that are written or
surface to represent
. Writing is to
meaning by writing letters of the
Writing is the activity of putting something in written form. Writing
is the work of a
, from the point of view
- History of Writing
Good handwriting takes focus
in order to write each individual letter
enough to read. And at the same time, you have to
know the next letter that you need to write that will help you form a
complete word. So
good writing combines focus and planning
which is kind a like multitasking
. First you have to know what you're
planning to write, and then you have to know the words and symbols that you need to write in
order to communicate
your message. Then you need to focus on writing each
individual letter as you're recalling the next letter that you need to write.
Eventually with practice
will become effortless and will flow and travel smoothly across the paper
is writing created by a person with a writing utensil such as a
. Handwriting includes both
and cursive styles and is
separate from formal calligraphy or typeface. Because each person's
handwriting is unique, it can be used to verify a document's writer
A Fast Hand Writer
write 250 words
in 15 Minutes on average. Speed Reading
Left Handed Writing Motion Gif
- Letter Writing Animated
Writing Skills Test
Handwriting Help for Kids
Writing Letters of the
is a notebook that is used in schools
to copy down schoolwork and notes. A student will usually have a different
for each separate lesson or subject. Exercise books may act
as a primary record of students' learning efforts.
is a small book
or binder of paper pages, often ruled, used for purposes
such as recording notes
or memoranda, writing, drawing or scrapbooking.
- Pencil or Pen
- Work Sheets
knowledge of conventions writing skills
"You can't write if you can't read, and there will be nothing to
read if no one writes. You read to understand, you write to be understood.
is a medium of human communication
through the inscription or
of signs and
. In most languages, writing is a complement to
. Writing is not a language but a form of technology that
developed as tools developed with human society. Within a
writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as
vocabulary, grammar and semantics, with the added dependency of a system
of signs or symbols. The result of writing is generally called text, and
the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include
, correspondence and diary. Writing has been
instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of
knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems.
is any writing that goes outside the bounds
of normal professional, journalistic
, academic, or technical forms of
literature, typically identified by an emphasis on narrative craft,
character development, and the use of literary tropes or with various
and poetics. Due to the looseness of the definition,
it is possible for writing such as feature stories to be considered
creative writing, even though they fall under journalism, because the
content of features is specifically focused on narrative and character
development. Both fictional
works fall into this
category, including such forms as novels, biographies, short stories, and
poems. In the academic setting, creative writing is typically separated
into fiction and poetry classes, with a focus on writing in an original
style, as opposed to imitating pre-existing genres such as crime or
horror. Writing for the screen and stage—screenwriting and
often taught separately, but fit under the creative writing category as
is any conventional method of
verbal communication. While both writing and
are useful in
conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of
List of Languages by Writing System
is any style of penmanship in which some
are written joined together in a flowing manner
, generally for the purpose
of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but
is a combination of joins and pen lifts. The writing style can be
further divided as "looped", "italic", or "connected".
is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic
handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally
slant slightly to the right
. Italics are a
way to emphasize key points in a printed text, or when quoting a speaker a
way to show which words they stressed. One manual of English usage
described italics as "the print equivalent of underlining.
refers to an obsessive impulse to write
used in a specifically psychiatric context, it labels a morbid mental
condition which results in writing rambling and confused statements, often
degenerating into a meaningless succession of words or even nonsense and
called then graphorrhea (cf. hypergraphia). The term 'graphomania' has
been used in early 19th century by Esquirol and later by Eugen Bleuler,
becoming more or less usual Graphomania is near condition to
typomania - obsessiveness with seeing one's name in publication or with
writing for being published, excessive symbolism or typology.
is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed
and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of
writing a language. Gregg Shorthand
is beautiful handwriting.
is the technique of writing with the hand
using a writing instrument. Today, this is most commonly done with a pen,
or pencil, but throughout history has included many different implements.
The various generic and formal historical styles of writing are called
"hands" whilst an individual's style of penmanship is referred to as
is a visual art
related to writing. It
is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument,
brush, among other writing instruments. A contemporary calligraphic
practice can be defined as, "the art of giving form to signs in an
expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner".
apply ink to a surface
, usually paper, for
writing or drawing
reed pens, quill pens, and dip pens were used, with a nib dipped in ink.
Ruling pens allow precise adjustment of line width, and still find a few
specialized uses, but technical pens such as the Rapidograph are more
commonly used. Modern types include ballpoint, rollerball, fountain and
felt or ceramic tip pens.
is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid
pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being
broken and/or from leaving marks on the user’s hand during use.
crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral,
and a form of coal.Pencil or Pen?
There are more uses for pencils than for pens, but, pencils need
sharpening, while pens are always ready to write, but some pens don't
always work because some pens don't write even when it still has some ink
left. A pencil broken in half becomes two pencils. You can’t break a pen
in half and use both halves, but marks made with pens can last longer.
Pencils are better for shading. Pencils are more environmentally-friendly
than pens. The more you sharpen a pencil, the shorter it gets—and becomes
difficult to use. You can’t write on skin or other surfaces with a pencil,
but some surfaces can make it difficult to write on using a pen or a
pencil. Paint Brush
Pencils are better the
because pencils are made of things found naturally in our
environment, and they are also renewable and they breakdown in
landfills. Most pencils are made from
, which is made out of carbon. But you can buy pens
that are more eco-friendly. Eco-Friendly Pens
Pens and Pencils
is a writing
utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for
example, in pottery. It can also be a computer accessory that is used to
assist in navigating or providing more precision when using
Writing on paper compared to writing on a tablet or smartphone
Writing on physical paper can lead to more brain activity when remembering
the information an hour later. Although volunteers wrote by hand both with
pen and paper or stylus and digital
, researchers say paper notebooks contain more complex spatial
information than digital paper. Physical paper allows for tangible
permanence, irregular strokes, and uneven shape, like folded corners. In
contrast, digital paper is uniform, has no fixed position when scrolling,
and disappears when you close the app.
Japanese children learn to write through Rhythm
Air writing helps children remember letter formation
, which is a
motion-oriented "memory," and which is an entirely different (and
separate) memory than the visual memories of letter shapes. Air writing
also helps to strengthen the arm and shoulder muscles in preparation for
handwriting. This is important because weak muscles lead to bad habits in
UCL Computer Scientists have developed Software Computer Programme that
. "My Text in Your Handwriting" programme,
semi-automatically examines a sample of a person’s handwriting, which can
be as little as one paragraph, and then generates new text saying whatever
the user wishes, as if the author had handwritten it themselves.
is the analysis
of the physical characteristics and
handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating
at the time
of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics.
is a term for a forensic science
discipline pertaining to documents that are potentially disputed in a
court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a
suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and
might include alterations, the chain of possession,
damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions
that come up when a document is challenged in court.
in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also
coherence. It can manifest itself as difficulties with
, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper.
Because writing requires a complex set of
, saying a student has dysgraphia is not sufficient.
is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's
name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on
documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is
a signatory or signer. Similar to a handwritten signature, a signature
work describes the work as readily identifying its creator. A signature
may be confused with an autograph, which is chiefly an artistic signature.
This can lead to confusion when people have both an autograph and
signature and as such some people in the public eye keep their signatures
private whilst fully publishing their autograph.
is a person's own signature or handwriting. The term is used
particularly in connection with the collecting of autographs of
celebrities; the hobby of collecting autographs is known as "philography"."Autograph"
can refer to a document transcribed entirely in the handwriting of its
author, as opposed to a typeset document or one written by an amanuensis
or a copyist. This meaning overlaps that of "holograph".
Your Personal Signature
will not always be
exactly the same each time you write it. Real signatures are always
slightly different and they may differ a little every time. Signatures
change with time as habits change. If the signatures are exact replica
there is a very strong possibility of forgery. Difference between
signatures increases proportionally with the complexity.
Legally there is no limit on the number of
signatures you can have
. It doesn't matter whether the signature is
legible or illegible, so long as it is consistent. A signature is simply a
mark intended to authenticate a document; it can literally be any type of
mark - a symbol, a single letter, initials, or a full signature. All have
equal weight under the law -- assuming that you can prove that the mark
was made by the person you're attempting to enforce the document against,
with the intent to authenticate that document. In state and federal law,
cursive signatures have no special legal validity over any other kind. All
writing, not just cursive, is individual, just as all writing involves
fine motor skills. Hidden features, slant, penlifting, letter joining,
letter formation, habits while signing, speed of signing. When you are
analyzing writing, you are not looking at the writing style, you are
looking at strokes within the writing, and these will more or less stay
the same. A signature card is a document that a bank keeps on file with
the signatures of all the authorized people on that account.
is a mathematical scheme for verifying the
messages or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason
to believe that the message was created by a known sender
(authentication), that the sender cannot deny having sent the message
(non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).
is the art and technique of
to make written language legible, readable
, and appealing when
displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point
sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing
(tracking), and adjusting the space
between pairs of letters (kerning
The term typography is also applied to the style, arrangement, and
appearance of the letters, numbers, and
created by the process.
Type design is a closely related craft, sometimes considered part of
typography; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type
designers do not consider themselves typographers. Typography also may be
used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information.
Web Typography Fonts
- Uppercase Lowercase
, weight and style of a
Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each
, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an
your own Fonts
International Typographic Style
is a graphic design style that emerged
in Russia, the Netherlands and Germany in the 1920s, and was made famous
as it was developed by designers in Switzerland during the 1950s.
is the process of writing or inputting text by
pressing keys on a
calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text input, such
as handwriting and speech recognition. Text can be in the form of letters,
numbers and other symbols.
Keyboard Letters and Symbols
Words Per Minute
is a measure of
words processed in a
, often used as a measurement of typing speed or
An average professional
types usually in
50 to 80
The slowest typists are male baby boomers, averaging 38 words a
minute. Male millennials were the fastest typists as a group, 56.5 words
Stenotype Shorthand Machine
is a specialized chorded
keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use.
is the act of composing and sending electronic messages,
typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or
more users of mobile phones, fixed devices (e.g., desktop computers) or
portable devices (e.g., tablet computers or smartphones).
Writing Process - Preparing to Write - Writer Preparations
is a preliminary stage
in the writing
a basic outline of what your finished work will be like. A first draft
states the main points
of your work and
the key ideas in
and also gives examples or a sample form of an
or a point that
you are trying to make and that helps to develop a more cohesive text. The
first draft is the gathering stage
of writing that
things into groups and gives a
associations among ideas. A
first draft is a way to organize
your thoughts for a future piece of
writing and to further develop
ideas. The first draft is also called a
rough sketch or rough draft.
Writing First Draft
(PDF) - How to Prepare
a First Draft
is the product the writer creates in the initial stages of the writing
process. The first principle of composition is to foresee or determine the
shape of what is to come and pursue that shape. This shape is the draft
that eventually becomes the finished work. Writing is a way to end up
thinking something you couldn’t have started out thinking. A series of
drafts which come together to produce an emerging “center of gravity” that
then translates into the main focus on the work. This process should be a
holistic process, not a linear process. the interaction among ideas or
points of view, can produce new ones that didn’t seem available before.
Hand Writing Skills
is to add details to an idea
in order to clarify the meaning of something and extend its expression.
Work out in detail and developed or executed with care that is marked by
complexity and richness of detail. Produce from basic elements or sources
and change into a more developed product. Make more complex, intricate, or
rich. Words that Flow
is the first stage of the writing process, a combination of outlining,
typically followed by drafting, revision,
is a type of pre-writing that
allows a writer to explore many ideas as soon as they occur to them. Like
brainstorming or free associating, clustering allows a writer to begin
without clear ideas. To begin to cluster, choose a word that is central to
the assignment. Thesaurus or synonyms, which are words that can be
is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships
and is a type of
tree structure. It is used to present the main points or topics of a given
subject, often used as a draft
of the content of a document.
is a brief
thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a
particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain
the paper's purpose. Mode
is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations
or images displayed in
sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation,
motion graphic or interactive media sequence.
Rule Set of Wikipedia
Essay WritingDocument Writing
Plain Language Clear and Concise
But Not too Simplistic
1) Draft the message with the readers in mind.
Send clear, concise messages that are
brief, succinct, and organized.
Give the message a concise title and use subheadings where
Use simple words and short, clear, sentences and paragraphs.
Back up opinions with facts.
Avoid “flowery” language, euphemisms, and trite expressions
that's free of jargon.
Summarize main points at the end and let the reader know what he
must do next.
10 Writing Tips to Become a Good Writer
with a good
, sometimes first impressions matter.
. Make a title that
answers a particular question
a user might
have. Write something valuable
and try to change the thinking of your readers.
is the opening paragraph
of an article, essay, book chapter, or other written work that
summarizes its main
. Styles vary widely among the different types and genres of
publications, from journalistic news-style leads to a more encyclopaedic
variety. At the beginning
of a written work
stands the opening sentence or opening line. The
is part or all of the opening sentence that may start
the lead paragraph. For older texts the Latin term "incipit" (it begins)
is in use for the very first words of the opening sentence. As in speech,
a personal document such as a letter normally starts with a
, which is a greeting used in a letter or other written or
non-written communication. Lede
first sentence or opening paragraph of a news story that immediately
grabs the reader's attention
introductory section provides a statement, establishes a scenario, or sets
up a question that the body of the news article will address by supplying
the relevant supporting information. A lede is one sentence of 35 words or
less and may contain one comma. Some journalists
use a semi-colon to join two independent clauses together in one lede.
This is bad style. Remember: say as much as you can in the least number of
words possible. The spelling lede is an alteration of lead, a word which,
on its own, makes sense; after all, isn't the main information in a story
found in the lead (first) paragraph? And sure enough, for many years lead
was the preferred spelling for the introductory section of a news story.
emphasize grabbing the
attention of the reader. In journalism
failure to mention the most important, interesting or attention-grabbing
elements of a story in the first paragraph is sometimes called "burying
". Most standard news leads include brief answers to the
questions of who, what, why, when, where, and how the key event in the
story took place. In newspaper writing, the first paragraph that
summarizes or introduces the story is also called the "blurb paragraph",
"teaser text" or, in the United Kingdom, the "standfirst".
