-F (youtube) - Why all pop songs sound the same.

Common Pop Song Structure ( Verse, Verse, Chorus, Verse, Chorus, Bridge) Notes: BBCBCD - The most common format in modern popular music is introduction (intro), verse, pre-chorus, chorus (or refrain), verse, pre-chorus, chorus, bridge ("middle eight"), verse, chorus and outro. In rock music styles, notably heavy metal music, there is usually one or more guitar solos in the song, often found after the middle chorus part. In pop music, there may be a guitar solo, or a solo may be performed by a synthesizer player or sax player. The foundation of popular music is the "verse" and "chorus" structure. More advanced writers use a simple "verse, hook, verse, hook, bridge, hook" method. "Pop and rock songs nearly always have both a verse and a chorus. The primary difference between the two is that when the music of the verse returns, it is almost always given a new set of lyrics, whereas the chorus usually retains the same set of lyrics every time its music appears." Both are essential elements, with the verse usually played first (exceptions abound, of course, with "She Loves You" by The Beatles being an early example in the rock music genre). Each verse usually employs the same melody (possibly with some slight modifications), while the lyrics usually change for each verse. The chorus (or "refrain") usually consists of a melodic and lyrical phrase that repeats. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda ("tag"), but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs. Pop songs often connect the verse and chorus via a bridge, which as its name suggests, is a section that connects the verse and chorus at one or more points in the song. The verse and chorus are usually repeated throughout a song, while the intro, bridge, and coda (also called an "outro") are usually only used once. Some pop songs may have a solo section, particularly in rock or blues-influenced pop. During the solo section, one or more instruments play a melodic line which may be the melody used by the singer, or, in blues or jazz an improvised line.

Verse is a repeated section of a song that typically features a new set of lyrics on each repetition. Compared to a chorus section, verses tend to vary more throughout the course of a song. Verse is writing arranged with a metrical rhythm, typically having a rhyme. Any division or grouping of words in a poetic composition. - Poetry Schemes.

Antimetabole is the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed order; for example, "I know what I like, and I like what I know". It is related to, and sometimes considered a special case of, chiasmus. An antimetabole is also said to be a little too predictive because it is easy to reverse the key term, but it can pose questions that one usually would not think of if the phrase were just asked or said the initial way.

Chorus is any utterance produced simultaneously by a group. The part of a song where a soloist is joined by a group of singers
"to repeat", and later from Old French refraindre) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in poetry; In popular music, the refrain or chorus may contrast with the verse melodically, rhythmically, and harmonically; it may assume a higher level of dynamics and activity, often with added instrumentation. Chorus form, or strophic form, is a sectional and/or additive way of structuring a piece of music based on the repetition of one formal section or block played repeatedly. Verse-Chorus Form (wiki).

Lyrics are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist. The words to an extended musical composition such as an opera are, however, usually known as a "libretto" and their writer, as a "librettist". The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation, meter, and symmetry of expression. Rappers can also create lyrics, often with a variation of rhyming words that are meant to be spoken rhythmically rather than sung.

Song Meanings - Rap Genius (lyrics meaning) - Song Lyrics - Cowboy Lyrics

Auto-Rap App - Song Facts - Deconstructing Songs - Music Therapy

Songs that sound the same or sounds just like another song.

Who Sang that Song? Midomi (hum a song and find it's name.)

Knowing how or why the lyrics of the song were written is like knowing a nested story or the back story. Is it easier to write music for lyrics or write lyrics for music? Does music need lyrics?

Bridge in music is a contrasting section that prepares for the return of the original material section. In a piece in which the original material or melody is referred to as the "A" section, the bridge may be the third eight-bar phrase in a thirty-two-bar form (the B in AABA), or may be used more loosely in verse-chorus form, or, in a compound AABA form, used as a contrast to a full AABA section. Thirty-two-bar Form (wiki) - Twelve-bar Blues (wiki).

Auto-Tune is an audio processor device to measure and alter pitch in vocal and instrumental music recording and performances. It was originally intended to disguise or correct off-key inaccuracies, allowing vocal tracks to be perfectly tuned despite originally being slightly off-pitch.

