Women Sleeping in Bed on PillowSleep is a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended. A biological resting state resembling deep sleep. Apathetic or showing little or no emotion. Quiet and inactive restfulness. Inactive but capable of becoming active. A decrease in metabolic rate. In a condition of biological rest or suspended animation. Nature's Soft Nurse.

Sleeping Tips - Sleeping Positions - Beds - Dreams - Nightmares - Sleep Disorders - Monitoring - Sleep Learning

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Women turning off an Alarm ClockProper sleep habits are essential for optimum health, energy, and potential. Sleep is both mentally and physically crucial for concentration, memory, learning and repairing and rejuvenating the cells of the human body. You need to be aware of all the things that ruin good sleep, and be able to recognize the warning signs.

Orthosomnia is someone who is obsessed with sleeping well.

Shift Work - Jet Lag - Lack of Sleep Dangers - Sleep Patterns around the World

Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic cyclic phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms. These cycles are known as biological rhythms.

Circadian Rhythm is the human sleep-wake cycle. The rhythm is regulated by an internal biological clock or the body clock in the brain as the body responds to light and darkness within a 24 hour cycle. These 24-hour rhythms have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria. Body parts respond to day and night independently from brain. Researchers have suspected that the body's various circadian clocks can operate independently from the central clock in the hypothalamus of the brain. Diurnal rhythm is a biological rhythm that is synchronized with the day/night cycle. It may or may not be a circadian rhythm. Cortisol follows a circadian rhythm, and to accurately measure cortisol levels is best to test four times per day through saliva. An individual may have normal total cortisol but have a lower than normal level during a certain period of the day and a higher than normal level during a different period. Therefore, some scholars question the clinical utility of cortisol measurement.

Melatonin - Pineal Gland - Dark Room - Temperature - Light - Sound - Nocturnal - Half Asleep - Brainwave Synchronization

Circadian clocks play a key role in fat cell growth. Disruption of the circadian clocks that keep the body and its cells entrained to the 24-hour day-night cycle plays a critical role in weight gain, according to a pair of studies.

Entrainment in chronobiology occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation. It is ultimately the interaction between circadian rhythms and the environment. A central example is the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the daily light–dark cycle, which ultimately is determined by the Earth's rotation. Exposure to certain environmental stimuli will cue a phase shift, and abrupt change in the timing of the rhythm. Entrainment helps organisms maintain an adaptive phase relationship with the environment as well as prevent drifting of a free running rhythm. This stable phase relationship achieved is thought to be the main function of entrainment.

Some animal cells have robust 12-hour cycles of genetic activity in addition to circadian or 24-hour cycles. Biological cycles exist in addition to 24-hour rhythms. Blood pressure, body temperature, cognitive performance, some circulating hormones, reaction to stress and responses to drug therapy, for instance, appear to follow a 12-hour rhythm.

Time-Signature computer algorithm uses blood sample data to predict someone’s circadian rhythm. The clock can direct hormone release, dictate when someone will feel fatigue, and help control daily changes in body temperature. Disruption of a normal rhythm may be a factor in many diseases: insomnia, heart disease, and even neurological disorders like dementia have all been linked to a misaligned circadian rhythm. TimeSignature was tested exclusively in humans, and would only require two blood tests spaced 10 to 12 hours apart. In order to get a fix on a person’s circadian rhythm, the algorithm first studied an array of over 7,000 genes, looking at their peak expressions at different times of the day. From these genes, TimeSignature found 40 that best went along with a person’s circadian rhythm. It was able to predict the time of day based on how strongly those genes were expressed, comparing it with the actual time the patient's blood sample was taken.

Sleep Phases - Sleep Cycles

Sleep Cycles Chart Monophasic sleep is one period of sleep over 24 hours. The average person has around five 90 minute sleep cycles each night.

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep or REM Sleep, is a unique phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of the eyes, low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly. This phase is also known as paradoxical sleep (PS) and sometimes desynchronized sleep because of physiological similarities to waking states, including rapid, low-voltage desynchronized brain waves. Electrical and chemical activity regulating this phase seems to originate in the brain stem and is characterized most notably by an abundance of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, combined with a nearly complete absence of monoamine neurotransmitters histamine, serotonin, and norepinepherine. The cortical and thalamic neurons of the waking or paradoxically sleeping brain are more depolarized—i.e., can "fire" more readily—than in the deeply sleeping brain. The right and left hemispheres of the brain are more coherent in REM sleep, especially during lucid dreams.

Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep or NREM, also known as quiescent sleep, is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4. Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is not included. There are distinct electroencephalographic and other characteristics seen in each stage. Unlike REM sleep, there is usually little or no eye movement during these stages. Dreaming is rare during NREM sleep, and muscles are not paralyzed as in REM sleep. People who do not go through the sleeping stages properly get stuck in NREM sleep, and because muscles are not paralyzed a person may be able to sleepwalk. According to studies, the mental activity that takes place during NREM sleep is believed to be thought-like, whereas REM sleep includes hallucinatory and bizarre content. The mental activity that occurs in NREM and REM sleep is a result of two different generators, which also explains the difference in mental activity. In addition, there is a parasympathetic dominance during NREM. During the period of Non-REM sleep, the mindset of a person is more organized. The reported differences between the REM and NREM activity are believed to arise from differences in the memory stages that occur during the two types of sleep. It has been found through several experiments that low levels of stage 3 sleep are observed in about 40-50% of people with acute and chronic schizophrenia (who typically experience abnormal non-rapid eye movement sleep).

Body Clock Polyphasic Sleep is the practice of sleeping during two periods over 24 hours, while polyphasic sleep refers to sleeping multiple times - usually more than two. Polyphasic Sleep Foundation.

Segmented Sleep is the practice of sleeping during two periods over 24 hours. Sleeping twice in the same day.

Cathemerality or metaturnality, is an organismal activity pattern of irregular intervals during the day or night in which food is acquired, socializing with other organisms occurs, and any other activities necessary for livelihood are undertaken. This activity differs from the generally monophasic pattern (sleeping once per day) of nocturnal and diurnal species as it is polyphasic (sleeping 4-6 times per day) and is approximately evenly distributed throughout the 24-hour cycle. Many animals do not fit the traditional definitions of being strictly nocturnal, diurnal, or crepuscular, often driven by factors that include the availability of food, predation pressure, and variable ambient temperature. Although cathemerality is not as widely observed in individual species as diurnality or nocturnality, this activity pattern is seen across the mammal taxa, such as in lions, coyotes, and lemurs. Cathemeral behaviour can also vary on a seasonal basis over an annual period by exhibiting periods of predominantly nocturnal behaviour and exhibiting periods of predominantly diurnal behaviour. For example, seasonal cathemerality has been described for the Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) as activity that shifts from being predominantly diurnal to being predominantly nocturnal over a yearly cycle, but the Common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) have been observed as seasonally shifting from diurnal activity to cathemerality. As research on cathemerality continues, many factors that have been identified as influencing whether or why an animal behaves cathemerally. Such factors include resource variation, food quality, photoperiodism, nocturnal luminosity, temperature, predator avoidance, and energetic constraints.

Nap is a short period of sleep, typically taken during daytime hours as an adjunct to the usual nocturnal sleep period. Naps are most often taken as a response to drowsiness during waking hours. A nap is a form of biphasic or polyphasic sleep, where the latter terms also include longer periods of sleep in addition to one single period. For years, scientists have been investigating the benefits of napping, including the 30-minute nap as well as sleep durations of 1–2 hours. Performance across a wide range of cognitive processes has been tested. Taking a Break.

Siesta is a short nap taken in the early afternoon, often after the midday meal. Such a period of sleep is a common tradition in some countries, particularly those in warm-weather zones. Aestivation.

Slow-Wave Sleep or Deep Sleep is when the EEG activity is synchronized, producing slow waves with a frequency of less than 1 Hz and a relatively high amplitude. The first section of the wave signifies a down state, which is an inhibition period in which the neurons in the neocortex are silent. This is the period when the neocortical neurons are able to rest. The second section of the wave signifies an up state, which is an excitation period in which the neurons fire briefly at a high rate. The former state is a hyperpolarizing phase and the latter is a depolarizing phase. The principal characteristics during slow-wave sleep that contrast with REM sleep are moderate muscle tone, slow or absent eye movement, and lack of genital activity. Slow-wave sleep is considered important for memory consolidation or sleep learning. This is sometimes referred to as "sleep-dependent memory processing". Impaired memory consolidation has been seen in individuals with primary insomnia who thus do not perform as well as those who are healthy in memory tasks following a period of sleep. Furthermore, slow-wave sleep improves declarative memory (which includes semantic and episodic memory). A central model has been hypothesized that the long-term memory storage is facilitated by an interaction between the hippocampal and neocortical networks. In several studies, after the subjects have had training to learn a declarative memory task, the density of human sleep spindles present was significantly higher than the signals observed during the control tasks that involved similar visual stimulation and cognitively-demanding tasks but did not require learning. This associated with the spontaneously occurring wave oscillations that account for the intracellular recordings from thalamic and cortical neuron. Sleep deprivation studies with humans suggest that the primary function of slow-wave sleep may be to allow the brain to recover from its daily activities. Glucose metabolism in the brain increases as a result of tasks that demand mental activity. Another function affected by slow-wave sleep is the secretion of growth hormone, which is always greatest during this stage. It is also thought to be responsible for a decrease in sympathetic and increase in parasympathetic neural activity. Slow-wave sleep is necessary for survival. Some animals, such as dolphins and birds, have the ability to sleep with only one hemisphere of the brain, leaving the other hemisphere awake to carry out normal functions and to remain alert. Several neurotransmitters are involved in sleep and waking patterns: acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, and orexin. Neocortical neurons fire spontaneously during slow-wave sleep, thus they seem to play a role during this period of sleep. Also, these neurons appear to have some sort of internal dialogue, which accounts for the mental activity during this state where there is no information from external signals because of the synaptic inhibition at the thalamic level. The rate of recall of dreams during this state of sleep is relatively high compared to the other levels of the sleep cycle. This indicates that the mental activity is closer to real life events. Slow-wave sleep is the constructive phase of sleep for recuperation of the mind-body system in which it rebuilds itself after each day. Substances that have been ingested into the body while an organism is awake are synthesized into complex proteins of living tissue. Growth hormones are also secreted to facilitate the healing of muscles as well as repairing damage to any tissues. Lastly, glial cells within the brain are restored with sugars to provide energy for the brain. Learning and Memory formation occurs during wakefulness by the process of long-term potentiation; SWS is associated with the regulation of synapses thus potentiated. SWS has been found to be involved in the downscaling of synapses, in which strongly stimulated or potentiated synapses are kept while weakly potentiated synapses either diminish or are removed. This may be helpful for recalibrating synapses for the next potentiation during wakefulness and for maintaining synaptic plasticity. Notably, new evidence is showing that reactivation and rescaling may be co-occurring during sleep. Coma.

Increased deep sleep benefits your heart. Researchers play ultra-brief tones to stimulate the brain with pink noise during deep sleep. This stimulation improves cardiac output and relaxation of the left ventricle. Such technology to improve cardiovascular function could be relevant both in disease treatment and competitive sports.

We Transition between at least 19 different Brain Phases when Sleeping. By extending the Averaged Neuron model to include changes in extracellular ion concentrations. Rasmussen et al. show that transitions between states of sleep and wakefulness are facilitated by ionic changes and governed by chaotic dynamics, which ensure smooth and robust transitions. A new study has uncovered the large-scale brain patterns and networks in the brain which control sleep, providing knowledge which in the future may can in the long term help people who experience problems sleeping.

It takes about 90 minutes to complete one full sleep cycle that consists of several stages, and we usually have several cycles a night. Brainwaves in the waking state are almost like a chaotic and asynchronous drum beat. Compared to all other stages of sleeping, being awake shows the highest frequency of brainwave patters. Eye movements include blinks if they’re open and slow movement if they’re closed. N1 is a brief period where we are just beginning to fall asleep. It is easy to be woken up in stage 1 and your brain is still pretty active. The EEG shows reduced electrical activity in the brain during stage 1 – about 4 – 7 Hz. N2 lasts longer than stage 1 but is still considered ‘light sleep‘. Stage 2 consists of 2 very important function: Sleep Spindles and K-Complexes. Sleep spindles are visualized in EEG as sudden bursts of brain activity, and are believed to mediate memory consolidation and cortical development. K complexes are sharp, high amplitude waves that are associated with extensive signals in primary sensory cortices and are believed to be triggered by external sensory stimuli. Stage 2 is the beginning of NREM sleep. N3 is the first stage that can be considered ‘deep sleep.’ You are difficult to wake up, and EEG results show your brain is producing slowed brainwave frequency and an increase in delta waves. Stage 3 sleep introduces slow, rhythmic breathing— snoring. REM: While all prior stages have activity in the lower frequency ranges, in REM the EEG shows brain activity ramp way up, similar to readings when the brain is awake. The eyes move rapidly, hence the acronym, and the brain’s neurotransmitters “switch off” the cells that allow muscles to move, effectively paralyzing the dreamer.

Middle-of-the-Night Arousals. The average adult awakens seven to 15 times each night, and this is normal. Mothers, but not fathers, with multiple children report more fragmented sleep. Study tracks sleep patterns of first-time and experienced parents.

Seven hours of sleep is optimal in middle and old age, say researchers. Sleep plays an important role in enabling cognitive function and maintaining good psychological health. It also helps keep the brain healthy by removing waste products. As we get older, we often see alterations in our sleep patterns, including difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep, and decreased quantity and quality of sleep. It is thought that these sleep disturbances may contribute to cognitive decline and psychiatric disorders in the aging population. The researchers say one possible reason for the association between insufficient sleep and cognitive decline may be due to the disruption of slow-wave -- 'deep' -- sleep. Disruption to this type of sleep has been shown to have a close link with memory consolidation as well as the build-up of amyloid -- a key protein which, when it misfolds, can cause 'tangles' in the brain characteristic of some forms of dementia. Additionally, lack of sleep may hamper the brain's ability to rid itself of toxins.
The team also found a link between the amount of sleep and differences in the structure of brain regions involved in cognitive processing and memory, again with greater changes associated with greater than or less than seven hours of sleep.

Neural Sleep Patterns emerged at least 450 million years ago. Researchers have found that neural signatures in sleeping zebrafish are analogous to those of humans, suggesting that the brain activity evolved at least 450 million years ago.

Short Sleeper Syndrome is a sleep condition characterized by sleeping for fewer than six hours each night.  Those with SSS, however, can function normally throughout the day despite less sleep. They don't need to take naps or sleep more than normal to recover from lack of sleep. People with the Short Sleep Gene called DEC2 averaged only 6.25 hours of sleep per night; study participants lacking the mutation averaged 8.06 hours. This finding provided the first conclusive evidence that natural short sleep is, at least in some cases, genetic. But this mutation is rare. BHLHE41 is known for its role in the circadian molecular mechanisms that influence sleep quantity as well as its role in immune function and the maturation of T helper type 2 cell lineages associated with humoral immunity.

Sweet Spot is when you can sleep continuously though the four stages of sleep four to six times each night. Since each cycle is roughly 90 minutes long, most people need seven to eight hours of relatively uninterrupted sleep to achieve this goal. The sweet spot is the total sleep time that is needed for cognitive performance to be stable over time. To help find your sweet spot we recommend you keep a sleep diary, logging the time you went to sleep and the time you woke up and some general. The sweet spot is between sleeping too little and sleeping too much.

Yawn is a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath. Commonly associated with tiredness and sleepiness, but also can be caused by boredom, hunger, stress, and when one's blood contains increased amounts of carbon dioxide and therefore becomes in need of the influx of oxygen (or expulsion of carbon dioxide) so the body yawns as a reflex. Breathing.

Light - Wakeup Naturally without an Alarm Clock

You shouldn't have to shock yourself with an annoying alarm clock to wakeup. There are many alternatives to wake up naturally, which are a lot healthier. How to Wakeup Early - Tips on How to Wake Up On Time.

Wake Up light (youtube) - Amazon (wake up light)

Nocturnality is being active during the night and sleeping during the day. Shift Work (2nd shift - 3rd shift).

Full Spectrum Sun Simulator - What is Light?

Light Therapy consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light. The light is administered for a prescribed amount of time and, in some cases, at a specific time of day.

Light Therapy - Dark Therapy (blue effects sleep) - AYO: Blue Light Therapy - Seasonal Affective Disorder

Keep the Bedroom Dark (sleeping tips)

Artificial Night Lighting has widespread impacts on Nature. Changes to animals' bodies and behaviour -- especially hormone levels and patterns of waking and sleeping -- were consistently found. The study shows that levels of melatonin (a hormone regulating sleep cycles) were reduced by exposure to artificial lighting at night in all animal species studied.

Snooze Button is a control on an alarm clock that sets the alarm to repeat after a short interval, allowing time for a little more sleep.

Alarm Clock is a clock that is designed to alert an individual or group of people at a specified time.

You don’t lose if you snooze. Using the snooze button may actually support the waking process for regular snoozers. It's common to want to stay in bed, potentially even go back to sleep, when the alarm goes off in the morning. The snooze button has been a function in alarm clocks and cell phones for decades and is often claimed to have negative effects, both on sleep and the brain's ability to wake up. However, there has been no scientific research to support these claims. Researchers from Stockholm University have now investigated how common snoozing is and what effects this behaviour has on sleep, sleepiness, mood and cognitive abilities. Our findings show that those who snooze on average sleep slightly shorter and feel more drowsy in the morning compared to those who never snooze. But there were no negative effects of snoozing on cortisol release, morning tiredness, mood, or sleep quality throughout the night.

Sounds - Noise Filtering - Sound Masking to Improve Sleep

Sound Machine or Sleep Machine can help you sleep in noisy environments, but be careful with children because the decibel level may be to high for children's young sensitive ears. Max Richter (Sleep) 8 hour version.

Sleep Learning - Relaxing Music - Meditation Sounds - Music - Silence

Pink Noise is a mix of high and low frequencies that sounds more balanced and natural than its better-known cousin White Noise, which is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. Static background can sometimes improve sleep and memory.

White Noise Machine is a device that produces a noise that calms the listener, which in many cases sounds like a rushing waterfall or wind blowing through trees, and other serene or nature-like sounds. Often such devices do not produce actual white noise, which has a harsh sound, but pink noise, whose power rolls off at higher frequencies, or other colors of noise.

White Noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. White noise is a common synthetic noise source used for sound masking by a tinnitus masker. An experiment was carried out on sixty six healthy participants to observe the benefits of using white noise in a learning environment. The experiment involved the participants identifying different images whilst having different sounds in the background. Overall the experiment showed that white noise does in fact have benefits in relation to learning. The experiments showed that white noise improved the participant's learning abilities and their recognition memory slightly.

Noise Filtering - Noise Cancelation - Noise Pollution - Tinnitus - Interference - Masking Sounds

Binaural Beats - Delta Waves.

Brown Noise and Music for focus and learning.

QuietOn - Active Noise Cancelling Earplugs

Naptime: Smart Eyeshade Sound with EEG technology. - Sleep Trackers.

The Brain Benefits of Deep Sleep — and how to get more of it - Dan Gartenberg at TED Residency (video and text).

Radio Noise is unwanted random electrical signals, fluctuating voltages, always present in a radio receiver in addition to the desired radio signal. Radio noise is a combination of natural electromagnetic atmospheric noise ("spherics", static) created by electrical processes in the atmosphere like lightning, manmade radio frequency interference (RFI) from other electrical devices picked up by the receiver's antenna, and thermal noise present in the receiver input circuits, caused by the random thermal motion of molecules.

