The Human Body is an incredible complex machine.
Don't ever take your body for granted. Everyone must fully understand the
a strong and healthy body.
Learn to Ask Questions
Knowledge is the Best Medicine
The Fountain of Youth is Knowledge
consists of measures taken for
, as opposed to disease treatment. Relies on
anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary,
secondary, and tertiary prevention.
is the science and practice of
the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medical Terms Definitions
consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as
opposed to just disease treatment.
It's Cheaper to Prevent Diseases
then it is to Treat Diseases. Cigarettes
causes 5 billion dollars in heath care treatments from diseases
caused by smoking.
is an approach to health promotion, in which community
members are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their
peers. Peer education is the teaching
or sharing of health information, values and behavior in educating others
who may share similar social backgrounds or life experiences. Rather than
health professionals educating members
of the public, the idea behind peer
education is that ordinary lay people are in the best position to
encourage healthy behaviour to each other.
is the application of a scientific methodology that seeks to
prevent or moderate major human dysfunctions before they occur.
Prevention through Design
is the concept of mitigating occupational
hazards by "designing them out".
assesses an individual's
readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or
processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change
to Action and Maintenance. It is composed of the following constructs:
stages of change, processes of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance
is a system of conscious personal management
that involves the process of
guiding one's own thoughts, behaviors, and feelings to reach goals.
Self-regulation consists of several stages, and individuals must function
as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within
a network of reciprocally interacting influences.
describes an approach focusing on factors that
support human health and well-being, rather than on factors that cause
is the entire structure of a human
being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and
abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is
composed of various types of cells, the fundamental unit of life.Healing
is the process
of health from an
unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism. Healing involves the repair of
living tissue, organs and the biological system as a whole and resumption
of normal functioning. It is the process by which the cells in the body
regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area and
replace it with new living tissue.
is the end of a
medical condition that helps end a person's sufferings. It may also refer
to the state of being healed, or cured or make healthy again.
Eradication of Infectious Diseases
(ICHOM) value-based health care focusing on health
are body functions essential for life.
made by Doctors
is an educational process that
develops the ability to realign posture and to avoid unnecessary muscular
and mental tension. Alexander believed the individual's self-awareness
could be inaccurate, resulting in unnecessary muscular tension such as
when standing or sitting with body weight unevenly distributed, holding
one's head incorrectly, walking or running inefficiently, and responding
to stressful stimuli in an exaggerated way. Alexander said that those who
habitually "misused" their muscles could not trust their feelings (sensory
appreciation) when carrying out activities or responding to situations
Medical Treatments for People in Need
Ethics in The Medical Industry
Food - Nutrition
Exercise - Sports
The Human Body
is the entire structure
of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that
tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure
homeostasis and viability of human body. It comprises a head, neck, trunk
(which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.
The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and
embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses
on the systems
of the human body and their functions. Many
systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain
safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. The body
is studied by health professionals, physiologists, anatomists, and by
artists to assist them in their work.
Systems of the Human Body
: Circulates blood around the body via the
arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells
and carrying their waste products away.
: Mechanical and chemical processes that provide
nutrients via the mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines. Eliminates
waste from the body.
Provides chemical communications within the body using
: Skin, hair, nails, sweat and other exocrine glands.
comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called
lymph. Defends the body against disease-causing agents.
: Enables the body
to move using muscles
supporting the body and its organs.
: Collects and processes information from the senses
and the brain and tells the
muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
: The system where the kidneys filter
: The sex
organs required for the production of offspring.
: The lungs and the
trachea that bring air into the body.
: Consists of
, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in
sensory perception. Nicer Drums
(memory technique acronym for ten organ systems)
Systems of the Human Body - List
is the branch
of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and
their parts. Anatomy is inherently tied to embryology, comparative
anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, as these are the processes
by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long
(evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential
sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into
macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross
anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided
eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy.
Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study
of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the
study of cells. The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive
understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human
body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the
examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses)
to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound,
and magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomy and physiology, which study
(respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts,
make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied
Organs Human Body
Chemical elements listed by their presence in human body
Composition of the Body
Human Body for Kids
Seeing and Sight
Human Skin Color
How We Get Our Skin Color
Body Smart Kinesthetics
Anatomage Virtual Dissection
is a natural response to help us avoid injury to the body. It is a
distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli, such as
stubbing a toe, burning a finger, putting alcohol on a cut, or bumping the
"funny bone". Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience
associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms
of such damage."
patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on
self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.
Self-report is considered primary and should be obtained if possible. Pain
scales are available for neonates, infants, children, adolescents, adults,
seniors, and persons whose communication is impaired. Pain assessments are
often regarded as "the 5th Vital Sign".