Leads in essays
summarize the outline
of the argument and conclusion that follows in the main body of the essay.
tend to define the
subject matter as well as emphasize the interesting points of the article.
and general articles in magazines
tend to be somewhere between journalistic and encyclopedian in style and
often lack a distinct lead paragraph entirely.
is a beginning section
which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. This is
generally followed by the body and conclusion. The introduction typically
describes the scope
of the document and
gives a brief explanation
or summary of the
document. It may also explain certain elements that are important to the
essay. The readers can have an idea about the following text before they
actually start reading it. introduction is also known as a prolegomenon.
is an introductory
expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose
and underlying philosophy.
is an introduction to a book
literary work written by the work's author.
is an opening to a story
the context and gives background details, often some earlier story that
ties into the main one, and other miscellaneous information.
is a short piece of writing sometimes placed at the
beginning of a book
or other piece of
literature. Typically written by someone other than the primary author of
the work, it often tells of some interaction between the writer of the
foreword and the book's primary author or the story the book tells. Later
editions of a book sometimes have a new foreword prepended (appearing
before an older foreword if there was one), which might explain in what
respects that edition differs from previous ones.
is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the
beginning of a document
, monograph or section
thereof. The epigraph may serve as a preface to the work; as a summary; as
a counter-example; or as a link from the work to a wider literary canon,
with the purpose of either inviting comparison or enlisting a conventional
A book may have an overall epigraphy that is part of the front
matter, or one for each chapter. Spelling
Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)
Stay within your
and be original. Try to focus on a single thought or
issue. Don't forget something personal and always share
a little of yourself. Show the end result at the start of the
article to let users know that they are reading the right
is not necessary
Think about a
or a particular
that you might want
to explore, but try
to write what you know.
Cover the basics first; leave the optional or advanced
scenarios for the latter part of the article.
- Style Guide
- Writing Modes
How to Write a Short Story
with your words but not too fancy, make it simple and
to the point. The reader shouldn't
have to guess what
. If your writing is to advanced it may distract
someone from fully understanding your message. Not to say that
writing is bad, there is a time and place for
everything. You reach a larger audience with easy to understand
writing. Sometimes dividing long sentences into shorter ones can
be more effective. A paragraph should support a single idea.
Try to reframe 90% of
the passive voice
. Use a thesaurus
to find the right words.
Try to be unique, informative, direct, simple and
brief. Prefer a vigorous, lucid or
to the romantic.
that strike their object.
familiar word, and the concrete or
, to the
. Avoid superfluous redundant or
unnecessary empty words. Idioms
informative and educational with the latest information
available on your subject.
Try to limit your
and try to
clichés. Make it exciting to read. It's not just what you say,
but how you say it. make it clear and easy to follow.
Add links to articles that are connected to the topic to
provide some extra information for the users.
Technical Writing Style
explain what you are seeing to the reader. Give a Point of view
and explain the
setting and any characters involved.
Be specific to detail.
- (Inflectional Ending)
Human Interest Story
Situation vs Complication
Use images that are
eye-catching and relevant.
But remember..."A picture could never be more worthy then a
thousand words, but it's nice to have both."
Read your work aloud and proof read it. Have someone else
for correct spelling
. Journalism Tools
. - Word Spacing
is 12 it would take around 22.2 pages to print 10,000 words.
is the horizontal space
between sentences in typeset text.
is the way in which a rectangular page is
. The two most common types of orientation are portrait
and landscape. The specific word definition comes from the fact that a
close-up portrait of a person's face and upper body is more fitting for a
canvas or photo where the height of the display area is greater than the
width, and is more common for the pages of books. Landscape originally
described artistic outdoor scenes where a wide view area is needed, but
the upper part of the painting would be mostly sky and so is omitted.
is the ease with which a reader can recognize
individual characters in text.
is the ease with which a reader can understand
written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its
content (the complexity of its vocabulary and syntax) and its
(such as typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line
length). Researchers have used various factors to measure readability,
such as speed of perception
, Perceptibility at a distance, Perceptibility
in peripheral vision, Visibility, Reflex blink technique, Rate of work
(reading speed), Eye movements, Fatigue in reading. Readability is more
than simply legibility
—which is a measure of how easily a reader can
distinguish individual letters or characters from each other. Higher
readability eases reading effort and speed for any reader, but it is
especially important for those who do not have high reading comprehension.
In readers with average or poor reading comprehension, raising the
readability level of a text from mediocre to good can make the difference
between success and failure of its communication goals. Readability exists
in both natural language and programming languages, albeit in different
forms. In programming, things such as programmer comments, choice of loop
structure, and choice of names can determine the ease with which humans
can read computer program code.
is to determine what the relevant
writing standards are.
set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for
general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
List of Style Guides
is the structure of a dramatic work such as a book, play, or
is a standard way
that information is encoded
for storage in a computer file.
To become a better writer you
should always Read More. Reading
"Either write things that are worth reading, or do things that are worth writing about,
and if you do both, you can't go wrong."
The person who does not write things that are insightful
and educational has no advantage over a person who can't write
at all. This is not saying that you should not read and write
for fun, or, this is not saying that knowing how to read and write has no
advantages, because it does, It's just saying that Balance and Purpose
should be of highest priority.
is a prewriting technique in which a person writes continuously for a set
period of time without regard to spelling, grammar, or topic. It produces
raw, often unusable material, but helps writers overcome blocks of apathy
and self-criticism. It is used mainly by prose writers and writing
teachers. Some writers use the technique to collect initial thoughts and
ideas on a topic, often as a preliminary to formal writing. Free writing
is not the same as automatic writing.
was a person who could read and write or wrote letters to court and legal
The average writer who's doing
research for a story
, will spend at least 3 weeks
on the average around 100 people, either in person or talking
with them over the telephone. They will request information and
facts from various sources from around the world, like press
releases, technical papers and so on. From that they will create 100's of pages of hand written notes of 20,000 words or more.
Then they will meticulously go through all the acquired
information to retrieve the most important parts. Then they will
spend about a week writing and rewriting the story till it
becomes something to be published.
, and words give meaning to context. In order to say
what you mean you have to know a lot of
and all the
definitions that apply to those words. So
valuable, but not as valuable as knowing how to use words to
or Flow Words
words or phrases that show the relationship between paragraphs or sections
of a text or speech. Transitions provide greater cohesion by making it
more explicit or signaling how ideas relate to one another. Transitions
" that "carry a reader from section to section." Transitions
guide a reader through steps of logic, increments of time, or through
physical space. Transitions "...connect words and ideas
so that your
readers don't have to do the mental work for you. Coordinating Transitions:
Elements in a coordinate relationship are equal in rank, quality, or
significance. To show a link between equal elements, use a coordinating
transition. To show similarity or reinforce: and, also, too, similarly,
equally, identically, equally important, together with, not only ... but
also, coupled with, in the light of, not to mention, as well as,
furthermore, moreover, in the same fashion/ way, likewise, comparatively,
correspondingly, by the same token, uniquely, to say nothing of. To
introduce an opposing point: but, however, yet, on the contrary, on the
other hand, in contrast, still, neither, nor, nevertheless, besides. To
signal a restatement: that is, in other words, in simpler terms, to put it
differently. Subordinating Transitions:
To introduce an item in a series: first, in the first place, *second, in
the second place, for one thing...., for another, next, then, in addition,
finally, last, To introduce an example: in particular, specifically, for
instance, for example, that is, namely. To show causality: as a result,
hence, thus, so, then, because, since, for, consequently, accordingly,
therefore. To introduce a summary or conclusion: in conclusion, finally,
all in all, evidently, clearly, actually, to sum up, altogether, of
course. To signal a concession: naturally, of course, it is true, to be
sure, granted, certainly. To resume main argument after a concession: all
the same, even though, still, nevertheless, nonetheless, which means in
spite of that or nevertheless. Temporal
To show frequency: frequently, hourly, often,
occasionally, now and then, day after day, every so often, again and
again. To show duration: during, briefly, for a long time, minute by
minute, while. To show a particular time: now, then, at that time, in
those days, last Sunday, next Christmas, in 1999, at the beginning of
August, at six o’clock, first thing in the morning, two months ago, when.
To introduce a beginning: at first, in the beginning, since, before then.
To introduce a middle: in the meantime, meanwhile, as it was happening, at
that moment, at the same time, simultaneously, next, then. To signal an
end (or beyond): eventually, finally, at last, in the end, later,
afterward. Spatial Transitions:
closeness: close to, near, next to, alongside, adjacent to, facing, side
by side. To show long distance: in the distance, far, beyond, away, there.
To show direction: up/down, sideways, along, across, to the right/left, in
front of/behind, above/below, inside/outside: toward/away from.
Transition words of Agreement / Addition /
The transition words like also, in addition, and,
likewise, add information, reinforce ideas, and express agreement with
preceding material. In the first place - not only … but also - as a matter
of fact - in like manner - in addition - coupled with - in the same
fashion / way - also - then - equally - identically - uniquely - like - as
- again - to - and - too - moreover - as well as - together with - of
course - first, second, third - in the light of - not to mention - to say
nothing of - equally important - by the same token - likewise -
comparatively - correspondingly - similarly - furthermore - additionally -
what's more. Although
in spite of the
fact that or even though. However
used to introduce a statement that contrasts with or seems to
something that has been
said previously. Inconsistent
staying the same throughout. Acting at variance with one's own principles
or former conduct. Report
are used on average when writing or speaking
Elementary-school kids who hand-wrote their work produced more
words and more ideas
who typed. College students who typed notes on a laptop
remembered less about a lecture than those who wrote by hand.
People remember lectures better when they’ve taken handwritten
notes, rather than typed ones. But that is a problem with
, and not a problem with
technology. A computer laptop is by far a more superior tool
then a pencil and paper. So don't blame the laptop for you bad
memory or your lack of creativity. Technology enhances and
accelerates learning, if it doesn't, then that has something to
do with you and not technology. Verbatim
"I try not to influence writers on what they should write about,
only that they care about what they are writing.
Try not so much to devise a piece of writing, try to realize a
piece of writing, a piece of writing that has to be written. If
you feel that you will be wasting time writing about something,
then you should not write it. Don't write because you are a good
writer, write because you need to write something good."
"Writing has therapeutic benefits. The process of documenting
your thoughts can free your mind."
How Many Pages should my Novel be?
A Book will usually have 250-300 words per page
A 55,000 word book should be about 200 manuscript pages. A
100,000 word book would be about 400 pages. Editors like 12 Point Font.
Publishers go by words, not pages. Most adult
are about 90,000 words, and no longer than 100,000 words. Teen books are about 55,000 words.
A book with below 70,000 words is considered to be
. 70,000 – 79,999 words may be too short. 80,000 – 89,999
words is considered acceptable.
90,000 – 99,999 words is generally safe. 100,000 – 109,999 words in a book
might be too long. 110,000 words or above is considered too long.
Too Long; Didn't Read
is when someone believes that a
passage appears to be too long to invest the time to digest.
The Optimum Length for an Email
is 50 to 125
Shorts sentences or line column width
of 30 to 50
, while 100 characters may speed up reading. When average
sentence length is 14 words, readers understand more than 90% of what
they’re reading. At 43 words,
drops to less than 10%. Sentences of 11 words are
considered easy to read, while those of 21 words are fairly difficult. At
25 words, sentences become difficult, and 29 words or longer, very
difficult. This is partly because people tend to
, not read. In fact, most people only read around 25% of what’s
on a page. This means it’s important to get information across quickly.
Long, complicated sentences
users to slow down and work harder to understand
what they’re reading. This isn’t something people want to do, even if
they’re familiar with the subject or language you’re using. If you write
short sentences using Plain English
, it’ll help
more people understand your content. And by making it more accessible, you
won’t just help your busiest readers, you’ll open it up to people who
might otherwise struggle to understand it. Does reading from papers makes
reading 20-30% faster than reading from monitors?
Document Writing Guidelines
is a branch of journalism dedicated to longer articles with
larger amounts of content. Typically this will be between 1,000 and
20,000 words. Long-form articles often take the form of creative
nonfiction or narrative journalism.
the number of words in a document or passage of text. Word counting may be
needed when a text is required to stay within certain numbers of
Word Counter Tools:
Bulk Webpage Word Count Checker
Website Word Count
Why a Computer Based Article is better then a
. Because you can shorten an article by using links. If
the person needs more information then all they have to do is
follow the link. So articles can be shorter and more manageable
without sacrificing other relevant knowledge and information.
Short is not always sweet. But some writers love empty words and
writing vague commentary without considering the readers need
for quickly understanding the message. And an overlong
composition may seem long, but it may not be, because not
everyone can accurately calculate whether extra words were
actually necessary. I don't mind investing the time needed
reading a good article, but please, don't waste my time with
your dribble or overlong prose and over-verbose writing. Just
the facts, and please have a point, a point worth mentioning. To
be clear enough sometimes depends on the reader and not just the
writer. But digital technology solves this problem. That is why
printed material is now inadequate in most cases. Technology
accelerates learning if we use correctly. It's like reading a
book, you don't have to read the whole book in one sitting, you
can read some now and then read some later. To say something was
to long to read, is to say that I will never have the time
or the motivation to read more of what I have already read. And
the reasoning behind that decision not read more has other
contributing factors, like the experience with previous
knowledge and information, which may have nothing to do with the
style or the length of someone's writing. So even when you think
you covered all the different angles and possible scenarios,
there is always going to be one more thing that you never thought of. Learning is awesome!
the manner of expressing thought in language
characteristic of an
individual, period, school, or nation. Beyond the essential elements of
, and punctuation, writing style is the choice of words,
sentence structure, and paragraph structure, used to convey the meaning
effectively. The former are referred to as rules, elements, essentials,
mechanics, or handbook; the latter are referred to as
, or rhetoric.
The rules are about what a writer does; style is about how the writer does
it. While following the rules drawn from established English usage, a
writer has great flexibility in how to express a concept. The point of
good writing style is to express the message
to the reader simply,
clearly, and convincingly; keep the reader attentive, engaged, and interested; not to display the writer’s personality; demonstrate the
writer’s skills, knowledge, or abilities; although these are usually
evident and are what experts consider the writer’s individual style.
a set of standards
for the writing and design of
, either for general use or for a
specific publication, organization, or field. (It is often called a style
sheet, though that term has other meanings.) A style guide establishes and
enforces style to improve communication. To do that, it ensures
consistency within a document and across multiple documents and enforces
best practice in usage and in language composition, visual composition,
orthography and typography. For academic and technical documents, a guide
may also enforce the best practice in ethics (such as authorship, research
ethics, and disclosure), pedagogy (such as exposition and clarity), and
compliance (technical and regulatory). Style guides are common for general
and specialized use, for the general reading and writing audience, and for
students and scholars of various academic disciplines, medicine,
journalism, the law, government, business, and specific industries.
The Elements of Style
is a prescriptive American English
writing style guide in numerous editions.
Write Like You Talk
Talk Like You Write
Daily Writing Tips
The Right Margin
Smart Writing App
Facebook Language Style Guides
Resources for Writers
Journalism Tools and Resources
Internet Searching Tips
Research Papers Handbook
Research Paper Writing
is a reference work that lists words grouped
together according to similarity of meaning
(containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary,
which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in
alphabetical order. The main purpose of such reference works is to help
the user "to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly
and aptly expressed".
the Right Words
is a system of
used to name things in a
particular discipline. A system of names or terms, or the rules for
forming these terms in a particular field of arts
Nomenclature is the system of assignment of names given to organic
compounds. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal
conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles,
rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the
specialist terms used in scientific and other disciplines.
is the vocabulary
of a person, language
, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or
medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes.