The Unexpected Creates Reward when Listening to Music. Scientists prove difference between expected/actual outcomes cause reward response. If you love it when a musician strikes that unexpected but perfect chord, you are not alone. New research shows the musically unexpected activates the reward centre of our brains, and makes us learn about the music as we listen.

Why the Katy Perry/Flame lawsuit makes no sense (youtube) - The two songs don't share the same melody, cord progression, baseline, drum grove, but share a similar ostinato or repeated melodic fragment, descending phrase in staccato quarter notes. Katy Perry just lost a $2.8 million dollar court case against Christian rapper Flame. The case hinged on the testimony of the plaintiff’s expert musicologist Todd Decker. (beware of so called expert witnesses using legal jargon to confuse juries).

Everyone wants to make a catchy song that expresses how they feel about something, and at the same time, make a song that people can relate to on some meaningful level, or just provide people with a moment of enjoyment or reflection. But you don't have to write a song to express yourself. Though a song may reach more people, a song will never replace a face to face conversation, where each person takes a turn listening and talking about real things that are important to them. Don't look for answers in songs, songs ask the questions, and you're supposed to provide the answers. There's nothing wrong with passively enjoying music, just as long as you are aware that it's your turn to sing next. Let your Heart Sing.

Music listening near bedtime can be disruptive to sleep. Our brains continue to process music even when none is playing, including apparently while we are asleep. People who experience earworms regularly at night one or more times per week, are six times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared to people who rarely experience earworms. Polysomnography is a comprehensive test and the gold standard measurement for sleep -- was used to record the participants' brain waves, heart rate, breathing and more while they slept.



How Many Songs have been Created - Have you Ever Wondered


On Average, there are 50 albums released every week in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1878 but it was always a very poor seller. The first artist to sell serious numbers of records was Frank Sinatra in the 1940 (250,000,000 records in his lifetime), so lets start there.

Lets also assume that there are 12 songs per album. 50 albums per week * 52 weeks = 2,500 per year. 2,500 per year * 69 years = 179,400 unique albums (since 1940)  12 songs * 179,400 albums = 2,152,800 songs. So the average points to about 2,100,000 songs being released in the United States of America and the United Kingdom (and nowhere else) in musical history, give or take a few. Wiki Answers.

Only about 50% of all music created gets published on a CD.

National Recording Registry is a list of sound recordings that are culturally, historically, or aesthetically important, and/or inform or reflect life in the United States. Registry Preservation.

How The Great 78 Project is saving half a million songs from obscurity.

Scientific American: Music in your Head.
Phonographic Industry
British P.I.
The Vinyl Factory

How Many other stuff is there?



Some of Life's Greatest Songs over the Years


Music People Like by State Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time
Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time
100 Songs that Changed History
NPR Best Songs of 2020
Most Influential Songs
Song Facts Categories
Top 20 most popular songs of all time (youtube)

Activism Songs - Love Songs - Happy Songs

One-Hit Wonders is a musical artist who is successful with one hit song, but without a comparable subsequent hit. The term may also be applied to an artist who is remembered for only one hit despite other successes. This list contains artists known primarily for one hit song in the United States, who are described as one-hit wonders by the media.

Music Museums

Artists who reached Number One in the United States (wiki)
Billboard Hot 100 chart Achievements and Milestones (wiki)

Most Groundbreaking Albums of all Time
75 Essential Obscure and Influential Bands
100 Greatest Artists

Worst Album Covers of all time

How many Books have been Written? - How many Movies have been Made?



How Money Infects Music


Payola - Pay for Play - Song Pluggers were paid to promote music, which is the illegal practice of payment or other inducement by record companies for the broadcast of recordings on commercial radio in which the song is presented as being part of the normal day's broadcast. Under U.S. law, a radio station can play a specific song in exchange for money, but this must be disclosed on the air as being sponsored airtime, and that play of the song should not be counted as a "regular airplay".

Corporate Control of the Media

Music and songs can have an incredible influence on people so you should be totally aware of this influence. This goes way beyond hidden messages in songs, Backmasking or Hidden Tracks, because just the words and the music themselves can have a strong impact on your behavior. You have to fully understand Media Literacy as well as Human Behavior. Music is a beautiful gift, but music can also become an addiction with side effects. So please listen carefully to the music, but also listen more carefully to your thoughts.