Threshold of Pain
is the point along a
curve of increasing perception of a stimulus at which pain begins to be
felt. It is an entirely
phenomenon. A distinction must be maintained between the
stimulus (an external thing that can be directly measured, such as with a
thermometer) and the person or animal's resulting pain perception (an
internal, subjective thing that can sometimes be measured indirectly, such
as with a visual analog scale). Although an IASP document defines "pain
threshold" as "the minimum intensity of a stimulus that is perceived as
is the condition of mind
that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed
by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55). Maintaining this
standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures
is one of the important goals of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning) design engineers.
is a disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally
include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness,
warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In
some types other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.
is a medical condition
characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back. This pain
may go down the back, outside, or front of the leg. Typically, symptoms
are only on one side of the body. Certain causes, however, may result in
pain on both sides. Lower back pain is sometimes but not always present.
Weakness or numbness may occur in various parts of the affected leg and
is pain that lasts a long
time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is
sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two
most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset.
Partners Against Pain
Secret World Of Pain
is a sensory nerve cell that
responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to
the spinal cord and brain. This process, called nociception, usually
causes the sensation of pain in sentient beings.
is the sensory
certain harmful or potentially harmful
. In nociception,
intense chemical (e.g., chili powder in the eyes), mechanical (e.g.,
cutting, crushing), or thermal (heat and cold) stimulation of sensory
nerve cells called nociceptors produces a signal that travels along a
chain of nerve fibers via the spinal cord to the brain. Nociception
triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral responses and usually
results in a subjective experience of pain in sentient beings.
is a nerve that innervates the skin, responsible for providing
to the skin.
Nerve Compression Syndrome
medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It is known
colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may also refer to nerve root
compression (by a herniated disc, for example). Its symptoms include pain,
tingling, numbness and muscle weakness.
refers to a set of
conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work
properly (a neuropathy). The location of the injury is at the level of the
nerve root (radix = "root"). This can result in pain (radicular pain),
weakness, numbness, or difficulty controlling specific muscles.
is damage to or
disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or
organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve
affected. Common causes include systemic diseases (such as diabetes or
leprosy), vitamin deficiency, medication (e.g., chemotherapy, or commonly
prescribed antibiotics including Metronidazole and the Fluoroquinolone
class of antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin, Levaquin, Avelox etc.)), traumatic
injury, radiation therapy, excessive alcohol consumption, immune system
disease, Coeliac disease, or viral infection.
is a disorder of
the autonomic nervous system which affects the development and survival of
sensory, sympathetic and some parasympathetic neurons in the autonomic and
sensory nervous system resulting in variable symptoms, including
insensitivity to pain, inability to produce tears, poor growth, and labile
blood pressure (episodic hypertension and postural hypotension).
particularly its posterior portion, is often
regarded as a primary cortex for pain.
Somatic Nervous System
is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal
muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent
nerves and efferent nerves. Afferent nerves are responsible for relaying
sensation from the body to the central nervous system (CNS); efferent
nerves are responsible for sending out commands from the CNS to the body,
stimulating muscle contraction; they include all the non-sensory neurons
connected with skeletal muscles and skin. The a- of afferent and the e- of
efferent correspond to the prefixes ad- (to, toward) and ex- (out of).
Autonomic Nervous System
is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the
function of internal organs. The autonomic nervous system is a control
system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such
as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response,
urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in
control of the fight-or-flight response and the freeze-and-dissociate
are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled
receptors with opioids as ligands. The endogenous opioids are dynorphins,
enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins and nociceptin. The opioid receptors
are ~40% identical to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Opioid receptors are
distributed widely in the brain, and are found in the spinal cord and
are produced by the central nervous system and
the pituitary gland with a principal function to inhibit the transmission
of pain signals; they may also produce a feeling of euphoria very similar
to that produced by other opioids.
Wearable Pain Relief (Quell)
LumiWave: Pain Relief is now In-Demand!
Livia - The Off Switch for Menstrual Pain
iTENS Device - Wireless Electrotherapy
is a chronic pain disorder that affects the largest of the
cranial nerves, the
which is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions
such as biting and chewing.
are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the
brainstem), in contrast to spinal
(which emerge from segments of the spinal cord). Cranial nerves
relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to
and from regions of the head and neck. There are two main types: typical
and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of
severe, sudden, shock like pain in one side of the face that lasts for
seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few
hours. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less
severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may
occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions and can
result in depression. The exact cause is unclear but believed to involve
loss of the myelin
around the trigeminal
nerve. This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve
exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma. Less common
causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of
nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms after ruling out
other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. Treatment includes
medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine
is the usual initial treatment and is effective in about 80% of people.
Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide.
Amitriptyline may help with the pain but opioids are not usually effective
in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to
other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried.
Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain
Certain exercises can help manage pain
Cells carry 'memory' of injury
is a non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of heterocyclic acetic acid
derivatives, used as an analgesic.
is a traditional medicinal herb
which is commonly used to prevent migraine headaches, and is also
occasionally grown for ornament.
is a genus of flowering plants
in the sunflower family, Asteraceae.
is one or more rare conditions in
which a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain.