During sleep the brain's reaction to sound remains strong, but one critical feature of conscious attention disappears. Sleep provides a major key to the mystery of consciousness. The researchers were surprised to discover that the brain's response to sound remains powerful during sleep in all parameters but one: the level of alpha-beta waves associated with attention to the auditory input and related expectations. This means that during sleep, the brain analyzes the auditory input but is unable to focus on the sound or identify it, and therefore no conscious awareness ensues. The researchers placed speakers emitting various sounds at the patients' bedside and compared data from the implanted electrodes -- neural activity and electrical waves in different areas of the brain -- during wakefulness vs. various stages of sleep. Altogether, the team collected data from over 700 neurons, about 50 neurons in each patient, over the course of 8 years. The researchers explain that alpha-beta waves (10-30Hz) are linked to processes of attention and expectation that are controlled by feedback from higher regions in the brain. As signals travel 'bottom-up' from the sensory organs to higher regions, a 'top-down' motion also occurs: the higher regions, relying on prior information that had accumulated in the brain, act as a guide, sending down signals to instruct the sensory regions as to which input to focus on, which should be ignored, etc. Thus, for example, when a certain sound is received in the ear, the higher regions can tell whether it is new or familiar, and whether it deserves attention or not. This kind of brain activity is manifested in the suppression of alpha-beta waves, and indeed, previous studies have shown a high level of these waves in states of rest and anesthesia. According to the current study, the strength of alpha-beta waves is the main difference between the brain's response to auditory inputs in states of wakefulness vs. sleep.

Breathing Exercises to to Fall Asleep Faster

Diaphragmatic Breathing is breathing that is done by contracting the diaphragm, a muscle located horizontally between the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity. Air enters the lungs and the belly expands during this type of breathing. This deep breathing is marked by expansion of the abdomen rather than the chest when breathing. It is a form of complementary and alternative treatment. Diaphragmatic breathing is also known scientifically as eupnea, which is a natural and relaxed form of breathing in all mammals. Eupnea occurs in mammals whenever they are in a state of relaxation, i.e. when there is no clear and present danger in their environment. Diaphragmatic Breathing is also known as abdominal breathing or belly breathing or deep breathing.

To increase Oxygen Levels, Inhale slowly until your lungs are full. Hold the oxygen in your lungs for five to 10 seconds, then slowly exhale while you make a humming sound.

Asleep in 60 seconds: 4-7-8 breathing technique claims to help you nod off in just a minute (youtube)

4-7-8 Breath - Breathing Techniques - Sleep Learning

Breathing Exercises (meditation)

We take almost 6000 breaths when we sleep around 8 hours.

Self Hypnosis - Meditation - Deep Sleep Hypnosis (youtube)

Relaxation Techniques (youtube)

Om Mani Padme Hum Mantra 8 Hours (youtube)

Yoga Poses before Sleeping: Modified Goddess, Spinal Twist, Upside-Down Relaxation.

Darkness - Dark Bedroom

Keep the bedroom dark as possible. Sleeping in a dark room can greatly improve your quality of sleep. Darkness causes the brain to produce the hormone melatonin, which gives us that sleepy feeling. In response to darkness, the pineal gland begins to produce melatonin. Melatonin is a serotonin-derived hormone that promotes sleepiness. However, exposure to light blocks the production of melatonin. When this happens before bed or during sleep, it can interfere with the sleep-wake cycle. Evening light exposure inhibits the naturally timed rise of melatonin, which delays the onset of the body's transition to sleep and sleep itself. Darkness is essential to sleep. The absence of light sends a critical signal to the body that it is time to rest. Close the curtains at night. Light from the sun and moon, as well as security lights or street lights, can enter the bedroom through windows. If your blinds or curtains do not block outside light sufficiently, you might consider investing in blackout curtains. Covering the window with aluminum foil is a low-cost alternative that also blocks outdoor light. Turn off any nightlights and move bright clocks that can expose you to too much light. Being exposed to light throughout the night impacts hormone function and is connected to depression and an increased cancer risk. One study by Travelodge found that households that have blue bedrooms received the best night's sleep compared to any other color, but blue light, on the other hand, is the worst for sleep while light bulbs with a yellow or red hue and are best for bedside lamps. Wear an Eye Mask if it’s not possible to block light from entering your room. Just closing your eyes may not be good enough.

Close the blinds during sleep to protect your health. Even moderate light exposure during sleep harms heart health and increases insulin resistance. Exposure to even moderate ambient lighting during nighttime sleep, compared to sleeping in a dimly lit room, harms your cardiovascular function during sleep and increases your insulin resistance the following morning, reports a new study. Just a single night of exposure to moderate room lighting during sleep can impair glucose and cardiovascular regulation, which are risk factors for heart disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome.  - AXIS Gear: Motorize your existing window shades.

Different types of lighting might influence our body rhythms and daily patterns of sleep and wakefulness. Light affects these patterns via a specialized type of cell in the eye that uses a light sensitive protein, melanopsin, that is distinct from the proteins in the rods and cones that support vision (and upon which traditional ways of measuring “brightness” are based). Since melanopsin is most sensitive to light in a specific part of the visual spectrum (blue-cyan light), the new recommendations used a newly-developed light measurement standard tailored to this unique property, melanopic equivalent daylight illuminance.

More exposure to artificial, bright, outdoor night-time light linked to higher stroke risk. Air pollution and night-time outdoor light each were associated with harmful effects on brain health, finds new study. People continuously exposed to bright, artificial light at night may be at increased risk of developing conditions that affect blood flow to the brain and having a stroke.

Private Sleeping Area

Sleep Sanctuary or the ideal sleep environment is a place where you rest, recharge, and re-center yourself. Your bedroom should be a sanctuary, a calming place that allows you to fully let go, relax, and get a good night's sleep. Set your room at the right temperature, reduce noise, make sleep area as dark as possible, use soothing aromas, keep your room organized and clean, limit the use of electronics before bedtime, and use soft sheets to make your bed comfy. Boundaries.

Privacy Bed Tent or Pop Up Privacy Tent for a Twin Bed that is Collapsible, Breathable and Light Reducing. Privacy Pop Bed Tents could also be used in temporary Hospitals or in relief shelters. Pop Bed Tents could have LED lights, small speakers, small fan and a stand for a laptop computer.

Cubicle Curtain or Hospital Curtain is a dividing cloth used in a medical treatment facility that provides a private enclosure for one or more patients. The curtain is usually made from inherently flame retardant (IFR) fabric, and is suspended from a supporting structure or ceiling track.

Canopy Bed is a bed with a canopy, which is usually hung with bed curtains. Functionally, the canopy and curtains keep the bed warmer, and screen it from light and sight. On more expensive beds, they may also be elaborately ornamental.

Mosquito Net is a type of meshed curtain that is circumferentially draped over a bed or a sleeping area, to offer the sleeper barrier protection against bites and stings from mosquitos, flies, and other pest insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.

Hotello 40 Square Foot Room in a Suitcase - Metro Naps - Pause Pod - Your Private Space for Relaxation or sleep.

Four-Post Bed or tester bed is a bed with four vertical columns, one in each corner, that support a tester, or upper (usually rectangular) panel. This tester or panel will often have rails to allow curtains to be pulled around the bed. There are a number of antique four-poster beds extant dating to the 16th century and earlier; many of these early beds are highly ornate and are made from oak.

Polish Bed is a type of small-canopy bed which most likely originated in Poland and became a centrepiece of 18th-century French furniture. The curtain is topped with an elaborate crownlike centrepiece, which is connected to the four vertical corner poles of the bed frame (which are usually curved). Unlike the four-poster bed, the canopy is much smaller than the bed.

Box-Bed or closed bed is an enclosed bed made to look like a cupboard, half-opened or not. The form originates in western European late medieval furniture.


Bedgasm is the great feeling you get when you first climb into bedBed is a piece of furniture which is used as a place to sleep or to relax.

What's better, an old fashion mattress or a memory foam mattress? Hard or Soft Mattress? Spring Mattress vs Foam Mattress (ehow)

Organic Sleep - Lull - The Clean Bedroom

Tuft and Needle Bed Handcrafted Mattress (Queen) (amazon)

On Purple No Pressure Mattress - Organic Memory Foam - Green Products

Dromma Bed reactive material made from a biological based, sustainable, renewable resource. The Eco-friendly foam.

Bedding is the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for hygiene, warmth, protection of the mattress, and decorative effect. Bedding is the removable and washable portion of a human sleeping environment. Multiple sets of bedding for each bed will often be washed in rotation and/or changed seasonally to improve sleep comfort at varying room temperatures.

Waking up on the wrong side of the bed - Covers - Having an orgasm may improve sleep

Bed Sheet is a rectangular piece of cloth used as bedding, being placed immediately below or above bed occupants. Bed sheets can generally be divided into two categories: "top" and "bottom" sheets. A bottom sheet is laid above the mattress and bed occupants lie on it. It may be either a flat sheet (extra fabric is usually tucked under the mattress), or a fitted sheet, which is sewn in a pocket-like shape to go down over the corners of the mattress, and has an elastic band around the edges of the sheet to prevent the sheet from slipping. However, this can make it more difficult to fold when not in use. Sheets: Silvon Sheets permanently prevent the growth of unwanted bacteria. 29 Linens: Rest well in Copper-Infused Bed Sheets that naturally eliminate bacteria, renew damaged skin, and help you rest well.

Pressure Ulcers or bedsores are injuries to the skin and underlying tissue, primarily caused by prolonged pressure on the skin. They can happen to anyone, but usually affect people confined to bed or who sit in a chair or wheelchair for long periods of time. Pressure injuries are localised damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of usually long-term pressure, or pressure in combination with shear or friction. The most common sites are the skin overlying the sacrum, coccyx, heels, and hips, though other sites can be affected, such as the elbows, knees, ankles, back of shoulders, or the back of the cranium.

Tiny optical sensors could put an end to hospital bed sores. Millions of older hospital patients and nursing home residents suffer excruciating bed sores each year, some of which are fatal. Now, new research could put an end to that with the development of tiny smart bed sensors embedded in hospital mattresses. Each year, millions of older people in hospitals and nursing homes experience pressure injuries, or ulcers, which take a long time to heal and can be fatal. At the very least these injuries can cause severe pain, disrupt sleep, affect their mood as well as their rehabilitation, mobility and quality of life.

iNyx - World's most advanced bed.

You may also want to look into earthing or grounding for health benefits.

Of course you would want a bed tent that is Flame Retardant, Non Toxic and made of Natural Fibers.

Nontoxic Flame Resistant Fabric from renewable ingredients.

Fire Retardant Sprays - Warnings

House Plants that improve indoor Air Quality

Researchers Develop Fire-Retardant Coating featuring Renewable Nontoxic Materials readily found in Nature. The uniqueness in this current study lies in the use of two naturally occurring nanomaterials, clay nanoplatelets and cellulose nanofibrils.

Blankets - Body Temperature

Controlling core body temperature is important for sleep. Body temperature drops at night when we get sleepy and then our body temperature rises in the morning when we are about to wake up. When having cold temperatures it's a good idea to wear a nightshirt or pajamas that helps to regulate body temperature and moisture. Knowing how to layer blankets and sheets and knowing when to peel back blankets and sheets when temperature changes will also help maintain proper body temperature. If we could design a bed that adjusts the temperature to maintain our needed body temperature that is required for a good sleep we would not wake up so much when our body temperature becomes to cold or to hot. And wouldn't you know it, I did a search and I found a blanket that does just that, 350TC Outlast King Down Alternative Blanket, White. You can also use a Privacy Pop Bed Tent or a Cocoon Disaster Relief Shelter, or use a KURA Bed Tent with a canopy on the feet end with only your head exposed on the other end. Then you would just have the air temperature in the Bed Tent regulated during sleep. You wouldn't need any blankets or top sheets so you don't have to worry about them coming off when you toss and turn during sleep. The bed could also be made of special material like from Outlast Technologies that uses Micro-encapsulation so the bed does not get too hot when you lay in one spot for to long, which would cause you to roll over in the night, which could disturb your sleep, like noise. In the summertime I eat early, so I go to bed with an almost empty stomach, which reduces my body temperature. In the wintertime I like to eat late, going to bed on an almost full stomach, which increases my body temperature.

Hot Weather Effects - Baby Sleep Tips - New Born Sleeping Tips

Basal Body Temperature is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep). It is usually estimated by a temperature measurement immediately after awakening and before any physical activity has been undertaken.

Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different. Regulation helps maintain optimum temperature needs continually.

Dreamaire Quilted Comforter Regulates Body Temperature (amazon)

Outlast Mattress Pad (amazon)

SHEEX® Temperature Regulating Blankets.

Luna Sleep Heated Smart Mattress Cover.

Eight Sleep Mattress Cover that cools and heats you and your partner, all while tracking your sleep without a wearable.

SMARTDUVET BREEZE Dual-Zone Temp Self-Making Bed.

Yaasa Infinity Blanket increases local blood flow, aids recovery, and enhances rest with the use of Celliant fiber technology that recycles the body's natural heat energy into infrared light, that is then emitted back into the body's tissue to regulate body temperature.

May have to create a customized adjustable blanket for different temperatures that has long pockets that you can insert or remove down filled clothe tubes that are in different spots in the blanket, the placement will depend on your bodies hot and cold spots. You can also add Velcro adjustable vents.

New study on the circadian clock of the fruit fly. It is an interesting question why the internal clock runs almost unchanged at the same rate despite fluctuating temperatures. A team has now found an piece of the puzzle to answer this question. The higher the temperatures, the faster physiological processes are. But there is an exception: the so-called circadian clock, which regulates the sleep-wake cycle in organisms. A fascinating question for scientists is why the inner clock runs in an almost unchanging way despite fluctuations in temperatures. This is a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. The mutation studied by the team affects a so-called nuclear export signal, which also occurs in this form in the period genes of mammals and plays a role in transporting the PERIOD proteins out of the cell nucleus. Studies indicate that different molecular mechanisms contribute to this. In their investigations, the scientists used fruit fly mutants with a modification in the period gene (perI530A) which they had produced using modern molecular genetics methods (CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis and homologous recombination).

Even mild changes in temperature have physiological effects on clock neurons that control sleep timing. Neurons are using environmental temperature in addition to light to regulate sleep timing in mammals, including humans.

Many sleep experts say that a cool room, somewhere around 65 degrees, makes for the best sleep, and research backs this notion.

Weighted Blankets for Insomnia and Falling Asleep Faster.

Hug Machine self-administration of lateral body pressure for Autism, Anxiety and sleep. Deep Pressure Touch Stimulation, or DPTS.

Spioworks compression body suits.

Edelson Behavioral and physiological (pdf)

Bioengineers have developed a unique mattress and pillow system that uses heating and cooling to tell the body it is time to go to sleep. The University of Texas at Austin have developed a unique mattress and pillow system that uses heating and cooling to tell the body it is time to go to sleep. Sleep is possible when the body temperature declines at night as part of the 24-hour rhythm. This new mattress stimulates the body to trigger the sleepy feeling, helping people fall asleep faster and improving the quality of sleep. The skin of the neck is an important bodily thermostat for humans, and it is the primary sensor the mattress targets, with a warming pillow. The study found that the warming and the cooling-warming mattress helped them fall asleep faster -- approximately 58% faster compared with nights when they did not use the cooling-warming function, even in the challenging setting of an earlier bedtime. Not only did lowering internal body temperature significantly shorten the amount of time required to fall asleep, it also resulted in significantly improved quality of sleep. The mattress is designed to simultaneously cool the central areas of the body while heating up the neck, hands and feet, thereby increasing blood flow to dissipate body heat.

Shivering and Sweating at Night. During the night, your body uses its own heating and cooling mechanisms to keep your temperature in a healthy range. But the sensations that come with this natural "thermoregulation" can make it hard to sleep peacefully. When your temperature rises, your body produces sweat that is meant to cool you down as it evaporates off your skin. If the air, your mattress, blankets, or pajamas keep you too warm, you might find yourself damp and uncomfortable. And if the room is too humid, sweating may not even cool you off, since the air is already saturated. On the other hand, if temperatures get too cool, this will produce a shiver, in which your muscles contract and expand rapidly to produce heat. Both of these automatic processes can happen without our conscious knowledge and they tend to make for restless sleep. For ideas on managing temperature, see tips for sleeping with hot flashes and cooling the bedroom.

Innovative textile vents to release heat when you sweat. Moisture opens the vents, rather than electronics. Materials scientists have developed a lightweight material that traps thermal energy when dry, but when the person starts sweating, opens a series of tiny vents to let heat escape and re-closes them to retain heat once they are dry again. Using physics rather than electronics to open the vents, the material has potential as a patch on various types of clothing to help keep the wearer comfortable in a wide range of situations.

The relationship between insomnia and body temperatures. Sleepiness and sleep propensity are strongly influenced by our circadian clock as indicated by many circadian rhythms, most commonly by that of core body temperature. Sleep is most conducive in the temperature minimum phase, but is inhibited in a "wake maintenance zone" before the minimum phase, and is disrupted in a zone following that phase. Different types of insomnia symptoms have been associated with abnormalities of the body temperature rhythm. Sleep onset insomnia is associated with a delayed temperature rhythm presumably, at least partly, because sleep is attempted during a delayed evening wake maintenance zone. Morning bright light has been used to phase advance circadian rhythms and successfully treat sleep onset insomnia. Conversely, early morning awakening insomnia has been associated with a phase advanced temperature rhythm and has been successfully treated with the phase delaying effects of evening bright light. Sleep maintenance insomnia has been associated not with a circadian rhythm timing abnormality, but with nocturnally elevated core body temperature. Combination of sleep onset and maintenance insomnia has been associated with a 24-h elevation of core body temperature supporting the chronic hyper-arousal model of insomnia. The possibility that these last two types of insomnia may be related to impaired thermoregulation, particularly a reduced ability to dissipate body heat from distal skin areas, has not been consistently supported in laboratory studies. Further studies of thermoregulation are needed in the typical home environment in which the insomnia is most evident.

Clothes that Produce Heat

Temperature Regulating Clothing. If you wake up in the middle of the night sweating and spend the night pulling covers on only to kick them off minutes later, temperature regulating clothing can help give you a better night’s sleep. There are many types of temperature regulating clothing available and various different applications for consumer use.

Scientists develop first Fabric to Automatically Regulates Heat Passing Through it and Cool or Insulate depending on conditions. The fabric allows infrared radiation (radiant heat) to pass through. When conditions become cooler and drier, the fabric reduces the heat that escapes. Infrared radiation is a primary way the body releases heat and is the focus of this new technology. The researchers created the fabric from specially engineered yarn coated with a conductive metal that allows. Under hot, humid conditions, the strands of yarn compact and activate the coating, which changes the way the fabric interacts with infrared radiation to allows more heat . They refer to the action as “gating” of infrared radiation, which acts as a tunable blind to transmit or block heat. The base yarn for this new textile is created with fibers made of two different synthetic materials—one absorbs water and the other repels it. The strands are coated with carbon nanotubes, a special class of lightweight, carbon-based, conductive metal. Because materials in the fibers both resist and absorb water, the fibers warp when exposed to humidity such as that surrounding a sweating body. That distortion brings the strands of yarn closer together, which does two things. First, it opens the pores in the fabric. This has a small cooling effect because it allows heat to escape. Second, and most importantly, it modifies the electromagnetic coupling between the carbon nanotubes in the coating. Depending on the tuning, the fabric either blocks infrared radiation or allows it to pass through. The reaction is almost instant, so before people realize they’re getting hot, the garment could already be cooling them down. On the flip side, as a body cools down, the dynamic gating mechanism works in reverse to trap in heat.

Wearable cooling and heating patch could serve as personal thermostat and save energy. The researchers built the patch by taking small pillars of thermoelectric materials (made of bismuth telluride alloys), soldering them to thin copper electrode strips, and sandwiching them between two elastomer sheets. The sheets are specially engineered to conduct heat while being soft and stretchy. Researchers created the sheets by mixing a rubber material called Ecoflex with aluminum nitride powder, a material with high thermal conductivity. The patch uses an electric current to move heat from one elastomer sheet to the other. As the current flows across the bismuth telluride pillars, it drives heat along with it, causing one side of the patch to heat up and the other to cool down.

MOORING: Reboots Your Sleep Cycle. Ultralight thermal mattress pad that optimizes your sleep cycle and improves your sleep quality.

Kryo Sleep Performance System the ideal sleep temperature is between 60-68 degrees. Kryo makes that happen.