Heretical Notions and Wretched Adages compiled by Jack Tourette
Community for Writers of all Interests and Skill Levels
Relevance Theory Online Bibliography
Resources for Writers
Professional Writing Services
Society of Magazine Editors
Books on Successful Writing
Online Writing Evaluation Service
Featured Topic Criteria
Author Central M-Quills Writing Tips
The Ultimate Guide to Writing better than you normally do
Check which famous
writer you write like with this statistical analysis tool
- Creative Writing
You Should Write
- My Script Font
VDA Writing Curriculum Videos
- VanDamme Academy
- The VDA Writing Curriculum - Part 1 of 8
Software used for Writing
is an electronic device or
application, that performs the task of composing,
Proof Reading Resources
- Abi Source
Scrivener Word Processing Program
Quotes and Sayings about being a Writer
I have never lived so passionately as when I am writing passionately about living. (Michael J. Budnicki)
"Either write things that are worth reading or do things that are worth
writing about, and if you do both you can't go wrong"
The World is a book, and those
who do not travel read only a page. (Saint Augustine)
A writer writes not because he is educated but because he is driven by the need to communicate. (Leo Rosten
The art of communicating thoughts
to the mind, through the eye is the great invention of the
"Try not to think about things that you're not willing to
write about. This is not to say that you should write about
everything that comes to mind, because something's cannot, and
should not, be shared in writing. Mostly because something's
cannot be fully understood enough. So if you feel the need to
write something down, that might be considered crazy or hard to
understand, do it privately so that it will give you some time
to understand and process these particular thoughts that you
"You never quite know what exact
arrangement of words that people will understand, the intended
meaning is not always a guarantee" - (Howard Polley).
Writing about your personal
experiences is liberating. It also gives you a chance to better
understand yourself by being able to
what you have
written later on. Writing about a moment in time that you have
experienced, through your own perspective, is saving a memory.
It's also creating a hard copy of a memory that will act like a
back up in case your personal
or leaves out
important details, for what ever reason. If you like what you
have written, then you should share it, like sharing a memory.
We all hope that we will be able to take our memories with us
when we die
, but just incase, we should write some of our memories
down because they might be beneficial to others, pretty much the
same way that
you benefited from the memories of other people in
your life, people who were thoughtful enough to share what they
have learned with you.
Pass the Baton
I love writing, even
though I might not agree with everything that I write later on.
That's why I love the digital world. I don't waste paper and I
didn't print any books. I can just delete it or
Correcting is all about survival. The more I learn, the more my
understanding increases in size, so I have to update what I have
written. Some of what you see on this website is just the
others have gone through a few revisions. How an idea comes to
mind and the path it took is important. There are other paths
that led to the same idea. I got here because I was thinking of
this, but I also got here because I was thinking of that. Two
different paths leading to the same place.
"I don't own the words
or did I
create the words, I just assemble the words. Sometimes
uniquely, other times just a little differently."
The most important thing is to write down the words before you
forget them. And it's always a good idea to have
a place to put
, a place that will make it easy for you to find and
remember the things that are important. So having some kind of a
has always been a very useful tool and
skill to have.
Some of the things that I have I
learned about writing is that the more you write the more you
learn. And one of the things that you learn when you write is
that you learn to write better. And when you learn to write
better you learn even more. So it’s safe to say,
if you never
stop writing about what you have learned, about yourself and the
world, you will never stop learning.
Even though I’m not a
writer, I myself look at writing as an incredible gift. At times
writing can be so exhilarating to me that it’s better then any
drug that I have ever done. But there were so many times in my
life that I wished I had the words for those particular moments,
but of course I didn’t.
It was always much later and too late. But as I found the words,
I realized that all is not lost. I can still say those words and
share them by writing them down. For I am certain that those
moments in my life will surely repeat themselves in other
peoples lives, if not my own. So just maybe, someone would be
lucky enough to remember what I have written, and not have to
walk away from a very important moment, saying, “I wished that I
had the right words to say”. To me that is the greatest gift a
writer could ever give. - (Howard Polley).
How do I know what I mean until
I see what I say?"
"There's a big difference between
what you want to say and what you eventually do say.
Remember what you were thinking and share it."
"Writing is like a form of
, you need to slow your thinking down and
"I don't write to impress people,
I don't write to insult people, I don't write to manipulate
people, I write to communicate
of my thoughts. Just like millions of people have
done before me. I am an accumulation of thoughts that have been
passed down for thousands of years. And it seems that we are
just beginning to think, because we have never had so much
knowledge and information before, it's almost God like."
"It's very easy to look stupid
while you are actually planning something incredible. There's
genius under the chaos. But I wouldn't say that I'm doing it my
way, I'm just doing it the way it happens, which seems to be
When it’s all said and done, will
you have said more than you’ve done?
More Quotes - Famous Sayings
- Education Quotes
- Environmental Quotes
- Finding Quotations
Document Writing - Plain Language – But Not Too Simplistic
uses plain language
and concise. Plain language
can helps to avoid
and also reduces
the time and cost in translation. Because plain language is
, it also reduces discussion during drafting
. Using plain
language does not mean reducing the length of your message
or changing its
Plain language is writing without the fluff
and writing without opinions
- Writing Tips
is giving a
lot of information
clearly and in a few words. Being
but also being
comprehensive or including everything that is needed. Expressing much in
few words. Résumé
to use Plain Language.
Be clear to yourself about your main
– try reading it to yourself out loud. Put yourself in the place of the
reader. Keep your sentences short. Have one idea per sentence
. Leave out
words you don’t need. Use lists when you can. Use the active voice when
you can. Be concise, use short, simple words and avoid turning verbs into
nouns. Punctuate your writing carefully. Use more full stops, fewer
commas and brackets. Phrase your points positively. Use everyday language
whenever possible and reduce jargon
. Plain language is particularly important in the Scope. Use the same term
for the same concept everywhere. Don’t use
Maxim of Quantity
provides the right amount
of information needed for that conversation and to be as informative as
one possibly can. Maxim of Quality
information that is true. To be truthful and not give information that is
false or that is not supported by evidence. Maxim
provides information that is
to the topic at
hand and says things that are pertinent to the discussion.
Maxim of Manner
provides information that
is clear, brief and as orderly as one can in what one says, and where one
avoids obscurity and ambiguity
is a set of standards
and design of documents,
either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or
field. The implementation of a style guide
provides uniformity in style
and formatting within a document and across multiple documents. A set of
standards for a specific organization is often known as "house style".
Style guides are common for general and specialized use, for the general
reading and writing audience, and for students and scholars of various
academic disciplines, medicine, journalism, the law, government, business,
is the way in
which something is arranged or set out. Text formatting, the typesetting
of text elements, Paper formats, or paper size standards, Newspaper
format, the size of the paper page,
and Type, Spacing
, Text Indentation, Order of Pages, Pagination and
Endnotes. Margins should be set to one inch on all sides (top, bottom,
left and right).
in typography is the area between the main content of a page
and the page edges. The margin helps to define where a line of text begins
can vary different in countries. The size of a newspaper format refers to
the size of the paper page; the printed area within that can vary
substantially depending on the newspaper.
composition of text by means of arranging physical types.
to the size of the
space between words. It should be distinguished from letter-spacing (the
spacing between the letters within each word) and sentence spacing (the
spacing between sentences). Typographers may modify the spacing of letters
or words in a body of type to aid readability
and copy fit, or for aesthetic effect. In web browsers and standardized
digital typography the word spacing is controlled by the CSS1 word-spacing
property. Word spacing is crucial for the written form because it
illustrates the sound of speech where audible gaps or pauses take place.
With typography, word spacing shows this unspoken aspect of speech.
Otherwise, it would be difficult for people to read one long continuous
line of letters. It is hard to determine how much spacing should be put in
between words, but a good typographer is able to determine proper spacing.
When text and spacing are consistent, this makes it easier to read.
is a style of writing
, or other marks between the words or sentences. The
form also lacks punctuation, diacritics, or distinguished letter case. In
the West, the oldest Greek and Latin inscriptions used word dividers to
separate words in sentences; however, Classical Greek and late Classical
Latin both employed scriptio continua as the norm.
in punctuation is a blank area
syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs
(characters). Conventions for spacing vary among languages, and in some
languages the spacing rules are complex. Typesetting uses spaces of
varying length for specific purposes. The typewriter, on the other hand,
can accommodate only a limited number of keys. Most typewriters have only
one width of space, obtained by pressing the space bar. Following
widespread acceptance of the typewriter, some spacing and other typewriter
conventions, which were based on the typewriter's mechanical
limitations, have influenced professional typography other designers of
printed works. Computer representation of text eliminates all mechanical
and physical limitations in any sufficiently advanced character encoding
environment (such as Unicode), where spaces of various widths, styles,
or language characteristics (different space characters) are indicated
with unique code points. Whitespace characters include spaces of
various width, including all those that professional typesetters employ.
also referred to as tracking by typographers working
with pre-WYSIWYG digital systems
, refers to an optically consistent degree
of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect
visual density in a line or block of text. Letter-spacing should not be
confused with kerning. Letter-spacing refers to a uniform adjustment to
the spacing of a word or block of text affecting its density and texture.
Kerning is a spacing adjustment of one or more specific pairs of adjacent
characters that, because of the relationship of their respective shapes,
would appear to be badly spaced if left un-adjusted. An example might be a
capital V next to a capital A, which need to be brought closer together.
In its original meaning with metal type, a kern meant having a letter
stick out beyond the metal slug it was attached to, or cutting off part of
the body of the slug to allow (other similarly-trimmed) letters to
overlap. So a kern in that sense could only bring letters closer together
(negative spacing), though it was possible to add space between letters.
Digital kerning can go in either direction. Tracking can similarly go in
either direction, though with metal type one could only adjust groups of
letters further apart (positive spacing). Letter-spacing adjustments are
frequently used in news design. The speed with which pages must be built
on deadline does not usually leave time to rewrite paragraphs that end in
split words or that create orphans or widows. Letter-spacing is increased
or decreased by modest (usually unnoticeable) amounts to fix these
is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a
proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result. Kerning
adjusts the space between individual letter forms, while tracking
(letter-spacing) adjusts spacing uniformly over a range of characters. In
a well-kerned font, the two-dimensional blank spaces between each pair of
characters all have a visually similar area. The related term kern denotes
a part of a type letter that overhangs the edge of the type block. The
human perception of kerning can vary with the intraword and interword
spacing during reading. A visually pleasing result, even with no "kerning
control", can be achieved with some control of the space between letters.
refers to the distance between adjacent lines of type. In the
days of hand-typesetting, it referred to the thin strips of lead that were
inserted into the forms to increase the vertical distance between lines of
type; in this case, the leading would be defined as the difference between
2 quantities: the size of the type and the distance from one baseline to
the next. For instance, given a type size of 10 points and a distance
between baselines of 12 points, the leading would be 2 points; put another
way, a leading of 2 points means there is a distance of 2 points from the
bottom of the high line of type to the top of the low line of type. In
modern times, though, there seems to be widespread use of "leading" to
refer instead to just the distance from one baseline to the next, probably
because modern layout software tracks that quantity instead of a virtual
strip of lead. The term is still used in modern page-layout software such
as QuarkXPress and Adobe InDesign. In consumer-oriented word-processing
software, this concept is usually referred to as "line spacing" or
"interline spacing", the latter of which is actually a more accurate description of the original meaning.
is writing designed
the reader understands
as quickly, easily,
and completely as possible. Plain language strives to be
and easy to
, understand, and use. It avoids verbose, convoluted language and
. In many countries, laws mandate that public agencies use plain
language to increase access to programs and services. The United Nations
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes plain
language as one of the "modes, means and formats
Language Writing Standards
that your audience can understand the first
time they read it or hear it. Language that is plain to one set of readers
may not be plain to others. Written material is in plain language if your
audience can: Find what they need; Understand what they find; and Use what
they find to meet their needs. There are many writing techniques that can
help you achieve this goal. Among the most common are: Logical
organization with the reader in mind. "You" and other pronouns.
. Short sentences. Common, everyday words. Easy-to-read design
features. No one technique defines plain language. Rather, plain language
is defined by results—it is easy to read
, understand, and use.
Plain language should create a clear message
that is not vague
and does not
influence personal interpretations
is a form or
technique of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech
. Novels, textbooks and newspaper articles are all
examples of prose. Prose
writing as distinguished from verse or
Information Management Plain Language
Center for Plain Language
Plain Language Act
- PUBLIC LAW 111–274—OCT. 13, 2010
124 STAT. 2861
To enhance citizen access to Government information
and services by
establishing that Government documents issued to the public must be
written clearly, and for other purposes.
US Government Publishing
is a style of communication that uses easy to understand,
with an emphasis on clarity
, brevity, and avoidance of overly complex
vocabulary. It is commonly used in relation to official government or
business communication. The goal is to write or speak in a way that is
easily understood by the target audience. It is clear and straightforward,
concise, free of clichés and needless technical jargon, and
appropriate to the audience's developmental or educational level and
their familiarity with the topic.U.S.
Office of Personnel Management
is grammatically correct and universally understood language
that includes complete sentence structure and accurate word usage. Plain
language is not unprofessional writing or a method of "dumbing down" or
"talking down" to the reader. Writing that is clear and to the point helps
improve all communication as it takes less time to read and comprehend.
Clear writing tells the reader exactly what the reader needs to know
without using unnecessary words or expressions. Communicating clearly is
its own reward as it saves time and money. It also improves reader
response to messages. Using plain language avoids creating barriers that
set us apart from the people with whom we are communicating.
Tips for Using Plain Language:
qualities characterize plain language. These include common, everyday
words, except for necessary technical terms. Other qualities include the
use of personal pronouns; the active voice; logical organization; and
easy-to-read and understandable design features, such as bullets and
tables.1. Engage Your Readers
. First, consider who your readers are.
Consider what your readers need to know and want to know. Organize content
to answer their questions. Write at a reading level that is appropriate to
your intended audience.2.
. Use common, everyday words
whenever possible. Word Choices: Use common, everyday words but avoid
slang. Use personal pronouns such as "you." Use "must" instead of "shall."
Avoid using undefined technical terms. Use positive rather than negative
words. Avoid using gender-specific terminology. Avoid long strings of
nouns. Verb Forms: Use active voice. Use action verbs. Use the present
tense whenever you can. Structure: Use parallel construction. Be
direct. Avoid unnecessary exceptions.
Display Material Correctly
Appearance is an important aspect of clear communication. If a document is
pleasing to the eye, it will be more likely to attract your readers'
attention. Appearance can also be an aid to readers, improving
comprehension and retention. Organization. Strong, logical
organization includes an introduction followed by short sentences and paragraphs. Organize
messages to respond to your readers' interests and concerns.
