Learning Society


Learning Society is the process of Learning as an activity, and not just a place, and is thus decentralized and deregulated. Increasing focus on Social Networking, by using the shared learning experiences of individuals as a basis for a larger network of education and drawing on elements of systems to facilitate the ability for Lifelong Learning in the individual and Cultural Groups. Threshold Knowledge.

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Know more today about the world than I knew yesterday and lessen the suffering of others Learning Community is a group of people who share common academic goals and attitudes, who meet semi-regularly to collaborate on classwork.

Public Service - Forums - Meetings

Co-Production is where technical experts and other groups co-generate new knowledge and technologies. It is the dynamic interaction between technology and society.

Social Capital - Human Capital - Big 5

Learning Economy in when knowledge is the crucial resource and learning is the most important process. Healthy Consumption.

Education Initiatives - Adult Education

Learning Organization facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself.

Rural Empowerment Association for Community Help or REACH helps community members to meet their basic human needs through equitable access to quality education, employment, housing, socialization and youth programs.

Community Engagement refers to the process by which community benefit organizations and individuals build ongoing, permanent relationships for the purpose of applying a collective vision for the benefit of a community.

Community Education also known as community-based education or community learning and development refers to an organization's programs to promote learning and social development work with individuals and groups in their communities using a range of formal and informal methods.

Mentoring - Tutoring - Communication - Public Service

Community Development is a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems. Personal Development.

Principles of Community Engagement - PDF - Communities ideas.

Lateral Communication is the exchange, imparting or sharing of information, ideas or feelings between people within a community, peer groups, departments or units of an organization who are at or about the same hierarchical level as each other for the purpose of coordinating activities, efforts or fulfilling a common purpose or goal.

Social Change includes changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviors, or social relations.

Community of Practice is a group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. And then use the process of sharing information and experiences to learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally.

Community Practice also known as macro practice is a branch of social work in the United States that focuses on larger social systems and social change, and is tied to the historical roots of United States social work. The field of community practice social work encompasses community organizing, social planning, human service management, community development, policy analysis, policy advocacy, evaluation, mediation, electronic advocacy and other larger systems interventions.

Capacity Building is a conceptual approach to social or personal development that focuses on understanding the obstacles that inhibit people, governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations from realizing their development goals while enhancing the abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable results.


Knowledge Based Economy


Knowledge Building Communities is a community in which the primary goal is Knowledge Creation rather than the construction of specific products or the completion of tasks. This notion is fundamental in Knowledge building theory. If knowledge is not realized for a community then we do not have knowledge building. Examples of KBCs are Classrooms, Academic research teams, Modern management companies, Modern business R&D groups, Wikipedia (Wikimedia Foundation together with its millions of Wikipedians).

Knowledge Management - Knowledge Consumption

Knowledge Based Economy (PDF) - Knowledge Preservation

Knowledge Based Economy is the use of knowledge to generate tangible and intangible values. Technology and in particular knowledge technology help to transform a part of human knowledge to machines. This knowledge can be used by decision support systems in various fields and generate economic values. Knowledge economy is also possible without technology. (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être).

Knowledge Ecosystem is an approach to Knowledge Management which claims to foster the dynamic evolution of knowledge interactions between entities to improve decision-making and innovation through improved evolutionary networks of collaboration.

Knowledge Economy is the use of knowledge to generate tangible and intangible values.

Knowledge Market is a mechanism for distributing knowledge resources.

Knowledge Environment are social practices, technological and physical arrangements intended to facilitate collaborative knowledge building, decision making, inference or discovery, depending on the epistemological premises and goals.

Knowledge Building addresses the need to educate people for the knowledge age society, in which knowledge and innovation are pervasive. Learning is internal, (almost) unobservable process that results in changes of beliefs, attitudes, or skills. By contrast, Knowledge building is seen as creating or modifying public knowledge. KB produces knowledge that lives ‘in the world’, and is available to be worked on and used by other people.

Knowledge Society shares and makes available to all members of the society knowledge that may be used to improve the human condition. A knowledge society differs from an information society in that the former serves to transform information into resources that allow society to take effective action while the latter only creates and disseminates the raw data.

Democratization of Knowledge is the acquisition and spread of knowledge amongst the common people, not just privileged elites such as clergy and academics. Libraries—public libraries in particular—and modern digital technology such as the internet—play a key role in the democratization of knowledge, as they provide open access of information to the masses.

Open Knowledge Foundation is a global, non-profit network that promotes and shares information at no charge, including both content and data.

Distributed Knowledge is all the knowledge that a community of agents possesses and might apply in solving a problem. Distributed knowledge is approximately what "a wise man knows" or what someone who has complete knowledge of what each member of the community knows knows. Distributed knowledge might also be called the aggregate knowledge of a community, as it represents all the knowledge that a community might bring to bear to solve a problem. Other related phrasings include cumulative knowledge, collective knowledge, pooled knowledge, or the wisdom of the crowd. Distributed knowledge is the union of all the knowledge of individuals in a community.