Not too hot, not too cold. Reduces Night Sweats and Thermal Incompatibility for Couples (amazon)

Health O Meter Nuyu Sleep System

Body Temperature can effect your Dreams. If you eat big meals at the end of the day your body will produce more heat during sleep. But you could gain weight.


Pillow is a support of the body at rest for comfort, therapy, or decoration. Pillows are used by many species, including humans. Some types of pillows include throw pillows and decorative pillows. Pillows that aid sleeping are a form of bedding that supports the head and neck. Other types of pillows are designed to support the body when lying down or sitting. There are also pillows that consider human body shape for increased comfort during sleep. Decorative pillows used on beds, couches or chairs are also referred to as cushions, which is a soft bag of some ornamental material, stuffed with wool, hair, feathers, polyester staple fiber, non-woven material, or even paper torn into fragments. It may be used for sitting or kneeling upon, or to soften the hardness or angularity of a chair or couch. Decorative cushions often have a patterned cover material, and are used as decoration for furniture.

If you are a stomach sleeper, you will need a soft, fairly flat pillow. A back sleeper should look for a medium thick pillow. Side sleepers will need a thicker, firmer pillow to help support the neck. Mixed sleeper and you find many positions comfortable throughout the night, look for a pillow that is of medium thickness, and a bit softer so that it can be used comfortably in different positions. A positional pillow is a lower case n-shaped pillow that claims to help those with sleep apnea stay in the ideal position. The pillow also claims to help reduce tossing and turning throughout the night. Cervical pillows provide extra firmness in the lower part of the pillow in order to provide support for the neck. The claim is that these pillows will help reduce neck tension and headaches, however there has not been sufficient research to back up this claim. Anti-snore pillows claim to help position the head so that the airways remain open by lifting the chin away from the chest. Cool pillows are designed to include fillings that absorb head heat in order to keep you feeling cool. Although they can be used by anyone who wishes to keep cool at night, they may be particularly suitable for someone suffering from hot flashes. Oxygen pillows are designed to promote the circulation of air, which is meant to help you breathe more freely and deeply while you sleep. While some claim this has helped relieve pain, doctors are not sure how or whether or not this technology actually works.

How to Choose a Pillow (youtube) - How to Choose the Right Pillow

Ostrich Pillow - Travel Pillow - Purple® Pillow: The World's First No-Pressure Pillow

BCOZZY Chin Supporting Travel Pillow - SkySiesta Two L-Shaped Travel Pillow.

Because I sleep on my back, I like to tuck under the pillow edges to create a u-shaped gully in the center of the pillow so that it supports my head and also keeps my head from tilting too far to one side. This also reduces noise levels a little. You can also use 3 pillows and tuck 2 pillows under the edges of the center pillow so that the center pillow has lifted edges that will support your head, kind of like what some travel pillows do. But be careful, this may hurt your neck if done incorrectly. After experimenting with this for a few weeks, I have gone back to just a regular flat pillow.

Sleeping Together or Two People One Bed. The Scandinavian sleep method is when you and your partner sleep in the same bed, but you each have your own comforter or duvet.

Sleep Positions

63% of Americans sleep on their side. Only 14% sleep on their back and 16% on their stomach. No one stays in one position all night, and doing so is not good for circulation. Approximately 40% of people sleep in the Fetal Position, which is not a good sleeping position. For side sleepers it's recommended to use a pillow between your legs and one for your arm to help keep your neck, spine and hips aligned, and it will also avoid having one of your arms fall asleep, which is called paresthesia, which is a temporary restriction of nerve impulses to an area of nerves, commonly caused by leaning or resting on parts of the body such as the legs (often followed by a pins and needles tingling sensation). Ischemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

Sleep Positions - Sleeping Positions (wiki)

How Sleeping Position affects Breathing - What Your Sleeping Style Says About You

Sleeping on the Stomach is not a good sleeping position because it reduces circulation and may also cause wrinkles on your face. Prone Position is a body position in which the person lies flat with the chest down and the back up.

Sleeping on the Left Side may have more Benefits then sleeping on the right side. Sleeping on the right side can worsen heartburn. However, sleeping on the left side can put a strain on internal organs like the liver, lungs, and stomach, but also while reducing acid reflux. Pregnant women are advised to sleep on their left side for optimal blood flow. The sympathetic nervous system is slowed when an individual sleeps on the right side. This can help lower blood pressure and slow heart rate during sleep, both of which benefit people with heart problems. But it's not the same for everyone of course.

Sleeping on the Back has the most benefits. But what ever the position you choose that is right for you, you need to make sure you're not putting any pressure on the neck, spine, shoulders, arms, legs or hips. Any unusual bending or twisting of the spine could lead to back or neck pain. The only problem with sleeping on the back is that if you snore, the back position will make you snore more. Supine Position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up.

Sleeping Position is the body configuration assumed by a person during or prior to sleeping. Six basic sleeping positions have been identified: Fetus (41%) – curling up in a fetal position. This was the most common position, and is especially popular with women. Log (15%) – lying on one's side with the arms down the side. Yearner (13%) – sleeping on one's side with the arms in front. Soldier (8%) – on one's back with the arms pinned to the sides. Freefall (7%) – on one's front with the arms around the pillow and the head tilted to one side. Starfish (5%) – on one's back with the arms around the pillow.

Changing a patient's position in bed every 2 hours helps keep blood flowing. This helps the skin stay healthy and prevents bedsores. Turning a patient is a good time to check the skin for redness and sores.

Sitting too Long - Hibernation

Sympathetic Nervous System is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response.

Autonomic Nervous System regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate response.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a communication relay going back and forth between the brain and the extremities.

Sleeping with someone else in your bed. According to a Better Sleep Council survey, twenty-six percent say they sleep better alone becuase sleeping with someone else in your bed can be difficult, but not impossible. What can you do if you can t sleep good in the same bed as your partner? Some easy fixes like eye masks, earplugs, blackout curtains, and white noise machines can all be helpful to reduce the sensory stimulation that's keeping you awake, whether it's from a partner snoring, using a CPAP, or turning lights on at ungodly hours. Sleep is a basic human need that is extremely important. But even the heaviest sleeper, sleeping with someone else in bed can present a challenge. Cuddling is a major plus, however, there’s also the snoring, the blanket wrestling, the tiny earthquake shaking you awake whenever he or she turns over too hard. For some people, sleeping with a partner feels warm, comforting, and safe. For others, the experience is less favorable if you find it difficult to get a full night’s sleep sharing the covers. There are a few simple tips and improvements you can make, but some tips might not be right for you, so you might have to experiment in order to choose the ones that work best for you and your partner. Physical touch releases oxytocin, the so-called love hormone. Research has found that this hormone makes people more emotionally open and empathetic. Couples can strengthen their relationships through touch and its flood of oxytocin. Cuddling is important for this reason, but it becomes problematic if you can’t sleep in contact with your partner. Try cuddling each night as you get sleepy in bed. Then, move apart to sleep. If one of you hogs the blankets, getting separate covers provides a simple solution. Share a sheet but use two blankets, bedspreads, or duvets to compartmentalize sleep a little more. Your partner can wrap up his or her body like a cocoon if desired. You might find that you’re more comfortable under your covers.

Scandinavian Sleep Method suggests that instead of sharing a single blanket or duvet, couples sleep in the same bed but each sleep under their own cover, usually without a top sheet. Scandinavian sleep method is simply the practice of using two separate duvets or blankets instead of one queen or king size one. Body Temps.

Sleeping Positions for Couples. Spooning is when one partner takes a protective, intimate stance behind the other as the second person leans their back or behind against them. Then there is the Chasing Spoon, the Loose Spoon, the Back to Back, the Front to Front, the Sweetheart Cradle, the Head on Other's Shoulder, and the Leg Hug.

Learning and Sleep - Memory Consolidation

Sleep and Learning. Sleep does more than allow the brain to rest. It may also aid the consolidation of long-term memories. REM sleep and slow-wave sleep play different roles in memory consolidation. REM is associated with the consolidation of nondeclarative or implicit memories. An example of a nondeclarative memory would be a task that we can do without consciously thinking about it, such as riding a bike. Slow-wave, or non-REM  or NREM sleep, is associated with the consolidation of declarative explicit memories. These are facts that need to be consciously remembered, such as dates in history.

Dream Incubation - Sleep Learning - Subconscious - Affirmations - Programming - Reset Reboot - Slow Wave Sleep - Hypnogogic - Lucid Dreaming

Neuroscientists have found that, as the brain moves between REM and slow-wave sleep cycles, the hippocampus teaches the neocortex what it learned. This process seems to convert novel, fleeting data into memories.

Dream Interpretation - Learning Styles - Mindful - Visualization - Dreaming

Cueing Newly Learned Information in Sleep Improves Memory, and here's how. Memory consolidation is associated with sudden bursts of oscillatory brain activity, called sleep spindles, which can be visualized and measured on an electroencephalogram or EEG. Now researchers have found that sleep spindles also play a role in strengthening new memories when newly learned information is played back to a person during sleep. Sleep spindles are half-second to two-second bursts of brain activity, measured in the 10-16 Hertz range on an EEG. They occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep stages two and three. Earlier studies had shown that the number of spindles during the night could predict a person's memory the next day. Experimental reactivation of memories might lead to a surge of sleep spindles in a sleeping person's brain. To find out, they devised an experiment in which people learned to associate particular adjectives with particular objects and scenes. Some study participants then took a 90-minute nap after their study session, whereas others stayed awake. While people napped, the researchers cued those associative memories and unfamiliar adjectives. As expected, the researchers saw that memory cues led to an increase in sleep spindles. Interestingly, the EEG patterns during spindles enabled the researchers to discern what types of memories -- objects or scenes -- were being processed. The findings add to evidence for an important information-processing role of sleep spindles in the service of memory consolidation, the researchers say.

Hypnagogia - Not Fully Awake

Dormio: Interfacing with Dreams for Creativity.

Breathing in sleep impacts memory processes. A link between breathing and the emergence of certain brain activity patterns in sleep that are associated with the reactivation of memory contents. The data points to possible consequences of unhealthy breathing on memory.

Manipulating specific Brain Waves in sleep shifts balance between Learning or Forgetting a new skill. Distinct patterns of electrical activity in the sleeping brain may influence whether we remember or forget what we learned the previous day, according to a new study. The scientists were able to influence how well rats learned a new skill by tweaking these brainwaves while animals slept, suggesting potential future applications in boosting human memory or forgetting traumatic experiences, the researchers say. a technique called optogenetics to dampen specific types of brain activity in sleeping rats at will. This allowed the researchers to determine that two distinct types of slow brain waves seen during sleep, called slow oscillations and delta waves, respectively strengthened or weakened the firing of specific brain cells involved in a newly learned skill -- in this case how to operate a water spout that the rats could control with their brains via a neural implant.

How our Memories Stabilize while we Sleep. Scientists have shown that delta waves emitted while we sleep are not generalized periods of silence during which the cortex rests, as has been described for decades in the scientific literature. Instead, they isolate assemblies of neurons that play an essential role in long-term memory formation. While we sleep, the hippocampus reactivates itself spontaneously by generating activity similar to that while we are awake. It sends information to the cortex, which reacts in turn. This exchange is often followed by a period of silence called a 'delta wave' then by rhythmic activity called a 'sleep spindle'. This is when the cortical circuits reorganize to form stable memories. However, the role of delta waves in the formation of new memories is still a puzzle: why does a period of silence interrupt the sequence of information exchanges between the hippocampus and the cortex, and the functional reorganization of the cortex?

Dreaming with purpose. Memory consolidation during REM sleep. Researchers have found that activity in adult-born neurons (ABNs) in the hippocampus, which is a brain region associated with memory, are responsible for memory consolidation during REM sleep. Identifying the role of specific neurons in memory function deepens our understanding of how memories are formed, retrieved, and consolidated.

Beauty sleep could be real, say body clock biologists.

Remembering faces and names can be improved during sleep. Research finds memory reactivation — combined with quality sleep — is key. New research has documented the effect reactivating memory during sleep has on face-name learning. The researchers found that people's name recall improved significantly when memories of newly learned face-name associations were reactivated while they were napping. Key to this improvement was uninterrupted deep sleep.

New sleep method strengthens brain's ability to retain memories. Process that uses smell can strengthen memories stored in one side of the brain. The method relies on a memory-evoking scent administered to one nostril.

How sleep builds relational memory. Learning connections between unrelated items requires neurons and brain circuits representing these items to be active and interact during sleep. Relational memory is the ability to remember arbitrary or indirect associations between objects, people or events, such as names with faces, where you left your car keys and whether you turned off the stove after cooking but before you left the house. In the cortical region, connections between the neurons were permitted to become stronger or weaker based on their activity, known as synaptic plasticity, which reflects the primary known biological mechanism for how memories are formed or erased. The scientists trained the network in its awake mode to learn such direct associations, such as A+B or B+C but not A+C, then discovered that in the sleep mode, the model formed indirect associations: A+C. This happened because during sleep the neurons representing all three related items (A, B and C) spontaneously fired in close temporal order, a phenomenon called sleep replay, which triggered synaptic plasticity and led to formation of strong synaptic connections between all these neurons. Therefore, after sleep, activating any one group, such as A, activated all other related groups, such as B and C.

Brain Functions Related to Sleep

Melatonin is a a hormone released in the brain at night that controls the sleep–wake cycle in vertebrates. Melatonin is a natural compound, specifically an indoleamine, produced by and found in different organisms including bacteria and eukaryotes. In vertebrates, melatonin is involved in synchronizing circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake timing and blood pressure regulation, and in control of seasonal rhythmicity including reproduction, fattening, moulting and hibernation. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness. It's produced by the pineal gland which is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The shape of the pineal gland resembles a pine cone, hence its name. The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. Many of its effects are through activation of the melatonin receptors, while others are due to its role as an antioxidant. Its primary function is to defend against oxidative stress in plants and bacteria. Mitochondria are the main cell organelles that produce the antioxidant melatonin, which indicates that melatonin is an "ancient molecule" that primarily provided the earliest cells protection from the destructive actions of oxygen. In addition to its role as a natural hormone and antioxidant, melatonin is used as a dietary supplement and medication in the treatment of sleep disorders such as insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

Dark Room - Blood Brain Barrier - Brain Waves

Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that helps in the regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep.

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm. It is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms. The neuronal and hormonal activities it generates regulate many different body functions in a 24-hour cycle, using around 20,000 neurons.

Hypnagogia - Sleep Learning - Dreaming

Galanin is predominately involved in the modulation and inhibition of action potentials in neurons. Galanin has been implicated in many biologically diverse functions, including: nociception, waking and sleep regulation, cognition, feeding, regulation of mood, regulation of blood pressure, it also has roles in development as well as acting as a trophic factor, which is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes.

Cortisol normally, has the highest cortisol secretion in the second half of the night with peak cortisol production occurring in the early morning. Following this, cortisol levels decline throughout the day with lowest levels during the first half of the night. Cortisol awakening response is independent of this circadian variation in HPA axis activity; it is superimposed upon the daily rhythm of HPA axis activity; and it seems to be linked specifically to the event of awakening. Linked to the hippocampus' preparation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in order to face anticipated stress.

Ghrelin the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Besides regulating appetite, ghrelin also plays a significant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy. When the stomach is empty, ghrelin is secreted. When the stomach is stretched, secretion stops. It acts on hypothalamic brain cells both to increase hunger, and to increase gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility to prepare the body for food intake.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays the principal role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

Parasympathetic Nervous System is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the body's unconscious actions. The parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed" activities that occur when the body is at rest, especially after eating, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation (tears), urination, digestion and defecation. Its action is described as being complementary to that of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response.

Temporoparietal Junction is an area of the brain where the temporal and parietal lobes meet. Incorporates information from the thalamus and the limbic system, as well as from the visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems. The TPJ also integrates information from both the external environment as well as from within the body. The TPJ is responsible for collecting all of this information and then processing it. This area is also known to play a crucial role in self-other distinctions processes and theory of mind (ToM).

Sleep Spindle is a burst of oscillatory brain activity visible on an EEG that occurs during stage 2 sleep. It consists of 12–14 Hz waves that occur for at least 0.5 seconds. Sleep spindles are generated in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. Sleep spindles (sometimes referred to as "sigma bands" or "sigma waves") may represent periods where the brain is inhibiting processing to keep the sleeper in a tranquil state. Along with K-complexes they are defining characteristics of, and indicate the onset of, stage 2 sleep. They are often tapered at both ends and frequently seen over the frontal and central head regions. They may or may not be synchronous, but they should be symmetrical and bilateral. During sleep these spindles are seen in the brain as a burst of activity immediately following muscle twitching. Researchers think the brain, particularly in the young, is learning about what nerves control what specific muscles when asleep. Spindles generated in the thalamus have been shown to aid sleeping in the presence of disruptive external sounds. A correlation has been found between the amount of brainwave activity in the thalamus and a sleeper's ability to maintain tranquility. Sleep spindles result from interactions between cells in the thalamus and the cortex. Sleep spindle activity has furthermore been found to be associated with the integration of new information into existing knowledge as well as directed remembering and forgetting (fast sleep spindles). During NREM sleep, the brain waves produced by people with schizophrenia lack the normal pattern of slow and fast spindles. Loss of sleep spindles are also a feature of familial fatal insomnia, a prion disease. Changes in spindle density are also observed in disorders such as epilepsy and autism. What is Time?

Sleep Cleans Toxins From the Brain. During sleep the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain increases dramatically, washing away harmful waste proteins that build up between brain cells during waking hours. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, water-like liquid that flows around the brain. During Non-REM Sleep, large, slow waves of cerebrospinal fluid were washing over the brain. During non-REM sleep, neurons start to synchronize, turning on and off at the same time. Because the neurons all momentarily stopped firing, they don’t need as much oxygen. This means less blood would flow to the brain. This is when cerebrospinal fluid would then rush in, filling in the space left behind. This would help clear out beta amyloid but also could help with other molecules like tau, a protein that gets tangled in Alzheimer’s patients’ brains and harms the connections between neurons. Sleep Disorders.

Vascular Cells Are Drowning in Oxidants from not getting enough sleep. Sleep-restricted cells fail to activate antioxidant responses to clear the destructive molecules. The result: cells that are inflamed and dysfunctional, an early step in the development of cardiovascular disease. Vascular endothelial cells serve as a protective barrier in blood-vessel walls and serve as an active source for the synthesis, metabolism, uptake, storage, and degradation of a number of vasoactive substances. Endothelial cell damage can be a factor in diseases that affect the vasculature.

Melanin-Concentrating Hormone is a cyclic 19-amino acid orexigenic hypothalamic peptide originally isolated from the pituitary gland of teleost fish, where it controls skin pigmentation. In mammals it is involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, mood, sleep-wake cycle and energy balance. MCH neurons are mainly concentrated in the lateral hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and the incerto-hypothalamic area, but they are also located, in much smaller amounts, in the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF), medial preoptic area, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and the olfactory tubercle.

Spontaneous Hemodynamic Oscillations during Human Sleep and Sleep Stage Transitions Characterized with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Understanding the interaction between the nervous system and cerebral vasculature is fundamental to forming a complete picture of the neurophysiology of sleep and its role in maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the intrinsic hemodynamics of slow-wave sleep (SWS) are still poorly known. Sleep is a part of constantly ongoing homeostatic regulation between neurons, glial cells, and vasculature of the brain to maintain health, adaptability, and cognitive performance . Slow-wave sleep (SWS), also known as deep sleep, differs from the physiologically distinct light sleep (LS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM) stages by a dramatic increase in synchronized neuronal activity and loss of information integration across cortical areas. Cortical arousal increases wakefulness, vigilance, muscle tone, heart rate, and minute ventilation. Cortical is relating to the outer layer of the cerebrum. Relating to or forming an outer layer of tissue immediately below the epidermis of a stem or root.