What happens when you have a disease doctors can't diagnose: Jennifer Brea
(video and interactive text)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
or Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
exhaustion, tiredness, languidness, languor,
lassitude, and listlessness) is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is
distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue
can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental
causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to
maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense
physical exercise. Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal
cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive
activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention
Health News - Health Resources
Always Ask Questions - Medical Errors
When seeking help
always get a second or third opinion from a professional source
or a very intelligent well trusted friend or family
. There's a lot of fraud
, false medical claims and Doctors
over prescribing medications
. So please do your homework,
especially with medications
Compliance is only expectable after you have done your
and be hopeful but don't be
. Not all
Doctors are Honest or Educated, so it's not just about who you can
Remember that experts
make mistakes too. 4 out of 10 doctors
their patients. There's also
and underdiagnosed. And please
. Ask questions and
as much as you can.
Women Doctors are better then Male Doctors
, it's proven statistically
and from my own personal experience, women doctors are more likely to
consistently follow established medical procedures; other research has
shown that women doctors are more likely to provide preventative care than
male ones, and that they are more likely to prescribe medication
And on top of that, you’re more likely to die in a
hospital under the care of a male doctor than a woman doctor.
Several common Causes for Diagnostic
among clinicians, patients, and their
to doctors about the accuracy of diagnoses.
A culture that discourages
and disclosure of
diagnostic errors, which impedes attempts to learn and improve in the
medical community.Informed Consent
is an approach in which clinicians
and patients communicate together
using the best available
when faced with the task of
. Patients are
supported to deliberate about the possible attributes and consequences of
options, to arrive at informed preferences in making a determination about
the best course of action
respects patient autonomy
well as ethical
Decision Support Center
is considering the best available research
bearing on whether and why a
treatment works, (2) clinical expertise (clinical judgment and experience)
to rapidly identify each
patient's unique health state
and diagnosis, their individual risks
and benefits of potential interventions, and (3) client preferences and
values. Evidence-based behavioral practice (EBBP) "entails making
about how to promote
health or provide care by integrating the best available evidence with
practitioner expertise and other resources, and with the characteristics,
state, needs, values and preferences of those who will be affected. This
is done in a manner that is compatible with the environmental and
organizational context. Evidence is research findings derived from the
systematic collection of data through observation and experiment and the
formulation of questions and testing of hypotheses".
Duty of Care
is an approach to making
quality decisions and providing
based upon personal clinical expertise in combination with the
most current, relevant research available on the topic. This approach is
using evidence based practice (EBP) as a foundation. EBN implements the
most up to date methods of providing Care
which have been proven through appraisal of high quality studies and
statistically significant research findings. The goal of EBN is to improve
the health and safety of patients while also providing care in a
cost-effective manner to improve the outcomes for both the patient and the
healthcare system. EBN is a process founded on the collection,
interpretation, appraisal, and integration of valid, clinically
significant, and applicable research. The evidence used to change practice
or make a clinical decision can be separated into seven levels of evidence
that differ in type of study and level of quality. To properly implement
EBN, the knowledge of the nurse, the patient’s preferences, and multiple
studies of evidence must all be collaborated and utilized in order to
produce an appropriate solution to the task at hand. These skills are
taught in modern nursing education and also as a part of professional
Comparative Effectiveness Research
is the direct comparison of existing health care
interventions to determine which work best for which patients and which
pose the greatest benefits and harms. The core question of comparative
is which treatment works best, for whom, and under
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
is responsible for
ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
in four areas: the use of health technologies within the NHS (such as the
use of new and existing medicines, treatments and procedures); clinical
practice (guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with
specific diseases and conditions); guidance for public sector workers on
and ill-health avoidance; and guidance for social
care services and users. These appraisals are based primarily on
evaluations of efficacy and cost–effectiveness in various circumstances.
(Ottawa Hospital Research Institute)
Shared Decision Making
(Informed Medical Decisions) The 12 questions every patient
should ask doctors and nurses.1
After admission, ask the names of your primary hospital doctor and the
other specialists who make up your physician team. Your primary hospital
physician will coordinate with the team, and your nurses will assist you
during your stay.2
. Ask your physician:
What is my main diagnosis, and are there any other newly diagnosed issues?
Feel free to express your fears and anxieties about your diagnosis to the
physicians and nursing staff. Don’t let the anxiety build until it becomes
. Ask your nurse or
physician: How are my illnesses responding to treatment? Ask the nursing
staff in particular about how your condition is progressing and how you
can facilitate your recovery. It’s your fundamental right to obtain
information regarding your medical condition. Understanding both your
diagnosis and your treatment plan is a central tenet of the Patient’s Bill
of Rights, which was adopted by the Association of American Physicians and
Surgeons in 1995. According to this document, all patients are entitled
“to be informed about their medical condition, the risks and benefits of
treatment, and appropriate alternatives.”