Free Knowledge Foundation is an organization aiming to promote Free Knowledge, including Free Software and Free Standards. It was founded in 2004 and is based in Madrid, Spain.

Knowledge Mobilization - Ecology and Society

Access to Knowledge Movement is a collection of civil society groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development.


Information Age


Information Society is the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information as a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. Its main driver are digital information and communication technologies, which have resulted in an information explosion and are profoundly changing all aspects of social organization, including the economy, education, health, warfare, government and democracy. The People who have the means to partake in this form of society are sometimes called digital citizens. This is one of many dozen labels that have been identified to suggest that humans are entering a new phase of society.

Information Overload - FilteringInformation Stations

Information Economy is an economy with an increased emphasis on informational activities and information industry.

Information Ecology marks a connection between ecological ideas with the dynamics and properties of the increasingly dense, complex and important digital informational environment and has been gaining acceptance in a growing number of disciplines. "Information ecology" often is used as metaphor, viewing the informational space as an ecosystem. "Information ecology is a science which studies the laws governing the influence of information summary on the formation and functioning of biosystems, including that of individuals, human communities and humanity in general and on the health and psychological, physical and social well-being of the human being; and which undertakes to develop methodologies to improve the information environment" - (Alexei Eryomin1998).

Information Industry are industries that are information intensive in one way or the other. It is considered one of the most important economic sectors for a variety of reasons.

Information Revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution. Information is a factor of production (along with capital, labor, land (economics)), as well as a product sold in the market, that is, a commodity. As such, it acquires use value and exchange value, and therefore a price. All products have use value, exchange value, and informational value. The latter can be measured by the information content of the product, in terms of innovation, design, etc. Digital Revolution (wiki).

Information Age is regarded as a time in which information has become a commodity that is quickly and widely disseminated and easily available especially through the use of computer technology. Information has a unique quality as a resource and a commodity, the utility of which, in combination with its other values, is so pervasive as to result in the now common appellation given to the period of history ahead as "the information age. Information Age is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information computerization. Information Age - Ages.

Network Society is the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies.

Network Economy is the emerging economic order within the information society.

Social Networking - Human Search Engine

Personal Learning Network is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment. In a PLN, a person makes a connection with another person with the specific intent that some type of learning will occur because of that connection.

Networked Learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It takes a relational stance in which learning takes place both in relation to others and in relation to learning resources.

Digital Culture is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information computerization.

Internet (Global Brain)

Sharing - The ability to share knowledge across a community is what has allowed us go to the moon, to build cars and freeways, to make milkshakes and movies, to veg out in front of the TV, to do everything that we can do by virtue of living in society.

Knowledge Word Cloud Millennium Development Goals

Collaboration - Collaboration Ecology (PDF)
Urban Ecology Collaborative - Cooperative
Collaborative Learning

Service Learning is an educational approach that combines learning objectives with community service in order to provide a pragmatic, progressive learning experience while meeting societal needs.

National Service Scheme is an Indian government-sponsored public service program conducted by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports of the Government of India.

Place-Based Education seeks to help communities through employing students and school staff in solving community problems.

Decentralization - Politics - Non Governmental Organization (NGO)

Learning Methods - Teaching - Open Curriculum

TZM Orientation - American Community Survey

Knowledge Divide - Gov Together BC

Commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values (social practice) employed for a governance mechanism. Commons can be also defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates

Activity Theory a line of eclectic social sciences theories and research with its roots in the Soviet psychological activity theory pioneered by Sergei Rubinstein in 1930s.

Tools for Learning  -  Tools for Sharing Knowledge
Open Data - Beta NYC - Google Public Data
Data Center Kids Count
National Consortium For Data ScienceGraphs
Citizenship initiatives (IBM)
Investigative Dashboard
Alaveteli
Popcorn Webmaker
Citizens Connect - Open Knowledge
Knowledge Management - Data Visualization Tools
Information Stations
Collaboration - KM
Internet - Big Data 
Open Data Institute
The ODI
Open Data Institute to connect, equip and inspire people around the world to innovate with data.
Open Source

Service Oriented Architecture in computer software design is an architectural style where in services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network. The basic fundamental principles of service oriented architecture is independent of vendors, products and technologies. A service is a discrete unit of functionality that can be accessed remotely and acted upon and updated independently. It logically represents a business activity with a specified outcome. It is self-contained. It is a black box for its consumers. It may consist of other underlying services.