Global Release Identifier is a system to identify releases of digital sound recordings (and other digital data) for electronic distribution. It is designed to be integrated with identification systems deployed by key stakeholders from across the music industry. (GRid should not be confused with the Global Repertoire Database (GRD), a system to track ownership and control of musical works, which was planned from 2008–2014 but ultimately failed.)

The industry is riddled with middlemen and scalpers who profit from other peoples work. This is a racket and extortion under the guise of management services. This disease of greed is rampant through the entire system.


How Many Rock n Roll Music Fantasies have you had today


Song lyrics are brief descriptions of life that always leave plenty of room for personal interpretation. Songs can inspire dreams but songs can also cause sadness, which is still just our own personal interpretation of our thoughts that were inspired by someone else's personal interpretation of their own thoughts that were creatively expressed in song lyrics. Songs just take you places, and sometimes without asking. They are simply just short but sweet dream inducers. And whether it's a good dream or bad dream, they are still just dreams and not reality. Dreaming is good, but thinking is better, and doing is even better then just thinking. Balance.

Fame and Popularity Dangers - Dave Grohls 2013 Keynote Speech

Jukebox Hero - Foreigner (youtube)

Superstar - Carpenters (youtube) - Long ago, and, oh, so far away. I fell in love with you before the second show. Your guitar, it sounds so sweet and clear, But you're not really here, it's just the radio. Don't you remember, you told me you loved me, baby? You said you'd be coming back this way again, baby. Baby, baby, baby, baby, oh baby, I love you, I really do.

I love watching documentaries about bands who became really famous. I love how it shows that most people just start out with simple and normal lives. And then one day their abilities come in line with an opportunity of a life time, and just by chance their lives are changed forever. Of course these documentaries never show a complete story, these are only a few particular moments in a persons life, so we have no idea who they are, or who they could have been if their lives would have been different. I myself think it's better to dream about these experiences then to have them come true. Because I would hate to live a dream that I was unable to wake up from, that would suck. But of course you don't have to be famous to be at that crossroad like that, because everyone has to make decisions. And what ever those decisions were, or how bad some of those decisions were, you have to find a way to live through those decisions no matter what, because you are here for a reason, so you have to find that reason, because it may not find you. If you're not looking for it, you may never find it. But be careful where you look, if you're not looking in the right places at the right time, you may find more trouble then success. Remember, life is a double edge sword, but it's your sword, so being dull on one side might be a little safer. But this is your life, not mine.

A to Zeplin the story of Led Zeplin 2004 - This insightful documentary chronicles the band's history from their 1968 formation to their reign as 1970s hard-rock giants through rare photographs, archival footage, and interviews with both the band members and those who worked with them. Aired: 06/08/2004 |  55 min. Led Zeplin (wiki).

Kurt and Courtney (1998) - Beginning as an observation of the music of Kurt Cobain and his Seattle/Portland contemporaries, Kurt and Courtney took a different turn when Courtney Love intervened. Directed by Nick Broomfield. Aired: 02/28/1998 | 1 hr. 35 min.

The lives of music stars are good examples the how power can corrupt even the best people who have good intentions. If you can't understand how ignorance kills, then you're already dead, well almost dead, maybe you'll get a second chance.


Quotes about Music


"Music is such a beautiful way of expressing information...Music is the Soul of Language."

"Some song Lyrics can speak in volumes, telling stories within a short period of time, while communicating messages, behaviors and opinions."

"O body swayed to music, o brightening glance, how can we know the dancer from the dance?"   William Butler Yeats

"I believe if a child holds a musical instrument, they are less likely to hold a gun, or take drugs."  De Leon de Vega

"Ladies and Gentlemen, Rock 'n' Roll."...were the first words from the MTV broadcast a minute after midnight on Aug. 1, 1981.

The First Music Video on TV was "Video Killed the Radio Star" by The Buggles 

"One of the best things I like about the internet is that I can find the lyrics to songs that I loved when I was young, so now when I hear the song I can actually sing the song because I now know the correct words, I love you internet, and I also love all the beautiful people who just Love to Share, thank you, thank you, thank you."

Coda is to designate a passage that brings a piece or a movement to an end.



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The Thinker Man