Number Needed to Treat4
Ask your family, friends, or other trusted individuals to be involved and
help support you in your recovery. Yes, it’s hard to put ourselves in a
situation where we feel like we’re burdening someone or losing our
independence, even for a little while. Understand that these people are an
integral part of your treatment team and contribute to the success of your
Ask to speak with a
hospital social worker if you have questions about insurance and billing
related to your stay. The social worker is there to help clarify what your
insurance covers and how much you may be required to pay. If you need
assistance with payment, discuss the options available to you with the
social worker before you leave as well.6
Ask to see the nurse manager or charge nurse if you’re experiencing
ongoing issues with care or communication about your condition. The person
in this role is responsible for helping patients and easing any
misunderstanding or tensions that may arise during your stay.
. As you approach discharge, ask if you
should continue taking any of the medications (including vitamins and
supplements) you took before you were admitted. This information should be
included in your discharge instructions, but take the time to fully
understand this aspect of your care to avoid potentially disastrous or
even fatal complications later.8.
the staff to show you and your caregivers how to perform any tasks
prescribed for after you’ve left the hospital, especially any treatments
that may require a special skill, such as changing a bandage or giving an
injection. Ask the nurse or physician to remain in your room while you
practice to ensure you’re doing it correctly.9
Ask your nurse or physician if it’s safe to perform ordinary tasks alone,
like bathing, dressing, driving, or exercising. Make sure you’ve arranged
for help with any of these activities before you leave the hospital.
. Ask your nurse or physician if you can
or should use any medical equipment, such as a walker, brace, or health
monitor, to help with your recovery and comfort. If the answer is yes, ask
for assistance in obtaining these items before you leave or shortly after
your return home.11
. At the time of
your discharge, ask the discharge nurse any questions you have about your
discharge information. You should have been provided with printed
discharge instructions. Don’t leave the hospital without obtaining these,
reading them (or having them read to you), and making sure you
understanding all of the information they cover.
. Ask about any follow-up appointments or
additional testing. Take a moment now to record anything that’s already
been scheduled or to schedule necessary appointments in the coming weeks.
is a preventable adverse effect of care,
whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. This might include
an inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis or treatment of a disease, injury,
syndrome, behavior, infection, or other ailment. Globally, it is estimated
that 142,000 people died in 2013 from adverse effects of medical
treatment; this is an increase from 94,000 in 1990. However, a 2016 study
of the number of deaths that were a result of medical error in the U.S.
placed the yearly death rate in the U.S. alone at 251,454 deaths, which
suggests that the 2013 global estimation may not be accurate.
is the leading cause of
medical malpractice claims in the US, and is estimated to cause
40,000-80,000 deaths annually. One in every ten diagnoses is wrong and one
in every thousand ambulatory diagnostic encounters result in harm.
are the kind of mistake or medical error that
should never happen in the field of medical treatment.
is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death
during a patient's lifetime. Overdiagnosis is a side effect of screening
for early forms of disease. Although screening saves lives in some cases,
in others it may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to
treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm.
Millions of people get tests, drugs, and operations that won’t
make them better
, may cause harm, and cost billions.
30 Percent of all Health Spending — $750 billion — is wasted on fraud
administration and needless procedures.
Mammograms needed is overblown.
As many as five fewer deaths for 1,000 women.
Number Needed to Treat
Medical Malpractice Payout Statistics
Have you been Harmed in a Medical Facility, please Share your
Medical Harm: Patient Perceptions and Follow up Actions
Preventive Services Task Force
Surgical Risk Calculator
Risk Factors in Surgery
Into Health Care To Engage Patients And
or PRO is a method or questionnaire used in a
clinical trial or a clinical setting, where the responses are collected
directly from the patient.
are outcomes from medical care that are
important to patients.
"Knowledge is the Best Medicine
but you need to do your homework to maximize the benefits"
ASA Physical Status Classification System
ASA Physical Status Classification System
Partners In Health
Optum Health Care
and Innovation Center
(ERIC) Vulnerable and Diverse
The Peckham Experiment
Health Media Collaboratory
Nutrition Gap, are Doctors ready think outside the Pillbox
full-service funding healthcare entrepreneurs.
Latif Nasser: the amazing story of the man who gave us modern
(video and text)
Bj Miller: What really matters at the end of life
Empowering people, nurturing community, promoting
health and wellbeing.
to improve the health and health care of all
Awards Program since 1945 has recognized the contributions
of scientists, physicians, and public servants who have made major
advances in the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
Hospital-Acquired Conditions Update, Saving Lives and Saving
is an undesirable situation or
condition that affects a patient and that arose during a stay in a
hospital or medical facility.
Interim estimates for 2014 show a sustained 17 percent decline
in hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) since 2010. A cumulative
total of 2.1 million fewer HACs were experienced by hospital
patients over the 4 years (2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014) relative
the number of HACs that would have occurred if rates had
remained steady at the 2010 level. The measured interim rate for
2014 held steady from 2013 at 121
per 1,000 discharges, down from 145 in 2010. We
estimate that nearly 87,000 fewer patients died in the hospital
as a result of the reduction in HACs and that approximately
$19.8 billion in health care costs were saved from 2010 to 2014.