Ben Wellington: How we found the worst place to park in New York City using Big Data (video)

Gov Delivery More than 1,800 public sector agencies use our end-to-end solutions to connect with more of their citizens. Our customers use GovDelivery to increase digital engagement, grow their digital audience by cross-promoting content, build communities around data, and create modern training experiences.

Social Constructivism maintains that human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others.

Constructivism International Relations significant aspects of international relations are historically and socially constructed, rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential characteristics of world politics.

Opportunity Management is a process to identify business and community development opportunities that could be implemented to sustain or improve the local economy.

Social Capital - Human Capital - Working Together

Community Organization covers a series of activities at the community level aimed at bringing about desired improvement in the social well being of individuals, groups and neighborhoods.

Promise Neighborhoods mission is to improve educational outcomes for students in distressed urban and rural neighborhoods.

European Union (EU) Spatial Data Infrastructure
Economy-Wide Sensor Network and Data Resource

OzNome: Imagine that all of the data and information about Australia was linked and readily accessible to those with a right and and need to use it. Imagine that this information was connected seamlessly to our knowledge base as encapsulated in various predictive models. Imagine a world where fit-for-purpose information, necessary for a particular activity, regardless of the scale of that activity, is available as and when it is needed, ready for use, delivered to where it is needed, sensitive to any privacy concerns. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian Government - CSIRO.



Public Forums - Meetings


Town Hall Meeting is an informal public meeting, function, or event open to everybody in a town community and held at the local municipal building. Attendees generally present ideas, voice their opinions, ask questions of the public figures, elected officials, or political candidates at the town hall. Attendees rarely vote on an issue or propose an alternative to a situation. It is not used outside of this secular context. Feedback Loop.

Town Meeting is a form of direct democratic rule used to discuss or debate issues.

Meeting is a formally arranged gathering or a small informal social gathering. The social act of assembling for some common purpose. The act of joining together as one. Obtain something that is wanted or needed.

Public Participation holds that those who are affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process. Right to public participation is similar to the right to information.

Conferred is to have a conference in order to talk something over.

Conference is a prearranged meeting for consultation or exchange of information or discussion, especially one with a formal agenda. A discussion among participants who have agreed on a topic.

Convention is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest.

Referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law.

Proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are often a key step in the complex sales process—i.e., whenever a buyer considers more than price in a purchase.  A proposal puts the buyer's requirements in a context that favors the seller's products and services, and educates the buyer about the capabilities of the seller in satisfying their needs.

Motion in democracy is a formal step to introduce a matter for consideration by a group. It is a common concept in the procedure of trade unions, students' unions, corporations, and other deliberative assemblies. Motions can be oral or in writing, the written form being known as a resolution.

Arbitration - Meeting Tips - Diplomacy - Democracy - Public Announcements

Agenda is a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to. A list of matters to be taken up (as at a meeting). A notebook used to organize and maintain such plans or lists, an agenda book, an agenda planner. Agenda is a list of meeting activities in the order in which they are to be taken up, beginning with the call to order and ending with adjournment. It usually includes one or more specific items of business to be acted upon. It may, but is not required to, include specific times for one or more activities. Hidden Agenda.

Thing Assembly was the governing assembly of a Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by law speakers. Its meeting-place was called a thingstead.

Right to Assemble and Petition - Freedom of Speech - Public Forum Laws

Public Information Film are a series of government commissioned short films.

Gathering is an assembly or meeting, especially a social or festive one or one held for a specific purpose. a set of printed signatures of a book, gathered for binding.

Forum is a public meeting or assembly for open discussion.

Public Forum is a property that is open to public expression and assembly.

Public Forum Debate is a style of debate for teams of two. Individuals give short (2-4 minute) speeches; these are interspersed with 3 minute "crossfire" sections, questions and answers between opposed debaters. The winner is determined by a single judge who also serves as a referee (timing sections, penalizing incivility, etc).

Charrette is a meeting in which all stakeholders in a project attempt to resolve conflicts and map solutions. charrettes often take place in multiple sessions in which the group divides into sub-groups. Each sub-group then presents its work to the full group as material for further dialogue. Such charrettes serve as a way of quickly generating a design solution while integrating the aptitudes and interests of a diverse group of people. Although the structure of charrettes may vary, the general idea of a charrette is to create an innovative atmosphere in which a diverse group of stakeholders can collaborate to "generate visions for the future". Compare this term with workshop.

Internet Forum is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages. They differ from chat rooms in that messages are often longer than one line of text, and are at least temporarily archived. Also, depending on the access level of a user or the forum set-up, a posted message might need to be approved by a moderator before it becomes visible.