Introduction. In lengthier documents, use an introduction and a table of
contents to help readers understand how a document is organized.
Short Sentences and Paragraphs. Sentence length should average 15-20
words. Sentences that are simple, active, affirmative, and declarative
hold readers' interest. Generally, each paragraph should contain only
one topic. You may wish to use a series of paragraphs if you need to
express complex or highly technical information. The more writing deviates
from a clear and to-the-point structure, the harder it will be for
readers to understand what you are trying to convey. Layout. Layout
includes margins, headings, and white space. Provide white space between
sections to break up text and to make it easier for readers to
understand. Use headings to guide readers; the question-and-answer
format is especially helpful. Try to anticipate your readers'
questions and pose them as a reader would. Use adequate margins.
Tables. Tables make complex information readily understandable. They can
help readers see relationships more easily, and they may require fewer
words than straight text. Typography. Typography relates to fonts and
typographical elements used for emphasis, such as bullets or italics.
Limit the number of fonts you use. It is usually best to stick to one
font for headings and another for text. Use typographical elements
consistently throughout your document – and avoid overusing any one
element.4. Evaluate Your Document
. To ensure that you are
communicating clearly, evaluate the document or, better yet, have
another person read it and offer suggestions for clarification. Look over
the document for: Word choice, verb forms, and structure;
Correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation; Inclusion of appropriate
devices, such as dating, page numbering, and consistency; Visual
appeal; Consistency and effectiveness of layout and typographical
devices; and Line breaks that inadvertently separate part of a name or
date in a way that reduces clarity.
is a type of
technical writing used by lawyers
, judges, legislators, and others in law
to express legal analysis and legal rights and duties. Legal writing
in practice is used to advocate for or to express the resolution of a
client's legal matter.
is the ease
with which a reader can understand
a written text. In natural
language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity
of its vocabulary and syntax) and its
typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line length).
Researchers have used various factors to measure readability, such as
Speed of perception
, Perceptibility at a distance, Perceptibility
in peripheral vision
, Visibility, Reflex blink technique, Rate of
work (reading speed), Eye movements Fatigue in reading.
Readability is more than simply legibility—which is a measure of how
easily a reader can distinguish individual letters or characters from
each other. Higher readability eases reading effort and speed for
any reader, but it is especially important for those who do not have
high reading Comprehension
. In readers with average or poor reading
comprehension, raising the readability level of a text from mediocre to
good can make the difference between success and failure of its
communication goals. Readability exists in both
and programming languages, albeit in different forms. In programming,
things such as programmer comments, choice of loop structure, and
choice of names can determine the ease with which humans can read
is data or text in a form that a computer can process.
is data or metadata in a format that can be
easily processed by a computer.
are documents whose content can be readily
processed by computers. Such documents are distinguished from
machine-readable data by virtue of having sufficient
the necessary context
to support the
business processes for which they are created. Data
language use is meaningless
and will lack four of these essential
characteristics: Reliability, Authenticity, Integrity and Usability.
Data Storage Types
(understanding) - Standards
is any written form
of writing or drafting
a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer
hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics,
finance, consumer electronics, and biotechnology. It encompasses the
largest sub-field within technical communication. The Society for
Technical Communication defines technical communication as any form of
communication that exhibits one or more of the following
characteristics: (1) communicating
about technical or specialized
topics, such as computer applications, medical
environmental regulations; (2) communicating through technology, such
as web pages, help files, or social media sites; or (3) providing
about how to do something, regardless of the task's technical
is a professional writer who produces technical
people understand and use a product or service. This documentation
includes online help, manuals (system, end-user, training), white papers,
design specifications, project plans, test plans, business correspondence,
etc. With the rise of e-learning, technical writers are also charged with
creating online training for their audience of learners. Technical writers
technologies, processes, and products in many formats, including
print, online, and other electronic means.
Technical Writing Style
is writing for reward or as a
or it is any form of written communication produced in a workplace
environment or context. Works produced with the professional writing style
allow professionals (e.g. employers, lawyers, businesspeople, etc.) to
make informed decisions. Professional writing involves the use of
precise language to convey information in a way
that is easily understood by its intended audience
, and it may be
directed to inform, persuade, instruct, stimulate debate, or encourage
action. For example, in a business office, a memorandum (abbrev. memo) can
be used to provide a solution to a problem, make a suggestion, or convey
- Writing Tips
(visual) - Technology
is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a
personal computer primarily for print. Desktop publishing software can
generate layouts and produce typographic quality
text and images comparable to traditional typography and printing. This
technology allows individuals, businesses, and other organizations to
self-publish a wide range of printed matter. Desktop publishing is also
the main reference for digital typography. When used skillfully, desktop
publishing allows the user to produce a wide variety of materials, from
menus to magazines and books, without the expense of
Spelling - Writers Blindness
is a linguistic process of phonemic orthography (correct writing) with the
necessary letters and diacritics present in a comprehensible order,
usually with some degree of standardization; it is "the conventions which
determine how the graphemes of a writing system are used to write a
language". In another words it is interpretation of
into writing (grapheme). Spelling is one of the elements of orthography,
and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element.
is an application program that flags
words in a document that may not be spelled correctly. Spell checkers may
be stand-alone, capable of operating on a block of text, or as part of a
larger application, such as a word processor
, email client, electronic
dictionary, or search engine.
is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a
spelling mistake) of printed material. Historically, this referred to
mistakes in manual type-setting (typography). The term includes errors due
to mechanical failure or slips of the hand or finger, but excludes errors
of ignorance, such as spelling errors. Before the arrival of printing, the
"copyist's mistake" or "scribal error" was the equivalent for manuscripts.
Most typos involve simple duplication, omission, transposition, or
substitution of a small number of characters. (often shortened to typo,
also called misprint). "Fat Finger
"Fat-Finger Syndrome", a slang term, refers to an unwanted secondary
action when typing. When one's finger is bigger than the touch zone, there
can be inaccuracy in the fine motor movements and accidents occur. This is
common with touchscreens. One may hit two adjacent keys on the keyboard in
a single keystroke. An example is "buckled" instead of "bucked", due to
the "L" key being next to the "K" key on the QWERTY keyboard, the most
common keyboard for Latin-script alphabets. Writers
One of my problems with hand
writing is that
I'm not thinking about
when I'm writing. This is because
my brain is thinking faster than I can write. So I find
myself scribbling my thoughts down a lot. But it's not that bad,
just as long as I can
deceiver what I have written and then rewrite it later.
Why does the the
human brain ignore the second the
? (youtube) - Have you ever
proof-read an essay 10 times before submitting it, but had an extra word
pointed out to you? Why does the the brain sometimes ignore these extra
words? Shouldn’t errors jump out to us because they’re an anomaly?
I'm sometimes more focused on what I'm trying to say then I
am about the spelling of words
. That is why writers have
and editors. This way writers can focus more on what
they're trying to say and not have to focus on irrelevant
things, like the spelling of words. I would rather
when writing about things that are important then write about
things that are irrelevant but spelled perfectly, who cares.
Besides, if you know that a word is misspelled you must know
what the word is? So nothing is lost.
So the problem is not my spelling, the problem is that you're
too easily distracted by things that don't matter, which is no surprise. I
more on my thoughts then my penmanship
so what ever works for you I guess.
It's much more important to communicate effectively then it is to
always spell words correctly. Spelling
is an irrelevant detail. Am I becoming a better speller, yes. But it is
still not a high priority, as you can still see.
Sometimes I can't stop to think about the spelling of a word
because that would cause me to change focus. And when thoughts
are flying by at lighting speed, if you look away just for a
second you sometimes miss key information pertaining to that
thought, like how the thought was generated? What was going to
be learned from that thought? Do more questions need to be
answered about that thought? And some thoughts immediately
create associations, so analyzing begins
immediately, which also needs to be documented. Can I get a Spell Check?
Missing Letter Effect
refers to the finding that, when
people are asked to consciously detect target letters while reading text,
they miss more letters in frequent, function words (e.g. the letter "h" in
"the") than in less frequent, content words. The missing letter effect has
also been referred to as the reverse word superiority effect, since it
describes a phenomenon where letters in more frequent words fail to be
identified, instead of letter identification benefitting from increased
word frequency. The effect is usually measured using a paper-and-pencil
procedure, where readers are asked to circle a target letter every time
they come across it while reading a short passage. The missing letter
effect is more likely to appear when reading words that are part of a
normal sequence, than when words are embedded in a mixed-up sequence (e.g.
readers asked to read backwards).
demonstrates that readers can understand the meaning of
words in a sentence even when the interior letters of each word are
scrambled. As long as all the necessary letters are present, and the first
and last letters remain the same, readers appear to have little trouble
reading the text. Spatial
"Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht
oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is
taht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae. The rset
can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm.
Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by
istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe."
Synapses in the brain mirror the structure of the visual world
our brain might be so good at perceiving edges and contours. Neurons that
respond to different parts of elongated edges are connected and thus
exchange information. This can make it easier for the brain to identify
contours of objects. Individual visual stimuli are not processed
independently by our brain. Rather neurons exchange incoming information
to form a coherent perceptual image from the myriad of visual details
impinging on our eyes. How our visual perception arises from these
interactions is still unclear. This is partly due to the fact that we
still know relatively little about the rules that determine which
neurons in the brain are connected to each other, and what information
they exchange. The visual cortex, the largest part of the human brain, is
responsible for analyzing information from the eyes and enables us to
perceive the visual world. Different neurons in this brain area react to
components of the visual scene at specific positions in our
is a mechanical or electromechanical
machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's
movable type. A typewriter operates by means of keys that strike a ribbon
to transmit ink or carbon impressions onto paper. Typically, a single
character is printed on each key press. The machine prints characters by
making ink impressions of type elements similar to the sorts used in
movable type letterpress printing. At the end of the nineteenth century,
the term typewriter was also applied to a person who used a typing
is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement
of buttons or keys to act as a mechanical lever or electronic switch.
Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via
teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers.
- Pens and
Instead of just having the computer
fix the misspelled word, first try to correct the
misspelled word yourself, eventually this will help you
will become a better speller.
I'm thinking faster than I can write my thoughts down
and I don't always have time to
check my spelling
don't want my writing to slow down my thinking, because
some thoughts are so new and unique that if I pause for
just a moment, I may forget the idea that I was trying to
record and document. It's like trying to remember the
details of a dream
that you just had when sleeping, the
longer you wait to recall the details of that dream, the
more details you will lose and forget.
"The two most important things about writing and
reading are comprehension
. Just being a
good speller does not confirm good reading comprehension
or does it confirm that you are reading and writing
things that are important or relevant.
Make sure that kids understand what they are reading and
writing, and make sure that they are
reading and writing
things that are important and relevant
to them, things
that will increase their understanding of themselves and
the world around them."
Spelling Practice Work Sheets Resources
Learning Games for Kids
Learn to Spell
Editing and Spell Checking
- Does Correct
Spelling Bee championship
Spelling Bees Practice
How to Spell
Teaching 8 Spelling Patterns
Fuller wins spelling bee in Tulsa
But on the other hand.
a good speller
is a good sign of intelligence and a possible precursor
for success. But it's not that some people are good spellers, it's because
they have good memories
. And it's all about how
you use your memory, and remembering
things of value
and remembering what's important.
is the set of
of clauses, phrases, and
in any given natural
The term refers also to the study
, and this field includes
morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by
semantics, pragmatics, comprehension
- Nouns and Verbs
- Story Telling
is the spatial property
resulting from the arrangement of parts
in relation to each other and to
the whole. Something that is created by arranging several things to form a
unified whole. The way in which someone or something is
. The act
of creating written works.
is the theory of the genetic
component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The
basic postulate of UG is that language is
into the brain. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar",
and stands opposed to other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive, descriptive and
pedagogical. The theory suggests that linguistic ability becomes manifest
without being taught
, and that
there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a
matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what
abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages.
in the study of
is part of the theory
of generative grammar, especially of naturally evolved languages, that
considers grammar to be a system of rules that generate exactly those
combinations of words which form grammatical sentences in a given
language. TG involves the use of defined operations called transformations
to produce new sentences from existing ones. The concept was originated by
Noam Chomsky, and much current research in transformational grammar has
been inspired by Chomsky's Minimalist Program.
is the attempt to lay down rules defining
preferred or "correct" use of language. These rules may address such
linguistic aspects as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, and
semantics. Sometimes informed by linguistic purism, such normative
practices may suggest that some usages are incorrect, illogical, lack
communicative effect, or are of low aesthetic value. They may also include
judgments on socially proper and politically correct language use.
is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality. That is,
it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to
express their attitude
toward what they are saying
(e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.). The term is also
used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality; that
is, the use of verb phrases
that do not
involve inflexion of the verb itself. Mood is distinct from
, although the same word patterns are used for
expressing more than one of these meanings
at the same time
in many languages, including English and most other
modern Indo-European languages. (See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of
this.) Some examples of moods are
. These are all finite forms of the verb. Infinitives, gerunds,
and participles, which are non-finite forms of the verb, are not
considered to be examples of moods. Some Uralic Samoyedic languages have
more than ten moods; Nenets has as many as sixteen. The original
Indo-European inventory of moods consisted of indicative, subjunctive,
optative, and imperative. Not every Indo-European language has all of
these moods, but the most conservative ones such as Avestan, Ancient
Greek, and Sanskrit have them all. English has indicative, imperative, and
subjunctive moods; other moods, such as the conditional, do not appear as
morphologically distinct forms.
is a proposition
on the basis of whether
someone claims necessity or possibility or impossibility.
that express how the
action or state is conceived by the speaker. A particular sense.
are marks used to clarify meaning
indicating separation of words
and clauses and phrases using of spacing,
, and certain
as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both
silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts. Another description
is: "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small
marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation
; division of text into
sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks.
- Punctuation Mark Symbols
- Keyboard Symbols
is a special grammatical category of a
, participle or numeral whose
value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a
phrase, clause or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, determiners, participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and
their modifiers take different inflected forms, depending on their case.