The federal government is penalizing 758 hospitals
higher rates of patient safety incidents, and more than half of
those places had also been fined last year in 2014.
(HAC) Reduction Program
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
The CDC has reported that urinary tract infections caused by
catheters became slightly more prevalent through 2013
global health organization dedicated to improving the health of
people in the developing world by focusing on serious challenges
like a lack of family planning, HIV and AIDS, barriers to
maternal health, and the greatest threats to children under
five, including malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and malnutrition.
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
health innovation across five platforms—vaccines, drugs,
diagnostics, devices, and system and service innovations.
Surgical never events in the United States
. A total of 9,744
paid malpractice settlement and judgments for surgical never
events occurring between 1990 and 2010. Malpractice payments for
surgical never events totaled $1.3 billion.
Human Factors Analysis
Common Cause Analysis
National Quality Registry Network
Network of institutions and committed individuals whose mission
is to Strengthen Health Systems
Physicians for Human Rights
Oaths of Service
Racial Bias in Health Care
Women's Medicine Differences
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in
Health Care (with CD) ( 2003 )
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Emergency Department Analgesic
Total Transparency Manifesto
for Social Responsibility
Who's My DoctorRate your Doctor and Hospital
is a person, or paraprofessional, who
specializes in charting physician-patient encounters in real time, such as
during medical examinations. Depending on which area of practice the
scribe works in, the position may also be called clinical scribe, ER
scribe or ED scribe (in the emergency department), or just scribe (when
the context is implicit). A scribe is trained in health information
management and the use of health information technology to support it. A
scribe can work on-site (at a hospital or clinic) or remotely from a HIPAA-secure
facility. Medical scribes who work at an off-site location are known as
virtual medical scribes and normally work in clinical settings.Health Records
RFID solutions for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries.
Federation of State Medical Boards
Health Care Systems Four Basic Models
for Medical Education in Europe
Treating Patients in the ER costs, on average, $600 to $1,200 per visit
, compared with
$165 to $262 if the patients were treated in an outpatient
clinic. Last year, the Houston Fire Department logged more than
318,000 incidents, but only thirteen percent of them were actual
Council Against Health FraudQuack Watch
"People are receiving inadequate
information, education and advice on managing their health."
You have a responsibility to
yourself, to maintain a healthy mind and body. To love yourself
this way is to reward yourself for loving life. To love life is
to be willing to spend some time on the
maintenance of life
maintenance that helps increase the quantity and the quality of
life. Maintenance is its own reward. And part of the maintenance
is to keep learning. If you are not increasing your knowledge
and understanding about life, then life becomes vulnerable and
you will not know enough in order to react accurately to the
changes that life throws at you. All life forms perform
maintenance, and maintenance is a small price to pay for life,
it's totally worth the investment.
fewer than 25 percent of physicians believe they have
sufficient training to talk to patients about diet or physical
. Meanwhile, a good number of physicians are overweight
and don't exercise regularly themselves.
is one of the first to teach medical students how to
cook healthful food, with the goal that they'll share that
knowledge with patients.
Health Care Fraud and Abuse
Medicare and Medicaid fraudsters are beating taxpayers out of an
estimated $90 billion a year - $60 billion of it from Medicare -
using a billing scam that is surprisingly easy to execute.
And you wonder why
Health Care Reform
is so important.
62% of all
are related to Medical Bills from people being
overcharged by greedy hospitals, and on top of that almost 70%
of those people had insurance, so medical fraud is everywhere
and no one is safe.
2.8 Trillion is the estimated
cost of Health Care in the US in 2013.
Time Magazine Article "Bitter Pill"
Beware of the
Why does surgery costs differ from town to town
Council Against Health Fraud
Why are Doctors allowed to charge
insurance companies for unnecessary tests, and also charge to
give patients unnecessary drugs. But when a patient needs certain
medical care, it's not covered and the patient is forced to pay
out of pocket. WTF? It's like you have to be a criminal in order
to get help, or to be covered. So who's more criminal, the doctors or the
estimates that 90 percent of the drugs work in only 30 to 50
percent of the people. 300 people have to take the drug
statin for a year before one heart attack, stroke or other
adverse event is prevented. And five percent of those 300 have
side effects, that's 15 people. So you're 15 times more likely
to be harmed by the drug than you are to be helped by the drug.
There are other ways to reduce your cholesterol that will not
For the most widely performed surgery on men over the age of 50,
removal of the prostate for cancer, the
Number Needed to Treat
is 49. That means that 49 surgeries
are done for every one person who's helped. And the side effects
in that case occur in 50
percent of the patients. They include impotence, erectile
dysfunction, urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal
incontinence. And if you're lucky, and you're one of the 50
percent who has these, they'll only last for a year or two.