Minutes also known as protocols or, informally, notes, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing. They typically describe the events of the meeting and may include a list of attendees, a statement of the issues considered by the participants, and related responses or decisions for the issues. Minutes may be created during the meeting by a typist or court reporter, who may use shorthand notation and then prepare the minutes and issue them to the participants afterwards. Alternatively, the meeting can be audio recorded, video recorded, or a group's appointed or informally assigned secretary may take notes, with minutes prepared later. Many government agencies use minutes recording software to record and prepare all minutes in real-time. Minutes are the official written record of the meetings of an organization or group. They are not transcripts of those proceedings. Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised or RONR, the minutes should contain mainly a record of what was done at the meeting, not what was said by the members. The organization may have its own rules regarding the content of the minutes. For most organizations or groups, it is important for the minutes to be terse and only include a summary of the decisions. A verbatim report or transcript is typically not useful. Unless the organization's rules require it, a summary of the discussions in a meeting is neither necessary nor appropriate. The minutes of certain groups, such as a corporate board of directors, must be kept on file and are important legal documents. Minutes from board meetings are kept separately from minutes of general membership meetings within the same organization. Also, minutes of executive sessions may be kept separately. Committees are not required to keep formal minutes although less formal notes may be taken. For committees, their formal records are the reports submitted to their parent body.

Transcript a written record of spoken language or recorded speech. Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form. Document Writing.

Verbatim Report refers to an account that records everything that was said during a conversation in the exact wording that was used at the time. The most known usage of verbatim writing is done in court, by the stenographer who records everything said.

Court Reporter is a person whose occupation is to capture the live testimony in proceedings using a stenographic machine and transforming same into an official certified transcript by nature of their training, certification, and usually licensure. This can include courtroom hearings and trials, depositions, sworn statements, and more.

Stenotype is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use. A trained court reporter or closed captioner must write speeds of approximately 180, 200, and 225 words per minute (wpm) at very high accuracy in the categories of literary, jury charge, and testimony, respectively. Subtitles is text derived from a transcript.

Consortium - Group Decisions - Committee - Working Group

Quorum is a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business.

Hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decision-making body or officer, such as a government agency or a Parliamentary committee. A hearing is generally distinguished from a trial in that it is usually shorter and often less formal. In the course of litigation, hearings are conducted as oral arguments in support of motions, whether to resolve the case without further trial on a motion to dismiss or for summary judgment, or to decide discrete issues of law, such as the admissibility of evidence, that will determine how the trial proceeds. Limited evidence and testimony may also be presented in hearings to supplement the legal arguments.

Committee is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and the type of work that each committee does would depend on the type of organization and its needs.

Steering Committee is a committee that decides on the priorities or order of business of an organization and manages the general course of its operations. Monitoring the quality of the project as it develops and provides advice and sometimes making decisions) about changes to the project as it develops. The Steering Committee provides support, guidance and oversight of progress. Members do not usually work on the project themselves.

Task Force is a unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity.

Caucus is a group of like-minded people with shared concerns who meet to select a candidate or promote a policy. A closed political meeting.

Seminar is bringing together small groups of people for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to participate. This is often accomplished through an ongoing Socratic dialogue with a seminar leader or instructor, or through a more formal presentation of research. It is essentially a place where assigned readings are discussed, questions can be raised and debates can be conducted.



Speaking in Front of an Audience


Public Speaking is the process, or act of performing a speech to a live audience. This speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade, and to entertain. Closely allied to "presenting," although the latter is more often associated with commercial activity, public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face talking of a single person to a group of listeners.

Famous Speeches (inspiration) - Public Speaking (youtube) - Public Announcement

Address is the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience. To give a speech. The manner of speaking to another individual.

Declamation is a recitation of a speech from memory with studied gestures and intonation as an exercise in elocution or rhetoric. Demagogue.

Speechwriter is a person who is hired to prepare and write speeches that will be delivered by another person. Speechwriters are employed by many senior-level elected officials and executives in the government and private sectors. They can also be employed to write for weddings and other social occasions.

Cold Reading is reading aloud from a script or other text with little or no rehearsal, practice or study in advance. Sometimes also referred to as sight reading, it is a technique used by actors and other performers in theatre, television, and film performance fields. Cold readings are common in performance classes, and furthermore are employed frequently in actor auditions to allow the producer or playwright to get a general idea of the actors' performing capabilities. They are also employed by playwrights who need to hear their play read aloud for the first time by actors, and as such they form an initial integral component of the collaborative creative theatrical process, which may or may not include the eventual production of the play itself. (Public performances of cold readings also serve as entertainment in their own right, particularly in the context of community theater, and less public readings can serve as creative incubators for more established playwright and theatrical talent during the course of play development.) Many actors and other performers and public speakers take classes and practice at length to improve the quality of their cold readings. Cold reading can also be used in conjunction with improvisations to gauge a performer's ability to perform new works. A good dramatic cold reader is able to communicate with fluency and clarity and to project speech rhythms and rhymes well. The reader should also be able to bring out the intent, mood and characterization of a piece through appropriate articulation and body language. Writing Tips.