New sleep molecule discovered that shows just how complex the machinery of sleep is. Researchers presents a new study demonstrating that a small molecule in brain cells affects the level of hypocretin, which is responsible for making us feel awake during the day and tired at night. People with a genetic variation of this molecule have a higher risk of suffering from daytime sleepiness. hypocretin, which is a protein found in brain cells and which has recently attracted a lot of attention within sleep research. This is because hypocretin is suspected to play a role in both insomnia, which is a decreased ability to fall asleep at night, and in narcolepsy, which is a decreased ability to stay awake during the day. People suffering from insomnia may have too much hypocretin in the brain, while people suffering from narcolepsy have too little. Researchers also suspect hypocretin to play a role in depression, ADHD and other mental disorders. A lot is already known about the hypocretin system in the brain. There is even a new drug for insomnia countering the effect of hypocretin, latest introduced in Canada in 2018. According to Birgitte Kornum, though, the problem is that we know very little about how hypocretin is regulated inside the cells. We discovered that miR-137 helps regulate hypocretin. To experience normal sleep, you need to have the right amount of hypocretin in the brain at the right time, and miR-137 helps with that. Though MiR-137 is also found in other parts of the body, it is especially pronounced in the brain.

Molecular basis of deep sleep pinpointed, suggests avenues for novel treatments. Scientists pinpoint the molecular epicenter of deep-sleep regulation. The findings, based on research in mice, identify a gene that makes a protein that regulates delta waves -- electrical signals between neurons that occur during the deepest phases of relaxation and are a hallmark of restorative sleep. The research team homed in on neurons in the thalamus, a region of the brain that regulates sleep and wakefulness, among other functions. Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, the researchers disrupted a gene that codes for a protein that binds the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. The protein is a target of drugs that promote sleep. Disruption of this gene in mouse models boosted the activity of delta waves and enhanced deep sleep in the animals.

Monitoring Sleep Quality

Sleep Stages Chart Sleep Tracking is the process of monitoring a person's sleep, which is done most commonly through measuring inactivity and movement to estimate sleep. A device that tracks a person's sleep is called a sleep tracker. Devices capable of tracking a person's sleep include dedicated sleep trackers, trackers that clip onto a person's pillow, smartphones, fitness trackers, smartwatches, and other wearable devices. Sleep trackers are capable of tracking the stages of a person's sleep (light sleep, deep sleep, REM sleep), the length/duration of a person's sleep, the quality of a person's sleep, and the consistency of a person's sleep. Some sleep trackers offer other features, such as "sleep scores" that rank how well a person slept, "smart alarms" that wake a person up within a set period of time based on the circumstances of the person's sleep, and the ability to track the amount of light and/or the temperature in the person's bedroom. As of 2017, it is estimated that 10% of adults in the United States use a wearable fitness and/or sleep tracking device on a regular basis. Sleep Trackers can collect some information about sleeping, but they don't measure sleep directly. Sleep trackers will not make you sleep better, they will only give you basic information about sleep quality. You need to address the root causes that effect your quality of sleep. Smart Homes - Energy Monitors.

Polysomnography is a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine. The test result is called a polysomnogram, also abbreviated PSG. The name is derived from Greek and Latin roots: the Greek πολύς (polus for "many, much", indicating many channels), the Latin somnus ("sleep"), and the Greek γράφειν (graphein, "to write"). Type I polysomnography, a sleep study performed overnight while being continuously monitored by a credentialed technologist, is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. It is usually performed at night, when most people sleep, though some labs can accommodate shift workers and people with circadian rhythm sleep disorders and do the test at other times of the day. The PSG monitors many body functions, including brain activity (EEG), eye movements (EOG), muscle activity or skeletal muscle activation (EMG), and heart rhythm (ECG), during sleep. After the identification of the sleep disorder sleep apnea in the 1970s, the breathing functions, respiratory airflow, and respiratory effort indicators were added along with peripheral pulse oximetry. Polysomnography no longer includes NPT, Nocturnal Penile Tumescence, for monitoring of erectile dysfunction, as it is reported that all male patients will experience erections during phasic REM sleep, regardless of dream content. Limited channel polysomnography, or unattended home sleep tests, should be referenced as Type II – IV channel polysomnography. With some controversy, polysomnography is best performed by technicians and technologists who are specifically licensed and accredited in sleep medicine. However, at times nurses and respiratory therapists are allowed to perform polysomnography despite lack of specific knowledge and training in this area. In general, much information can be extrapolated from the polysomnography; some can be directly related to the sleep, such as the sleep onset latency (SOL), the REM-sleep onset latency, the number of awakenings during the sleep-period, the total sleep duration, percentages and durations of every sleep stage, and the number of arousals. But there can be also other information, crucial for many diagnostics, that are not directly linked with the sleep, such as movements, respiration, cardiovascular parameters. In any case, through the polysomnographic evaluation, other information can be obtained (such as, for example, body temperature or esophageal pH) according to the patient's or the study's needs. Video-EEG polysomnography is a technique combining polysomnography and video-recording, which has been described to be even more effective than only polysomnography for the evaluation of some sleep troubles such as parasomnias, because it allows to more easily correlate EEG signals, polysomnography and behaviors.

MyBivy helps our Soldiers sleep at night through intensive body tracking, statistical analysis, and VA doctor notifications. Stress.

Home Sleep Monitors - Sleep Testing Products

Technology Apps - Telemedicine (remote)

Sleep Tracker - Beddit 3 Sleep Tracker - Fit Bit

Hello Sleep Behavior Monitor - Sleep Monitors - Reston Sleep Monitor

Sleep View - Eight Sleep

Zeo Personal Sleep Coach (amazon) - My Zeo

Juvo: Track & Manage Sleep From Under Your Bed - Actively tracks & manages your sleep so you stay healthy. Slips under any mattress, no wearable's!

Sleep Shepherd Blue: A Sleep Tracker that HELPS You Sleep 

Sensmi Wristband Tracks and analyzes your stress levels and sleep patterns.

EverSleep - Wake Up Refreshed 5-In-1 Sleep Tracker . Understand why you wake up tired - get the device that helps coach you to improve your sleep.

REMI: The all-in-one sleep companion for kids

Wrist-Worn Gadget Measures a Person's Sleep that found a way to capture detailed information on human sleep cycles over long periods of time while individuals slumber at home in their usual way. Actimeter is a device that measures and records activity and rest. rest/activity cycles not just over the course of the waking day, but also during sleep itself. Locomotor Inactivity During Sleep" (LIDS) showed that movement patterns reflect sleep cycles and replicate the dynamics seen in the lab.

New AI algorithm monitors sleep with radio waves. Patients with sleep disorders could be studied nonintrusively at home using wireless signals. Researchers have devised a new way to monitor sleep without any kind of sensors attached to the body. Their sensor uses low-power radio waves that detect small changes in body movement caused by the patient's breathing and pulse, then translates those measurements into sleep stages: light, deep, or rapid eye movement (REM).

Sleep Studies- Sleep Lab (webmd) - In-Lab Sleep Study

Sleep Specialist (webmd) - Sleep Centers - Sleep Research

Body Temperature Monitoring

Deep Sleep Therapy also called prolonged sleep treatment or continuous narcosis, is a psychiatric treatment in which drugs are used to keep patients unconscious for a period of days or weeks.

Enhancing deep sleep. Researchers have developed a wearable device that plays specific sounds to enhance deep sleep. The first clinical study has now shown that the device is effective, but not at the same level of effectiveness for everyone. Researchers have shown that the brain waves characterizing deep sleep, so-​called slow waves, can be improved by playing precisely timed sounds through earphones while sleeping. While this works well in the sleep laboratory under controlled conditions, there has thus far been no at home solution that can be used longer than just one night.

Sleeping Pills - The Sleep Doctor

Orexin also called hypocretin, is a Neuropeptide that regulates Arousal, Wakefulness, and Appetite.

Sleep Advice - Sleep

Imagery Rehearsal Therapy - Imagery Rehearsal Therapy

How the Body’s Trillions of Clocks Keep Time Cellular clocks are almost everywhere. Clues to how they work are coming from the places that they’re not.

"Waking up is not just what you do after you sleep, it's also what you do after you realize that you were never fully awake." - Father, the Sleeper has Awaken (youtube) - Enlightenment.

Sleep Disorders - Not Sleeping Enough

Child In Pajama's Yawning and ready for Bed Sleep Deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain. It adversely affects the brain and cognitive function.

Daylight Savings Time Change. Around 600 million people world wide have problems sleeping.

Insomnia is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired. Insomnia is typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and a depressed mood. It may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well as problems focusing and learning. Insomnia can be short term, lasting for days or weeks, or long term, lasting more than a month. Cellphone Warnings.

Fatal Insomnia is a rare disorder that results in trouble sleeping. The problems sleeping typically start out gradually and worsen over time. Other symptoms may include speech problems, coordination problems, and dementia. It results in death within a few months to a few years. It is a prion disease of the brain. It is usually caused by a mutation to the protein PrPC. It has two forms: fatal familial insomnia (FFI), which is autosomal dominant and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) which is due to a noninherited mutation. Diagnosis is based on a sleep study, PET scan, and genetic testing. Fatal insomnia has no known cure and involves progressively worsening insomnia, which leads to hallucinations, delirium, confusional states like that of dementia, and eventually death. The average survival time from onset of symptoms is 18 months. The first recorded case was an Italian man, who died in Venice in 1765.

African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, is a disease caused by a parasite. People can get this parasite when an infected Tsetse fly bites them. Symptoms include fatigue, high fever, headaches, and muscle aches. If the disease is not treated, it can cause death. Initially, the first stage of the disease is characterized by fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains, beginning one to three weeks after the bite. Weeks to months later, the second stage begins with confusion, poor coordination, numbness, and trouble sleeping. Diagnosis is by finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node. A lumbar puncture is often needed to tell the difference between first- and second-stage disease. If the disease is not treated quickly it can lead to death. clinical trials for a new drug, acoziborole, were published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases on Nov. 29..

Hypersomnia is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), or prolonged nighttime sleep, which has occurred for at least 3 months prior to diagnosis. The Insomnia Blog.

Very Irregular Sleep Linked to Higher Risk of Dementia.

Idiopathic Hypersomnia is a sleep disorder in which a person is excessively sleepy during the day  despite adequate quantity and normal quality of sleep at night. They also have great difficulty being awakened from sleep at night. Idiopathic means there is not a clear cause.

Sleep Debt is the cumulative effect of not getting enough sleep. A large sleep debt may lead to mental or physical fatigue. There are two kinds of sleep debt: the results of partial sleep deprivation and total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs when a person or a lab animal sleeps too little for several days or weeks. Total sleep deprivation means being kept awake for at least 24 hours. There is debate in the scientific community over the specifics of sleep debt, and it is not considered to be a disorder.

Effects from Lack of Sleep (Info-Graph Image)

Shift Work Sleep Disorder characterized by insomnia and excessive sleepiness affecting people whose work hours overlap with the typical sleep period. There are numerous shift work schedules, and they may be permanent, intermittent, or rotating; consequently, the manifestations of SWSD are quite variable.

Night Owls -Light - Dark - Half Asleep

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep. People with narcolepsy often find it difficult to stay awake for long periods of time, regardless of the circumstances. Narcolepsy can cause serious disruptions in your daily routine. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep. Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep–wake cycles.

Nurses who sleep less before a scheduled shift can hinder patient care and safety. Nurses get under 7 hours of sleep before a work shift, 83 minutes fewer than days off. Nurses sleep nearly an hour and a half less before work days compared to days off, which hurts patient care and safety, finds a new study. Sleep deprivation hurts workers' ability to handle complex and stressful tasks, and work-related sleep loss has led to serious errors in other industries. Routines.

Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence.

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety suggests that drivers who sleep only five or six hours in a 24-hour period are twice as likely to crash as drivers who get seven hours of sleep or more.

Researchers Uncover Why Morning People Should Not Work At Night - Cognitive Tests.

Lack of sleep affecting students’ mental health especially women. Daytime tiredness and sleep deprivation put students at risk of depression and high stress. More than two thirds (65.5%) of students are experiencing poor sleep quality and this is linked to mental health problems, new research suggests.

How sleep deprivation can harm the brain. Research identifies the decline of the protein pleiotrophin as a cause of neuronal death due to sleep deprivation.

Not getting enough sleep? Your vascular cells are drowning in oxidants. A new study of sleep in women shows that delaying bedtime by just 90 minutes each night damages cells that line the blood vessels, supporting the hypothesis that poor sleep is linked to heart health. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have very distinct and unique functions that are paramount to vascular biology. The vascular endothelium, a monolayer of endothelial cells, constitutes the inner cellular lining of arteries, veins and capillaries and therefore is in direct contact with the components and cells of blood. The endothelium is not only a mere barrier between blood and tissues but also an endocrine organ. Endothelial cells form a single cell layer that lines all blood vessels and regulates exchanges between the bloodstream and the surrounding tissues. Signals from endothelial cells organize the growth and development of connective tissue cells that form the surrounding layers of the blood-vessel wall.

Could resetting our internal clocks help control diabetes? The circadian clock system allows the organisms to adjust to periodical changes of geophysical time. Today, increasing evidence show that disturbances in our internal clocks stemming from frequent time zone changes, irregular working schedules or ageing, have a significant impact on the development of metabolic diseases including type-2 diabetes. Using a molecule extracted from lemon peel, researchers have succeeded in 'repairing' the disrupted cellular clocks.

What happens if your circadian rhythms are out of whack? If jet lag, nighttime snacking, lack of sleep, or irregular work schedules factor into your life, a recent study adds to the evidence of cancer risk. Scientists discovered an important molecular link between lung tumor growth and disrupted circadian rhythms, a cancer-signature gene known as HSF1 that can trigger lung tumors. Lungs are under tight circadian control and seem to be particularly vulnerable to a disrupted biological clock.

New genetic research advances understanding of internal mechanisms of biological clocks. Findings create a new model for investigating diseases related to circadian rhythm disruptions. Research into genetic mutations that affect circadian rhythms offers new insight into the rest-wake cycle and provides a new model for investigating human disease and ultimately developing medical treatments. Disruptions to the body's internal clock -- which coordinates the timing of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes -- are associated with a range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular conditions and susceptibility to infections, as well as a higher risk for accidents. Common disruptions of circadian rhythms are jet lag and shift work, which is performed by some 30 million people in the U.S.

Lack of Sleep and the lack of knowledge has similar negative side effects. Sleep loss seriously impacts your brain function, including decreased working memory, inability to concentrate, situational awareness, focus, and response time. Sleep loss also reduces your ability to make good decisions and solve problems, and it increases your tendency to be distracted or overwhelmed by emotions. And little or no sleep can reduce your flexibility, preventing you from seeing situations accurately, and increase your likelihood of falling into thinking traps. Sleep loss hinders your ability to accurately interpret others’ emotions and facial expressions—specifically, if they’re happy or angry—making it harder to identify what they’re feeling. It also lowers your ability to interact and communicate effectively with those around you. Sleep loss can reduce your motivation to engage in physical exercise as well. You also might experience decreased coordination and poor physical performance, which can compromise your physical readiness and affect injury risk. Sleep impacts your eating habits too. You’re more likely to crave unhealthy foods when you’re operating in a sleep deficit. Sleep deprivation can increase your risk of diabetes, higher body mass index (BMI), and hormonal imbalances that regulate your hunger and appetite. Weight gain can give rise to sleep apnea and other issues that further negatively impact sleep. Stress causes sleep loss, making you feel more vulnerable to stress, which leads to even more sleep loss. Body effects the Mind.

Sleep Disorders (webmd) - More than 50 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders.

Streamlining cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia. Analysis of hundreds of studies identifies the most beneficial thinking and behavior strategies for improving sleep. A combination of cognitive and behavioral strategies, ideally delivered in person by a therapist, maximizes the benefits of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), according to new research. CBT-I is a form of talk therapy, which can be delivered in person or through self-help guides. By analyzing 241 studies, involving over 30,000 adults, researchers identified the most beneficial components of CBT-I.

Phase Chronotherapy is when an attempt is made to move bedtime and rising time later and later each day, around the clock, until a person is sleeping on a normal schedule. This treatment can be used by people with delayed sleep phase disorder who generally cannot reset their circadian rhythm by moving their bedtime and rising time earlier.

Sleep Inertia is a physiological state of impaired cognitive and sensory-motor performance that is present immediately after awakening. It persists during the transition of sleep to wakefulness, where an individual will experience feelings of drowsiness, disorientation and a decline in motor dexterity. Impairment from sleep inertia may take several hours to dissipate. In the majority of cases, morning sleep inertia is experienced for 15 to 30 minutes after waking. Sleep inertia is of concern when decision-making abilities, safety-critical tasks and the ability to operate efficiently are important soon after awakening. In these situations, it poses an occupational hazard due to the cognitive and motor deficits that may be present.

Glymphatic System is a functional waste clearance pathway for the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). The pathway consists of a para-arterial influx route for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain parenchyma, coupled to a clearance mechanism for the removal of interstitial fluid (ISF) and extracellular solutes from the interstitial compartments of the brain and spinal cord. Exchange of solutes between CSF and ISF is driven primarily by arterial pulsation and regulated during sleep by the expansion and contraction of brain extracellular space. Clearance of soluble proteins, waste products, and excess extracellular fluid is accomplished through convective bulk flow of ISF, facilitated by astrocytic aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels.

Cerebrospinal Fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. There is about 125mL of CSF at any one time, and about 500mL is generated every day. CSF acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. CSF also serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow.

Lymphatic System is part of the circulatory system and a vital part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning water) directionally towards the heart.

Sleep increases Chromosome Dynamics that Clear out DNA Damage and Flush out Toxins that have accumulated during waking hours.

What Happens when you don't get Enough Sleep? (info-graph)

Poor Sleep Triggers Viral Loneliness and Social Rejection - Introverts.

Stressed to the max? Deep sleep can rewire the anxious brain. A sleepless night can trigger up to a 30 percent rise in emotional stress levels, new study shows.

Combined Sleep and Wakefulness (sleep walking)

Healthy Sleep (Harvard) - What wakes me Up? - What happens when you Sleep? -

Sleeping Too Long or Oversleeping can be bad for you and also have side effects. Too much sleep on a regular basis can increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke and death according to several studies done over the years. Too much sleep is defined as being greater than nine hours. The most common cause is not getting enough sleep the night before, or cumulatively during the week.

Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder is a chronic dysregulation of a person's circadian rhythm or biological clock, compared to the general population and relative to societal norms. The disorder affects the timing of sleep, peak period of alertness, the core body temperature rhythm, and hormonal and other daily cycles. People with DSPD generally fall asleep some hours after midnight and have difficulty waking up in the morning. People with DSPD probably have a circadian period significantly longer than 24 hours. Depending on the severity, the symptoms can be managed to a greater or lesser degree, but no cure is known.

Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder also known as the advanced sleep-phase type of circadian rhythm sleep disorder, is a condition that is characterized by a recurrent pattern of early evening sleepiness and early morning awakening. A condition in which patients feel very sleepy and go to bed early in the evening (e.g. 6:00–8:00 p.m.) and wake up very early in the morning (e.g. around 3:00 - 5:00 a.m.). This sleep phase advancement can interfere with daily social and work schedules, and results in shortened sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness. The timing of sleep and melatonin levels are regulated by the body's central circadian clock, which is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Individuals with ASPD report being unable to stay awake until conventional bedtime, falling asleep early in the evening, and being unable to stay asleep until their desired waking time, suffering early morning insomnia. When someone has advanced sleep phase disorder their melatonin levels and core body temperature cycle hours earlier than an average person. These symptoms must be present and stable for a substantial period of time to be correctly diagnosed. Once diagnosed, ASPD may be treated with bright light therapy in the evenings, or behaviorally with chronotherapy, in order to delay sleep onset and offset. The use of pharmacological approaches to treatment are less successful due to the risks of administering sleep-promoting agents early in the morning. Additional methods of treatment, like timed melatonin administration or hypnotics have been proposed, but determining their safety and efficacy will require further research. Unlike other sleep disorders, ASPD does not necessarily disrupt normal functioning at work during the day and some patients may not complain of excessive daytime sleepiness. Social obligations may cause an individual to stay up later than their circadian rhythm requires, however, they will still wake up very early. If this cycle continues, it can lead to chronic sleep deprivation and other sleep disorders. 1 in 300 Thrives on Very-Early-to-Bed, Very-Early-to-Rise Routine.