Medicare and Medicaid Services
officials chose to do just 30
financial audits to recover overpayments
each year, even
though the records make clear they could complete many more, up
to 80 audits a year. So only 5 percent of the roughly 600
Medicare Advantage contracts in force would be audited in a
year. But overspending tied to fast-rising risk scores has cost
taxpayers billions of dollars in recent years, as the
for Public Integrity
reported in a series of articles
in 2014, leading to widespread suspicions that some risk scores
are being purposefully inflated. Many of the records released by
CMS are heavily redacted, with dates and the names of their
authors sometimes missing. More than 1,400 pages have been
"withheld in their entirety" by CMS, including names of the
health plans and how much they were overpaid. It's like we have
criminals watching criminals. If we
pay more people to over see and to look for fraud
, we could
save billions. So we can create thousands of jobs that pay
Government Accountability Office Audit: Feds Failed To Rein In Medicare
Private Medicare Advantage plans treating the
elderly have overbilled the government by billions of dollars, but rarely
been forced to repay the money or face other consequences for their
actions, according to a congressional audit.
does not mean better care or better health, good health mostly comes from
acquiring valuable knowledge and experience. And Health
Insurance does not guarantee good care because 9 out of 10 Doctors
and Dentists commit insurance fraud. So too many Doctors
victimize their patients by not giving them the best care
that they need, mostly because they are more concerned with how
much money they can bilk the insurance carrier for, and not
paying attention to the persons needs. So
can actually be
bad for you, especially when you don't have a good experienced
and educated Doctor who is also honest, so be very careful. The
you can have is
. Because in order to avoid sickness you have to
do all the things that prevent illness. Insurance does not
prevent illness or injury, in fact, insurance might encourage
illness and injury because people are given a
false sense of security
and thus fail to take the proper
measures that would improve their health, like eating the
. In 2009
there were 48.6 million people in the US (15.7% of the
population) who were without
Health Insurance Coverage
Who Still Doesn't have Health Insurance
describes a situation in which a person does not take
out any third party insurance. The essence of the concept is that a
business that is liable for some risk, such as health costs, chooses to
"carry the risk" itself and not take out insurance through an insurance
Approximately 12 million adults who seek outpatient medical care
Comparing and Rating
Elderly and Insurance
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
Association for Community Affiliated Plans
(ACAP) is a
national trade association representing 60 not-for-profit Safety
Net Health Plans in 24 states. Collectively, ACAP plans serve
more than fifteen million enrollees, representing more than 50
individuals enrolled in Medicaid-focused health plans.
"Insurance is knowing someone who is
intelligent, someone you can trust"
"The purpose of insurance is not just about money, it's about
having a well thought out
"if things don't turn out the way you wanted, you should have a
backup plan, an alternate option, what choices do you have?"
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force say the link between medical
recommendations and insurance coverage leads to financial incentives that
can corrupt the process and distort people's health care decisions
are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of
the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions. These measurements are taken
to help assess the general physical health of a person, give clues to
possible diseases, and show progress toward recovery. The normal ranges
for a person’s vital signs vary with age, weight, gender, and overall
are quantifiable characteristics of a
population which researchers use as supporting evidence for describing the
health of a population.
is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that
internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant.
are key molecular or cellular events that link a
specific environmental exposure
health outcome. Biomarkers play an important role in understanding the
relationships between exposure to environmental chemicals, the development
of chronic human diseases, and the
identification of subgroups
that are at increased risk for disease.
Much progress has been made in identifying and validating new biomarkers
that can be used in population-based studies of environmental disease.
Strength and Mortality
Smartphone Medical Apps
- Analyzing Tools
high blood pressure
reading does not necessarily mean that
you have high blood pressure. However, if readings stay at
140/90 mm Hg or above (systolic 140 or above OR diastolic 90 or
above) over time, your doctor will likely want you to begin a
High blood pressure affects 1.13 billion people around the world
blood pressure has dropped sharply in high-income countries, it has risen
in many low and middle-income countries, especially those in Africa and
South Asia. Globally, 597 million men had raised blood pressure, compared
to 529 million women. High blood pressure puts extra strain on the blood
vessels and major organs such as heart, brain and kidneys. It is the
world's leading cause of cardiovascular disease, which leads to stroke
and heart attacks, and is thought to cause 7.5 million deaths a year
across the globe.
Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control
Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries says 32 percent of
low-income people have high blood pressure, compared with 29 percent in
high-income countries. Long term high blood pressure is a major risk
factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral
vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease.
High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
10 ways to control high blood
pressure without medication.
is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which
pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system
provides the body with oxygen
, as well as assists in the
removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located in the middle
compartment of the chest.
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that
delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen
to the cells
and transports metabolic waste products away from those same
. Human blood is
because hemoglobin, which is
carried in the blood and functions to transport oxygen, is iron-rich and
red in color. Veins, which are sometimes visible through the skin, may
look bluish. It has to do with the way tissue absorbs, scatters and
is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood
sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or
via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components (such as a
glucose test or a cholesterol test) are often grouped together into one
test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used
in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as
disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ
function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or
a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect
drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before
Blood Work Sample
also known as hemorrhaging or
haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system. Bleeding can
occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or
externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear,
urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Hypovolemia is a
massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is
referred to as exsanguination. Typically, a healthy person can endure a
loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical
difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the
donor's blood volume). The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called
hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery.