Extemporaneous Speech involves the speaker's use of notes and some embellishment to deliver a speech. Some speakers use a manuscript speech. This is a delivery where the speaker reads every word from a pre-written speech. Extemporaneous Speaking is a limited-preparation speech event based on research and original analysis.

Lecture is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. Lectures are used to convey critical information, history, background, theories, and equations. A politician's speech, a minister's sermon, or even a businessman's sales presentation may be similar in form to a lecture. Usually the lecturer will stand at the front of the room and recite information relevant to the lecture's content.

Presentations (charts and graphs) - Performance

Keynote in public speaking is a talk that establishes a main underlying theme. In corporate or commercial settings, greater importance is attached to the delivery of a keynote speech or keynote address. The keynote establishes the framework for the following programme of events or convention agenda; frequently the role of keynote speaker will include that of convention moderator. It will also flag up a larger idea – a literary story, an individual musical piece or event. Motivation Speaker.

Mediation - Arbitration - Medium - Debating - Argument

Moderator is someone who presides over a forum or debate. Someone who mediates disputes and attempts to avoid violence. The moderator role is to act as a neutral participant in a debate or discussion, holds participants to time limits and tries to keep them from straying off the topic of the questions being raised in the debate. Moderator is an elected official who presides over the Town Meeting form of government.

Discussion Moderator is a person whose role is to act as a neutral participant in a debate or discussion, holds participants to time limits and trying to keep them from straying off the topic of the questions being raised in the debate. Sometimes moderators may ask questions intended to allow the debate participants to fully develop their argument in order to ensure the debate moves at pace. In panel discussions commonly held at academic conferences, the moderator usually introduces the participants and solicits questions from the audience. On television and radio shows, a moderator will often take calls from people having differing views, and will use those calls as a starting point to ask questions of guests on the show. Perhaps the most prominent role of moderators is in political debates, which have become a common feature of election campaigns. The moderator may have complete control over which questions to ask, or may act as a filter by selecting questions from the audience.

Spokesperson is someone engaged or elected to speak on behalf of others. Front-Man.

"Everyone brings something to the table. no matter who you are or where you are from, or what disability you may have, everyone has something valuable to share, everyone."

Sometimes negative feedback is where someone just wants to discredit you without any evidence or facts to prove their opinion. The same problem with positive feedback, sometimes people just want to credit you without any evidence or facts that proves that you deserve the credit, so it may end up giving you a false sense of security, or have you appreciate someone or something under false pretenses. Feedback needs to be accurate and factual without bias.

"We need to teach people how to be consumers of knowledge and information instead of consumers of inferior products that actually lower the quality of life, and cause more harm then good. Consuming knowledge and information on a daily basis is good for you, just like exercising and eating healthy."

National Speakers Association is a US based association that supports professional speakers. It is the oldest and largest of 13 international associations comprising the Global Speakers Federation.

Speakers Bureau is a collection of speakers who talk about a particular subject, or a company, which operates to facilitate speakers for clients requiring motivational speakers, celebrity appearances, conference facilitators, or keynote speakers. A speakers bureau will hold a database of personalities from diverse fields such as politics, sports, business, television, and comedy. The speaker bureau team initiates the introduction between speaker and client and supports both parties from the primary stages of making contact throughout the booking and logistics process. Clients requiring speakers are usually businesses, corporations, charities, educational or public institutions. A speakers bureau helps client and speaker negotiate a speaking fee, a payment awarded to an individual for speaking at a public event. This fee is usually set by the speaker or the speaker’s agent. Logistics can be dealt with by the speakers bureau, like fees, transport, accommodation and timing, or communication between speaker and client. Speakers bureaus come in various forms and traditionally charge a commission of the speaking fee for their services. However, with the rise of the Internet, alternative business models have found a place. Few online platforms allow an organization and speaker to connect with each other directly and without the need of an agency. Traditional speakers bureaus are able to provide a more hands on experience for the client and handle contracts, negotiations, and other issues that may arise in the booking process. A motivational speaker or keynote speaker is a professional speaker who speaks publicly with the intention of inspiring and motivating a relevant audience. In a business context, they are employed to clearly communicate company strategy and assist employees to see the future in a positive light and inspire workers to come together as a team.

Speaking Fee is a payment awarded to an individual for speaking at a public event. Motivational speakers, businesspersons, facilitators, and celebrities are able to garner significant earnings in speaking fees or honoraria. In 2013, $10,000 was considered a lower limit for speakers brokered by speakers bureaus, $40,000 a regular fee for well-known authors, and famous politicians were reported to charge about $100,000 and more. In contrast, speakers in academic conferences and similar events rarely get significant speaking fees or any at all. Sometimes speakers will even pay for attending and presenting at a conference, although it is fairly common that they are rewarded with free attendance. Researchers and academics consider conference presentations an honour and necessary for their careers, rather than a service. Scientists who become popular authors or otherwise famous are an exception, and can earn similar sums as celebrities.