Non-24-Hour Seep Wake Disorder is defined as a "chronic steady pattern comprising daily delays in sleep onset and wake times in an individual living in society." Symptoms result when the non-entrained (free-running) endogenous circadian rhythm drifts out of alignment with the light/dark cycle in nature. PDF.

Disrupted Circadian Clock drives inflammation in the body’s immune cells, regulating the rhythm of the body’s own innate immune cells called macrophages. When these cell rhythms are disrupted, due to things like erratic eating/sleeping patterns or shift work, the cells produce molecules which drive inflammation. This can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases such as heart disease, obesity, arthritis, diabetes and cancer, and also impact our ability to fight infection. The researchers found that macrophages without a body clock took up far more glucose and broke it down more quickly than normal cells. They also found that, in the mitochondria (the cells energy powerhouse), the pathways by which glucose was further broken down to produce energy were very different in macrophages without a clock. This led to the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS, which further fuelled inflammation.

Sleep deprivation increases serotonin 2a receptor response in brain. Environmental stressor alters receptor involved in response to psychedelic drugs and schizophrenia in a matter of hours. Researchers have identified the effects of an environmental stressor, sleep deprivation, that could alter the balance controlled by antipsychotic drugs and impact individuals with schizophrenia.

Sleep linked to language skills in neurodevelopmental disorders. Study is first to examine relationship among children with Down's, Fragile X and Williams syndrome.

Somniphobia is the extreme fear of sleep. People with somniphobia may worry or obsess throughout the day about how they can avoid sleep. They may be afraid of what happens when they do fall asleep, such as having a nightmare or sleepwalking.

Snoring - Breathing Loudly

Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. In some cases, the sound may be soft, but in most cases, it can be loud and unpleasant. Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research suggests that snoring is one of the factors of sleep deprivation.

Snore Lab App - Video - Snoring Center

Silent Partner quiets snoring noise using active noise cancellation.

The World's Smartest Anti-Snoring Device.
Snore Circle Eye Mask - Doctor OZ

Sleeping Positions - Smartnora.

Alternative Medicine Magazine's Definitive Guide to Sleep Disorders: 7 Smart Ways to Help You Get a Good Night's Rest Paperback – August 1, 2007 (amazon)

Drooling is the flow of saliva outside the mouth. Drooling can be caused by excess production of saliva, inability to retain saliva within the mouth (incontinence of saliva), or problems with swallowing (dysphagia or odynophagia). Drooling or sialorrhea can happen in sleep. It is often the result of open-mouth posture from CNS depressants intake or sleeping on one's side. In sleep, saliva may not build at the back of the throat, triggering the normal swallow reflex, thus allowing for the condition. (Drool is also known as salivation, driveling, dribbling, slobbering, or, in a medical context, sialorrhea).

Hypersalivation also called ptyalism or sialorrhea) is excessive production of saliva. It has also been defined as increased amount of saliva in the mouth, which may also be caused by decreased clearance of saliva. Hypersalivation can contribute to drooling if there is an inability to keep the mouth closed or in difficulty in swallowing the excess saliva (dysphagia).

Congestion (colds) - Dehydration

(Last Night) I Didn't Get To Sleep At All - 5th Dimension (Great Classic Song on youtube)

You have to be aware of your thoughts as much as you can during the day. Thoughts can effect your mood. This is fact. So you need to be aware of your thoughts, and be aware of how you feel. You are in control because you can control what you're thinking about. You will not be able to do this all the time, but the more aware you are, the more control you have. Tired? Fatigued? Lethargic? Have trouble focusing? Feeling depressed? Is it from lack of sleep? Or the lack of exercise? Or the lack of healthy nutrition? Or maybe a sign of sickness? A traumatic experience? You should have the correct answers to these questions everyday. If not, then you will be easily distracted without any warning.

Sleep Apnea - Stop Breathing

Sleep Apnea characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep. Each pause can last for a few seconds to several minutes and they happen many times a night. In the most common form this follows loud snoring. There may be a choking or snorting sound as breathing resumes. As it disrupts normal sleep, those affected are often sleepy or tired during the day. In children it may cause problems in school or hyperactivity.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway. It is characterized by repetitive episodes of shallow or paused breathing during sleep, despite the effort to breathe, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. These episodes of decreased breathing, called "apneas" (literally, "without breath"), typically last 20 to 40 seconds.

Airing: The first Hoseless Maskless Micro CPAP

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is a form of positive airway pressure ventilator, which applies mild air pressure on a continuous basis to keep the airways continuously open in people who are able to breathe spontaneously on their own. But need help keeping their airway unobstructed. It is an alternative to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Both modalities stent the lungs' alveoli open and thus recruit more of the lung's surface area for ventilation, but, while PEEP refers to devices that impose positive pressure only at the end of the exhalation, CPAP devices apply continuous positive airway pressure throughout the breathing cycle. Thus, the ventilator itself does not cycle during CPAP, no additional pressure above the level of CPAP is provided, and patients must initiate all of their breaths.

Provent Sleep Apnea Therapy applied to the nostrils nightly and requires no mask or machine.

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome is a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breathing during sleep. The primary symptoms include daytime sleepiness and excessive fatigue.

Breathing - Lungs - Congestion

One Billion People worldwide Stop Breathing while they Sleep. Sleep is marked by dynamic changes throughout the body. It’s made up of different phases, and as you move through them, your breathing, blood pressure and body temperature will all fall and rise. Tension in your muscles mostly stays the same as when you are awake – except during REM phases, which account for up to a quarter of your sleep. During these, most major muscle groups ease significantly. But if your throat muscles relax too much, your airway collapses and is blocked. The result is obstructive sleep apnoea – from the Greek ápnoia, or ‘breathless’. With sleep apnoea, your air supply is continually interrupted, causing blood oxygen levels to plummet. You then stir, gasping, trying to breathe. This can happen hundreds of times a night, and the ill-effects are many and severe. Apnoea puts strain on the heart, as it races to pump blood more quickly to compensate for the lack of oxygen. Fluctuating oxygen levels also cause plaque to build up in the arteries, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. In the mid-1990s, the US National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research estimated that 38,000 Americans were dying every year of heart disease worsened by apnoea. There’s also growing evidence that the condition affects glucose metabolism and promotes insulin resistance – leading to type 2 diabetes – and encourages weight gain. Then there’s the exhaustion of never having a full night’s sleep, which is associated with memory loss, anxiety and depression. Lack of sleep also causes inattention that can lead to traffic accidents. A 2015 study of drivers in Sweden found that those with sleep apnoea are 2.5 times more likely to have an accident than those without. It also fuels absenteeism, and people with apnoea are fired from their jobs more frequently than those without. One study found that people with severe sleep apnoea were, all told, three times as likely to die during an 18-year period as those without.

Dreams - Nightmares

Rem Intrusion
is a condition where certain characteristics of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep occurs while awake. It is not the same as daydreaming or 'dreaming while awake', but rather a situation where certain areas of the brain become over-active. REM Sleep Behavior Disorders (webmd).

Rhythmic Movement Disorder is involuntary, repetitive movements of large muscle groups immediately before and during sleep often involving the head and neck.

Microsleep is a temporary episode of sleep which may last for a fraction of a second or up to 30 seconds where an individual fails to respond to some arbitrary sensory input and becomes unconscious.

Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder involves abnormal behavior during the sleep phase with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep Disorders.

Sleep Paralysis - Half Asleep - Bad Dreams.

Memory - Awareness - Medications - Diets

Restless Legs Syndrome, not to be confused with Hypnic Jerk, Myoclonus or Falling Sensation.

Fragmented Sleep is a sleep cycle that is typically short on slow-wave sleep and is often unrefreshing.

Japanese Sleep Institute found that the active component rich in sugarcane and other natural products may ameliorate stress and help having sound sleep. 1-Octacosanol (wiki).

Jet Lag - Sleeping in Different Time Zones

Jet Lag is a condition which results from alterations to the body's circadian rhythms resulting from rapid long-distance trans-meridian (east–west or west–east) travel on high-speed aircraft. For example, someone travelling from New York to London feels as if the time were five hours earlier than local time. Jet lag was previously classified as one of the circadian rhythm sleep disorders. The effects of jet lag are noticeably worse traveling west to east than in the opposite direction. Arguably this is because it is the shortened day of eastward travel that produces the disruption to the circadian clock.

Social Jet Lag (webmd) - Jet Lag Molecule SIK1

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Sleep cycle is regulated by metabolism, body temperature, thirst, appetite, and hormone levels, which are all synchronized across the body's various organs by a photosensitive system. Exercising and seeking light exposure at certain hours of the day helps with adjusting our normal sleep patterns, example, people traveling east by more than four time zones should avoid bright lights in the morning hours and actively seek them out in the afternoon to help reset the Circadian Rhythm. Avoiding bright lights, especially blue light, is key to preventing Melatonin suppression. Avoid bright lights from electronic devices like PC's, Smartphones and TV's. Wearing Amber or Orange Tinted Sunglasses helps with reducing light exposure. Also try using F.Fux on your PC can help lower light exposure that could help you get to sleep easier.

Chris Kresser (artificial light effects)

Sleep on a Plane (image) - Fall asleep on a Plane tips Info-Graph by Work the World (image)

A new way to optimize sleep and light exposure can reduce jet lag and improve alertness. Wearable technology can be used to calculate optimal personalized sleep and light schedule. Researchers explain how they have developed and demonstrated a series of algorithms that can analyze biometric information recorded by a smart device and then recommend the best combination of sleep and light to help a person readjust their circadian rhythm.

Can you Reset your Sleep Cycle by Fasting for 16 hours? - Reset Sleep Cycle

Oxygen levels can reset circadian clocks of mice changing the concentration of oxygen in cells by just 3%, twice a day, will synchronize mouse cells to a circadian rhythm. Light, food, and temperature are the best known cues that can influence circadian rhythms. HIF1A is a subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) that is encoded by the HIF1A gene. It is a basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain containing protein, and is considered as the master transcriptional regulator of cellular and developmental response to hypoxia, which is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

Sleeping in unfamiliar Places

50 to 70 million adults have a sleep or wakefulness disorder, and 80 million people qualify as obese, so these two epidemics may be a relating factor in some cases.

Exploding Head Syndrome is a benign condition in which a person hears loud imagined noises (such as a bomb exploding, a gunshot, or a cymbal crash) or experiences an explosive feeling when falling asleep or waking up. These noises have a sudden onset, are typically brief in duration, and are often jarring for the sufferer.

Enuresis (Bed Wetting)

Bruxism (Teeth Grinding)

EMF - Microwaves can effect sleep

Elderly People with sleep-disordered breathing or sleep apnea had more than twice the odds of developing dementia years later. (Psychiatrist Kristine Yaffe) 

Memory Disorders Clinic

Are you an Early Bird Morning Person or Lark Person, or, are you a Night Owl?

Researchers ID first two Genes Regulating Sleep in mice using genetic screening

New study illuminates key aspects of how we fall asleep and wake up

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN

Ion Channel are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. Their functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present in the membranes of all excitable cells. Ion channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins).

BK Channel are potassium channels characterized by their large conductance for potassium ions (K+) through cell membranes. These channels are activated (opened) by changes in membrane electrical potential and/or by increases in concentration of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+). Opening of BK channels allows K+ to passively flow through the channel, down the electrochemical gradient. Under typical physiological conditions, this results in an efflux of K+ from the cell, which leads to cell membrane hyperpolarization (an increase in the electrical potential across the cell membrane) and a decrease in cell excitability (a decrease in the probability that the cell will transmit an action potential).

Half Asleep - Hypnagogic - Sleeping in Unfamiliar Places

We often experience troubled sleep in a new environment. This is called the first-night effect. Interhemispheric asymmetry in sleep depth occurs for the first night in a new place. The less-asleep hemisphere shows increased vigilance in response to deviant stimuli. This interhemispheric asymmetry occurs in the default-mode network. One brain hemisphere may work as a night watch during sleep in a novel environment. Sleeping on a Plane.

Default-Mode Network stays on alert when we sleep in a different place. This half-asleep, half-awake state may work as a way to monitor unfamiliar surroundings. DMN is a large scale brain network best known to be active when a person is not focused on the outside world and the brain is at wakeful rest, such as during daydreaming and mind-wandering. It can also be active during detailed thoughts related to external task performance. Other times that the DMN is active include when the individual is thinking about others, thinking about themselves, remembering the past, and planning for the future. Though the DMN was originally noticed to be deactivated in certain goal-oriented tasks and is sometimes referred to as the task-negative network, it can be active in other goal-oriented tasks such as social working memory or autobiographical tasks. The DMN has been shown to be negatively correlated with other networks in the brain such as attention networks.

Unihemispheric Slow-Wave Sleep is sleep with one half of the brain while the other half remains alert.

Unihemispheric Slow-Wave Sleep is sleep with one half of the brain while the other half remains alert. This is in contrast to normal sleep where both eyes are shut and both halves of the brain show reduced consciousness. In USWS, also known as asymmetric slow-wave sleep, one half of the brain is in deep sleep, a form of non-rapid eye movement sleep and the eye corresponding to this half is closed while the other eye remains open. When examined by low voltage electroencephalography or EEG, the characteristic slow-wave sleep tracings are seen from one side while the other side shows a characteristic tracing of wakefulness. The phenomenon has been observed in a number of terrestrial, aquatic and avian species.

Adaptation in the eye is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of darkness and light.

Hypnagogic is being on threshold consciousness or being half-asleep or half-awake and not completely awake and not demonstrating full energy or full attention. Hypnagogic is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep. Thought processes on the edge of sleep tend to differ radically from those of ordinary wakefulness. Hypnagogia may involve a "loosening of ego boundaries ... openness, sensitivity, internalization-subjectification of the physical and mental environment (empathy) and diffuse-absorbed attention. Hypnagogic cognition, in comparison with that of normal, alert wakefulness, is characterized by heightened suggestibility, illogic and a fluid association of ideas. Subjects are more receptive in the hypnagogic state to suggestion from an experimenter than at other times, and readily incorporate external stimuli into hypnagogic trains of thought and subsequent dreams. This receptivity has a physiological parallel; EEG readings show elevated responsiveness to sound around the onset of sleep. The hypnagogic state can provide insight into a problem, Many other artists, writers, scientists and inventors have credited hypnagogia and related states with enhancing their creativity. Somnolence is a very sleepy state.

Brain Programing - Self-Hypnosis - Sleep Learning - Sleep Walking - Lucid Dreaming - Telepathy - Anesthesia - Subconscious - Highway Hypnosis  

Hypnagogia or N1 can be used as a sleep method for increasing creativity and problem solving. The trick is to hold an object in your hand before falling asleep, and when you start to fall asleep, the object falls and makes a noise and wakes you up.

Hypnopompic State or Hypnopompia is the state of consciousness leading out of sleep. Hypnagogic state is rational waking cognition trying to make sense of non-linear images and associations; the hypnopompic state is emotional and credulous dreaming cognition trying to make sense of real-world stolidity. They have a different phenomenological character. Hypnopompic and hypnagogic hallucinations are frequently accompanied by sleep paralysis, which is a state wherein one is consciously aware of one's surroundings but unable to move or speak. For this reason they are often frightening to a person newly experiencing them. These hallucinations are believed to be the source of many perceived supernatural experiences.

Dreams - Imagery - Mental Imagery

Sleep Paralysis is when an individual, either during falling asleep or awakening, briefly experiences an inability to move, speak, or react. This is a transitional state between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by an inability to move muscles. It is often accompanied by terrifying hallucinations to which one is unable to react due to paralysis, and physical experiences (such as strong current running through the upper body). These hallucinations often involve a person or supernatural creature suffocating or terrifying the individual, accompanied by a feeling of pressure on one's chest and difficulty breathing. Another common hallucination type involves intruders (human or supernatural) entering one's room or lurking outside one's window, accompanied by a feeling of dread. During an episode, one may hallucinate (hear, feel, or see things that are not there), which often results in fear. Episodes generally last less than a couple of minutes. It may occur as a single episode or be recurrent. The condition can be triggered by sleep deprivation, psychological stress, or abnormal sleep cycles. The condition may occur in those who are otherwise healthy or those with narcolepsy, or it may run in families as a result of specific genetic changes.  The underlying mechanism is believed to involve a dysfunction in REM sleep. Diagnosis is based on a person's description. Other conditions that can present similarly include narcolepsy, atonic seizure, and hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

How the brain paralyzes you while you sleep. Researchers have discovered a group of neurons in the mouse brainstem that suppress unwanted movement during rapid eye movement sleep. This near-paralysis of muscles while dreaming is called REM-atonia, and is lacking in people with REM sleep behavior disorder. Instead of being still during REM sleep, muscles move around, often going as far as to stand up and jump, yell, or punch. Sakurai and his team set out to find the neurons in the brain that normally prevent this type of behavior during REM sleep. These cells were located in an area of the brain called the ventral medial medulla and received input from another area called the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus, or SLD. They were connected to neurons that control voluntary movements, but not those that control muscles in the eyes or internal organs. How the Brain Paralyzes Muscles while you Sleep.

Night Hag or old hag is the name given to a supernatural creature, commonly associated with the phenomenon of sleep paralysis. It is a phenomenon which a person feels during a presence of a supernatural malevolent being which immobilizes the person as if sitting on their chest or the foot of their bed. The word "night-mare" or "nightmare" was used to describe this phenomenon before the word received its modern, more general meaning. Various cultures have various names for this phenomenon and supernatural character.

Mare is a malicious entity in Germanic and Slavic folklore that rides on people's chests while they sleep, bringing on nightmares or bad dreams.

Sudden Nocturnal Death can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including stroke, seizure, sedative overdose, and, most frequently, sudden cardiac arrest. Relatively uncommon.

Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome is a sudden unexpected death of adolescents and adults caused by, as the name implies, a cardiac arrest.

Hypnic Jerk is a brief and sudden involuntary contraction of the muscles of the body which occurs when a person is beginning to fall asleep, often causing the person to jump and awaken suddenly for a moment. Hypnic jerks are one form of involuntary muscle twitches called myoclonus. Hypnic jerk is also known as hypnagogic jerk, sleep start, sleep twitch, myoclonic jerk, or night start

REM Sleep Behavior disorder may include body movements such as kicking, punching, arm flailing or jumping from bed, in response to action-filled or violent dreams, such as being chased or defending yourself from an attack. Noises, such as talking, laughing, shouting, emotional outcries or even cursing.

Parasomnia are abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep. Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness and NREM sleep, or wakefulness and REM sleep.

Sleepwalking is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness. It is classified as a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. It occurs during slow wave sleep stage, in a state of low consciousness, with performance of activities that are usually performed during a state of full consciousness. These activities can be as benign as talking, sitting up in bed, walking to a bathroom, and cleaning, or as hazardous as cooking, driving, violent gestures, grabbing at hallucinated objects, or even homicide.

Animal Sleep Behavior

Sleep in Non-Human Animals refers to a behavioral and physiological state characterized by altered consciousness, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, and homeostatic regulation.

Birds can Sleep while Flying: Birds have been observed sleeping in mid-flight, so there is evidence that birds do indeed sleep while flying. Frigate birds can sleep while flying, spending less than 3% of their time asleep when flying and sleeping about 42 minutes per day on average. Frigatebirds can sleep for over 12 hours in a single day. Flying frigate birds would exhibit unihemispheric slow wave sleep, a phenomenon in which animals sleep with only one hemisphere of the brain at a time, allowing them to keep one eye open to watch out for potential threats. Frigatebirds are able to fly with both of their eyes closed. The monitored birds even experienced brief bouts of rapid eye movement or REM sleep, although they lasted only a few seconds. During REM sleep, muscle tone is reduced, causing birds' heads to droop. Despite this muscle tone reduction, REM sleep was not found to affect the birds' flight patterns. Though the frigatebirds did sleep for brief periods of time in mid-flight, they spent a majority of the flight awake. On land, frigatebirds can sleep for over 12 hours in a single day. While flying, however, they spent less than 3% of their time asleep, sleeping about 42 minutes per day on average. Mid-flight sleeping also occurred almost exclusively at night even though frigatebirds on land can sleep during the daytime. Dolphins have also been observed exhibiting USWS, allowing them to sleep while they are still swimming.