As a language evolves, cases can merge (for instance, in Ancient Greek,
the locative case merged with the dative case), a phenomenon formally
- Affix Clause
expression including a subject
but not constituting a
is a part of the sentence that contains a verb. Clause in a
separate section of a legal document such as a statute, contract or will.
is a clause that is typically introduced by a
, that forms part of and is
dependent on a main clause. (e.g., “when it rang” in “she answered the
phone when it rang”). Subordinate clause is a clause that cannot
stand alone. It is not independent.
is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information
but which cannot stand alone as a sentence
. A dependent clause can either
modify an adjacent clause or serve as a component of an independent
clause. Some grammarians use the term subordinate clause as a synonym for
dependent clause. Others use subordinate clause to refer only to adverbial
dependent clauses. The different types of dependent clauses include
content clauses (noun clauses), relative (adjectival) clauses, and
adverbial clauses. Generalizing
is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence
independent clause contains a subject and a predicate
and makes sense by
itself. Independent clauses can be joined by using a semicolon or by using
a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor,
so, yet, etc.). Examples of independent clause: I have enough money to buy
an ice cream cone. I have enough money to buy an ice cream cone; my
favorite flavor is chocolate. I have enough money to buy an ice cream
cone, so, let's go to the shop. Independent
Clause has a subject and a verb
expresses a complete thought-it can stand alone.
is a subordinate clause
that provides content implied or commented upon by
its main clause.
is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose
interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate
clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation
between the relativized element in the relative clause and the antecedent
on which it depends.
phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which
performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. Noun phrases are
very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently
occurring phrase type. Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and
objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of
prepositions. Noun phrases can be embedded inside each other; for
instance, the noun phrase some of his constituents contains the shorter
noun phrase his constituents. In some more modern theories of grammar,
noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determine.
is part of a clause predicate, and is an
that typically follows a
copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appear as a
second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are
predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative
nominals (also predicate nominals). The main trait of all predicative
expressions is that they serve to express a property that is assigned to a
"subject", whereby this subject is usually the clause subject, but at
times it can be the clause object. A primary distinction is drawn between
predicative (also predicate) and attributive expressions. Further,
predicative expressions are typically not clause arguments, and they are
also typically not clause adjuncts. There is hence a three-way distinction
between predicative expressions, arguments, and adjuncts. The terms
predicative expression on the one hand and subject complement and object
complement on the other hand overlap in meaning to a large extent.
is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure
of sentences in a given language
, specifically word order. The term syntax
is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes. The
goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to
all languages. In mathematics
, syntax refers to
the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal
languages used in logic.
is the grammatical arrangement
orderly arrangement. Studies of the
for forming admissible sentences.
is a form of language that exhibits a
grammatical structure and a natural flow of
, rather than a rhythmic
structure as in traditional poetry. Where the common unit of verse is
based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical,
such as a sentence or paragraph. Tone
is a shortened version of the written and spoken
forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal
letters and sounds. (You're from you are using the apostrophe '
.) In linguistic analysis, contractions should not be
(including initialisms), with which they share
some semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the
term "abbreviation" in loose parlance. Contraction is also distinguished
from clipping, where beginnings and endings are omitted.
is the ease with which a reader can recognize individual characters in
. "The legibility of a typeface is related to the characteristics
inherent in its design … which relate to the ability to distinguish one
letter from the other." Aspects of type design that affect legibility
include "x-height, character shapes, stroke contrast, the size of its
counters, serifs or lack thereof, and weight." Legibility is different
from readability. Readability
is the ease with which a reader can
recognize words, sentences, and paragraphs. Legibility is a component of
readability. Other typographic factors that affect readability include
font choice, point size, kerning, tracking, line length, leading, and
groups a number of models of
grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is
based on a collection of "form and function pairings
". The "function" side
covers what is commonly understood as meaning, content, or intent; it
usually extends over both conventional fields of semantics and pragmatics.
is any syntactic string of
words ranging from sentences
over phrasal structures to certain complex
lexemes, such as phrasal verbs. Grammatical constructions form the primary
unit of study in construction grammar theories. In construction grammar,
cognitive grammar, and cognitive linguistics, a grammatical construction
is a syntactic template that is paired with conventionalized semantic and
pragmatic content. In these disciplines, constructions are given a more
semiotic character. In generative frameworks, constructions are
generally argued to be void of content and derived by the general
syntactic rules of the language in question.
is a system of rules
that generates exactly those combinations
of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Parallelism in grammar
is a balance within one or more
of similar phrases or clauses that have
the same grammatical structure. The application of parallelism affects
readability and may make texts easier to process. Parallelism may be
accompanied by other figures of speech
used in writing or speech either as a proposition that
contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when
two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.
is a rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence
of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them
emphasis. In contrast, an epistrophe (or epiphora) is repeating words at
the clauses' ends. The combination of anaphora and epistrophe results
is the repetition of the same word or words at the end of
successive phrases, clauses or sentences. It is also known as epiphora and
occasionally as antistrophe. It is a figure of speech and the counterpart
of anaphora. It is an extremely emphatic device because of the emphasis
placed on the last word in a phrase or sentence.
is a literary scheme in which one or several conjunctions
are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses. Examples
include veni, vidi, vici and its English translation "I came, I saw, I
conquered". Its use can have the effect of speeding up the rhythm of a
passage and making a single idea more memorable. Asyndeton may be
contrasted with syndeton (syndetic coordination) and polysyndeton, which
describe the use of one or multiple coordinating conjunctions,
is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is used successively at
the beginning of two or more clauses or sentences and another word or
phrase with a similar wording is used successively at the end of them. It
is the combination of anaphora and epistrophe. It derives from the
Greek word, meaning "interweaving". "When there is talk of hatred, let us
stand up and talk against it. When there is talk of violence, let us stand
up and talk against it." — Bill Clinton
is the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in
transposed order; for example, "I know what I like, and I like what I
know". It is related to, and sometimes considered a special case of,
chiasmus. An antimetabole is also said to be a little too predictive
because it is easy to reverse the key term, but it can pose questions that
one usually would not think of if the phrase were just asked or said the
in rhetoric is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or
clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance. "I think we've
reached a point of great decision, not just for our nation, not only for
all humanity, but for life upon the earth."
Endocentric and Exocentric
a distinction is made between
endocentric and exocentric constructions. A grammatical construction (e.g.
a phrase or compound word) is said to be endocentric if it fulfills the
same linguistic function as one of its parts, and exocentric if it does
not. The distinction reaches back at least to Bloomfield's work of the
1930s. Such a distinction is possible only in phrase structure grammars
(constituency grammars), since in dependency grammars all constructions
are necessarily endocentric.
is inspired by propositional logic and concerns traditional
grammar, and the subject. In the sentence Bill heard Fred, the predicate
is heard Fred. On this approach, the purpose of the predicate is to
complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is
like. The second notion is derived from work in predicate logic and is
prominent in modern theories of syntax and grammar. The predicate of a
sentence corresponds to the main verb (and potentially to any auxiliary
verbs that accompany the main verb); whereas the arguments of that
predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the
predicate. On this approach, the predicate in the sentence Bill heard Fred
is just the verb heard. The competition between these two notions has
generated confusion concerning the use of the term predicate in general.
This article considers both of these notions.
is a specific form of noun-class
system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system
with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles,
pronouns, or verbs. This system is used in approximately one quarter of
the world's languages. In these languages, most or all nouns inherently
carry one value of the grammatical category called gender; the values
present in a given language (of which there are usually two or three) are
called the genders of that language. According to one definition: "Genders
are classes of nouns reflected in the behaviour of associated words."
is the modification of a word to express different
grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number,
gender, and mood. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and
one can refer to the inflection of nouns
adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions,
postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.
is the creation of derived forms of a verb
from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to
rules of grammar). Conjugation may be affected by person, number, gender,
tense, aspect, mood, voice, case, and other grammatical categories such as
possession, definiteness, politeness, causativity, clusivity,
interrogativity, transitivity, valency, polarity, telicity, volition,
mirativity, evidentiality, animacy, associativity, pluractionality,
reciprocity, agreement, polypersonal agreement, incorporation, noun class,
noun classifiers, and verb classifiers in some languages.
is a Guide to Grammar and Writing. -
is a string of
of a language
. A textual unit consisting of one or more words that
are grammatically linked. In functional linguistics, a sentence is a unit
of written texts delimited by graphological features such as upper case
letters and markers such as periods, question marks, and
. Nouns and Verbs
are sentences expressing
, or hypothetical situations and their consequences. They are
so called because the validity of the main clause of the sentence is
conditional on the existence of certain circumstances, which may be
expressed in a dependent clause or may be understood from the
has one or more dependent clauses
, also called
. Since a dependent clause cannot stand
on its own as a sentence, complex sentences must also have at least one
. A sentence with two or more independent clauses plus
one or more dependent clauses is called compound-complex or
refers to a speaker's
in uttering a specific
sentence, phrase, or clause. Whether a listener is present or not is
sometimes irrelevant. It answers the question: "Why has this been said?"
The four basic sentence functions in the world's languages include the
declarative, interrogative, exclamative, and the imperative. These
correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command
respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next
through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition
of certain auxiliaries or particles, or other times by providing a special
verbal form. The four main categories can be further specified as being
emotion using unfiltered vocalizations
feelings. Imperative sentence
anything from a command or order, to a request, direction, or instruction,
aim is to get the person(s) being addressed either to do or to not do
something. Informative sentences
for the mutual benefit of both the listener and the speaker. They are more
intentional or premeditated, less essential, more cooperative, and they
aim to either provide or retrieve information, making them quintessential
abstractions. Declarative sentence
most common kind of sentence in language. a declarative states an idea
(either objectively or subjectively on the part of the speaker; and may be
either true or false) for the sheer purpose of transferring intel.
asks a question and
hence ends with a question mark. Its effort is to try to gather
information that is presently unknown to the interrogator, or to seek
validation for a preconceived notion held. Beyond seeking confirmation or
contradiction, sometimes it is approval or permission that is sought as
well, among other reasons one could have for posing a question.
is a message that tells the particulars of an act
or occurrence or course of events; presented in
or as a radio or television program. Consisting of or characterized by the
telling of a story
is how something is done or
or a way or manner in which something occurs or is experienced or
expressed. A particular functioning condition or arrangement. A
classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim
necessity or possibility or impossibility. Verb inflections
how the action or state is conceived by the speaker. Any of various fixed
orders of the various diatonic notes within an octave. The most frequent
value of a random variable. Art
is the use of a written or spoken commentary to
to an audience. Narration encompasses a set of techniques through
which the creator of the story presents their story, including:
point of view
is the perspective or type of personal or non-personal
"lens" through which a story is communicated. Narrative voice
is the format
or type presentational form through which a story is communicated.
is the grammatical
placement of the story's time-frame in the
past, the present, or the future.
is a literary element
generally described as the
structural framework that underlies
the order and manner in which a
narrative is presented
to a reader, listener, or viewer. The narrative
text structures are the plot
is any of several specific methods the creator of
a narrative uses to convey what they want—in other words, a strategy used
in the making of a narrative to relay information
to the audience and,
particularly, to "develop" the narrative, usually in order to make it more
complete, complicated, or interesting. Literary techniques are
distinguished from literary elements, which exist inherently in works of
of Narrative Techniques
are specific, deliberate constructions of
language which an author uses to convey meaning. An author's use of a
literary technique usually occurs with a single word or phrase, or a
particular group of words or phrases, at one single point in a text.
is a tool used by writers
to hint at larger themes, ideas, and meaning in a story or piece of
writing. There are many styles of literary devices, each serving a
different purpose. Writers often use multiple literary devices in tandem.
is a motion picture
that tells a fictional or fictionalized
, event or narrative.
Commercial narrative films with running times of over an hour are often
referred to as feature films, or feature-length films. The earliest
narrative films, around the turn of the 20th century, were essentially
filmed stage plays and for the first three or four decades these
commercial productions drew heavily upon the centuries-old theatrical
tradition. In this style of film, believable narratives and characters
help convince the audience that the unfolding fiction is real. Lighting
and camera movement, among other cinematic elements, have become
increasingly important in these films. Great detail goes into the
screenplays of narratives, as these films rarely deviate from the
predetermined behaviors and lines of the classical style of screenplay
writing to maintain a sense of realism. Actors must deliver dialogue and
action in a believable way, so as to persuade the audience that the film
is real life.
is a story from the
about themselves. Talking to Yourself
is a narrative mode in which the protagonist
or another main character is
referred to by second-person personal pronouns and other kinds of
addressing forms, for example the English second-person pronoun "you".
a narrator with an overarching
point of view
, seeing and knowing
everything that happens within the world of the story, including what each
of the characters is thinking and feeling, having its own personality,
offering judgments and opinions on the behavior of the characters.
in narrative is the insertion of important background
information within a story; for example, information about the setting,
, historical context, etc. In a specifically literary context,
exposition appears in the form of expository writing embedded within the
narrative. Exposition is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes
of discourse), along with description, argumentation, and narration, as
elucidated by Alexander Bain and John Genung. Each of the rhetorical modes
is present in a variety of forms, and each has its own purpose and
conventions. There are several ways to accomplish exposition.
is the player of the first part
or main character
, such as a literary work or drama. The
protagonist is at the center of the story, should be making the difficult
choices and key decisions, and should be experiencing the consequences of
those decisions. The Protagonist can affect the main characters decisions.
The protagonist should be propelling the story forward. If a story
contains a subplot, or is a narrative that is made up of several stories,
then there may be a character who is interpreted as the protagonist of
each subplot or individual story.
representation of a person
in a narrative
or dramatic work of art (such as a novel, play, or film).
is the use of a written or spoken commentary to
convey a story
audience. Narration encompasses a set of techniques through which the
creator of the story presents their story, including: Narrative point of
view: the perspective (or type of personal or non-personal "lens") through
which a story is communicated. Narrative voice: the format (or type
presentational form) through which a story is communicated. Narrative
time: the grammatical placement
of the story's time-frame in the past, the
present, or the future.
by piecing together bits of evidence
. Recall that is hypothesized to work
by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory
during recall. Book Types
is to place an action or situation in
indicating that the event being referred to took place in the past.
used to express a past event that has
a tense expressing an action that is currently going on or habitually
performed, or a state that currently or generally exists.
is an event that has not
happened yet, something that may happen in the future
is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that
allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found
in many languages. Subjunctive forms of verbs are typically used to
express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility,
judgment, opinion, obligation, or action that has not yet occurred; the
precise situations in which they are used vary from language to language.
describe the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of
language-based communication, particularly writing and speaking. Four of
the most common rhetorical modes and their purpose are narration,
description, exposition, and argumentation.
expresses the writer's attitude toward or feelings
about the subject matter and audience.
Tone of Voice
is any of several specific methods the
creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want—in other words, a
strategy used in the making of a narrative to relay information to the
audience and, particularly, to "develop" the narrative, usually in order
to make it more complete, complicated, or interesting. Literary techniques
are distinguished from literary elements, which exist inherently in works
of writing. Writing Style
is when the subject of a sentence or clause featuring
the passive voice typically denotes the recipient of the action (the
patient) rather than the performer (the agent). The passive voice in
English is formed periphrastically
: the usual construction uses the
auxiliary verb be (or get) together with the past participle of the main
is the grammatical distinction between
deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the
distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second
person), and others (third person). Grammatical person typically defines a
language's set of personal pronouns. It also frequently affects verbs,
sometimes nouns, and possessive relationships.
is a grammatical voice common in many of the
world's languages. It is the unmarked voice
for clauses featuring a
transitive verb in nominative–accusative languages, including English and
most other Indo-European languages. Document
in written language, refers to the body of
important features established by the author in their creation of
literature. Composition relates to narrative works of literature, but also
relates to essays, biographies, and other works established in the field of rhetoric.
is a verb form, found in various languages,
which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective
aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state). It can
therefore have meanings similar to the English "was walking" or "used to
walk." It contrasts with preterite forms, which refer to a single completed event in the past.