Words that Flow


Cadence is the way that your words flow. It is the rhythm sequence or the flow of sounds in which you speak, the words you choose to emphasize, and the up and down movement of your pitch throughout your sentences. People can express their personalities by distinct speech patterns. Cadence includes a series of short phrases and pauses between phrases, while effectively using articulation, deliberateness, pitch, volume and syllable length. Emotion responds to the beginnings and endings of a sentence. Writing Tips.

Speech Tempo is a measure of the number of speech units of a given type produced within a given amount of time. Speech tempo is believed to vary within the speech of one person according to contextual and emotional factors, between speakers and also between different languages and dialects. However, there are many problems involved in investigating this variance scientifically.

Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language. Rhythm is an aspect of prosody, others being intonation, stress, and tempo of speech. Three alternative ways in which a language can divide time are postulated: The duration of every syllable is equal (syllable-timed); The duration of every mora is equal (mora-timed). The interval between two stressed syllables is equal (stress-timed).

Prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm. Such elements are known as suprasegmentals. Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus. It may otherwise reflect other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or by choice of vocabulary.

Intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words as sememes (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. (The term tone is used by some British writers in their descriptions of intonation but to refer to the pitch movement found on the nucleus or tonic syllable in an intonation unit.)

High Rising Terminal also known as upspeak, uptalk, rising inflection, upward inflection, or high rising intonation (HRI), is a feature of some variants of English where declarative sentence clauses end with a rising-pitch intonation, until the end of the sentence where a falling-pitch is applied.


Public Forum Free Speech Laws - Section 230


Forum in United States constitutional law, a forum is a property that is open to public expression and assembly. A public forum, also called an open forum, is open to all expression that is protected under the First Amendment. Streets, parks, and sidewalks are considered open to public discourse by tradition and are designated as traditional public forums. The government creates a designated public forum when it intentionally opens a nontraditional forum for public discourse. Limited public forums, such as municipal meeting rooms, are nonpublic forums that have been specifically designated by the government as open to certain groups or topics. Traditional public forums cannot be changed to nonpublic forums by governments. The use of public forums generally cannot be restricted based on the content of the speech expressed by the user. Use can be restricted based on content, however, if the restriction passes a strict scrutiny test for a traditional and designated forum or the reasonableness test for a limited forum. Also, public forums can be restricted as to the time, place and manner of speech. In the 1972 case Grayned v. City of Rockford, the Supreme Court found that "The nature of a place, the pattern of its normal activities, dictate the kinds of regulations of time, place, and manner that are reasonable." In determining what is reasonable, the Court stated that "[the] crucial question is whether the manner of expression is basically incompatible with the normal activity of a particular place at a particular time." Thus, protesters have the right to march in support of a cause, but not on a public beach during the middle of the day with bullhorns. A nonpublic forum is not specially designated as open to public expression. For example, jails, public schools, and military bases are nonpublic forums (unless declared otherwise by the government, which says that it's their forum and not your forum, so if you want to speak your mind, you have to do it somewhere else. Ignoring feedback will always have risks, especially when there is no oversight or accountability). Such forums can be restricted based on the content (i.e., subject matter) of the speech, but not based on viewpoint. Thus, while the government could prohibit speeches related to abortion on a military base, it could not permit a pro-life speaker while denying a pro-choice speaker (or vice versa). Regardless of the type of forum, any exclusion must be done on a viewpoint neutral basis. Exclusion based on the speaker’s viewpoint is unconstitutional. The 1988 decision in Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier relied on the notion of a public forum in determining the degree to which a public school newspaper that has not been determined as such a forum can be protected by the First Amendment. The Court decided that such newspapers are subject to a lower level of First Amendment protection than independent student newspapers established (by policy or practice) as forums for student expression.

Time, Place, or Manner Restrictions (free speech abuse) - Comment Form Monitoring

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act is a 1996 landmark piece of Internet legislation in the United States, codified at 47 U.S.C. § 230. Section 230(c)(1) provides immunity from liability for providers and users of an "interactive computer service" who publish information provided by third-party users: No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider. Section 230 was developed in response to a pair of lawsuits against Internet service providers in the early 1990s that had different interpretations of whether the services providers should be treated as publishers or distributors of content created by its users. It was also pushed by the tech industry and other experts that language in the proposed CDA making providers responsible for indecent content posted by users that could extend to other types of questionable free speech. After passage of the Telecommunications Act, the CDA was challenged in courts and ruled by the Supreme Court in Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997) to be partially unconstitutional, leaving the Section 230 provisions in place. Since then, several legal challenges have validated the constitutionality of Section 230. Section 230 protections are not limitless, requiring providers to remove criminal material such as copyright infringement; more recently, Section 230 was amended by the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act in 2018 to require the removal of material violating federal and state sex trafficking laws. Passed at a time where Internet use was just starting to take off, Section 230 has frequently been referred as a key law that has allowed the Internet to flourish, often referred to as "The Twenty-Six Words That Created the Internet". (Title V of the Telecommunications Act of 1996).