Night Owls (going out only at night) - Nocturnal

Not all mammals live in environments where long periods of time asleep are possible. Northern elephant seals can sleep for less than 2 hours per day at sea and do so while diving to depths of around 300 meters. Unlike other marine mammals, they enter full REM sleep, with accompanying paralysis, but they do so at depths below those occupied by their predators.

Reindeer sleep while chewing their cud. EEG recordings revealed that reindeer's brainwaves during rumination resemble the brain waves present during non-REM sleep, and these brainwave patterns suggest that the reindeer are more 'rested' after ruminating. The researchers speculate that this multitasking might help reindeer get enough sleep during the summer months, when food is abundant and reindeer feed almost 24/7 in preparation for the long and food-sparse arctic winter.

Penguins take 10,000 little naps a day and they last seconds at a time. Microsleep involves very brief periods of sleep that last up to 30 seconds. Chinstrap penguins or Pygoscelis antarcticus nod off more than 10,000 times a day for an average of 4 seconds at a time. his Antarctic penguin sleeps 11 hours a day—a few seconds at a time ... day—most of it accrued over 10,000 microsleeps averaging 4 seconds each.

Sleeping Tips - Sleeping Aids - Relaxation Techniques - Sleep Monitors

Temperature Regulation (blankets, covers) - Bed Room - Dark Room - Light - Sound - Private Sleeping Area - Sleeping Positions - Breathing - Sleeping Problems

Foods that help sleep and hurt sleep - Tryptophan is an amino acid that when ingested gets turned into the neurotransmitter serotonin and then converted into the hormone melatonin. Best foods loaded with tryptophan: Dairy products (milk, low-fat yogurt, cheese). Poultry (turkey, chicken). Seafood (shrimp, salmon, halibut, tuna, sardines, cod). Nuts and seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, cashews, peanuts, almonds, walnuts). Legumes (kidney beans, lima beans, black beans split peas, chickpeas). Fruits (apples, bananas, peaches, avocado). Vegetables (spinach, broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, onions, seaweed). Grains (wheat, rice, barley, corn, oats). Hemp Seeds with almond butter on toast eaten about 2 hours before bedtime. CDB Oil also can help you sleep. Exercise after 3 pm for better sleep.

Magnesium is a powerful mineral that is instrumental in sleep and is a natural relaxant that helps deactivate adrenaline. A lack of magnesium can be directly linked to difficulty going and staying asleep. Magnesium is often referred to as the sleep mineral. Sources of magnesium are: leafy greens (baby spinach, kale, collard greens). Nuts and seeds (almonds, sunflower seeds, brazil nuts, cashews, pine nuts, flaxseed, pecans). Wheat germ. Fish (salmon, halibut, tuna, mackerel). Soybeans. Banana. Avocados. Low-fat yogurt.

Calcium is another mineral that helps the brain make melatonin. A lack of calcium can cause you to wake up in the middle of the night and have difficulty returning to sleep. Calcium rich diets have been shown to help patients with insomnia. Dairy products that contain both tryptophan and calcium are among the best sleep inducers. Sources of calcium include: leafy greens, Low-fat milk. Cheeses. Yogurt. Sardines. Fortified cereals. Soybeans. Fortified orange juice. Enriched breads and grains. Green snap peas. Okra. Broccoli.

Vitamin B6 also helps convert tryptophan into melatonin. A deficiency in B6 has been linked with lowered serotonin levels and poor sleep. A deficiency in B6 is also linked to symptoms of depression and mood disorders which can lead to insomnia. Highest sources of B6 are: Sunflower seeds. Pistachio nuts. Flaxseed. Fish (salmon). Meat (chicken). Dried Prunes. Bananas. Avocado. Spinach. Vitamin D (wiki)

Melatonin: Many vitamins and minerals that are in the foods listed are there because they help aid in the production of turning serotonin into melatonin. However, there are a few excellent sources of naturally occurring melatonin in foods: Fruits and vegetables (tart cherries, corn, asparagus, tomatoes, pomegranate, Olives, grapes, broccoli, cucumber). Grains (rice, barley, rolled oats). Nuts and Seeds (walnuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, mustard seeds, flaxseed).

Foods that hurt sleep, especially late in the day: Celery, Cheeseburgers, Cheese Sauces, Coffee and Foods and drinks that contain caffeine, Dark Chocolate, Fancy Water, Indian Curry, Spicy foods, Sodas, Red Meat, Wine and Alcohol, Foods high in fat, Foods high in protein, Foods containing water or eating Heavy meals before bedtime.

An empty stomach can interfere with sleep. If you find yourself hungry before bed then eat a light snack of food that contains tryptophan and calcium. Everyone is a little different so you will have to do your own personal research to see what works best.

Effective treatment for insomnia delivered in a few short phone calls. The phone-delivered therapy, which consisted of guided training and education to combat insomnia, also helped reduce fatigue as well as pain associated with osteoarthritis. Patients were interviewed six times for 20 to 30 minutes over an eight-week period. Roughly half of the patients received materials and guided training called cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. CBT-I is a proven and effective strategy used as the first line of treatment for insomnia. The key task of the therapy sessions was to guide patients through routines, information and self-monitoring in order to get their homeostatic sleep drive, which is the internal drive to sleep that is dissipated during the night and builds up during the day, and circadian rhythms, the complex and innate cycles of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes, working together so that the patient will sleep at night and be wakeful during the daytime.

Unraveling the secrets of a good night's sleep. Researchers have identified a signaling pathway that regulates sleep. By studying genetic mutations in mice, they were able to show that an enzyme called histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), which is known to suppress gene expression, plays a key role in regulating the amount and depth of sleep. Further experiments revealed that this regulatory signaling in the excitatory neurons of the cortex and hypothalamus regulates sleep quantity and quality, respectively. Previous studies on HDAC4 have shown that it is greatly affected by the attachment of phosphate molecules in a process known as phosphorylation. When this occurs, HDAC4 tends to move away from the cell nucleus, and the suppression of certain proteins is reduced. The researchers were interested in whether this phosphorylation of HDAC4 would affect sleep. We focused on a protein called salt-inducible kinase 3, otherwise known as SIK3, which phosphorylates HDAC4. We previously found that this protein has strong effects on sleep." The team found that when there was a lack of SIK3 or when HDAC4 was modified to prevent phosphorylation, the mice slept less. In contrast, when the mice had a more active version of SIK3, which increased the phosphorylation of HDAC4, they slept a lot more. They also identified a further protein, LKB1, which phosphorylates SIK3, and has similar sleep-suppressing effects when deficient. Our findings indicate that there is a signaling pathway within brain cells from LKB1 to SIK3 and then to HDAC4. This pathway leads to the phosphorylation of HDAC4, which promotes sleep, most probably because it affects the expression of sleep-promoting genes.

Sleep like a Log - Healthy sleep needs a healthy day: Boost exercise to beat your bedtime blues. A new study shows that getting a good night's sleep is tied to how you structure your day, with exercise at the heart of sleep quality. We found that if children and adults increased moderate to vigorous physical activity, they would feel less tired, have less troubled sleep and better-quality sleep.

Military Sleep Method. As you’re moving through this technique, be slow, gentle, and intentional with each step. Remember to breathe slowly and deeply, paying attention to every inhale and exhale. Get in a comfortable position—preferably lying in bed so you’re ready to drift off. Begin by relaxing your facial muscles. Relax your jaw. Release any tension in your eyebrows. Next relax your shoulders, then arms, and hands. Move your attention to your midsection and stomach. Relax your belly muscles. Then relax your thighs, your feet, and your toes. With each breath, focus on letting your body feel heavy. Picture your body sinking down into your bed. Continue focusing on your inhale and slow exhale.

Resources for Improving Sleep

Guide To Healthy Sleep - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-National Institutes of Health.

American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Sleep Foundation - Sleep Doc - Journal Sleep - Sleeping Aids - Dream Essentials

Sleep Phones - Foods that Affect Sleep

Regular napping linked to larger brain volume. Daytime napping may help to preserve brain health by slowing the rate at which our brains shrink as we age. A study analyzed data from people aged 40 to 69 and found a causal link between habitual napping and larger total brain volume -- a marker of good brain health linked to a lower risk of dementia and other diseases.

Videos about Improving Sleep - Techniques for Relaxation Videos

Sleep Techniques (video)
How To Sleep Better (youtube)
Relaxing Breath Technique (vimeo)
Secret Life of Your Body Clock (youtube)
Sleep Removes Waste from the Brain (video)

How to Fall Asleep Faster Tips

Before going to Bed...Take a warm shower or a Soaking in the Tub. Put on your Pajamas. Wear socks to bed. Immerse your face in very cold water for 30 seconds. Drink some Warm Milk. “4-7-8” breathing technique, or Blow bubbles. Hide your clock. Scent your bedroom with lavender. Soothing Scents. Picture your favorite place. Do some Reading or Writing. Listen to music that has a slow rhythm of 60 to 80 beats per minute. Light a candle for a few minutes, candlelight blue light waves help create sleep-friendly circadian rhythms.

Progressive Muscle Relaxation - Involves slowly tensing and then relaxing each muscle in your body to help your body relax. The Mayo Clinic describes the technique as follows: Start by tensing and relaxing the muscles in your toes and progressively working your way up to your neck and head. You can also start with your head and neck and work down to your toes. Tense your muscles for at least five seconds and then relax for 30 seconds, and repeat. "I encourage patients to try progressive relaxation," says Meltzer. "It's not enough by itself, but in combination with other things, it definitely makes a huge difference."

Give yourself Acupressure - Acupressure between your eyebrows, there is a small depression on the level of your brows, right above the nose. Apply gentle pressure to that point for a minute. Between your first and second toes, on top of the foot, there is a depression. Press that area for a few minutes until you feel a dull ache. Imagine that your foot has three sections, beginning at the tips of your toes and ending at the back of your heel. Find the distance one-third back from the tips of your toes and press on the sole of your foot for a few minutes. Massage both of your ears for a minute.

Sleeping Tips - Bedtime Routines - Experiences  (From Amerisleep Blog)

1. About one hour before bedtime, I like to have a small smoothie. I make sure it has tart cherry juice, which in a recent study done at Louisiana University, has been shown to increase sleep, because of its melatonin content as well as phytonutrients that inhibit the breakdown of tryptophan. I also include a banana which contains tryptophan, magnesium, potassium and vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine). Tryptophan is converted  to serotonin and melatonin. Magnesium and potassium relax muscle and nerve cells and B6 is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan into serotonin. I add some almond milk for more tryptophan and magnesium. Lastly, some flaxseed for omega 3’s that tend to be calming.
2. Meditation or Progressive Muscle Relaxation. Either of these techniques decrease levels of sleep preventing stress. They promote both psychological and muscle relaxation. They inhibit the sympathetic (fight or flight) nervous system and increase output from the relaxing parasympathetic nervous system. Incidentally, I am incorporating these techniques into my patient’s insomnia program.
3. A cup of green or chamomile tea. Green tea contains theanine, an amino acid which is able to cross the blood brain barrier. It increases alpha waves in the brain. Alpha waves are seen in electroencephalograms during relaxed wakefulness just before sleep. This is probably one of the ways that theanine induces a relaxed state and decreases anxiety. Chamomile contains apigenin, a plant based compound, that stimulates calming gabba receptors in the brain and helps to promote sleep.
4. I make my bedroom a no computer, no electronics zone. That includes the television and cell phones. All of these devices emit blue melatonin suppressing light.

Dr. Carolyn Dean, MD, ND is a sleep expert, a medical doctor and nutrition expert, author of “The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to Women’s Health”. Dr. Dean also serves as the medical director for the Nutritional Magnesium Association.

Magnesium is known as the anti-stress, anti-anxiety mineral and is a natural sleep aid. Numerous studies have shown its effectiveness in lowering anxiety and reducing stress levels as well as helping with deeper more restful sleep. Over 75% of women do not get their recommended daily allowance of this mineral which is a co-factor in 700-800 enzyme reactions in the body. A magnesium deficiency can magnify stress and anxiety making it harder to go to sleep and stay asleep. Serotonin, the feel good brain chemical that is boosted artificially by some medications, depends on magnesium for its production and function. Not all forms of magnesium are easily absorbed by the body. Magnesium citrate powder is a highly absorbable form that can be mixed with hot or cold water and sipped at work or at home throughout the day.
2. Electrical appliances and electromagnetic radiation in the bedroom is another factor to be aware of that makes falling asleep and staying asleep more difficult. Keep these to a minimum, do not sleep next to your cell phone, computers, tv, etc.
3. Room temperature. 68 degrees is ideal, warmer and it can disrupt sleep and make it harder to fall asleep..
4. Darkness of bedroom. The darker the better.
5. Eating before bedtime affects sleep quality. Avoid sugar, alcohol and simple carbs, all of these affect sleep quality.
6. Exercise before bedtime can also disrupt sleep.

Dr. Richard Shane, Ph.D. is the Behavioral Sleep Specialist for New West Physicians and founder of Sleep Easily sleep solution:

I drink plenty of fluids during the day and then stop drinking at least three hours before bedtime.
2. I do my best to not be on electronic devices during the 30 minutes before bed. Light from electronic screens can block brain’s production of melatonin, which then makes sleep difficult. Therefore if I watch a movie on television, I use Blue-blocking glasses, which allows me to watch, yet not have it affect melatonin.
3. Bright house lights can also block the brain’s production of melatonin, so I have dimmers on all of the lights in my home. Sufficient light to function, yet dim enough so it doesn’t block brain’s production of melatonin.
4. During the evening, even with my eyes open, I breathe the Sleep Breath, which is part of the Sleep Easily method I developed. That deeply relaxes me.
5. I never watch the news or read an online newspaper in the evening. Too disturbing. I read news once during the day so I can be informed without it disturbing my sleep.
6. When we sleep, our body temperature drops. Having a cooler room temperature helps the body cool a bit, which helps with sleep. So I have the house thermostat set to 55 degrees starting at 10:30. In reality, the temperature usually only goes down to 65.
7. I like total darkness, so I have blackout shades in my bedroom.
8. When it’s time to go to bed, in my bedroom, I clean up any clutter because a clutter-free bedroom helps calm my mind.
9. In my bedroom, I hang over and touch my toes. That stretches my hamstring muscles and the muscles in the back of my neck, releasing tension I stored during the day.
10. I sit in a chair for a few minutes, with my eyes closed, breathing my Sleep Breath without distractions. I soon have the body feeling of easing toward sleep and then I get into bed. I put one hand on my heart and another on my abdomen to calm those two key areas, which then calms body and mind. I allow my tongue to be calmer, which is an element of the Sleep Easily method. I then use the other steps to get closer and closer to sleep without the pressure of having to get all the way to sleep. My mind rests in calmness and my body eases into sleep.

Amy Landolt is the owner of Northshore Acupuncture Center and a Licensed Acupuncturist who specializes in the treatment of sleeping issues.

1. I try to go to bed as soon as I feel tired. If you miss that window, you can get a second wind and it is difficult to get to sleep. 2. I avoid using electronics at least one hour before bed. I actually wait to cleanup from dinner until close to bedtime during my electronics-free time. (My grandmother must be rolling in her grave at my leaving the dirty dishes that long!). 3. Right before I turn off the lights, I review at least five things for which I’m grateful. My bedroom is conducive for sleep - I have room darkening shades and do not have clocks or electronics with lights. I typically diffuse an Essential Oils Calming Blend. I usually fall asleep pretty quickly. However, if I am expecting to have a harder time falling asleep because of stress, I will do some yoga poses, spritz my pillow with lavender and/or drink Sleepmix tea with catnip, skullcap, hops, chamomile, peppermint and yarrow. Other tips include Acupuncture, and Magnesium citrate supplements — a magnesium deficiency can cause insomnia, and according to the World Health Organization, most Americans have a magnesium deficiency.

Dr. Gregg Schneider is a dentist/nutritionist and a sleep expert treating patients with apnea and sleep disturbances. I personally try and go to bed at the same time everyday and shoot for 8 hours of sleep. I don’t ingest caffeine after 2:00 pm. I exercise 3-4 days per week which helps with falling asleep. If you have trouble falling asleep I recommend: Seditol, a blend of magnolia and jujube 1 hour prior to bedtime. 1.5 mg of melatonin 45 minutes prior to bedtime can aid in falling asleep. 150mg of bioactive milk peptides, can also be helpful. These supplements can be used alone or in combination.

The Takeaways - We all have different schedules, sleep styles and preferences, so the key is to find a rhythm that works for you. It might be relaxing with a good book or meditation, a warm bath or a warm drink, even a spa routine or deep breathing — whatever helps you clear stress, get comfortable and prepare for bed. Being mindful of electronics usage and light in the evening. Keeping bedrooms dark and cool. Eating a balanced diet, and supplementing with proven things like magnesium if needed. Getting regular exercise and activity during the day.

Count Your Blessings Instead of Sheep is a popular song written by Irving Berlin and used in the 1954 film White Christmas. Count your Blessings instead of Sheep (youtube) - When I'm worried and I can't sleep, I count my blessings instead of sheep, And I fall asleep counting my blessings. When my bankroll is getting small, I think of when I had none at all, And I fall asleep counting my blessings. I think about a nursery and I picture curly heads, And one by one I count them as they slumber in their beds. If you're worried and you can't sleep, Just count your blessings instead of sheep, And you'll fall asleep counting your blessings. I think about a nursery and I picture curly heads, And one by one I count them as they slumber in their beds, If you're worried and you can't sleep, Just count your blessings instead of sheep, And you'll fall asleep counting your blessings.

Counting Sheep is a mental exercise used in some Western cultures as a means of putting oneself to sleep. In most depictions of the activity, the practitioner envisions an endless series of identical white sheep jumping over a fence, while counting them as they do so. The idea, presumably, is to induce boredom while occupying the mind with something simple, repetitive, and rhythmic, all of which are known to help humans sleep. Although the practice is largely a stereotype, and rarely used as a solution for insomnia, it has been so commonly referenced by cartoons, comic strips, and other mass media, that it has become deeply engrained into popular culture's notion of sleep. The term "counting sheep" has entered the English language as an idiomatic term for insomnia. Sheep themselves have become associated with sleep, or lack thereof. Helping Babies Sleep.

Dreams - Visions when Sleeping

Dreams are a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep. A state of mind characterized by abstraction and release from reality. Occurs involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not definitively understood.

Oneirology is the scientific study of dreams. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders. The study of oneirology can be distinguished from dream interpretation in that the aim is to quantitatively study the process of dreams instead of analyzing the meaning behind them.

Theories on why we Dream (youtube)

Half Asleep - Hypnagogic - Crazy Dreams - Imagination Machine- Dream Interpretation - Frame Rate - Illusions - Dream Machine

Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM)

The Neural Correlates of Dreaming. Dreaming has been identified with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, characterized by wake-like, globally 'activated', high-frequency electroencephalographic activity. However, dreaming also occurs in non-REM (NREM) sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. Most of us have about five dreams each night, though we're not likely to remember any of them. Sleep Disorders.

Sleep Spindle is a burst of oscillatory brain activity visible on an EEG that occurs during stage 2 sleep. It consists of 12–14 Hz waves that occur for at least 0.5 seconds. Sleep spindles are generated in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus.

Sandman a mythical character who puts people to sleep and brings good dreams by sprinkling magical sand onto the eyes of people while they sleep at night.

Dreams of the Deceased - Bad Dreams

Incorporation of Memories into Dreams involving immediate incorporations of events from the preceding day, and the Dream-Lag Effect, involving incorporations delayed by about a week.

Why is it hard to remember certain dreams? During REM State, the hippo campus is not communicating in sync with the neocortex, so memories are not being completely formed. Quickly waking up from a dream increases the memory of that dream, and also, having lucid dreams also increase memories of dreams.