Vetigel Stops Bleeding
(also known as clotting) is
the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood
clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss
from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation
involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with
deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease
states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or
obstructive clotting (thrombosis).
A thrombus, colloquially called
a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in
hemostasis. There are two components to a thrombus: aggregated platelets
and red blood cells that form a plug, and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin
protein. The substance making up a thrombus is sometimes called cruor. A
thrombus is a healthy response to injury intended to prevent bleeding, but
can be harmful in thrombosis, when clots obstruct blood flow through
healthy blood vessels.
is the process of making an
incision in a vein with a needle. The procedure itself is known as a
venipuncture. A person who performs phlebotomy is called a "phlebotomist",
although doctors, nurses, medical laboratory scientists and others do
portions of phlebotomy procedures in many countries.
Red Blood Cells
are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's
principal means of delivering
(O2) to the body tissues—via blood
flow through the circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs or
gills and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's
capillaries. Red blood cells are produced by cores of bone marrow in the
heads of long bones in a process known as
White Blood Cells
are the cells of the immune system
that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease
and foreign invaders. All white blood cells are produced and derived from
cells in the
known as hematopoietic stem cells.
are found throughout the body, including the blood and
At Home Dialysis Machine
- Heart Attack
Symptoms and Warning Signs of a Heart Attack
Heart Attack Quiz
Heart Works 3D Video
Cardiovascular Diseases killed 17.5 million People in 2012
The incidence of
coronary heart disease
in the U.S. declined nearly 20 percent from
1983 to 2011, mostly because people are
is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle. Early on there may be
few or no symptoms. Others may have shortness of breath, feel tired, or
have swelling of the legs due to heart failure. An irregular heart beat
may occur as well as fainting. Those affected are at an increased risk of
sudden cardiac death.
Heart Disease Symptoms
CausesThe Food you Eat can Kill you
Heart failure afflicts 5.7
million Americans, costs the country $30.7 billion every year
Scientists create Heart Cells better, faster and stronger
that in humans is encoded by the GATA4 gene.
also known as MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide C is a
protein that in humans is encoded by
the MEF2C gene. MEF2C is a
transcription factor in the Mef2 family.
is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBX5 gene.
are the noises generated by the beating heart
and the resultant flow of blood through it. Specifically, the sounds
reflect the turbulence created when the heart valves snap shut. In cardiac
auscultation, an examiner may use a stethoscope to listen for these unique
and distinct sounds that provide important auditory data regarding the
condition of the heart.
is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to
the internal sounds of an animal or human body. It typically has a small
disc-shaped resonator that is placed against the chest, and two tubes
connected to earpieces. It is often used to listen to lung and heart
sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries
and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is commonly used for
measurements of blood pressure. Less commonly, "mechanic's stethoscopes"
are used to listen to internal sounds made by machines, such as diagnosing
a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening to the sounds of its
internal parts. Stethoscopes can also be used to check scientific vacuum
chambers for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring
tasks. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called
is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of
the heart per minute (bpm). The heart rate can vary according to the
body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete
carbon dioxide. It is usually equal or close to the pulse measured at any
peripheral point. Activities that can provoke change include physical
exercise, sleep, anxiety, stress, illness, and ingestion of drugs.
Heart Rate Variability
is the physiological phenomenon of
variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is measured by the
variation in the beat-to-beat interval.
represents the tactile arterial palpation of the
heartbeat by trained fingertips.
when the heart quivers instead of pumps due to disorganized electrical
activity in the ventricles. It results in cardiac arrest with loss of
consciousness and no pulse. This is followed by irreversible death without
treatment. Ventricular fibrillation is found initially in about 10% of
people in cardiac arrest.
Cardiac Arrhythmia Irregular Heartbeat
the heartbeat is
irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heart rate that is too fast – above
100 beats per minute in adults – is called
and a heart rate that is too slow – below 60 beats per
minute – is called
is a perceived abnormality of the heartbeat
characterized by awareness of heart muscle contractions in the chest: hard
beats, fast beats, irregular beats, and/or pauses.
are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one
of the heart valves that is loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
Types of murmurs are due to structural defects in the heart itself.
Heart Rate Monitors for Home
Researchers develop ‘living diode’ using cardiac muscle cells
cardiac muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts – cells found in connective
heart tissue – researchers at the
University of Notre Dame
have created a “living diode,” which can be
used for cell-based information processing.
is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue. The
degree to which people are affected varies. People with
Marfan tend to
be tall, and thin, with long arms, legs, fingers and toes. They also
typically have flexible joints and scoliosis. The most serious
complications involve the heart and aorta with an increased risk of mitral
valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm. Other commonly affected areas include
the lungs, eyes, bones and the covering of the spinal cord.