47 U.S. Code §?230. Protection for Private Blocking and Screening of Offensive Material. Online intermediaries that host or republish speech are protected against a range of laws that might otherwise be used to hold them legally responsible for what others say and do. The protected intermediaries include not only regular Internet Service Providers (ISPs), but also a range of "interactive computer service providers," including basically any online service that publishes third-party content. Though there are important exceptions for certain criminal and intellectual property-based claims, CDA 230 creates a broad protection that has allowed innovation and free speech online to flourish.

So how do we protect people from Propaganda, False Advertising, Perjury, Hate Speech, Slander and Toxic Leadership?


Public Opinion - Surveys - Citizen Feedback


Sampling in statistics is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Two advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower and data collection is faster than measuring the entire population. Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location, color) of observable bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In survey sampling, weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design, particularly stratified sampling. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide the practice. In business and medical research, sampling is widely used for gathering information about a population. Acceptance sampling is used to determine if a production lot of material meets the governing specifications. The sampling process comprises several stages: Defining the population of concern. Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure. Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame. Determining the sample size. Implementing the sampling plan. Sampling and data collecting. Government Watchdogs.

Survey is a detailed critical inspection. Short descriptive summary (of events). Consider in a comprehensive way. Look over carefully or inspect. Make a survey of; for statistical purposes.

Response Bias - Recall Bias - Memory Flaws

Survey Sampling describes the process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population to conduct a survey. The term "survey" may refer to many different types or techniques of observation. In survey sampling it most often involves a questionnaire used to measure the characteristics and/or attitudes of people. Different ways of contacting members of a sample once they have been selected is the subject of survey data collection. The purpose of sampling is to reduce the cost and/or the amount of work that it would take to survey the entire target population. A survey that measures the entire target population is called a census. Survey samples can be broadly divided into two types: probability samples and non-probability samples. Probability-based samples implement a sampling plan with specified probabilities (perhaps adapted probabilities specified by an adaptive procedure). Probability-based sampling allows design-based inference about the target population. The inferences are based on a known objective probability distribution that was specified in the study protocol. Inferences from probability-based surveys may still suffer from many types of bias. Surveys that are not based on probability sampling have greater difficulty measuring their bias or sampling error. Surveys based on non-probability samples often fail to represent the people in the target population. Health Surveys.

Misuse of Statistics in when misleading information can trick the casual observer into believing something other than what the data shows. 

Cherry Picking Data -Employment Numbers - Vague Information - Trick Questions - Media Keywords

Selection Effect is the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.

Voting has the same type of problems - Testing also has the same type of problems.

Deliberative Opinion Poll is a form of opinion poll that incorporates the principles of deliberative democracy. The typical deliberative opinion poll takes a random, representative sample of citizens and engages them in deliberation on current issues or proposed policy changes through small-group discussions and conversations with competing experts to create more informed and reflective public opinion. A typical polling utilizes participants drawn from a random and representative sample to engage in small-group deliberations to create more informed and reflective public opinion. Deliberative polls have been tested around the world, including in the European Union, the United States, China, and Australia.

I'm always disappointed in most Public Surveys because most are so ignorant and so wasteful, mostly because all the questions that they ask are not even clear enough to be answered correctly, like most tests. And most of these surveys are created by ignorant and corrupt politicians who will only exploit people for their opinions, and not actually help them like they claim they will. An Opinion Poll that seeks peoples opinions has to be informative and educational at the same time, otherwise it is a total waste of paper, time, people and resources. And the worst part is that most of the time the information from surveys will most likely be exploited, which will waste even more time, people and resources. So one part of the Statistical Survey should be about getting valuable feedback from people, and one part should be about explaining the questions, and one part should be about providing important information and important knowledge pertaining to the subjects. When you give people more information and more knowledge about subjects, it helps people understand more about the facts of the subject so that people can now have a more informed opinion. People should only answer the questions that they can accurately answer. People should also know what they're voting for. Plus you should always show previous survey numbers and how that particular information was used to make changes. You want to let people know that their opinions matter, but more importantly, you have to use those moments as a chance to educate people more about their surroundings and show them other ways of how they can help make improvements without having to wait for changes, changes that will never come or changes that will come with a huge price to pay. You have to make sure that people are not just phishing. Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information by a person who is disguising themselves as a trustworthy entity. Phishing is an example of social engineering techniques being used to deceive people.