If we awaken straight out of a dream, we have some chance of remembering it, but only if we make the effort to remember that dream, if we just fall back asleep or start thinking of something else, then remembering most of that dream becomes impossible. Less coherent dreams are harder for a listener to recall than ones with strong emotions and organized plot lines. As the brain awakens, it is just starting to turn on areas necessary for long-term storage. It's helpful to remind yourself that you want to remember your dreams before falling asleep.

Does our subconscious mind remember?

Brain Blocks New Memory Formation on waking to safeguard the consolidation of existing memories BIU study: During consolidation, the brain produces new proteins that strengthen the fragile memory traces.

Brain refreshing: Why the dreaming phase matters. Researchers have found that blood flow in the brain capillaries, which is important for oxygen/nutrient delivery and waste removal, was increased during rapid eye movement sleep in mice. Adenosine A2a receptors might be at least partially responsible for this increased blood flow. These findings bring new hope for understanding the function of sleep and developing treatments for neurodegenerative diseases that involve the buildup of waste products in the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Inferior Parietal Lobule lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus or subparietal district. It's involved in the perception of emotions in facial stimuli, and interpretation of sensory information. The Inferior parietal lobule is concerned with language, mathematical operations, and body image, particularly the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus.

Acetylcholine in the brain is involved in memory, motivation, arousal, and attention. Acetylcholine originates from two major places in the brain: 1) basal forebrain and 2) the mesopontine tegmentum area.

Dopamine - Hallucinations

Dissociation in neuropsychology involves identifying the neural substrate of a particular brain function through identification of case studies, neuroimaging, or neuropsychological testing. Double Dissociation is when two related mental processes are shown to function independently of each other. The action of two separable psychological or biological systems, such as differentiating between types of memory or the function of brain areas. One experimental variable is found to affect one of the systems, whereas a second variable affects the other.

POV or Point of View Shot or a first-person shot or a subjective camera is a film scene that is shot as if through the eyes of a character or the subject. The camera shows what the subject's eyes would see. It is usually established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something, and a shot showing the character's reaction. The POV technique is one of the foundations of film editing.

Point of View is a specific attitude or manner through which a person thinks about something. Perspective.

Shot/reverse shot or shot/countershot is a film technique where one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking back at the first character (a reverse shot or countershot). Since the characters are shown facing in opposite directions, the viewer assumes that they are looking at each other.

Enter Sandman: Study shows dreams spill over into the workplace and can be channeled for productivity. Studies show that on any given morning, about 40 percent of the working population recalls its dreams. New research shows that when dreams are first recalled, people often draw connections between their dreams and waking lives, and the connections they draw alter how they think, feel and act at work. Dreams occur in all stages of sleep and are impactful regardless of sleep habits. However, the most vivid dreams -- those most likely to have meaning and create waking awe -- occur during REM sleep. Because REM sleep takes place late in a given sleep cycle, getting sufficient, high-quality sleep will help you get the most out of your dreams.

Sandman is a fictional man supposed to make children sleep by sprinkling sand in their eyes. Sandman is a mythical character in European folklore who puts people to sleep and encourages and inspires beautiful dreams by sprinkling magical sand onto their eyes.

Morpheus is a god associated with sleep and dreams. From the Middle Ages, the name began to stand more generally for the god of dreams, or of sleep. Matrix.

Hypnos is the personification of sleep; the Roman equivalent is known as Somnus. His name is the origin of the word hypnosis.

Oneiros is the personification of dreams in Greek mythology. For the ancient Greeks, dreams were not generally personified. However, a few instances of the personification of dreams, some perhaps solely poetic, can be found in ancient Greek sources.

Lucid Dreams - Aware of Dreaming

Lucid Dreams is any dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming. During Lucid Dreaming, the dreamer may be able to exert some degree of control over the dream characters, narrative, and environment.

Lucid is being bright or luminous and clearly expressed in the mind and easy to understand. Something transparently clear and easily understandable. Capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner. Transmitting light and able to be seen through with clarity.

Learning how to have Lucid Dreaming can help you to control nightmares, fears and phobias. Learning how to control a dream is necessary. Controlling the metaphysical world or the non-physical world is just as important as controlling the physical world. Controlling your mind is just as important as controlling your body. And being able to control a dream is a good exercise. You don't have to control every dream, you just need to know that you can control a dream, and once in a while make sure that you can still control one of your dreams. You need to exercise the mind and not just the body.

Remote Viewing - Third Eye - Imagery - Sleep Learning - Dream Interpretation - Mirrors - Illusion of Control

The Dead Simple Guide To MILD Lucid Dreaming! (youtube)

MILD: The Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreams. MILD Lucid Dreaming.

This Scientist can Hack your Dreams (video and interactive text)

ibandplus audio-visual cues like music, sounds and light to induce lucidity. Lucidity.

Studies have found that the main motivation for lucid dreaming is simply to have fun or fulfill wishes – whether that be by flying or having sex. But many people also use lucid dreaming to help manage nightmares or bad dreams, solve problems, explore creative ideas or insights, or practice skills. Some research has found that participants who practice simple motor skills in their lucid dreams – such as finger-tapping – significantly improve in their ability during waking life compared with control groups. One study found that people who clenched their hands during lucid dreams showed activation in the same motor cortex areas as in the waking state. It has even been suggested that lucid dreaming could be used to treat serious psychological disorders such as clinical depression and PTSD. Most lucid dreamers have these dreams naturally and spontaneously, rather than intentionally. Most often, natural lucid dreams begin in adolescence, sometimes as a coping mechanism for frequent nightmares. But whether you begin spontaneously or deliberately, the number of lucid dreams and level of control over your dreams tends to be similar, though natural lucid dreamers tend to have slightly longer lucid dreams than those who have self-trained. Since people who have lucid dreams frequently are rare, researchers can find it hard to achieve high success rates in prompting lucid dreams. We don't have a single technique which can induce lucid dreams reliably and with a high success rate, but there are some easy ways that lucid dreaming can be facilitated. But different techniques or a set of techniques may work better for different people. The most effective techniques to induce lucid dreaming is the mnemonic induction of lucid dreams technique, which consists of sleeping for four to six hours, waking up for an hour to do exercises focused on inducing lucid dreams, then going back to sleep. Do it once you've got about two hours left of your sleeping, and that's because most dreams happen clustered near the end of the night. Most people have about 50% of our dreams in the last two hours of sleep. This involves waking up after five or so hours of sleep and setting an intention to have a lucid dream by repeating the phrase "next time I’m dreaming, I will remember I’m dreaming" before going back to sleep. People with good dream recall and those who fell asleep within five or 10 minutes of completing the induction techniques had the highest success rates.
Another technique is the "senses initiated lucid dream" technique, involves waking after five hours then repeatedly shifting one's attention between visual, auditory and physical sensations before returning to sleep. Another methodology called "targeted lucidity reactivation" involves using information about lucid dreaming and training with audio and visual cues before taking a 90-minute nap.

4 Powerful Lucid Dreaming Reality Checks! (youtube)

Hypnagogic - Brain Programing - Self-Hypnosis - Subliminal

Dream Incubation is a thought technique which aims for a specific dream topic to occur, either for recreation or to attempt to solve a problem. It's focusing attention on a specific issue when going to sleep. A practiced technique of learning to "plant a seed" in the mind, in order for a specific dream topic to occur. For example, a person might go to bed repeating to themselves that they will dream about a presentation they have coming up, or a vacation they recently took. Somewhat similar to lucid dreaming.

Sleep Learning - Interpretation of Dreams - Dream Work - Visualization

Dream Yoga are tantric processes and techniques of the Dream State that it is more of a passing of an enlightened experience rather than any textual information.

Bad Dreams - Nightmares

Nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. The dream may contain situations of discomfort, psychological or physical terror. Sufferers often awaken in a state of distress and may be unable to return to sleep for a small period.

Horror Movies - Trauma

Night Terror is a sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3-4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

Sleep Terrors in Children - How to Wake Up from a Bad Dream - Lucid Dreaming

Worst thing about a bad dream is that you did not ask for a bad dream to happen. Why am I scared? And why am I doing this? And why am I saying these things in my dream? That's not what I would do or say in reality. And you also did not ask to have no control over the nightmare or have control over what you do or say or how you feel in a bad dream. This dream is not you, this dream is not reality, this dream is mostly an indication of your bodies physical changes, either from some kind of change in your life style or some kind of change in the environment. Harmful changes create bad dreams. So now you have to figure out what that thing is in your life that is causing this bad dream to happen. Sometimes it's easy and sometimes it's not so easy. The body effects the mind and the mind effects the body. So dreams have many underlying reasons why they are the way there are. maybe emotions are being used by dreams to increase heart rate and increase breathing, maybe because of maintenance the body is doing, and so the body tells the brain that it needs a nightmare to increase the heart rate. Types of dreams are also related to food that we ate or the stresses from the environment that we have experienced. Many different factors need to be considered. I would not say to be alarmed, but I would definitely say be more aware and also document things and also learn everything that you can.

Recurring Dream is a dream which is experienced repeatedly over a long period. They can be pleasant or nightmarish and unique to the person and their experiences.

Traumatic Memories - Trauma makes it hard sometimes to tell the difference between a sleeping dream and reality.

Stress - Sleep Paralysis - Half Asleep - Hallucinations

People who smelled rotten eggs reported more bad dreams while the subjects who smelled roses reported more good dreams. Odors have a stronger effect on dream emotions than other external stimuli because the sense of smell is linked directly to parts of the brain associated with dreaming.

Some medications can affect the central nervous system and cause nightmares. These include antidepressants, narcotics, and barbiturates.

Is it true when people fall from high places they have a heart attack before they hit the ground? Like in a dream when you're falling but you wake up before you hit the ground. Answer: You could pass out or faint from the shock, fear or from the intense emotional stress of falling. And you can also experience being paralyzed with fear and not be able to move or breathe. But there is no guarantee that you will experience a heart attack and die before you hit the ground. The adrenaline will definitely help lessen the pain, that's if the fall doesn't kill you.

Sweet Dreams

Sweeter Dreams in a Peaceful Mind. A new study shows that people with more peace of mind in the waking state have more positive dreams, whereas those with more anxiety in the waking state have more negative dreams. This means that dream experiences, as revealed in recalled and reported dreams, may reflect a person's mental health.

"Dreams are normal and are nothing to worry about, but you should pay attention and be aware of your dreams because they might be trying to tell you something."

Pregnant Women dream more about pregnancy and childbirth. Hospice workers who act as caregivers to others (whether patients or family members) dream about the experiences of caregiving and the people for whom they care. Musicians dream twice as often about music as non-musicians do. There's also some fascinating research that shows our capacity to dream beyond our waking experiences in profound ways. Dream reports of people born paralyzed reveal that they walk, swim, and run in their dreams as often as people without paralysis. Dream reports of people born deaf indicate they often hear in their dreams. These reports may lend credence to a theory of dreaming that suggest dreams serve as a broad, virtual-reality model of waking life -- a proto-consciousness -- that instructs and supports survival and growth. Pregnant women dream more often than average and tend to have greater recall of their dreams. Experts say this is caused by changes in hormone levels during pregnancy and because pregnant women sleep more, and thus dream more, than usual.

Typical Dreams: School dreams like studying or taking tests, Being chased, Sexual dreams, Falling, Being late, Flying, Being attacked physically, Dreaming of someone dead being alive, or someone alive being dead. 

Dreams about having sex are not as frequent, while dreams of falling, being chased or being in school are common.

Everyone dreams more than two hours each night. On average, 20% to 25% of your sleep is a dream state. Dreams occur during both REM or rapid eye movement and non-REM sleep, but brain activity is heightened during REM periods.

Dreams are similar for people from different cultures around the world, but there are variations. Americans have more physically aggressive dreams than people from most other industrialized nations.

Dreamtime is a term for a pantheist religio-cultural system of Australian Aboriginal beliefs. Dreaming represents many Aboriginal concepts of "time out of time," or "everywhen," when the land was inhabited by ancestral figures, often of heroic proportions or with supernatural abilities. They were often distinct from "gods" as they did not control the material world and were not worshipped, but only revered.

Dreaming as an Australian Aboriginal art is a totemistic design or artwork, which can be owned by a tribal group or individual.

Dreams are important for memory consolidation, conflict resolution, and regulation of mood.

More Dreams may mean Less Sleep.

REM Rebound is the lengthening and increasing frequency and depth of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep which occurs after periods of sleep deprivation. When people have been prevented from experiencing REM, they take less time than usual to attain the REM state. When people are unable to obtain an adequate amount of REM sleep, the pressure to obtain REM sleep builds up. When the subject is able to sleep, they will spend a higher percentage of the night in REM sleep.

Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4. Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is not included. There are distinct electroencephalographic and other characteristics seen in each stage. Unlike REM sleep, there is usually little or no eye movement during these stages. Dreaming is rare during NREM sleep, and muscles are not paralyzed as in REM sleep. People who do not go through the sleeping stages properly get stuck in NREM sleep, and because muscles are not paralyzed a person may be able to sleepwalk.

The brain practically shuts off in stages three and four and shifts into slow-wave sleep, where heart and breathing rates drop dramatically. Only after 70 minutes of non-REM sleep do we experience our first period of REM, and it lasts only five minutes. A total non-REM–REM cycle is 90 minutes; this pattern repeats about five times over the course of a night. As the night progresses, however, non-REM stages shorten and the REM periods grow, giving us a 40-minute dreamscape just before waking. Fetuses and babies spend 75 percent of their sleeping time in REM.

Research indicates that people dream 4-6 times per night during an 8 hour sleep cycle, with most dreams occurring during “lighter” stages of sleep.

Vitamin B6 could help people to recall their dreams. Prior to taking the supplements, many of the participants rarely remembered their dreams, but they reported improvements by the end of the study. Vitamin B6 did not affect the vividness, bizarreness or colour of their dreams, and did not affect other aspects of their sleep patterns. The randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study saw participants taking 240mg of vitamin B6 immediately before bed. The average person spends around six years of their lives dreaming. Vitamin B6 occurs naturally in various foods, including whole grain cereals, legumes, fruits (such as banana and avocado), vegetables (such as spinach and potato).

Dream incubation: ancient techniques of dream influence .

Dormio: Interfacing with Dreams to Augment Human Creativity. Using an electronic glove that contains sensors to monitor muscle tone, heart rate, and skin conductance, it monitors when you enter hypnagogia and when you’re falling into real sleep. At that point, Dormio gently nudges you with an audio cue emitted from either the team’s smartphone app, or a nearby Jibo robot with a cue word. The researchers used “fork” or “rabbit,” but it can be any word. The subtle noise is meant to bring you back into hypnagogia without completely waking you up, and in fact, the team found that the chosen word often gets conceptually incorporated into the user’s lucid dreams. Meanwhile, the app or bot will start a conversation with the semi-conscious sleeper, recording anything you say. Once the interaction is over, Dormio lets users fade out into slumberland again, repeating the process to “incept” their dreams and record dream reports.

Do people who are born blind experience “visual” dreams? The dreams of the blind subjects — both those born blind and those blinded later – were predominantly informed by smell, touch, taste and sound, and none of those blind since birth reported a visual impression. But how would they explain it if they could? Studies have shown that people who were born blind do not have visual dreams. But how do we see dreams in our minds anyway? We are not using our eyes to see the dream, so how do we see our dreams? When a person has an out of body experience, they are not seeing with their eyes when they are looking down at their own body.

Telepathy-like communication is a common occurrence in the dreams of those who cannot hear.

My Personal Experience with Dreams

I have been having dreams all my life. Some of my first memories of dreams is when I was a little kid and I use to have these recurring dreams that dinosaurs were chasing me, which was very scary for a child. The turning point was when I was able to control the dream enough to chase the dinosaurs away with a bat. When I woke up I was extremely happy. From that point on, this made some of my dreams very interesting to say the least. But more importantly, I realized that some dreams can be controlled, but of course I cannot control everything in my dreams, but some parts I can. But I still had dreams that I could not control, like the ones when you're falling off a cliff or a structure, very traumatic. But luckily I woke up before I hit the ground. My favorite dream was the flying dream, it was so incredible that you felt like it was some kind of spiritual awakening. Then the sexual dreams, some were frustrating and some were just weird, even when I was able to control the dream I felt like it was not real enough. I also had those sleep paralysis dreams. Very intense. Even though the dream seemed so real, I noticed that the dream was not accurate when it came to the correct dimensions that are in reality. I also noticed that when my body temperature is hot I have more violent dreams, I also experience more sleep paralysis dreams when my body temperature was hot. And also noticed that I dreamed less when I was cold at night. So body temperature definitely effects your dreams. This is probably why sometimes hotter temperatures increase violence and crimes. The high heat effects our thinking and reasoning abilities, why?  In 2020 I now have less dreams about being shot by people with guns, which was always little scary, I would duck and cover but never felt the bullets hit me.

In 2010 I also had these dreams that a dog is biting my hand, and when I wake up I notice that my arm has fallen asleep. The dream was trying to warn me of this bad circulation by trying to scare me to wake up using dog bites. But I'm not scared, I'm more disturbed because I like dogs. Now lately I had a similar dream, but this time it's a polar bear in my bed, and the bear has my entire hand in its mouth. And in the dream the pressure of the bite increases to the point that I am anticipating the biting to go right through the bone and bite my hand off, which was the same feeling I had with the dog bite dreams, but that part has never happened. And when I finally did wake up I felt really uncomfortable like something was wrong internally. It was really cold that night and I was still dressed, maybe bad circulation again. Is the animal world trying to communicate something to me or is my brain just trying to alert me about some discomfort? I guess it's time for a physical examination, but sadly I don't know any good doctors. So the body can influence our dreams just like our body can sometimes influence our feelings and thoughts. Update 2015: I changed my diet, lost some weight, feel better. No more animal bighting dreams. Still have amazing dreams at 54 years of age. As of 2016, I no longer have these dreams or circulation problems, most likely because I lost weight and I'm also eating healthier and exercising better. I also sleep more on my back now instead of my side. I still feel some pressure in my chest when sleeping on my side. But that has gone away too, I think it was trapped air between my organs.

Then around in my 40's from 2000 to 2010, I started to have the most bazar dreams imaginable. More incredible than any Hollywood movie I have ever seen. And the scenes and people could change at any time. I have been wondering lately that some of my dreams may not be my own, as if they are being sent telepathically while I am in some sort of hypnagogia state. Maybe because when we sleep our brainwaves are all pretty much similar, which could allow for some people to transmit and receive other peoples dreams or thoughts. Just a theory of course, but very interesting. Maybe the feeling of receiving signals from a higher power is just us receiving messages from each other? Sometimes when I'm dreaming, it feels like I'm inside someone else's dream, but not as myself, but as someone else, but I can't see myself, so I have no idea who I am or who I'm supposed to be. It feels like I'm remote viewing.  It's weird to know that people can share the same dream. Shared dreams or mutual dreams are when two or more people share a dream experience at the same time. Quantum entanglement or psychic link?

Collective Unconscious refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species.

Maybe our dreams are affected by all the microwaves that are transmitting information. I mean, we need an electronic device to see a video being transmitted, but maybe the brain can also interpret these information signals, especially when dreams are brain waves. So I'm wondering if my dreams are being controlled or influenced by people using radio waves or cellular frequencies. Psychopaths in power are very devious. Propaganda is not enough. They have to manipulate peoples subconscious. People need to wake up, figuratively and literally. Can dreams be a form of subconscious brainwashing? Is this why freewill is sometimes an illusion?

Inception is a 2010 science fiction film about a professional thief who steals information by infiltrating the subconscious minds of people during sleep.

Thought Police or Dream Police Thought Police are the secret police of the superstate of Oceania, who discover and punish thought crimes or personal and political thoughts unapproved by Ingsoc's régime. Using criminal psychology and omnipresent surveillance from informers, telescreens, cameras, and microphones, the Thinkpol monitors the citizens of Oceania and arrest all those who have committed thoughtcrime in challenge to the status quo authority of the Party and of the régime of Big Brother.

Scientists Find a Way to Communicate With Dreaming People. Real-time dialogue between experimenters and dreamers during REM sleep. Sleep Learning.