The Heart-Brain Connection
A new way to heal hearts without surgery: Franz Freudenthal
Breathalyzer can diagnose 17 different diseases
via Pattern Analysis
of Exhaled Molecules
Through Breath Prof. Hossam Haick Technion
Na-Nose: A Nanoscale Artificial Nose to Detect Specific Medical Conditions
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, sweat or urine carry
much information on the state of human health. Volatile Biomarkers.
is a term referring to the fraction of
-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated +
saturated) in the blood. The human body requires and regulates a very
precise and specific balance of oxygen in the blood. Normal blood oxygen
levels in humans are considered 95-100 percent. If the level is below 90
percent, it is considered low resulting in hypoxemia. Blood oxygen levels
below 80 percent may compromise organ function, such as the brain and
heart, and should be promptly addressed. Continued low oxygen levels may
lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest. Oxygen therapy may be used to
assist in raising blood oxygen levels. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen
2) enter the tissues of the body. For example, blood is
oxygenated in the lungs, where oxygen molecules travel from the air and
into the blood. Oxygenation is commonly used to refer to medical oxygen
Oxygen Saturation Monitoring by
Pulse Oximetry. Normal oxygen saturation values are 97% to 99%
in the healthy individual.
is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
Its reading of SpO2 (peripheral
oxygen saturation) is not always
identical to the reading of SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) from
arterial blood gas analysis, but the two are correlated well enough that
the safe, convenient, noninvasive, inexpensive pulse oximetry method is
valuable for measuring oxygen saturation in clinical use. In its most
common (transmissive) application mode, a sensor device is placed on a
thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the
case of an infant, across a foot. The device passes two
light through the body part to a photodetector. It measures the changing
absorbance at each of the wavelengths, allowing it to determine the
absorbances due to the pulsing arterial blood alone, excluding venous
blood, skin, bone, muscle, fat, and (in most cases) nail polish.
Reflectance pulse oximetry may be used as an alternative to transmissive
pulse oximetery described above. This method does not require a thin
section of the person's body and is therefore well suited to a universal
application such as the feet, forehead, and chest, but it also has some
limitations. Vasodilation and pooling of venous blood in the head due to
compromised venous return to the heart, as occurs with congenital cyanotic
heart disease patients, or in patients in the Trendelenburg position, can
cause a combination of arterial and venous pulsations in the forehead
region and lead to spurious SpO2 results.
Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract
Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract
Syncope: Review of Monitoring Modalities
is the short loss of consciousness and muscle
Health Home Test
is around 37C (98.6F), although it depends
on: The person, Their age, What they've been doing
The time of day, and which part of the body you take the
temperature from. It is generally accepted that
ranges between 36.1C (97F) to 37.2C (99F).
The Human Body
(wiki) is a measurement of relative weight based
on an individual's mass and height.
Underweight = <18.5
Normal weight = 18.5–24.9
Overweight = 25–29.9
Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
Examination VisitsBody Burden Test Analysis
factors that influence InnerAge:
Brainwaves could be the next Health Vital Sign
Health Status Calculators
Calculate Body Health
22 Senior Health Risk Calculators for Healthy Aging
Risk of Developing Chronic Diseases
Smartphone Health Monitoring Technology Tools
is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism.
In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and
physical, mental or social challenges.
Wellness Study in the Workplace
Integrative Healing Center
healing program for body, mind, and spirit,
which combines conventional medicine along with
alternative forms of
healing to allow for complete restoration of the human body that is
naturally designed to heal itself when given the proper balance of
nutrition, sunlight, rest and relaxation, and detoxification.
is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency
of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or
communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or
means the individual or group's condition is
positive, while low well-being is associated with negative happenings.
is any workplace health promotion
activity or organizational policy designed to support healthy behavior in
the workplace and to improve health outcomes.
Wellness Alternative Medicine
a healthy balance of the mind,
body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being.
encompasses nutrition, physical fitness and the avoidance of unhealthy
habits like smoking, drinking too much and doing drugs.
Universal access to physical activity could save billions in
Intellectual wellness -
This dimension refers to the amount of information and knowledge
you take in, and the amount of creative, analytical thinking you
put out. Learning, problem solving and mental productivity are
important aspects of intellectual wellness.
Emotional wellness - Spiritual
This pertains to how
well you are aware of, accepting of and able to deal with your
feelings. Relationships, stress, self-esteem and life outlook
are all factors that play into emotional wellness. It can make
you feel more resilient.
This involves health-promoting medical practices like medical
check-ups, preventative healthcare and medical health
This relates to your level of environmental consciousness.
Remember that every cell in your body was created by elements
from the environment through the food you eat, what you drink
and breathe. Your well-being is intertwined with the well-being
of the environment.
This aspect of personal wellness has to do with how you see your
place in the world and in society, and how well you adjust to
your personal role in society.
This aspect of personal wellness stresses the importance of a
positive attitude towards work, and a rewarding and enriching
Create a Wellness Program
Health Research Institute
understands the basis of wellness
and the dysfunctions of the body and mind that result in