Permaculture - Forest Garden
is a low maintenance
which have yields directly useful to humans.
Making use of
, these can be
to grow in a succession of
, to build a
is a system of
and social design principles
centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features
observed in natural
with 1 Acre can Feed 5-10 People, only take 1 Day a Week Harvesting, and only 10 Days
a Year Maintaining.
is a low-maintenance
sustainable plant-based food production and
agroforestry system based on
woodland ecosystems, incorporating
fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial
vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans. Making
use of companion planting, these can be intermixed to grow in a
succession of layers, to build a woodland habitat.
Forest Gardens -
Plants for a
The Most Abundant
Tropical Food Forest Tour Yet! (youtube)
Canopy in biology is the aboveground portion of a plant
community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant
crowns. In forest ecology, canopy also refers to the upper
habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and
including other biological organisms (epiphytes, lianas,
arboreal animals, etc.). Sometimes the term canopy is used to
refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an
individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a
dense canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Canopy
structure is the
(three-dimensional geometry) of a plant canopy. Leaf Area Index
(LAI), leaf area per unit ground area, is a key measure used to
understand and compare plant canopies. It is also taller than
the understory layer.
has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of
numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also
utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants.
Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches the
ground, whereupon it produces adventitious roots. At a later
stage the connection with the parent plant is severed and a new
plant is produced as a result. The horticultural layering
process typically involves wounding the target region to expose
the inner stem and optionally applying rooting compounds. In
ground layering or simple layering, the stem is bent down and
the target region buried in the soil. This is done in plant
nurseries in imitation of natural layering by many plants such
as brambles which bow over and touch the tip on the ground, at
which point it grows roots and, when separated, can continue as
a separate plant. In either case, the rooting process may take
from several weeks to a year. Layering is more complicated than
taking cuttings, but has the advantage that the propagated
portion continues to receive water and nutrients from the parent
plant while it is forming roots. This is important for plants
that form roots slowly, or for propagating large pieces.
Layering is used quite frequently in the propagation of bonsai;
it is also used as a technique for both creating new roots and
improving existing roots.
Stratification refers to the
vertical layering of a habitat; the arrangement of
vegetation in layers. It classifies the layers (sing. stratum,
pl. strata) of vegetation largely according to the different
heights to which their plants grow. The individual layers are
inhabited by different animal and plant communities (stratozones).
(Shrub Layer - Sub-Tree Layer -
Tree Layer - Canopy Layer.
World: Farm for the Future).
Pruning - Grafting.
Trees and Shrubs offer new Food Crops to Diversify the Farm.
A landscape should provide a variety of nutritious foods,
high-quality habitat, and ecosystem services, while also
delivering a healthy profit to the landowner.
Sustainable Farming -
Sustainable Landscaping -
Forest Farming is the cultivation of high-value specialty
crops under a forest canopy that is intentionally modified or
maintained to provide shade levels and habitat that favor growth
and enhance production levels. Forest farming encompasses a
range of cultivated systems from introducing plants into the
understory of a timber stand to modifying forest stands to
enhance the marketability and sustainable production of existing plants.
is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative,
legal, economic, and social aspects, as well as scientific and
technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest
regulation. This includes management for aesthetics, fish,
recreation, urban values, water, wilderness, wildlife, wood
products, forest genetic resources, and other forest resource
values. Management can be based on conservation, economics, or a
mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction,
planting and replanting
of different species, cutting roads and
pathways through forests, and preventing fire
is the science and craft of creating, managing,
using, conserving, and
associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values
for human and environment benefits
is a land use management system in which trees
or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. This
intentional combination of agriculture and forestry has varied
benefits, including increased biodiversity and
practices have been successful in sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the United States.
Agroforestry shares principles with intercropping. Both may
place two or more plant species (such as nitrogen-fixing plants) in close
is the management of forests according to the principles of
sustainable development. Sustainable forest management has to
keep the balance between three main pillars: ecological,
economic and socio-cultural. Successfully achieving sustainable
forest management will provide integrated benefits to all,
ranging from safeguarding local livelihoods to protecting the
biodiversity and ecosystems provided by forests, reducing rural
poverty and mitigating some of the effects of climate change.
combined science of Forestry and informatics, with a special
emphasis on collection, management, and processing of data,
information and knowledge, and the incorporation of informatic
concepts and theories specific to enrich forest management and
forest science; it has a similar relationship to library science
and information science.
is the scientific method of
dating tree rings
(also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed. As well as
dating them this can give data for dendroclimatology, the study of climate
and atmospheric conditions during different periods in history from wood.
is the systematic collection of data and forest information
for assessment or analysis. An estimate of the value and possible uses of
timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain
ecosystems. When taking forest inventory
the following are important things to measure and note: species,
diameter at breast height (DBH), height, site quality, age, and
defects. From the data collected one can calculate the number of
trees per acre, the basal area, the volume of trees in an area,
and the value of the timber.