Fiction - Not Based on Fact
is something not based on fact
or history. A deliberately false
or improbable account. Any story
derived from imagination
. Fiction can be expressed in a variety of formats, including
writings, live performances, films, television programs, animations, video
games, and role-playing games, though the term originally and most
commonly refers to the narrative forms of
, including the novel, novella, short
story, and play. Fiction constitutes an act of creative invention, so that
faithfulness to reality is not typically assumed
is not expected to present only characters who are actual people or
descriptions that are factually true. The context of fiction is generally
open to interpretation, due to fiction's freedom from any necessary
embedding in reality; however, some fictional works are claimed to be, or
marketed as, historically or factually accurate, complicating the
traditional distinction between fiction and non-fiction. Fiction is a
classification or category, rather than a specific mode or genre, unless
used in a narrower sense as a synonym for a particular literary fiction
form. Media Literacy
such as futuristic science and technology, space
travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes, and
extraterrestrial life. Not Real Science
is supposed to be writing that is
based on facts
, such as biography
. Non-fiction content is sometimes in the form of a
whose creator assumes responsibility for the
events, people, and/or information presented. In contrast, a story whose
creator explicitly leaves open if and how the work refers to
usually classified as fiction. Nonfiction, which may be presented either
traditionally one of the two main divisions of narratives
specifically, prose writing), the other traditional division being
fiction, which contrasts with nonfiction by dealing in information,
events, and characters expected to be partly or largely imaginary.
Where's the Facts Jack
can't go through life without knowing any facts
- Movie Types
is a literary genre in which the plot takes place
in a setting located in the past. Historical fiction can be an ambiguous
term: frequently it is used as a synonym for describing the
novel; however, the term can be applied to works in other narrative
formats, such as those in the performing and visual arts like theatre,
opera, cinema, television, comics, and graphic novels.
Even History is Skewed
which players use text commands to control characters and influence the
environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives,
either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations.
These works can also be understood as a form of
, either in the
form of an adventure game or
. In common usage, the term refers to text
adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be
"text-only", however, Graphical text adventure games, where the text is
accompanied by graphics (still images, animations or video) still fall
under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the
game is by typing text. Some users of the term distinguish between
interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative,
and "text adventures" that focus on puzzles.
refers to some or all of the following: the
primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other
"propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the
referents of that-clauses, and the meanings
of declarative sentences.
Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers
of truth and falsity. This stipulation rules out certain candidates for
propositions, including thought- and utterance-tokens which are not
sharable, and concrete events or facts, which cannot be false.
attempts to represent familiar things as
they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities
and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or similarly stylized
in arts is a
of a work
of art from one medium
to another. Some
common examples are: Film adaptation, a story from another work, adapted
into a film (it may be a novel, non-fiction like journalism,
autobiography, comic books, scriptures, plays or historical sources).
Literary adaptation, a story from a literary source, adapted into another
work. Theatrical adaptation, a story from another work, adapted into a
play. There is, however, no end to potential media involved in adaptation.
Adaptation is the practice of transcoding
or changing the code or 'language' used in a medium, as well as the
assimilation of a work of art to other cultural, linguistic, semiotic,
aesthetic or other norms. Recent approaches to the expanding field
Adaptation Studies reflect these expansion of our perspective. Adaptation
occurs as a special case of intertextual
and intermedial exchange and the copy-paste culture of digital
technologies has produced "new intertextual forms engendered by emerging
reboots, samplings, remodelings, transformations— " that "further develop
the impulse to adapt and appropriate, and the ways in which they challenge
the theory and practice of adaptation and appropriation."
is the adapting of a literary source (e.g. a
novel, short story, poem
) to another
such as a film, stage play, or video game. It can also involve adapting
the same literary work in the same genre or medium just for different
purposes, e.g. to work with a smaller cast, in a smaller venue (or on the
road), or for a different demographic group (such as adapting a story for
children). Sometimes the editing of these works without the approval of
the author can lead to a court case. It also appeals because it obviously
works as a story; it has interesting characters, who say and do
interesting things. This is particularly important when adapting to a
dramatic work, e.g. film, stage play, teleplay, as dramatic writing is
some of the most difficult. To get an original story to function well on
all the necessary dimensions—concept, character, story, dialogue, and
action—is an extremely rare event performed by a rare talent. Perhaps most
importantly, especially for producers of the screen and stage, an adapted
work is more bankable; it represents considerably less risk to investors,
and poses the possibilities of huge financial gains. This is because: It
has already attracted a following. It clearly works as a literary piece in
appealing to a broad group of people who care. Its title, author,
characters, etc. may be a franchise in and of themselves already.
is using material from another
, such as a novel or a film
is re-written according to the needs and requirements of the theatre and
turned into a play or musical.
is the transfer of a work or story, in whole or in
part, to a Feature Film
is the systematic representation of language
in written form. The source can either be utterances (speech or sign
language) or preexisting text in another writing system.
in theatre is a form of literature written by a playwright,
usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for
rather than just reading.
is the form obtained by abstracting from the
subject matter of its content terms or by regarding the content terms as
mere placeholders or blanks on a form. In an ideal logical language, the
logical form can be determined from syntax alone; formal languages used in
formal sciences are examples of such languages. Logical form, however,
should not be confused with the mere syntax used to represent it; there
may be more than one string that represents the same logical form in a
Logical Consequence Entailment
is a fundamental concept in
logic, which describes the relationship between statements that holds true
when one statement logically follows from one or more statements. A valid
logical argument is one in which the conclusions are entailed by the
premises, because the conclusions are consequences of the premises. The
philosophical analysis of logical consequence involves the questions: In
what sense does a conclusion follow from its premises? and What does it
mean for a conclusion to be a consequence of premises? All of
philosophical logic is meant to provide accounts of the nature of logical
consequence and the nature of logical truth.
Short-and Long-Term Effects of a Novel on Connectivity in the Brain
is the field of logic concerned with
arguments containing sentences in the imperative mood. In contrast to
sentences in the declarative mood, imperatives are neither true nor false.
This leads to a number of logical dilemmas,
, and paradoxes.
Unlike classical logic, there is almost no consensus on any aspect of
is a grammatical mood that forms commands or
requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of advice or exhortation.
Profanity - Politically Correct
Potty Mouths - Foul-Mouthed - Four-Letter Words - Naughty Words
- Dirty Words - Cursing - Vulgarity - Vulgar Language - Colorful Language
- F-bomb -
Pardon my French
- Humor as a
characterized by profanity or cursing that may violate the sacred
character of a place or language
is to utter obscenities,
profanities or an offensive
or indecent word or phrase.Explicit Language
is offensive or graphic
language. Swear Word
offensive word, used especially as an expression of
is something unpleasant or
disgusting, especially to the senses. Causing anger or annoyance. The
action of attacking
someone or tending to violate
or offend someone. Offend
is an act
in disregard of laws
contracts, or promises. To cause somebody
that is aroused by some perceived offense or injustice.
is an offensive or indecent word
or phrase. The trait of behaving in an obscene manner.
is being suggestive of or tending
to moral looseness. Designed to incite to indecency or lust. Offensive to
r is something
lacking refinement, cultivation or taste. Something conspicuously and
lacking refinement, cultivation or taste.
is speech which
a person or a group on the
basis of attributes
such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race,
disability, or sexual orientation.
is someone who is
unrestrained by convention or morality. Showing evidence of deterioration,
having lost good qualities. A person whose behavior deviates from what is
Freedom of Speech Abuses
Clear and Present Danger
Imminent Lawless Action
(prejudice) - Hatred
Choosing the right words is extremely important
. When you try to say
things too nicely, you take the risk of people not understanding the
importance of what you are saying. And when you are using vulgar words in
order to express importance, then you also risk having people not fully
understanding the importance of your message because some people are
offended by a few words that you used. So the trick is to show importance
without offending anyone, even though that it is sometimes unavoidable.
Dammed if you do, dammed if you don't.
is a process by which an expletive or profanity
is inserted into a word, usually for intensification. It is similar to
but not all instances are covered by the usual definition of tmesis
because the words are not necessarily compounds.Too Many
People Talk Shit
. That's because people who talk shit
don't know shit
, so naturally
shit comes out of their mouth. So they either don't know Jack Shit, or they
are just a Lying Piece of Shit, or just a
is a term and type of trash-talk that refers to various
types of derogatory language aimed at an individual or any type of entity,
such as a group or organization. Talking shit can be used as a tactic in
fighting or brawling, used to draw attention to the matter among
onlookers. This is a term that has been coined more recently and is used
in reference when someone talks negatively or
spreads false ideas
person, concept, organization, or entity. The same term can also be used
to describe something spoken which is not true, uninteresting or
irrelevant. It may be a contraction of Talking Bullshit. It is not to
be confused with shitposting, which is when someone posts "content
aggressively, ironically, and trollishly poor quality" to an online forum.
means "nonsense", especially as a rebuke in response to
communication or actions viewed as deceptive, misleading, disingenuous,
unfair or false. As with many expletives, the term can be used as an
interjection, or as many other parts of speech, and can carry a wide
variety of meanings. A person who communicates nonsense on a given subject
may be referred to as a "bullshit artist". In philosophy and psychology of
cognition the term "bullshit" is sometimes used to specifically refer to
statements produced without particular concern of truth, to distinguish
from a deliberate, manipulative lie intended to subvert the truth. While
the word is generally used in a deprecatory sense, it may imply a measure
of respect for language skills or frivolity, among various other benign
usages. As an exclamation, "Bullshit!" conveys a measure of
dissatisfaction with something or someone, but this usage need not be a
comment on the truth of the matter.
is a form of insult
found in sports events, although it is not exclusive to just sports or
similarly characterized events. It is often used to intimidate the
opposition, but can also be used in a humorous spirit. Trash-talk is often
characterized by use of hyperbole or figurative language, such as, "Your
team can't run! You run like honey on ice!" Puns and other wordplay are
is just another phrase
that people use that says almost nothing about what a person means or what
a person is trying to say. If you don't provide an example or a particular
scenario that explains your message, then you are not saying anything, and
you are most likely just
pretending to know
what you're talking about. Like when someone says
socialism. Most people have no idea what socialism means, or what
democracy means. You have to talk about a particular social and government
service so that people have some idea what you're talking about. You just
non-definitive words. You either talk specifics, or go educate yourself so
that you can actually know what you're talking about. Then we can start
having a real conversation. You need to understand language. You have the
right to use words that are necessary that helps to explain something
important that you are trying to say. But if you use words that can be
, then you are not using
words that are necessary, which means that your using words that confuses
your message, which means you just wasted everyone's time and said
absolutely nothing other than that you have a very small vocabulary and
don't know how to communicate effectively or efficiently. Learn the
meaning of words and learn how to use words in the right
. You have
to be careful with the words that you use when speaking or writing, not
because of political correctness, but because you need to speak and
communicate accurately, if not, then you're just inciting more ignorance
and not saying anything valuable or important. I usually ignore people who
and general terms,
because when I ask them to explain what they mean, they usually get
embarrassed or angry, or worst, they pretend to explain what they're
saying by using more ambiguous and general terms. Which means they talk but
they don't say anything, and they never transmit anything informative.
Which means that they are mostly just saying that they can't explain their
own reasoning. Words do not offend me, ignorance offends me, so please go
educate yourself and stop offending people with your ignorance.
or PC Culture
is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to
avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular
groups in society
Since the late 1980s, the term has come to refer to avoiding language or
behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting groups
of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially
groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is
generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are
people by their chosen name
, don't ever refer to someone by their race,
nationality or any other detail that does not explain who you are talking
about. If one of your family members committed murder, it does not mean
that your entire family committed murder, it means a member of your family
committed murder, a that member of your family has a name. And just
because you share the same last name, it does not mean that you share the
same guilt or share the same mistake or share the same penalty.
Slang is mostly used for expressing emotion
. Slang is
not that effective
when communicating facts
. Just like the word criminal, the word does not
tell you anything about the person, other than that the person did
something wrong. When I use swear words or curses, I am mostly expressing
emotion and disappointment. My intentions are
not to offend anyone or to hurt anyone. My swear words are solely
meant to bring attention
, a problem that you
may or may not be involved in. So the swear words are mostly directed at a
problem and not so much at a particular person. Do I need to use
profanity? Are offensive words more of a
than they are
about raising awareness
are these bad words becoming
emotions is not always accurate, or
is it without risk.
The reader wants to know what the writer is feeling or what the character
is feeling, but at the same time, the writer does not want the reader to
be distracted or misinterpret
the message. You can't
always be emotionless
. Humans are born with this emotional sensor.
Like a built in rollercoaster ride that's always available. But
can be easily misinterpreted and
. Even our own emotions can be misinterpreted
because the body can affect the mind. So messages and signals from our own
body can be misinterpreted
and cause an emotion that is not an accurate measurement of reality.
Bad words are
used to describe something or someone who is
that you don't agree with. When someone is bad or wrong you may say
"you're a f*cking as*hole". When someone is saying something that is not
accurate you may say "that's f*cking bullsh*t you as*hole".
calling people who are wrong
and bad scumbags
. But they don't always
interpret the word scumbag correctly. So sometimes you have to explain in
more detail what you mean. After all, being a scumbag also means that you
are most likely to be ignorant too.
But if you don't explain why
something is important, then bad words become just empty words, and
sometimes certain words do more harm then good. So your attempt to bring
light to something may end up being shrouded in darkness, where the
problem will hide from the eyes of the ignorant.
can be used to bring
attention to something that is
important, or perceived to be
important, like an
So "f*ck" could mean "please look and
listen, this is important!" or
perceived to be important, after
all, a swearword does not replace
the words such as evidence, research or
experience, you still have to
define the words you use and explain what
you mean. You want to bring attention
to something, but you don't want to
distract someone by using words that
. So use profanity
wisely and respectfully. Remember, "Go f*ck
yourself and have a nice day a**hole"
insulted or offended by profanity is not
beneficial to you or anyone
be truly offended or insulted is to say things that are insinuating and
meant to hurt someone, like you're fat, you're ugly, you're stupid, you're
a certain color, you're a certain religion or a certain sexual
orientation. There are many hurtful things that you can say to a person.