Community Organizing is a process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest. Community Action.

Canvassing is the systematic initiation of direct contact with individuals, commonly used during political campaigns. Canvassing can be done for many reasons: political campaigning, grassroots fundraising, community awareness, membership drives, and more. Campaigners knock on doors to contact people personally. Canvassing is used by political parties and issue groups to identify supporters, persuade the undecided, and add voters to the voters list through voter registration, and it is central to get out the vote operations. It is the core element of what political campaigns call the ground game or field.

Public Awareness campaigns can motivate changes in behavior in a number of ways as well as making people well-informed so that they make wiser consumer choices.

Public Awareness Campaign (PDF) - Public Awareness Campaign (PDF)

Public Service Announcement is a message in the public interest disseminated by the media without charge, with the objective of raising awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social issue.

Activism (social participation) - Public Service - Public Interest

Public Inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body. Right to Information.

Proportional Representation characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result: not just a plurality, or a bare majority, of them. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts (also called super-districts), as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats. The most widely used families of PR electoral systems are party list PR, the single transferable vote (STV), and mixed member proportional representation (MMP). Counting.

Census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

Comments - Feedback (cause and effect)

Opinion Poll is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the opinions of a group of people by conducting a series of questions and then extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals. This is not Scientific Research so accuracy is unreliable.

Public Opinion Measuring (PDF) - Question and Answer Formats

Public Opinion (influences)

Straw Poll provide dialogue among movements within large groups. Impromptu straw polls often are taken to see if there is enough support for an idea to devote more meeting time to it, and (when not a secret ballot) for the attendees to see who is on which side of a question. However, in meetings subject to Robert's Rules of Order, straw polls are not allowed. Among political bodies, straw polls often are scheduled for events at which many people interested in the polling question can be expected to vote. Sometimes polls conducted without ordinary voting controls in place (i.e., on an honor system, such as in online polls) are also called "straw polls". The idiom may allude to a straw (thin plant stalk) held up to see in what direction the wind blows, in this case, the wind of group opinion. Poll Everywhere.

Tally voting an unofficial private observation of an election count carried out under Proportional Representation using the Single Transferable Vote.

Initiative is a means by which a Petition Signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (plebiscite).

Majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total. It is a subset of a set consisting of more than half of the set's elements.

Ratings - Evaluations - Research Resources

Survey in human research is a list of questions aimed at extracting specific data from a particular group of people. Surveys may be conducted by phone, mail, via the internet, and sometimes face-to-face on busy street corners or in malls. Surveys are used to increase knowledge in fields such as social research and demography. Survey research is often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Surveys can be specific and limited, or they can have more global, widespread goals. Psychologists and Sociologists often use surveys to analyze behavior, while it is also used to meet the more pragmatic needs of the media, such as, in evaluating political candidates, public health officials, professional organizations, and advertising and marketing directors. A survey consists of a predetermined set of questions that is given to a sample. With a representative sample, that is, one that is representative of the larger population of interest, one can describe the attitudes of the population from which the sample was drawn. Further, one can compare the attitudes of different populations as well as look for changes in attitudes over time. A good sample selection is key as it allows one to generalize the findings from the sample to the population, which is the whole purpose of survey research. Number Needed to Educate?

Survey Data Collection are any of a number of ways in which data can be collected for a statistical survey. These are methods that are used to collect information from a sample of individuals in a systematic way. First there was the change from traditional paper-and-pencil interviewing (PAPI) to computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). Now, face-to-face surveys (CAPI), telephone surveys (CATI), and mail surveys (CASI, CSAQ) are increasingly replaced by web surveys.

General Social Surveys - Survey Monkey - Types of Surveys (wiki)

Survey Methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and the associated survey data collection techniques, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments or procedures that ask one or more questions that may, or may not, be answered. Statistical surveys are undertaken with a view towards making statistical inferences about the population being studied, and this depends strongly on the survey questions used. Polls about public opinion, public health surveys, market research surveys, government surveys and censuses are all examples of quantitative research that use contemporary survey methodology to answer questions about a population. Although censuses do not include a "sample", they do include other aspects of survey methodology, like questionnaires, interviewers, and nonresponse follow-up techniques. Surveys provide important information for all kinds of public information and research fields, e.g., marketing research, psychology, health professionals and sociology. Gallup analytics and advice about the attitudes and behaviors of employees, customers.

Question and Answer Websites can provide great feedback. But you also need to print out these forms for people without access to technology. every News Paper in the world needs to print out Q&A's at least once a week.

Check Sheet is a form or document used to collect data in real time at the location where the data is generated. The data it captures can be quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is sometimes called a tally sheet.



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