an area of woodland in which the trees or shrubs are, or
formerly were, periodically cut back
to ground level to stimulate growth
and provide firewood or timber. Coppicing is a traditional method of
woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees
to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced
wood, which is called a copse, young tree stems are repeatedly cut down to
near ground level, known as a stool. New growth emerges and after a number
of years, the coppiced tree is harvested and the cycle begins anew.
is a similar process carried out at a higher level on the
tree in order to prevent grazing animals from eating new shoots. Daisugi
(台杉, where sugi refers to Japanese cedar), is a similar Japanese
technique. Many silviculture practices involve cutting and regrowth;
coppicing has been of significance in many parts of lowland temperate
Europe. The widespread and long-term practice of coppicing as a
landscape-scale industry is something that remains of special importance
in southern England. Many of the English language terms referenced in this
article are particularly relevant to historic and contemporary practice in
that area. Typically a coppiced woodland is harvested in sections or coups
on a rotation. In this way, a crop is available each year somewhere in the
woodland. Coppicing has the effect of providing a rich variety of
habitats, as the woodland always has a range of different-aged coppice
growing in it, which is beneficial for biodiversity. The cycle length
depends upon the species cut, the local custom, and the use of the
product. Birch can be coppiced for faggots on a three- or four-year cycle,
whereas oak can be coppiced over a fifty-year cycle for poles or firewood.
Coppicing maintains trees at a juvenile stage, and most coppiced tree will
not ever die of old age; some coppice stools may therefore reach immense
ages. The age of a stool may be estimated from its diameter, and some are
so large—perhaps as much as 5.4 metres (18 ft) across—that they are
thought to have been continually coppiced for centuries.
is a landscaping technique
maximizing the beneficial use of the water resources of a tract of land.
The "keyline" denominates a specific topographic feature related to the
natural flow of water on the tract. Keyline design is a system of
principles and techniques of developing rural and urban landscapes to
optimize use of their water resources.
is the scientific study of the interrelated
patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests. The
management of forests is known as forestry, silviculture, and
. A forest ecosystem is a natural woodland
unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms
(Biotic components) in that area functioning together with all
of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.
The forest ecosystem is very important.
is the practice of controlling the
establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of
forests to meet diverse needs and values.
or wood pasture, now also known as
agroforestry, is the practice of combining
and the grazing of domesticated
in a mutually beneficial way. Advantages of a
properly managed silvopasture operation are enhanced soil
protection and increased long-term income due to the
simultaneous production of trees and grazing animals. The trees
are managed for high-value sawlogs, brushwood, foliage, fodder
and, at the same time, provide shade and shelter for livestock
and some forage, reducing stress and sometimes increasing forage
production. Silvopasture is Latin, silva forest.
arrangements that purposely combine fodder plants, such as grasses and
leguminous herbs, with shrubs and trees for animal nutrition and
is the biological science of studying forests and woods,
incorporating the understanding of natural forest ecosystems, and the
effects and development of silvicultural practices. The term compliments
silviculture, which deals with the art and practice of forest management.
Horticulture is the culture of plants. Arboriculture is the management of
individual trees. Dendrology is the study of woody plants, a branch of
botany. Forestry is the management of forests and woods.
is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns,
processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests. The management of
forests is known as forestry, silviculture, and forest management. A
forest ecosystem is a natural woodland unit consisting of all plants,
animals and micro-organisms (Biotic components) in that area functioning
together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the
environment. The forest ecosystem is very important.
is the cultivation of
crop species that live longer than two years without the need for
replanting each year. Perennial crops used in perennial agriculture are
grown worldwide in various climates and are adapted to local environmental
stressors. City Farming
is a type of savanna-or lightly forested grassland- where oaks
(Quercus spp.) are the dominant trees, the term oakery or woodlands is
also used commonly, though the former is more prevalent when referencing
the Mediterranean area. These savannas were maintained historically
through wildfires set by lightning, humans, grazing, low precipitation,
and/or poor soil. Although there are pockets of oak savanna almost
anywhere in North America where oaks are present, there are three major
oak savanna areas: 1) California, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon
in the west; 2) Southwestern United States and Mexico; and 3) the
prairie/forest border of the Midwest. There are also small areas of oak
savannas in other parts of the world. (See also Eastern savannas of the
United States for information on pine savannas of the U.S. South.)
The savanna biome is a type of grassland biome that consists of areas
of open grassland with very few trees. There are two kinds of savannas:
tropical and semi-tropical savannas.
is an approach in ecology that seeks to explain the
distribution and abundance of species by studying interactions of
individual organisms with their environments.
is a biological community of plants, animals, and
fungi which, through the process of ecological succession in the
development of vegetation in an area over time, have reached a steady
state. This equilibrium was thought to occur because the climax community
is composed of species best adapted to average conditions in that area.
The term is sometimes also applied in soil development. Nevertheless, it
has been found that a "steady state" is more apparent than real,
particularly if long-enough periods of time are taken into consideration.
Notwithstanding, it remains a useful concept.
Films about Forest Gardening and Permaculture
Crawford's 3 Dimensional Forest Garden
(youtube 13 mins.)