But like a lot of words, a swear word has no
, just like most
insults do. Your fat because you eat to much is not always the case. Your
ugly does not say that you are ugly to everyone. Saying you're stupid does
not measure your intelligence. And the color of your skin does not say
what kind of person you are. If someone calls you an asshole, this does
not define you as only being an asshole, or mean and selfish, it just
might be saying that a particular action you took was bad and wrong. So
someone called you an asshole just to shorten the sentence, because there
my be a time constraint. So what ever words are used, just remember, it's
like someone saying "Hey you!", and you say "What!" or you just ignore
them, which is usually the best reaction
stones may break my bones, but names will never hurt me"
You need to learn how to
make words powerful
you also how to make words powerless when needed.
is a word used to express a particular emotion or
sentiment on the part of the speaker.
is a form of an
adverb or adjective that is used to
signify the greatest degree of a
is to single out something as important. To give extra
weight to something during communication. Give special importance or prominence to (something) in
speaking or writing. Make (something) more clearly defined.
is the communication of a false statement
harms the reputation
individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or
consists of a lexicon of non-standard words and
phrases in a given language. Use of these words and phrases is typically
associated with the subversion of a standard variety (such as Standard
English) and is likely to be interpreted by listeners as implying
particular attitudes on the part of the speaker. In some contexts, a
speaker's selection of slang words or phrases may convey prestige,
indicating group membership or distinguishing group members from those who
are not a part of the group.
set of linguistic terms and phrases
used to refer to sexual organs,
processes, and activities; they are generally considered colloquial rather
than formal or medical, and some may be seen as impolite or improper.
Related to sexual slang is slang related to defecation and flatulence
(toilet humor, scatolinguistics). References to the anal tract are often
given a sexual connotation
in the context of anal sex (in particular, in a
context of male homosexuality). While popular usage is incredibly
versatile in coining ever new short-lived synonyms, old terms with
originally no pejorative colouring may come to be considered inappropriate
over time. Thus, terms like arse/ass, cunt, cock and fuck should not be
considered "slang," since they are the inherited common English terms for
their referents, but they are often considered vulgarisms and are replaced
by euphemisms or scientific terminology in "polite" language.
Figure of Speech
is a word or phrase used in a non-literal sense for
rhetorical or vivid effect. It can be a special repetition, arrangement or
omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized
meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words. Figures of speech
often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However,
clarity may also suffer from their use, as figures of speech can introduce
an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation.Utter
articulate or to express in speech either verbally or with a cry, shout,
or noise. Express sounds but not necessarily words.
Scumbag is a
contemptible or objectionable
person. A lowlife or a very unpleasant person who has done something
Ignorance can turn toxic
"Words can be liberating, but words can also be debilitating."
Viewer Discretion is Advised
"Don't let horrible language distract you or stop you from learning."
is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of
the time.Son of a Bitch
is a phrase
and a form of verbal abuse
when you speak degrading to someone, or, it's something that you say when
you are reacting
struggle or difficult moment that makes you scream out an obscenity.
is abusive or insulting language referring to a
person or group, a verbal abuse
This phenomenon is studied by a variety of academic disciplines from
anthropology, to child psychology, to politics.
is to censure severely or angrily.
is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation
or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for
someone or something. It is also used as criticism, hostility, disregard
, curses, harsh language or
is used in some cases
to express emotion and feelings
about something that people are
passionate about. But swearwords
must be followed by words of deeper
meaning and expression so that it
helps explain your passion in better
detail, other wise swearwords are
just empty words of a incomplete
sentence. You end up mostly
and not enough
. So learn to Elaborate.
effective ways to
like trying to put out a fire with
gasoline, it's just illogical. Don't
make things worse or miss out on a
chance to make things better. Think
before you speak. If you don't have
the right words then sometimes it's
best to wait till you do find the
There's a thin line between ignorance and asshole
Calling someone an asshole is not the same thing as calling someone
, and it's not the same
thing as telling someone that they're wrong. You still have to explain the
reasons why something is bad. And if someone is lying, then solving that
particular problem will be extremely difficult. Human communication is our
greatest gift and our greatest strength, but communication is also our
greatest weakness when information is manipulated or ineffective due to
the lack of knowledge. And again, the same problem has come full circle,
which is the dysfunctional and fragmented education systems. People are
developing machines that can think for themselves, so what about humans?
Don't people deserve to know how to think for themselves?
Taking Back what you Said
How to Stop Swearing
is a form of insult
usually found in sports events and insulting people. It is often used to
intimidate the opposition, but can also be used in a humorous spirit.
Trash-talk is often characterized by use of hyperbole or figurative
tongue is a beast that few can
master. It strains constantly to
break out of its cage, and if it is
not tamed, it will run wild and
cause you grief.”
because you put some words together doesn't mean that you said something." Communicate
Effects of Swearing, Speak Loudly
language, demeaning words,
plain mean talk, is just stupid. if
you can't communicate what you are
trying to say, then wait till you
learn. There are always better words
to use. But why does our
relationship with a particular
person effect our emotions, and why
am I allowing my
my vocabulary? I don't get this. I
always fall into that same stupid
trap, a trap I created. I have to
discover a way to let my brain do
the talking without my emotions
choosing my words. I love my
emotions, but I also like to
communicate effectively, and not
just to other people, but to myself
as well. Our language has incredible
power, it's time we use it the right
way. But don't get me wrong, we need
our emotions, communicating
emotionally is sometimes effective
in certain situations, but it must
be proven that the emotions were
necessary at that time.
is typically a reactive emotion of
over mistreatment, insult, or
is to make less
severe or harsh. To be
straightforward, plain-spoken, or
blunt. To speak
or indirectly. Often used
in the negative to convey that one speaks bluntly or tactlessly, without
regard for someone else's feelings. To restrain oneself in a conversation
by withholding some comments or using euphemisms.
is a profane or
obscene expression usually of
surprise or anger. Serving to fill
up, merely for effect, otherwise
is an inoffensive
or indirect expression that is
substituted for one that is
considered offensive or too harsh.
is a forceful and bitter verbal attack
against someone or something. Slander
is a harsh or corrosive in tone.
or venomous language
used to express blame
or bitter deep-seated ill will.
is showing a critical or
Expressive of low opinion. Bias
is something or someone that is
detested or shunned. Assail
attack in speech or writing
. Attack someone physically or emotionally.
is an abrupt or sudden
excited utterance. A loud complaint or protest or a rebuke or criticism.
is a punctuation mark
usually used after an interjection or exclamation to
indicate strong feelings
or high volume
(shouting), or to show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence,
for example: "Watch out!" Similarly, a bare exclamation mark (with nothing
before or after) is often used in warning signs.
Omit Needless Words and Empty
is using extra words
that are not needed in sentences.
Using more words than necessary
"The danger with insults is that it
could ruin your chances of having a
so it can work against you."
mouth gathers no foot"
does not live by words alone, despite the fact that sometimes he has to
eat them." - Adlai
Speech in Denver, Colorado (5 September 1952).
When I see horrible people doing
horrible things I sometimes use
horrible words to describe them,
there is nothing unique about that.
"Yes I do get
frustrated and angry at the
injustices in this world, so I do
say hurtful and mean things, but
that is not all I say. Besides that,
almost every improvement in this
world began with someone standing up
and getting angry, so the freedoms
that you enjoy are the result of
people getting angry. Changes did
not come from silent people who were
to afraid to or to ignorant to speak
their mind, they came from people
just like me. So if I happen to use
some of the bad words used by my
culture, then so be it."
""I never said I
was a good writer, but I am a good
fighter. But I'm not looking for the
knockout punch, I'm just looking to
stay in the ring long enough to get
some punches in and wear down those
f*cking criminals, and eventually
win by unanimous decision."
"If there is a
better way to call you an a**hole,
please let me know, I'm all ears."
The 100 Greatest Movie Insults of
Deaf People Teach
Us Bad Words
I take my expressions of anger and
frustration and put them into words,
words that express anger and
frustration, that's it, don't go any
farther then that. When I write
words that express my feelings of
anger and frustration, they are just
words. To explain my anger and
frustration I must write more about
what I'm trying to communicate,
which I do. So please don't get hung
up on words that you feel offended
by, just keep reading. If you stop
to judge something before you finish
hearing all the
, then you will never
be able to understand the message
accurately enough. If a spoon is
dirty, you wipe the dirt off the
spoon, you don't throw the spoon
away. You keep the spoon. The spoon
is still good, just wipe the dirt
off. I don't mind if you ignore the
dirt or hate the dirt, as long as
you understand the message. Focus on
the on the words that reveal
important information, and don't let
the words that express emotion
distract you from understanding the
I use certain harsh language,
this does not mean that I approve of
the words that I have chosen. I use
words that are used by my culture,
words used by millions of people in
my generation, that is where I have
learned them. I know how inadequate and rude profanity is, and
that these are not all the words in
my vocabulary. But when describing
emotion, you use words that you are
familiar with. I'm not saying that I
agree with those words. But we must
avoid quickly judging certain words.
We should only listen to the
message, and not be distracted by
certain words used in the message.
This is what
is all about, which is to accurately
understand the true meaning of a
particular message. Interpret
without judgment, translate the
message cleanly before adding your
own opinion to it. Then after you
have successfully done that, then
you can talk about your personal
experience that you had with that
particular message. And now we can
have a real conversation.
I get angry
when I learn the truth about
injustices and ignorant criminal
behavior, just like a lot of people
do. But I don't recommend for anyone
, there are much more
effective ways to
they are also a lot healthier.
Even though I'm embarrassed writing profanity, I really don't mind
writing it because it's good to get those things off your chest. Plus,
when I do write down my profanity ridden rants, in a way it releases those
ugly words from my
so they don't build up inside me. So after I write ugly
words down I no longer feel connected to those words, they become only
some words that were connected to an anger from which they came. So when I
do see you in person, I will not embarrass myself like that again and use
such ignorant words. But if I accidently do say "f*ck you!", don't take it
personally, just call it a
.If you are the receiver of profanity
going to have to get over it. They are empty words that don't carry any
useful information, so let it go. Focus on the core message and pay no
mind to the extra words used around it. Look at the message the same way
as you do an
, it's meant to emphasize and express
, it's not meant to
distract you from the message, so focus, because I'm going to test you
soon. In the mean time, If you ever have some useful information to share,
please let me know, I'm all ears. When I finally stopped being hurt
or distracted by peoples harsh words,
I was finally free
. At that moment I
experience a freedom that was so
liberating, it was like I have just
begun to live for the very first
time. It was spiritual, it was
enlightening, and it was
exhilarating all at once. Till this
day I am still thankful for that
moment of understanding, it has been
Just because someone doesn't fully
understand you, this does not mean
that they will never understand you.
Don't blame people for not
understanding you, learn from them.
There are always different ways of
explaining something, and the more
ways you know how to explain things,
the more successful you will be at
being understood correctly.
conversation, sharing your thoughts
because you cannot always say what
you're thinking, especially when
talking to people face to face. So
documenting your personal thoughts
is a unique way of writing. Helps
you capture some of your ignorance,
as well as, it helps you capture
some of the words of an earlier
time, and not necessarily the person
you are today. say what your
thinking even if it's wrong or
insensitive, you can that they are
only words, not totally all my
words, mostly the words of my
culture, a culture that is evolving.
I don't want to make people feel
bad, just aware of the something
that is bad and not good. The
cause's and effect's of our personal
life and our business life, which is
our responsibility towards each
other, and our responsibility to our
local surroundings and our global
You're going to own those
First, you cannot own words, you can
only use words. Language is a shared
should have access too. To say "In
my own words" is a lie. You don't have words of your own unless you
created your own language. All you are doing is using words that the human
language has created. So all you can do is either use words to transmit
some new information, or use words to repeat some old information, or to
use words to say something that everyone has no idea what you're saying.
To say that you have said something that has never been said before is
extremely difficult to prove.
I like to use words that are a
symbolic example of a particular
dialect used by a particular culture
during a particular time in history.
But still, most words are only
personal and not totally
representative of the entire
culture. They usually represent a
lower percentage of a particular
culture. It doesn't express the
current mind set. If you wanted to
know what a civilization was
thinking as a whole, you would see
something different, varying degrees
of knowledge and awareness cause
different opinions about reality.
"If an inadequate education is the
source of all our problems, then that means that an effective education is
also the cure for all our problems."
Links between Swearing and Honesty, Frankly, do we give a damn…?
Go f*ck yourself means,
yourself what you do to others and
see if you like it
. Do unto others
as you would have them do unto you,
don't do to others that you would
not like done to you.
Have a Nice day As*hole means, I
wish you well, but I would
appreciate it if you would stop
being ignorant, selfish and immoral.
Instead be intelligent, be
compassionate, be human.
That's Just F**kingly Great: If
"F**king" Is an Adjective, What Is
the Adverb? What and how does
"I can be
such a jerk sometimes
. It's not that
I'm being insensitive on purpose,
it's that I'm not always aware of
how my words and actions are being
perceived. I apologize when I'm
aware of my
so please let me know when I'm not
aware of my insensitivity, so that I
may offer you my
and also improve my
Swearing as a Response to Pain
Swearing as a Response to
Pain—Effect of Daily Swearing
involuntary swearing or the involuntary utterance of obscene words or
socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks. Coprolalia is an occasional
characteristic of tic disorders, in particular
although it is not required for a diagnosis of Tourette's and only about
10% of Tourette's patients exhibit coprolalia. It is not unique to tic
disorders; it is also a rare symptom of other neurological disorders.
Coprolalia is one type of coprophenomenon. Other coprophenomena include
the related symptoms of copropraxia, involuntary actions such as
performing obscene or forbidden gestures, and coprographia, making obscene
writings or drawings.
If someone who had
Coprolalia never heard obscene words or socially
inappropriate and derogatory remarks, what would they say? What
if they heard nothing but kind words, wouldn't they be screaming
out nice things? You're Beautiful!!
People who curse a lot have better vocabularies than those who
don't, study finds
, I guess you have to ask, if your
vocabulary is so large, why can't you find better words to communicate with?
a 2009 American documentary film directed by Ben Steinbauer. The film
follows the Internet phenomenon created by a series of twenty-year-old
outtakes from a Winnebago sales video featuring profane outbursts from the
salesperson, Jack Rebney. Originally intended as an inside joke, the video
spread across the globe first on VHS then via YouTube and other online
video sites, earning the salesman the title of "The Angriest Man in the
World". The documentary explores the story of the clips' origins and how,
two decades later, it affects the reluctant star. Steinbauer released a
short film Extraordinarily Unusual: Surprising the Winnebago Man in 2017,
documenting his return to visit Rebney on his 87th birthday, bringing some
of Rebney's old friends to celebrate.
and Publicly Writing your
Personal Thoughts can be Dangerous.