A dream is like you accidentally walked into a movie set and then someone yelled "action", and now you're running scared through some incredible scene, and wondering, what the hell is going on? I just got here, and I was never told that I was supposed to be playing this part, and I was never shown the script, so how was I supposed to be prepared? What's my motive here? Come on people, I thought we talked about this? I'm an actor, not a freaking mind reader.

In some of my dreams, I say things that I would not say when I'm awake. So who's making up this inner dialog? Maybe I'm entering the body of another dreamer, because I'm saying things I would not normally say. It's like someone else is controlling what I say. Are we supposed to tell the brain when we wake up from our dream in the morning, that those words used in last nights dream were not correct. Do we have to educate our subconscious as well as our conscience? Is the alter ego like a backup system that runs when our other system programs stop running? Maybe a natural safety factor that the brain uses in case we forget who we are? What ever it is, it's interesting to say the least. I do say some stupid things during the day, so maybe my subconscious doesn't know the difference between sarcasm and just being stupid, from my actual conscience identity?

I haven't been lucid dreaming for years because I'm not trying to. Lucid dreaming takes practice and dedication, you have to consciously say to yourself, "Tonight when I go to sleep I am going to know when I'm dreaming, and I am going to control this dream as much as I can." Of course it doesn't work every time. That's why you have to keep trying and ask every night before you sleep what you want to accomplish in your dreams tonight. Have a purpose, something that activates the sequence, something that helps you change from automatic to manual. Like wanting to kiss a girl in your dream, or stop something violent from happening, or have a flying dream and not be worried about the landing.

I don't think too much about my dreams as much as I did when I was younger, but I know that you shouldn't ignore your dreams either. Dreams do communicate something, they all can't just be random non-sense, as crazy as some dreams are. There must be some reasons why certain dreams are the way they are. Because some dreams do relate to the waking world in some ways. But the dream making process is undefined, so it's hard to interpret the message when you don't know how or why it's made. What are you trying to tell me dreams? Did someone fall into the well? And how does the brain know that I'm even going to remember the dream? It's no good sending a message when I'm not even paying attention. So you must know that I'm remembering certain dreams. But why? So you see, it's not just a Dream.

Dreams are relative to something, but relative to what? That's the million dollar question. It just can't be random.

Some say that dreams are metaphorical and that the images symbolize other things. But who decides these metaphorical connections? Who's the director and what is their point and what is their motive? Is the director trying to teach me something in an indirect way? Why doesn't the director just tell me what the message is, instead of making me guess what the message is and forcing me to decipher what these crazy dreams mean. Though the dreams are amusing, I don't have the time to figure out if there's an actual meaning involved in a particular dream, becuase the dream just might be random nonsense?

Dreams are like a built in entertainment system that makes sleeping fun. But who's the director and who's the writer? And where was I when the decisions where being made about what the scene was going to be like and who the actors will be. It's like someone saying action, and you have no idea what's going on because you never read the script. "So why am I naked?" Lucid dreaming can give you control of your dreams, but lucidity does not control everything in your dreams, so who or what does? And why do dreams have different viewing angles or camera angles, as if it were a movie?

It's amazing to think that dreams just some how happen on their own. I know that things influence dreams, and I know that I can control some aspects of a dream when I'm lucid dreaming, but who or what created the dream? Who wrote the script and why am I acting this way? Either there's some type of processing system in the brain that creates the dream and then some how comes up with images in such a way that it mimics some aspect of your reality so that you believe that something is actually happening. Or, our dreams are signals being received by the brain from an unknown origin, like a TV signal. Or, our dreams are a combination of the two? What ever it is, dreams are just totally freaking bazar.

In dreams I sometimes sense that my conscience is communicating with my subconscious, and vice versa.

Brain Waves - Delta Wave Vibrations.

The fact the dreams are some what coherent and some what symbolic of reality, this proves that there is a process involved in the creation of a dream. It's definitely not some random fluctuations in the brain, there is a process. I can recognize things in my dreams so it can be perceived as real. So the process must say something like this, "this is how you make a dream for a sleeping human: you take parts from that persons reality and then put them together to make a motion picture, and then you add some emotions to the dream, and then see what the human does in the dream, and also, see what the human thinks about the dream." If the dreams purpose is to make you consider other realities, and make you see other ways of looking at things, then the dream does a good job at that. But of course, there is definitely more to a dream because things have more than one use or function. There is communication happening on different levels. This is why humans for thousands of years have looked at dreams as a sign or as a signal. Visions that were trying to communicate messages. And people tried to understand their dreams as best as they could. But this is more ancient knowledge that has been suppressed or forgotten. Our brains are under attack by chemicals in our food and our water, as well as the dumbing down of our education systems and our media outlets. Time to wake up.

I have this feeling when I sleep my brain is defragging. So of course I asked the Internet this question and this is what I found.

Is Sleep Brain Defragmentation - Mental Defragmentation

Synaptic Plasticity in Sleep: Learning, Homeostasis and Disease

Defrag is moving separated parts into a contiguous location.

is very close or connected in space or time. Connecting without a break; within a common boundary. Having a common boundary or edge; abutting; touching.

Learning and Sleep

How memories ripple through the brain. Using an innovative "NeuroGrid" technology, scientists showed that sleep boosts communication between two brain regions whose connection is critical for the formation of memories.

Maybe our dreams are giving us a glimpse of how our brains process information? It's like your subconscious mind is saying "If you don't start defining what you're seeing in the world I'm going to just keep making stuff up", ok, ok, don't get so bossy.

Maybe our memory is not the only source of information? Are there other ways of receiving information, if so, what are these ways and how do they work?

Dreams Subconscious links to the Conscious.

When dreaming you don't have the same awareness as when you are conscious and awake. When dreaming you also don't have access to all your memories and knowledge like you do when you are conscious and fully awake and alert. This is why some dreams don't make sense. You say and do things in your dreams that you normally wouldn't do. Now why would our brains do this? It's not a fair test of our knowledge. So maybe it's your brain just saying hey "what if?" The brain never stops thinking, which is good. But when you're sleeping and dreaming, how does the brain decide what to think about? And how does the brain know if you are even paying attention to the dream? I know when I am working on something that requires many hours of thinking and doing, my dreams sometimes are focused around those actions and thoughts. Like when actors are studying the characters they are going to portray in a movie, they spend many hours transforming themselves to become this character, thus some have said that they had dreams relating to this focus of attention. I believe that when the sub-conscious mind is more linked to the conscious mind, what ever you are learning, this becomes more focused and more clearer. Like the 10,000 hour rule. The sub-conscious mind becomes more linked to the conscious mind, thus you become an expert or a professional in the craft that you are studying. If this is the case, then the subject that you're studying should be important to increasing understanding yourself and the world around you. So you become more strong minded and much wiser then the day before.

How do dreams assemble images into movies? Why do dreams show us things that never happened? Are dreams just reminding us that things are not what they seem and that there is more to what we can actually see with our eyes? There seems to be more to how our dreams assemble images into movies? There seems to be more to our perception then we know. Do dreams allow our consciousness to see what our visual cortex is doing?

It's so amazing how the brain creates movie like images in our dreams when we sleep. We know our memory is the source of this information, but who's directing and editing this movie, it can't be me, because I'm sleeping.

Dreams can change seamlessly from scene to scene from one place to the next, so they are always surprising. Even people and things change seamlessly, changing from one thing or one person to another, narrative modes change sometimes too, even the POV, but not every dream is like that. And the Dreams are like living a second life, it's like a whole other world that you live when you sleep. Dreams also have a diminished awareness, like a kind of tunnel vision. And the other senses, like auditory, taste and smell, are virtually absent. Which is the opposite for blind people. People born without the ability to see report no visual imagery in their dreams, but they do have a heightening of the other senses, like taste, touch and smell. This is another reason why learning from our disabilities is extremely important, people with disabilities have a very valuable resource of knowledge that can benefit many people in many different ways. I wouldn't say it's a blessing and a curse, because it how can it be a curse when there is a type of benefit to be gained? I guess this is just another place where ' what if ' should never be entertained.

"Maybe dreams are an indication that the brain has some underlying program that is part of the brains design to help people to see and understand things they normally would not?" My brain seems to have a mind of its own.

It would be cool if our memory recorded every dream that we ever had, and organized them so you could easily recall any dream and play it back. But for now I can only remember the dreams that I was aware of having, and even those begin to fade over time. Maybe we need to build a Google glass for inside the brain?

Some people think that when sleeping on their right side they have mellower dreams, with themes of relief, joy, peace and love. They also report feeling better rested and less dysfunctional during waking hours. Sleeping exclusively on the left side can put pressure on the organs on that side of the body, like the stomach and lungs, that is why some left-side-sleepers are more likely to have nightmares.

"I like going to bed around 9-10 pm so I can get up around 5-6 am and start my day feeling rested and ready to go. Not sleeping good really sucks, it's mentally and physically draining. that is sleep depravation is used as a method of torture, because not sleeping is freaking brutal. Imagine always having a hangover, life would suck. Enjoying the work that you do helps you sleep, Enjoying the work you do also makes getting up early really a lot easier. Having something to look forward too the next day is great, but I don't get too excited, because then it will effect my sleep, which has happened many times."

Interpreting Dreams

Analyzing Dreams - Meanings of Dreams - Dream Interpretation - Dream Evaluations - Dream Symbols

I would be very carful when trying to interpret your dreams for meaning. Even though your dreams may indicate some underlying issue or fears that you may have, you should always proceed with caution because you may misinterpret your dream which could cause you to make adjustments in your life that may or may not have the desired effects that you were looking for. It's a good idea to write down the dreams you have because it will always make them easier to analyze later. Approximately 50% of a dreams details fade rather quickly after waking, so if you don't write them down early you will remember less details of that dream as time goes by. I would not say that all dreams are pointless, some of them must mean something. We know that things in our life can effect our dreams. So dreams must be telling us something about our life on some level. So if I knew the reasons why a dream was created and understood the mechanisms that influence my dreams, then I could acquire more understanding and more meaning from a dream instead of just saying, "what was that crazy nonsensical dream all about?" Are some of my dreams just random or irrelevant? We have a special ability, but we don't fully understand it yet. Even though dreams have been talked about for thousands of years, we still don't fully understand them. Our ancestors understood more about dreams, but it was even harder to explain then since language was not as expressive as it is today, and documentation and knowledge preservation was not maintained and knowledge was not effectively passed on to the next generation.

Dream Interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams. In many ancient societies, such as those of Egypt and Greece, dreaming was considered a supernatural communication or a means of divine intervention, whose message could be unraveled by people with certain powers.

Dreams communicate in an abstract way, so you need to decipher the code and not just analyze the message. It does not make sense to think that dreams are just a random phenomenon that has no reason. Almost everything that we know of has a reason for happening.

Dream Police - Lucid Dreaming - Sleep Learning - Visualization - Remote Viewing - Hypnosis

Maybe dreams are just metaphors for the information that's being processed by the brain, like a form of interpretation. If this is true, then this would add a whole new dimension to analyzing our dreams.

The Dreaming or Dreamtime refers to the Australian Aboriginals who used dreams during sleep as a way to find answers or to explore ideas through the visions they received. It was used to represent Aboriginal concepts of Everywhen, during which the land was inhabited by ancestral figures, often of heroic proportions or with supernatural abilities. These figures were often distinct from gods, as they did not control the material world and were not worshipped but only revered. The concept of the Dreamtime has subsequently become widely adopted beyond its original Australian context and is now part of global popular culture. The concept of the Dreaming is inadequately explained by English terms, and difficult to explain in terms of non-Aboriginal cultures. It has been described as "an all-embracing concept that provides rules for living, a moral code, as well as rules for interacting with the natural environment ... [it] provides for a total, integrated way of life ... a lived daily reality". It embraces past, present and future. Another definition suggests that it represents "the relationship between people, plants, animals and the physical features of the land; the knowledge of how these relationships came to be, what they mean and how they need to be maintained in daily life and in ceremony. "Dreaming" is now also used as a term for a system of totemic symbols, so that an Aboriginal person may "own" a specific Dreaming, such as Kangaroo Dreaming, Shark Dreaming, Honey Ant Dreaming, Badger Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their country. This is because in the Dreaming an individual's entire ancestry exists as one, culminating in the idea that all worldly knowledge is accumulated through one's ancestors. Many Aboriginal Australians also refer to the world-creation time as "Dreamtime". The Dreaming laid down the patterns of life for the Aboriginal people.

Dreamwork is to explore the various images and emotions that a dream presents and evokes, while not attempting to come up with a single unique dream meaning. In this way the dream remains "alive" whereas if it has been assigned a specific meaning, it is "finished" (i.e., over and done with). Dreamworkers take the position that a dream may have a variety of meanings depending on the levels (e.g. subjective, objective) that are being explored.

Psychoanalytic Dream Interpretation is the process of explaining the meaning of the way the unconscious thoughts and emotions are processed in the mind during sleep.

Embodied Imagination is a therapeutic and creative form of working with dreams and memories.

Dream Sharing is the process of documenting or discussing both night and day dreams with others. One of the primary purposes of sharing dreams is dream interpretation.

Dream Diary is a diary in which dream experiences are recorded. A dream diary might include a record of nightly dreams, personal reflections and waking dream experiences. It is often used in the study of dreams and psychology. Dream diaries are also used by some people as a way to help induce lucid dreams. They are also regarded as a useful catalyst for remembering dreams.

What if learning to control some of our dreams gave us some kind of benefit? Like over coming fears or understanding and controlling our behaviors.

Our sleep shows how risk-seeking we are. Each person has their own individual sleep profile which can be identified by the electrical brain activity during sleep. Researchers have now demonstrated that the brain waves during periods of deep sleep in a specific area of the brain can be used to determine the extent of an individual's propensity for risk during their everyday life.

"Some of my best ideas and thoughts come to me during that time when I'm not totally asleep, and not I'm totally awake either, that place in between. That is where I have had some of my most interesting ideas happen. In that calm state of mind. It seems that the Brain never stops thinking, especially in the moments right before you sleep and in the moments right after come out of sleep. And your brain doesn't wait for you to be totally aware of your thoughts either. But because your memory is always working too, when you finally do become aware that you are awake, most of the time you will be able to recall what you were thinking about, and also, what you were dreaming about. So the brain can think on its own, and luckily, the brain can remember own its own too. What a beautiful machine."

Going to Sleep is like a Computer Rebooting. During the reboot or when you're sleeping, you are not aware and you're shutdown, and you can't do any work or any real thinking. You have to wait until the computer, or brain, finishes it's reboot. And luckily your information is saved and you will return to your normal operating system. But not always, sometimes when you wake up you might not feel good and you're not fully aware of what happened during the reboot. So who are you now? Have you changes or has the body changed? And do you have enough knowledge and skills to accurately analyze yourself in order to understand the changes?

"Our brains are wired to keep ticking along in thought--sorting information and generating possibilities, practical and impractical.--through our every waking moment. When we have nothing else on our minds, this helps maximize the use of brain power that would otherwise be wasted."  (Jerome Singer Ph.d)

Some people believe that the brain takes information you've gathered throughout the day subconsciously and then processes it into conscious knowledge, which is interesting, it's like the brain is some sort of a separate entity. - (Neither here nor there).

During sleep, the flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid in the brain increases dramatically, washing away harmful waste proteins that build up between brain cells during waking hours.

Does remembering a dream change the way the brain stores that information, like when atoms know they're being observed? Does not remembering a dream change the way the brain stores that information from that dream?  What happens to the dreams that we don't remember? I know I had a dream but I just can't remember the details of that dream. Is it important?

Day Dream is dreaming while awake, unrestricted by reality, indulged in a fantasy. The ability to form mental images of things or events.

Imagination is the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses. The ability to deal resourcefully with unusual problems. 

Creativity - Problem Solving

Sleeping is when you stop inputting information. You are still processing information when you sleep, so your body and mind is not off, you're still on. You are in stand by mode. Of course human standby mode fluctuates, and is not easily controlled or defined. You can say that you went to sleep at a particular time, and got out of bed at a particular time, but that does not define the quality of sleep that you may have received. Or does it define the effects on your cognitive abilities.

Sleep Mode is a low power mode for electronic devices such as computers, televisions, and remote controlled devices. These modes save significantly on electrical consumption compared to leaving a device fully on and, upon resume, allow the user to avoid having to reissue instructions or to wait for a machine to Reboot. Many devices signify this power mode with a pulsed or red colored LED power light.

Standby Power refers to the way electric power is consumed by electronic and electrical appliances while they are switched off (but are designed to draw some power) or in standby mode. This only occurs because some devices claimed to be "switched off" on the electronic interface, but are in a different state from switching off at the plug, or disconnecting from the power point, which can solve the problem of standby power completely. In fact, switching off at the power point is effective enough, there is no need to disconnect all devices from the power point. Some such devices offer remote controls and digital clock features to the user, while other devices, such as power adapters for disconnected electronic devices, consume power without offering any features (sometimes called no-load power). Half Asleep.

In order to imagine things that may happen in the future we need to remember past experiences and knowledge so that we can visualize and plan for future events. So maybe our dreams is our imagination working while we sleep, showing us things that we may have never thought of before, in a way reminding us that our dreams and our imagination is an incredible tool.

Songs about Dreaming

Dreaming - Blondie (youtube) - When I met you in the restaurant, You could tell I was no Debutante, You asked me what's my pleasure, A movie or a measure? I'll have a cup of tea and tell you of my dreaming, Dreaming is free, Dreaming, Dreaming is free. I don't want to live on charity, Pleasure's real or is it fantasy? Reel to reel is living rarity, People stop and stare at me, We just walk on by - we just keep on dreaming. Feet feet, walking a two mile, Meet meet, meet me at the turnstile, I never met him, I'll never forget him, Dream dream, even for a little while, Dream dream, filling up an idle hour, Fade away, radiate. I sit by and watch the river flow, I sit by and watch the traffic go, Imagine something of your very own, Something you can have and hold, I'd build a road in gold just to have some dreaming. Dreaming is free, Dreaming, Dreaming is free, Dreaming, Dreaming is free

Dreaming of Me - Depeche Mode (1981) (youtube) - Filming and screening, I picture the scene, Filming and dreaming, Dreaming of me.

California Dreamin -The Mamas & The Papas (youtube) - All the leaves are brown, And the sky is gray, I've been for a walk, On a winter's day, I'd be safe and warm, If I was in L.A, California dreamin', on such a winter's day.

Beautiful Dreamer - by Stephen Foster (youtube) - Beautiful dreamer, wake unto me, Starlight and dewdrops are waiting for thee; Sounds of the rude world, heard in the day, Lull'd by the moonlight have all passed away! Beautiful dreamer, queen of my song, List while I woo thee with soft melody; Gone are the cares of life's busy throng, Beautiful dreamer, awake unto me. Beautiful dreamer, awake unto me.  (List is to listen, Woo is to attract, Thee is you, Lulled to to sooth or calm)

Dream A Little Dream of Me - Doris Day (youtube) - Stars shining bright above you, Night breezes seem to whisper I love you, Birds singin' in the sycamore trees, Dream a little dream of me. Sweet dreams till sunbeams find you, Sweet dreams that leave all worries behind you, But in your dreams whatever they be, Dream a little dream of me.

Dream Weaver - Gary Wright (youtube) - I've just closed my eyes again, Climbed aboard the dream weaver train, Driver take away my worries of today, And leave tomorrow behind. Ooh, dream weaver, I believe you can get me through the night
Ooh, dream weaver. I believe we can reach the morning light. Fly me high through the starry skies
Maybe to an astral plane, Cross the highways of fantasy, Help me to forget today's pain. Though the dawn may be coming soon, There still may be some time, Fly me away to the bright side of the moon, Meet me on the other side.

These Dreams - Heart (youtube) - These dreams go on when I close my eyes, Every second of the night, I live another life.

Row, Row, Row Your Boat - Row, row, row your boat, Gently down the stream, Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, Life is but a dream.

The rest of the lyrics to the song Row, row, row your boat doesn't make sense and actually ruins the first verse of this song, so just stick with the first verse above. Row, Row, Row Your Boat is an English language nursery rhyme and a popular children's song. It can also be an "action" nursery rhyme, whose singers sit opposite one another and "row" forwards and backwards with joined hands. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 19236, which is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world).

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