300 Year Old Food Forest
Gardening Explained - Low Maintenance
Trio" -- Forest Gardening, Edible Landscapes & Urban
Permaculture with Robert Hart
Shubhendu Sharma: How to Grow a Tiny Forest Anywhere
I Japans Secret Water Garden
A Permaculture Food Forest
Permaculture Principles at Work
- A Quiet Revolution
How to grow a forest in your backyard: Shubhendu Sharma
(video and interactive text)
Turning 90 Acres of
Waste Land into a Food Forest with a Bank of Traditional Seeds
a edible forest garden on a floating platform barge
that is 110-foot by 30-foot. An Acre is 43,560 square feet.
Creating a Forest Garden: Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops
(Book on Amazon by Martin Crawford).
Paradise: got barren land, boosted it at a profit
(youtube) - In the early 90s, Mark and Jen Shepard bought a degraded corn
farm in Viola, Wisconsin, and began to slowly convert it from row-crops
back to a native oak savanna that would become one of the most productive
perennial farms in the country. Over the past nearly three decades, Mark
has planted an estimated 250,000 trees on the 106-acre farm. The main
agroforestry crops are chestnuts, hazelnuts, and apples, followed by
walnut, hickory, cherry, and pine (for the nuts). For short-term income,
the couple planted annual crops, like grains and asparagus, in alleys
between the fruit-and-nut-bearing trees. Cattle, pigs, lambs, turkeys, and
chickens act as pest control and free composters as they roam the savannas
of the farm. STUN stands for Sheer Total Utter Neglect.
- New Forest Farm
is a system of agricultural and social design
principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the
patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems.
Permaculture was developed, and the term coined by Bill Mollison
and David Holmgren in 1978. It has many branches that include
but are not limited to ecological design, ecological
engineering, environmental design, construction and integrated
water resources management that develops sustainable
architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and
agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.
is agriculture using multiple crops
in the same
space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems.
Seattle Builds Nations First Food Forest
Seeds of Permaculture
Permaculture Education Cente
Foraging Wild Foods
young seed pods and leaves are used as vegetables.
It can also be used for water purification and hand washing, and
is sometimes used in herbal medicine. It is a fast-growing,
drought-resistant tree, native to the southern foothills of the
Himalayas in northwestern India.
is a tree which bears
that is consumed or
used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering
plants produce fruit
, which are the ripened ovaries of
containing one or more seeds
. In horticultural usage, the term
'fruit tree' is limited to those that provide fruit for human
food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere (see
Fruit), but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well
as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts.
Edible Plants List
Occidental Art & Ecology
The Land Institute
is the care and management of single trees
and tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of
improving the urban environment. Urban forestry advocates the
role of trees as a critical part of the urban infrastructure.
Urban foresters plant and maintain trees, support appropriate
tree and forest preservation, conduct research and promote the
many benefits trees provide. Urban forestry is practiced by
municipal and commercial arborists, municipal and utility
foresters, environmental policymakers, city planners,
consultants, educators, researchers and community activists.
is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size.
They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public,
wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other
nurseries and to commercial gardeners, and private nurseries
which supply the needs of institutions or private estates. Some
retail and wholesale nurseries sell by mail. Nurseries may
supply plants for gardens, for agriculture, for forestry and for
conservation biology. Some nurseries specialize in one phase of
the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale; or in one
type of plant: e.g., groundcovers, shade plants, or rock garden
plants. Some produce bulk stock, whether seedlings or grafted,
of particular varieties for purposes such as fruit trees for
orchards, or timber trees for forestry. Some produce stock
seasonally, ready in springtime for export to colder regions
where propagation could not have been started so early, or to
regions where seasonal pests prevent profitable growing early in
Start a Plant Nursery Business
Start a Plant Nursery
How to Start a Profitable Backyard Plant Nursery
Walnut Tree Nursery
is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Prior to the
invention of the sawmill, boards were rived (split) and planed,
or more often sawn by two men with a whipsaw, one above and
another in a saw pit below.
grinds grain into flour. The term can refer to both the grinding
mechanism and the building that holds it. (Sorghum Mill).
Land and Water Management
Danny Woo International District Community Garden Seattle, Wash.
Ornamental Food Scapes
is an enzyme involved in the first major step of
, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is
converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to
energy-rich molecules such as glucose. In chemical terms, it
catalyzes the carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (also
known as RuBP). It is probably the most abundant enzyme on
Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center
Photosynthetic Vesicle Architecture and Constraints on Efficient
Temperate Agroforestry Research
: considering multifunctional
woody polycultures and the design of long-term field trials.
is a collaborative field day hosted by the
Department of Crop Sciences in partnership with several academic
units in the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental
Sciences (ACES). From nitrogen management to drone
demonstrations Agronomy Day shares cutting-edge research with
practical implications for your farm or business. CEU and CCA
credits are available during tour stops.
Edible Landscapes - Growing Food instead of Non-Edible Plants
- Edible Landscaping
Edible Landscapes London
From Lawns to Edible Landscapes
Pam Warhurst Edible Landscapes
- Plant Maintenance