But I grew up doing dangerous
things. So I learned that danger is
not the only reason why you do
something or not do something. There
are many reasons not to do something
that are beyond the fact that
something is dangerous. That is why
we have risk assessments. We can
also base our success rate on
previous experiences. Because things
are not as dangerous when you have
experience it before, and understand
your abilities and limits. But that
is not all, publicly sharing your
personal thoughts is dangerous
because of the chance of being
misunderstood by others. But on the
other hand, there is also a risk of
not sharing your personal thoughts.
Dammed if you do, and dammed if you
difficult when it comes to
determining peoples reactions. Try
to share more then just your
personal thoughts, and understand,
that it's risky if you do and risky
if you don't. Speaking your mind has
risks. Know when to speak, know what
to speak, know how to speak, and
know why you speak.
, or write publicly,
there will always be some
, but criticism is not
always bad, sometimes criticism
makes you more aware of how people
are understanding you, so criticism
could actually benefit you and make
you a better communicator."
calling or angry tones are a waste
of energy and time. When you learn
to talk and
you will learn very
quickly that you will have much
better results with people and
situations when you refrain from
anger and name calling. And you will
also learn that there is very little
need for drama and name calling when
want to keep that shit in your head,
writing it down releases it and
makes it easier to
delete it from your mind
Seven Dirty Words
are English-language curse words that American comedian
first listed in his 1972 "Seven Words You Can Never Say
on Television" monologue. The words, in the order Carlin listed them, are
"shit", "piss", "fuck", "cunt", "cocksucker", "motherfucker", and "tits".
During a performance in 1966, comedian
said he had been arrested for saying nine words: "ass", "balls",
"cocksucker", "cunt", "fuck", "motherfucker", "piss", "shit", and "tits".
In 1972, comedian George Carlin released his fourth stand-up album Class
Clown. One track on the album, "Seven Words You Can Never Say on
Television", was a monologue in which he identified these words and
expressed amazement that they could not be used regardless of context.
In a 2004 NPR interview, George Carlin said: "These words have no power.
We give them this power by refusing to be free and easy with them. We give
them great power over us. They really, in themselves, have no power. It's
the thrust of the sentence that makes them either good or bad."
deals with the regulation or
of what is considered
. In the United States, discussion of
obscenity typically relates to pornography, as well as issues of freedom
of speech and of the press, otherwise protected by the
of the United
States. Issues of obscenity arise at federal and state levels. The States
have a direct interest in public morality and have responsibility in
relation to criminal law matters, including the punishment for the
production and sale of obscene materials. State laws operate only within
the jurisdiction of each state, and there are a wide differences in such
laws. The federal government is involved in the issue indirectly, by
making it an offense to distribute obscene materials
through the post, to
broadcast them, as well as in relation to importation of such materials.
Most obscenity cases in the United States in the past century have
revolved around images and films, but there have also been many cases that
dealt with textual works as well, a notable case being that of the 18th
century novel Fanny Hill. Because censorship laws enacted to combat
obscenity restrict the freedom of expression, crafting a legal definition
of obscenity presents a civil liberties issue.
or vulgar language is not as dangerous as
, or as dangerous as
a dumb down education
doesn't teach students enough about language and information literacy. If
you really want to protect children, you should educate them to the
highest degree possible.
"I've learned over time that you have to have a very high tolerance for
a**holes and ignorant people.
Because if you don't you will end up
acting like an ignorant a**hole
yourself. So I'm going to create a
course that will give people the
necessary skills and techniques that
will give a person the tolerance and
the appropriate responses to other
peoples moronic behavior. I'm going
to call the course "High Tolerance
for Assholes 101". Believe it or not
I have over 10,000 people signed up
for the course already, mostly from
people who are planning to work in
government, banks, corporations and
in the media." So the
lesson here is to rewrite this
paragraph so that there is no vulgar
language and no
, and then name the
10 things that you would teach in this course?
is characteristic of informal
spoken language or conversation.Informal
is something not officially recognized or controlled.
is an older word for a rascal, a scoundrel, or a rogue. It isn't
a compliment. If you read
for long, you'll definitely see the word knave more than once.
Shit is the most versatile word in the
. You can get shit-faced, Be shit-out-of-luck, Or
have shit for brains. With a little effort, you can get your shit
together, find a place for your shit, or be asked to shit or get off the
pot. You can smoke shit, buy shit, sell shit, lose shit, find shit, forget
shit, and tell others to eat shit. Some people know their shit, while
others can't tell the difference between shit and shineola. There are
lucky shits, dumb shits, and crazy shits. There is bull shit, horse shit,
and chicken shit. You can throw shit, sling shit, catch shit, shoot the
shit, or duck when the shit hits the fan. You can give a shit or serve
shit on a shingle. You can find yourself in deep shit or be happier than a
pig in shit. Some days are colder than shit, some days are hotter than
shit, and some days are just plain shitty. Some music sounds like shit,
things can look like shit, and there are times when you feel like shit.
You can have too much shit, not enough shit, the right shit, the wrong
shit or a lot of weird shit. You can carry shit, have a mountain of shit,
or find yourself up shit creek without a paddle. Sometimes everything you
touch turns to shit and other times you fall in a bucket of shit and come
out smelling like a rose. When you stop to consider all the facts, it's
the basic building block of the English language. And remember, once you
know your shit, you don't need to know anything else!! You could pass this
along, if you give a shit; or not do so if you don't give a shit! Well,
Shit, it's time for me to go. Just wanted you to know that I do give a
shit and hope you had a nice day, without a bunch of shit. But, if you
happened to catch a load of shit from some shit-head.... Well,
Funny and sarcastic sayings from different
ideologies and religions using the word shit
Confucius say, "Shit happens
Taoism: Shit happens but the shit that
happens is not the true shit.
Buddhism: If shit happens, it isn't
really shit, it is only an illusion of shit happening.
Shit is, and is not. What is the sound of shit happening?
TV-Evangelism: Send money or shit will happen to you. You need our shit,
but it will cost you.
Protestantism: Shit won't happen if you work
harder. Let shit happen to someone else.
Presbyterian: This shit was
bound to happen.
Islam: If shit happens, it is the will of Allah.
Catholicism: If shit happens, you deserve it.
Shit happens because the Bible says so.
Judaism: Why does this shit
always happen to us?
Hinduism: This shit has happened before.
Shit dost occur.
Apathism: I don't give a shit.
Narcissim: My shit
don't stink. I am the shit that happens.
Nihilism: Everything is shit.
Atheism: There is no such thing as shit or I can't believe
this shit. What shit?
Cartesianism: I shit, therefore I am.
All this shit is a creation of my imagination.
Creationism: God made
Creation Science: We have proof that God created all the shit
Secular Humanism: Shit evolves.
Darwinism: We came up
from shit. This shit was once food.
Agnostic: Shit might have happened;
then again, maybe not. Did someone shit? Agnosticism: What is this shit?
Ba'hat: All shit is truly shit.
Episcopalian: It's not so bad if shit
happens, as long as you serve the right wine with it.
not so bad if shit happens, as long as you serve grape juice with it.
Altruism: Want some shit?
Momism: You'll eat this shit and like it!
Capitalism: That's my shit. How much will this shit cost?
Commercialism: Let's package this shit.
Classical Marxism: The workers
take all the shit, but they're gonna dish it back out again.
Theory: If we don't agree to form society, everything will go to shit.
Communism: It's everybody's shit.
Mccarthyism: Are you now, or have
you ever been, shit?
Scientology: If shit happens, see "Dianetics",
Christian Science: When shit happens, don't call a doctor -
pray! Shit happening is all in your mind.
Mormonism: God sent us this
shit. This shit is going to happen again. Your shit is shit, but our shit
is the one true shit.
Mennonite: None of this modern shit now.
Moonies: Only really happy shit happens.
Hare Krishna: Shit happens,
Murphism: Shit always happens at the worst possible time and
Solipsism: The only thing I can be sure of is that my shit
Practical: Deal with shit one day at a time.
Congregationalist: Shit that happens to one person is just as good as shit
that happens to another.
Unitarian: Shit that happens to one person is
just as bad as shit that happens to another.
Lutheran: If shit happens,
don't talk about it.
Fundamentalism: If shit happens, you will go to
hell, unless you are born again. (Amen!)
Seventh Day Adventism: No shit
shall happen on Saturday.
Calvinism: Shit happens because you don't
Unitarianism: Come let us reason together about this shit.
Quakers: Let us not fight over this shit.
Utopianism: This shit does
Feminism: Men are shit.
Chauvinism: We may be shit, but
you can't live without us.
Impressionism: From a distance, shit looks
like a garden.
Idolism: Let's bronze this shit.
doesn't happen; shit is. What is shit, anyway?
Stoicism: This shit is
good for me.
Hedonism: There is nothing like a good shit happening!
Wiccan: An it harm none, let shit happen.
Jehovah's Witnesses: >Knock<
>Knock< Shit happens. May we have a moment of your time to show you some
of our shit? Shit has been prophesied and is imminent; only the righteous
shall survive its happening.
Rastafarianism: Let's smoke this shit.
Zoroastrianism: Shit happens half on the time.
Jack Schitt married Noe Schitt,
and produced 6 children: Holie Schitt, Fulla Schitt, Giva Schitt, Bull
Schitt, and the twins: Deep Schitt and Dip Schitt.
Synonyms - Related Words that describe Bad Behavior
affectless, callous, case-hardened,
, compassionless, desensitized, hard-boiled, hard-hearted,
, indurate, inhuman,
, insensate, hard, ironhearted,
merciless, obdurate, pachydermatous, pitiless, remorseless,
slash-and-burn, soulless, stony (also stoney), stonyhearted,
take-no-prisoners, thick-skinned, uncharitable, unfeeling, unmerciful,
used to describe most of our
and some of
, as well as some of the scumbags in
, as well as all the
as*holes in the world who feel the need to express
their ignorance. Boorish, heedless,
uncaring, unfriendly, unloving, unthinking; grim,
hard-bitten, harsh, heavy-handed, ironfisted,
ironhanded, jackbooted, knock-down, drag-out (or
rough-and-tumble, severe, sledgehammer, stern,
, acrimonious, disagreeable,
hateful, ill-natured, ill-tempered, malevolent,
, mean, rancorous, spiteful, surly,
virulent; barbarous, bestial, brutal, brutish,
cruel, evil-minded, savage, vicious; austere, cold,
This is why the word 'Asshole' is so effective,
because it pretty much replaces all the words above.
But it's not a
Nice Words - What all Good People should be
, humane, kindhearted,
, merciful, sensitive, softhearted,
, tender, tenderhearted, warm, warmhearted.
benevolent, benignant, gentle, kind; clement,
indulgent, lenient, mild; cordial,
good-natured, good-tempered, gracious;
understanding; affectionate, fond,
The Bottom Line is.
I don't want to encourage
, I just want people to be aware and to
understand that things need to be taken seriously. I
people to hate people
, I just want people to do what they
can to stop injustices and corruption, without
making things worse, and without lowering yourself
to that level of
And on top of that, who you are in person
is different than what you write. So don't ever
believe that you know someone just because you have
read some of the words that they have written.
That's like when people believe that actors and
authors are just like the characters that they
portray. These types of assumptions are illogical
and stupid. It's just a lot easier to inquire and
ask questions then to believe that you know the answers, like with
Just because someone uses bad words does not
make them a bad person
, and just because someone
uses ignorant words this does not mean that they're
ignorant. You can use logical deduction and say bad
people use bad words and ignorant people use
ignorant words, but with so many
, there can be no accurate method of
, not until you answer the questions of
How Much? When? Why and Where? How much of this
language is used? When is this language used? Why is
this language used? And where is this language used?
I wish I had a nickel for every time I said "WTF is going on here?
make it cool to swear again?
is a word
formed from the initial letters of the several words in the name.
characterized by multiple
and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Most often associated with coprolalia (the utterance
of obscene words or socially inappropriate and
derogatory remarks), but this symptom is present in
only a small minority of people with Tourette's.
is involuntary swearing or the
involuntary utterance of obscene words or socially
inappropriate and derogatory remarks.
To call someone stupid, is stupid
. Whether you are
calling someone a
, an idiot, an
, or any other harsh insulting words,
but never the "R" word
, because you clearly insult
everyone, including yourself. The important thing is
that people should not be insulted when called
stupid, or any other harsh word, even if you're
calling yourself stupid. It is merely a question of,
"why is this thinking flawed and incorrect?" Was it
a simple mistake that you made? Or an indicator that
the process used in your decision making needs to be
improved so that you can achieve higher quality
results from your decisions? And that is only one
way to correctly handle insults. Don't be distracted
by the harshness of a word or words, just simply
answer the question "why is this thinking flawed and
incorrect?" Or simply ask "what is stupid?" or just
answer with one word, "why". And the more questions
that you answer that improve your thinking, the more
you will become. You will still make
mistakes, but now you will solve them a lot faster,
and you will also make fewer mistakes.
There's nothing wrong with
calling yourself stupid
as long as you don't
take it personally.
It's the people who are
not offended or distracted by profanity are the
people I admire most. Don't get distracted by minor
irrelevant details, the most important thing is did
you understand the message? Once people fully
understand how important the transfer of information
is, we will communicate more effectively and
efficiently, and at a much higher level of understanding.
"I look at some of my writing to be
like A Warning Label for
Life, there's a lot of dangers in life, but
there's also a lot of joy. Avoiding the dangers
takes a lot of work, and this responsibility should
never be taken lightly. Learn to maximize your fun."
There is always risk involved with
communicating to a large audience. You can't
guarantee that everyone will understand your message
the same way. So you have to play the odds. In order
to communicate to one group you may have to sacrifice
communicating to another because of their beliefs.
You have to learn to speak to everyone at the same
time, and use words that have no bias and no
preference, just express the facts and a clear
understanding of those facts. Save the stupid
comments for your standup comedy routine,
where everyone clearly understands that your being an idiot for laughs
and not trying to communicate something important.
History of Writing
traces the development of
or other marks and also the studies and descriptions of these
developments. In the history of how writing systems have evolved in
different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded
by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols
(symbols or letters that make remembering them easier). True writing, in
which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another
reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact
utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from
proto-writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and
affixes, making it more difficult or even impossible to reconstruct the
exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is
already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression
is cuneiform. Writing was long thought to have been invented in a single
civilization, a theory named "monogenesis". Scholars believed that all
writing originated in ancient Sumer (in Mesopotamia) and spread over the
world from there via a process of cultural diffusion. According to this
theory, the concept of representing language by written marks, though not
necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by
traders or merchants traveling between geographical regions.
refers to the early writing systems that emerged in
Eurasia in the early 3rd millennium BCE
that were a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems that
cannot be classified as writing proper, but have many characteristics
strikingly similar to writing. Proto-writing consists of visible marks
communicating limited information. Such systems emerged from earlier
traditions of symbol systems in the early Neolithic, as early as the 7th
millennium BC. They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols or both to
represent a limited number of concepts, in contrast to true writing
systems, which record the language of the writer. (10,000 BCE – 2020 CE